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PICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION (measuring, testing G01; systems for autographic writing, e.g. writing telegraphy, which involve following an outline {G08C 21/00} ; information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer G11B; coding, decoding or code conversion, in general H03M; broadcast distribution or the recording of use made thereof H04H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • transmission of pictures or their transient or permanent reproduction either locally or remotely, by methods involving both the following steps:
  • step (a): the scanning of a picture, i.e. resolving the whole picture-containing area into individual picture-elements and the derivation of picture-representative electric signals related thereto, simultaneously or in sequence;
  • step (b): the reproduction of the whole picture-containing area by the reproduction of individual picture-elements into which the picture is resolved by means of picture-representative electric signals derived therefrom, simultaneously or in sequence;
  • (in group H04N 1/00) systems for the transmission or the reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures or patterns in which the local light variations composing a picture are not subject to variation with time, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films);
  • circuits specially designed for dealing with pictorial communication signals, e.g. television signals, as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
circuits or other parts of systems which form the subject of other subclasses
systems in which legible alphanumeric or like character forms are analysed according to step (a) of Note (1) to derive an electric signal from which the character is recognised by comparison with stored information
systems for the direct photographic copying of an original picture in which an electric signal representative of the picture is derived according to the said step (a) and employed to modify the operation of the system, e.g. to control exposure,
systems for the reproduction according to step (b) of Note (1) of pictures comprising alphanumeric or like character forms but involving the production of the EQUIVALENT of a signal which would be derived according to the above-mentioned step (a), e.g. by cams, punched card or tape, coded control signal, or other means
systems for the reproduction according to the above-mentioned step (b) of pictures comprising alphanumeric or like character forms and involving the generation according to the above-mentioned step (a) of picture-representative electric signals from a pre-arranged assembly of such characters, or records thereof, forming an integral part of the systems
printing, duplication or marking processes, or materials therefor
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
television systems
asystems for the transmission and reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures in which the local light variations composing a picture MAY change with time, e.g. natural "live" scenes, recordings of such scenes such as cinematograph films
Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof { ( recording arrangements for measuring instruments G01D ; sensing record carriers G06K 7/00 ; character or pattern recognition G06K 9/00 ; mosaïc printer telegraph systems H04L 21/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • transmission of time-invariant pictures, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films), or their transient or permanent storage or reproduction either locally or remotely by methods involving both scanning and reproduction;
  • systems involving the generation, transmission, storage or reproduction of time-invariant pictures; image manipulation for such reproduction on particular output devices;
  • devices applied to the transmission, storage or reproduction of time-invariant pictures, e.g. facsimile apparatus, digital copiers, (digital) scanners, multifunctional peripheral devices;
  • circuits specially designed for dealing with pictorial communication signals, e.g. facsimile signals or colour image signals, as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range;
  • storage or transmission aspects of still video cameras.
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • H04N 1/00 is an application place for a large number of IT technologies, which are covered per se by the corresponding functional places
  • Image servers, hosts and clients use internally specific computing techniques. Corresponding techniques used in general computing are found in G06F or G06Q. This concerns data storage, software architectures, error detection or correction in general computing, monitoring, image retrieval, browsing, Internet browsing, computer security, billing or advertising
  • Image servers, hosts and clients use specific telecommunication techniques for the image transmission process. Corresponding techniques used in generic telecommunication networks are found in subclasses H04B, H04H, H04L, H04M, H04W. This concerns monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers, broadcast or multicast, maintenance, administration, testing, data processing in data switching networks, home networks, real-time data network services, data network security, applications for data network, wireless networks per se
  • Image scanners use specific scanning techniques. Corresponding techniques are found in G02B. This concerns optical scanning systems
  • Image reproducers use specific reproduction techniques. Corresponding techniques are found in B41J, G03G, G06K. This concerns printing, electrography, producing a permanent visual presentation of output data
  • General image processing techniques are found in G06T
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Printing mechanisms
Electrography; Magnetography
Image retrieval; Retrieval from Internet
Computer security
Storage management
Digital output to print unit
Producing a permanent visual presentation of output data; object-oriented print data processing in printers
Sensing record carriers
Character or pattern recognition
Payment schemes, Commerce
Image data processing in general
Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers
Broadcast communication
Maintenance or administration in data switching networks
Data processing in data switching networks
Message switching systems
Real-time data network services
Data network security
Applications for data network services
Public key encryption
Scanning details of electrically scanned solid-state devices
Capture aspects of still video cameras
Wireless networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supporting or handling copy material in printers
Handling thin or filamentary material
Colorimetry
Handling of copy material in photocopiers
G03G15/00G
Constructional details of equipement or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application
Power management in computer systems
Adressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures
Input and output arrangements for computers
Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces
Digital output to printers
Producing a permanent visual presentation of output data
Sensing record carriers
Character or pattern recognition
Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions
Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts
Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes
General-purpose image data processing
Image watermarking
Editing figures and text; Combining figures or text
Geometric image transformation in the plane of the image
Image enhancement or restoration
Image analysis
Image coding
Access-control involving the use of a pass
Access-control by means of a password
Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction
Secret communication; Jamming of communication
Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
Charging arrangements in data networks
Arrangements for secret or secure communication; Encryption
Simultaneous speech and telegraphic or other data transmission over the same conductors
Telephonic metering arrangements
Scanning of motion picture films
Television signal recording
Circuits for processing colour television signals
Connection management in wireless communications networks
Special rules of classification within this group

In this main group Indexing Codes are used:

The numbering of the codes is based on the numbering of the subgroups;

  • codes, e.g. T04N201/04D7M, which have a numbering the first part of which corresponds to a subgroup which is at the tip end of a subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 1/0402, are used to classify detailed information and may be applied to that subgroup, e.g. T04N201/04D7M may be used in combination with H04N 1/0402;
  • codes, e.g. H04N 2201/0402, which have a numbering the first part of which corresponds to a subgroup which is at the head or node end of a subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 1/04, are used to classify orthogonal information and may be applied to any subgroups in the corresponding subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 2201/0434 may be used in combination with H04N 1/0402 and/or H04N 1/1013.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Additional information
any information other than the still picture itself, but nevertheless associated with the still picture
Documents or the like
documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films)
Main-scan
the first completed scan
Mode
way or manner of operating
Scanning
the displacement of active reading or reproducing elements relative to the original or reproducing medium, or vice versa
Still picture apparatus
any apparatus generating, storing, transmitting or reproducing non-transient images
Single-mode communication
a communication in which the mode is not changed
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

IP
Internet Protocol
OS
Operating System
PC
Personal Computer
GPS
Global Positioning System
MFP
Multifunctional peripheral
MFD
Multifunctional device
RFID
Radio-frequency identification

In patent documents the following words or expressions are used as synonyms:

  • Complex device and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Complex machine and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Hybrid device and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Hybrid machine and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Digital camera and Still video camera
  • Metadata and Additional information
  • Fast scan and Main scan
  • Slow scan, Subscan and Sub scan
{Diagnosis, testing or measuring; Detecting, analysing or monitoring not otherwise provided for ( error detection, error correction or monitoring in digital computers or digital computer components G06F 11/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining the necessity for preventing unauthorised reproduction
Detecting scanning velocity or position
Fault detection in circuits or arrangements for control supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original
Control or modification of tonal gradation or extreme levels, e.g. dependent on the contents of the original or references outside the picture,
Discrimination between different image types
{Systems or arrangements for the transmission of the picture signal}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmitting or receiving computer data via an image communication device
Transmitting or receiving image data via a computer or computer network
Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver
{in a digital photofinishing system, i.e. a system where digital photographic images undergo typical photofinishing processing, e.g. printing ordering}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Data processing systems for commerce
{Transmitting or receiving image data, e.g. facsimile data, via a computer, e.g. using e-mail, a computer network, the internet, I-fax}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Message switching systems, e.g. e-mail systems
{using an image reading or reproducing device, e.g. a facsimile reader or printer, as a local input to or local output from a computer ( image input to or image output from a computer via a network H04N 1/00209) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Portable computers comprising integrated printing or scanning devices
G06F1/16P2P
{with a photographic apparatus, e.g. a photographic printer or a projector (photographic apparatus per se G03B, G03D) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Photographic apparatus per se
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G03B, G03D or G03G.

{with an electrophotographic copying machine, i.e. a photocopier}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G03G.

{with a printing apparatus, e.g. a laser beam printer}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in B41J or G06K 15/00.

{with a telecommunication apparatus, e.g. a switched network of teleprinters for the distribution of text-based information, a selective call terminal ( details of transmission H04N 1/00095 ; establishing a communication with one of a facsimile machine or another apparatus sharing a single line H04N 1/32704 ; interfacing cordless telephone terminals with an accessory to increase the functionality of user interface H04M 1/72527) }
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in other H04 subclasses or other H04N main groups.

{with a television apparatus}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in other H04N main groups.

{with studio circuitry, devices or equipment, e.g. television cameras ( television studio circuitry, devices or equipment per se H04N 5/222) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Television studio circuitry, devices or equipment per se
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in H04N 5/222 and subgroups.

{with receiver circuitry ( television receiver circuitry per se H04N 5/44) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Television receiver circuitry per se
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in H04N 5/44 and subgroups.

{with a data reading, recognizing or recording apparatus, e.g. with a bar-code apparatus ( arrangements for the associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with related apparatus G11B 31/00) }
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G06K or G11B.

{Handling of original or reproduction media, e.g. cutting, separating, stacking}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Handling thin or filamentary material
Supporting or handling copy material in printers
Handling of copy material in photocopiers
G03G15/00G
{Preventing unauthorised reproduction}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Marking an unauthorised reproduction with identification
Restricting access
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing copies being made in photocopiers
Details of scanning heads; {Means for illuminating the original ( circuit details thereof H04N 1/40) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of scanning arrangements
for picture information pick-up
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Television cameras
{with means for collecting light from a line or an area of the original and for guiding it to only one or a relatively low number of picture element detectors ( light-guides per se G02B 6/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Light-guides per se
Heads optically focused on only one picture element at a time { (H04N 1/0281 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for collecting light from a line or an area of the original and for guiding it to only one or a relatively low number of picture element detectors
for picture information reproduction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification.

This subject matter is now classified in B41J or G06K 15/00.

Scanning arrangements, {i.e. arrangements for the displacement of active reading or reproducing elements relative to the original or reproducing medium, or vice versa} (H04N 1/387 takes precedence; { scanning by varying the direction of light in general G02B 26/10} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical scanning systems
Projection optics in photocopiers
Character printers involving the fast moving of a light beam in two directions
Details of scanning heads
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Where possible both the main and sub scanning arrangements should be classified, using a class for the invention and an Indexing Code for subsidiary information. Manual scanning and scanning using two-dimensional arrays are exceptions to this rule.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Main scan direction
The direction of the first completed scan line
Detection, control or error compensation of scanning velocity or position ( {H04N 1/0402 and } H04N 1/17 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scanning different formats; Scanning with different densities of dots per unit length, e.g. different numbers of dots per inch (dpi); Conversion of scanning standards
The scanning speed being dependent on content of picture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detection, control or error compensation of scanning velocity or opposition in photographic character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction
Special rules of classification within this group

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the main and subscan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

{in subscanning direction, e.g. picture start or line-to-line synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the main scan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

in main scanning direction, e.g. synchronisation of line start or picture elements in a line
Special rules of classification within this group

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the subscan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

{using two-dimensional electrical scanning, e.g. cathode-ray tubes ( using two-dimensional arrays H04N 1/195) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using oscillating or rotating mirrors
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical details of the scanning system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Character printers involving the fast moving of a light beam in two directions
{for the main-scan only}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical details of the scanning system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical printers using dot sequential main scanning by means of a light deflector
Character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction
using the sheet-feed movement {or the medium-advance or the drum-rotation movement} as the slow scanning component, {e.g. arrangements for the main-scanning} ( { sheet-feed movement by translatory movement of a flat picture-bearing surface H04N 1/1008 ; main-scanning using oscillating or rotating mirrors H04N 1/113 ; } using multi-element arrays H04N 1/19)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction
{using a device, e.g. an optical fibre bundle, converting rectilinear scanning into circular line scanning or vice versa}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using a rotating endless belt carrying the scanning heads {or at least a part of the main scanning components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using a rotating helical element
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using multi-element arrays
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical printers using arrays of radiation sources
Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point
{Simultaneously or substantially simultaneously scanning picture elements on more than one main scanning line, e.g. scanning in swaths}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point on more than one main scanning line
Simultaneously {or substantially simultaneously} scanning picture elements on one main scanning line { ( details of the sub-scanning H04N 1/10 , H04N 1/12) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point on one main scanning line
Intermediate information storage (H04N 1/387 , H04N 1/41 take precedence; { for control between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device H04N 1/32358} ; information storage in general G11 ; { indexing, editing G11B 27/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the storage results in a record that is not merely transient.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Storage resulting in a transient record, for control or supervision between image input and image output device
Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals
Bandwidth or redundancy reduction
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Intermediate
having no limiting meaning
{using still video cameras}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image capture in digital cameras
Still video cameras
H04N101/00
involving production of a magnetic intermediate picture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetography
involving production of an electrostatic intermediate picture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrography
Mechanical arrangements for picture transmission, e.g. adaptation of clutches, gearing, gear transmissions {contains no documents}
Special rules of classification within this group

The subject matter concerned is classified in H04N 1/00567 or H04N 1/04.

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver {or between image input and image output device (H04N 1/38 , H04N 1/387 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Circuits or arrangements for blanking or otherwise eliminating unwanted parts of pictures
Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Communication control for transmission of digital information in general
Digital output from electrical digital data processing unit to print unit
{Automation of particular receiver jobs, e.g. rejecting unwanted calls ( requesting a communication from a transmitter H04N 1/32771 ; with picture signal storage for forwarding messages H04N 1/32358) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Automatic arrangements for answering calls in telephonic equipment
{Automation of particular transmitter jobs, e.g. multi-address calling, auto-dialing}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Telephonic equipment for signalling identity of wanted subscriber
{Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Television bitstream transport arrangements involving transporting of additional information
H04N7/24T4
Television systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation, using bandwidth reduction involving the insertion of extra data
Broadcast communication systems specially adapted for using meta-information
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the word "metadata" is often used as a synonym for "additional information".

{embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image watermarking
Audio watermarking
G10L19/00W
{Transform domain methods (H04N 1/32309 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
In colour image data
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission of digital television signals using bandwidth reduction and involving the insertion of extra data
{using picture signal storage, e.g. at transmitter (H04N 1/17 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Storage results in a transient record, e.g. buffering

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scanning speed being dependent on content of picture
Storage resulting in a record which is other than merely transient
{intermediate the transmitter and receiver terminals, e.g. at an exchange}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stored and forward switching systems in transmission of digital information
{related to a single-mode communication, e.g. at the transmitter or at the receiver}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction
Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in received digital information
{Establishing a communication with one of a facsimile and another telecommunication apparatus sharing a single line}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Simultaneous speech and other data transmission over the same conductors in telephonic communication systems
Mode signalling or mode changing; Handshaking therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Negotiation of communication capabilities for communication control in transmission of digital information
{during transmission, input or output of the picture signal; within a single document or page}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems modifying digital information transmission characteristics according to link quality
for synchronising or phasing transmitter and receiver
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Obsolete subject matter, analog facsimile communication.

Circuits or arrangements for blanking or otherwise eliminating unwanted parts of pictures (H04N 1/387 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removing parts of the image e.g. smudges, extracting part of an image, screen out unwanted image regions, removing finger shadow, removing perforated holes when copying a perforated paper.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals
Special rules of classification within this group

Drop out for parts of the image while changing color is in H04N 1/62, form drop out data in H04N 1/4177.

Composing, repositioning or otherwise {geometrically} modifying originals ( photoelectronic composing of characters B41B 19/00 ; { image data processing or generation, in general G06T} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Composing e.g. combining 2 images. Reading of books and correction for geometric distortions due to curved (book page) original. Geometric modifications caused through warping of image.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Editing, producing a composite image by copying with focus on copy machine
Text processing
Pagination/imposition
Geometric modification and warping in general
Teaching/communicating with deaf, blind, mute people
{the composed originals being of different kinds, e.g. low- and high-resolution originals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. combining chart, text, logo (low resolution/bit depth) and photo (high resolution/bit depth) or foreground and background, with focus on image processing. Also high dynamic range (HDR) imagery when combined with H04N 1/407.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combining objects while rendering PDL
Inserting foreground into background with focus on camera
{Repositioning or masking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Image cropping, cutting out, masking with arbitrary shape.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Selection / ordering of images (from movies)
{defined only by a limited number of coordinate points or parameters, e.g. corners, centre; for trimming}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

User defines the corner coordinates to extract image for repositioning. Cutting out, cropping, number of points is important. Low resolution pre-scan and high-resolution main scan of part of platen.

{combined with enlarging or reducing ( enlarging or reducing per se H04N 1/393) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Part of the image is enlarged/reduced to fit new position. Reducing for medium, zoom, belief map.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Corrections or small zoom factors
Enlarging or reducing
{Recombination of partial images to recreate the original image}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combining two images which have been scanned by a scanner which does not cover the entire image. Panoramic image creation, combination, stitching. Process is done digitally and not mechanically.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mosaic images or mosaicing.
Aligning images
Mechanical corrections
H04N1/04B
{Image rotation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rotating the image by any amount, e.g. 90degree. Also when printing double sided or 4 images on 1 page.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
When focus is on image processing.
{Skew detection or correction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to detecting and correcting skew, i.e. errors during scanning: normally less than 45degree.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

See also in G06K 9/3275.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical skew detection
Enlarging or reducing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mainly the mechanical enlargement process, whole image, DIN A4 to DIN A3 (larger than DIN A4).

Special rules of classification within this group

This subgroup takes precedence over H04N 1/04.

{with modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Digitally enlarging or reducing images with a change of resolution including e.g. interpolation (digital).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Beware of H04N 1/40068 which has resolution conversion where physical size is irrelevant.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Interpolation in general
Picture signal circuits (H04N 1/387 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General documents regarding quality aspects, quantization (errors), scanning either B/W or color, video printer, frame grabber, memory arrangement or management, smear reduction for CCD.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moving images, e.g. television
{Conversion of colour to monochrome}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Converting coloured documents into B&W so they can be printed on monotone printers, e.g. changing green into stripes, red into dots.... Converting from RGB via thresholding to grayscale.

{Circuits exciting or modulating particular heads for reproducing continuous tone value scales (H04N 1/401 , H04N 1/407 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Writing: control of print heads, stilus heads, electrostatic heads. Continuous driving signals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Overlap with G06K 15/12.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head
Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multipass inkjet
{for a plurality of reproducing elements simultaneously}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Writing: multiple print elements, essentially LED or thermal printheads, but also using several lasers in parallel.

{the reproducing element being a laser}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mainly continuous tone laser printers.

{Circuits for driving or energising particular reading heads or original illumination means (H04N 1/401 , H04N 1/407 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of light during reading of a document; circuits for driving diodes, analogue switches for light control. Also exposure time of sensor etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head
Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical details
Lamps per se
{Discrimination between different image types, e.g. two-tone, continuous tone}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Image segmentation, finds regions in bitmap image e.g. text, table, photo, line image; also "mixed raster content" or "MRC".

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For image processing per se
G06T5/00F
Character recognition, OCR
G06K9/20L
{Modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions (H04N 1/3935 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Change resolution while physical size is irrelevant, e.g. original image is 600dpi and printer is only capable of printing 300dpi, so conversion is necessary.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Increasing or decreasing spatial resolution
G06K15/02B10F2, G06K15/02B10F4
{Descreening, i.e. converting a halftone signal into a corresponding continuous-tone signal; Rescreening, i.e. combined descreening and halftoning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Descreening and/or rescreening, self-explanatory.

{Soft dot halftoning, i.e. producing halftone dots with gradual edges}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Resolution enhancement by intelligently pacing sub-pixels when focus is on write head control.
General edge enhancement
{Multi-toning, i.e. converting a continuous-tone signal for reproduction with more than two discrete brightnesses or optical densities, e.g. dots of grey and black inks on white paper}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Provides more than just level 0 and level 255 for image, e.g. has levels 0, 127 and 255, i.e. multi-level halftoning. Typical documents: EP817464 (Seiko) shows two types of ink C1 and C2 (color multi-toning in H04N 1/52), EP889639 (Xerox) shows levels of white, light gray, dark gray and black.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General bit depth reduction
Variation of dot size
{Modification of content of picture, e.g. retouching ( geometric modifications H04N 1/387) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Very few applications. Local modifications, e.g. making lighter and posterization of natural images.

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head (H04N 1/403 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to image readers, mostly line sensors. Shading correction, illumination profile, head calibration, positionally varying noise etc. Also defects in the image sensors. Compensation of ambient illumination.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Correction of isolated defects in image
Control of light source
Defect maps for area sensors
Ambient illumination also in
T04N201/00N
{of the reproducing head}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printers, corrects misaligned or defective heads; head calibration.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Malfunctioning inkjet nozzles
B41J2/165D1
Halftoning, i.e. converting the picture signal of a continuous-tone original into a corresponding signal showing only two levels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Halftoning in general, either B&W only or each color layer separately. Examples are EP126782, EP673150.

{producing a dispersed dots halftone pattern, the dots having substantially the same size ( different sizes H04N 1/4057) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dispersed dots, i.e. dots that are not concentrated in clusters which spread out from a central point. Examples are US5317418 - e.g. Gaussian filter, blue noise; US5426122 - FM rasters.

{by error diffusion, i.e. transferring the binarising error to neighbouring dot decisions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Error diffusion for halftoning, note that error diffusion is also used for other purposes in other parts of H04N 1/00. Examples are EP507354, EP808055.

{with threshold modulated relative to input image data or vice-versa}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in this group are WO8906080, EP715451.

{producing a clustered dots or a size modulated halftone pattern}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Halftone dots grow from a central point and spread in all directions. Also dispersed clusters. Illustrative examples are US3688033, EP651560.

{the pattern varying in one dimension only, e.g. dash length, pulse width modulation (PWM)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Growth of halftone dot in one direction only, includes Pulse Width Modulation. Illustrative examples are EP212990, US4951152.

{the pattern being a mixture of differently sized sub-patterns, e.g. spots having only a few different diameters ( multi-toning H04N 1/40087) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different dot sizes, each dot has the same density. Illustrative examples are EP647059 (fig.5), US4680645 (fig.1).

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

For dots of different densities (inks) classify in H04N 1/40087.

{with details for producing a halftone screen at an oblique angle (H04N 1/4056 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative examples are GB2026283, WO9307709.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pattern varying in one dimension only
Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels, e.g. background level
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Selection of particular gamma correction table, correction depending on media scanned or printed on, film type correction, correction of tone scale for dot gain.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Similar to H04N 1/6027 for colour.

{dependent on the contents of the original}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Analysis of image content to determine final correction to be applied, e.g. automatic background deletion.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conversion to binary
{using histograms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Histogram analysis to determine tone correction parameters.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
In context of pure image processing
{dependent on references outside the picture}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pre-scanning to read reference strips (B&W), which is used to set max and min levels. Very limited test patterns containing only black (offset correction) and white (gain correction), e.g. printed next to an image or as separate image. Standard pattern on monitor (no light for black reference and light on for white reference).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monitor calibration per se
{using gradational references, e.g. grey-scale test pattern analysis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Test pattern analysis for gray scale corrections.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Edge or detail enhancement; Noise or error suppression
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Noise or error correction. Elimination of "streaky effects".

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image processing per se
Scanning correction due to reader error
{Edge or detail enhancement}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fairly self-explanatory. Has also first edge detection and then correction. Edge emphasis, sharpness correction, unsharp masking, smoothing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image processing per se
G06T5/00E
For color
For cameras
{Correction of errors due to scanning a two-sided document, i.e. show-through correction}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "show-through" and "see-through" are often used as synonyms.

{Removing errors due external factors, e.g. dust, scratches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removal of streaks, dust, blemishes, tears, scratches, hairs. Removing scratches from photographs using infrared image.

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction ( by scanning H04N 1/17 ; {H04N 7/26 takes precedence; for data acquisition G06F 17/40 ; coding for image data processing in general G06T 9/00 ; data compression in general H03M 7/30} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General coding groups for still images, B&W, gray scale or each color component separately. This head group has using different coding techniques wihtin the same document, combination of different techniques, or choosing from different available coding mehtods (e.g.. characters with technique 1, pictures with technique 2).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Television systems for the transmission of television signals using bandwidth reduction
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coding of color images
For mixed image compression
{for halftone screened pictures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Image to be coded must be halftoned image only.

for the transmission {or storage} or reproduction of two-tone pictures, e.g. black and white pictures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

B&W images, i.e. binary coding.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Continuous tone compression
{involving the recognition of specific patterns, e.g. by symbol matching}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. huffman coding.

Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lossless coding, has a variety of coding methods, e.g. comparing different codings of a line and choosing shortest code; universal coding.

in which the picture-elements are subdivided or grouped into fixed one-dimensional or two-dimensional blocks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Block coding, also mix of Huffman and run-length coding.

using predictive or differential encoding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Predictive coding, arithmetic coding.

{Progressive encoding, i.e. by decomposition into high and low resolution components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different resolutions of the image, wavelet coding for binary images.

{involving the encoding of tone transitions with respect to tone transitions in a reference line}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Differential coding, i.e. coding the change data between two lines.

{encoding document change data, e.g. form drop out data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Templates, encodes the data change only; encode difference of image when template is known, e.g. scanned images of filled out form sheets.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Color form drop-out
in which encoding of the length of a succession of picture-elements of the same value along a scanning line is the only encoding step {H04N 1/4135 to H04N 1/417 take precedence }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

B&W runlength encoding.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Baseband signal showing more than two values or a continuously varying baseband signal is transmitted or recorded
Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information using predictive or differential encoding
Systems for two-way working {e.g. conference systems (H04N 1/32 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver, see: H04N 1/32

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Television systems for two-way working
Secrecy systems
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preventing unauthorised reproduction
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity
Secret communication in general
Arrangements for secret or secure communication in transmission of digital information
Television secrecy systems
{Restricting access, e.g. according to user identity ( mechanisms actuated y cards, PIN or the like in apparatus for dispensing G07F 7/08) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Restricting access to computer systems
G06F21/00N5
Access-control involving the use of a pass
Access control in transmission of digital information
Protecting transmitted digital information from access by third parties
Verifying the identity or authority of a user of a system for the transmission of digital information
{Rendering the image unintelligible, e.g. scrambling}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Secret communication by adding a second signal to make the desired signal unintelligible
Systems rendering a television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible
Ciphering or deciphering apparatus for cryptographic purposes
{using digital data encryption}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for secret or secure communication using public key encryption algorithm
Colour picture communication systems { ( colorimetry G01J 3/46) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour edit systems, printers with different recording modes for color and monochrome, decision as to print/scan color or B&W, general color applications for fax. Very general group.

{Conversion of monochrome to colour}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Very straightforward, conversion into color documents, e.g. pattern chart to color (opposite to H04N 1/40012). Generating false color representations.

Picture signal generators ( for halftone screening H04N 1/52)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Color image readers, hardware of apparatuses.

{using the same detector device sequentially for different colour components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filter wheels to separate components.

{with sequential colour illumination of the original}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The use of different lights to read the image, e.g. first R, then G, finally B, e.g. successive RGB LED lighting.

{with separate detectors, each detector being used for one specific colour component}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using separate R, G and B sensor elements, typically line sensors. Has also documents on correcting chromatic aberrations of 3-line CCD sensor, also RGB sensor with additional monochrome sensor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Demosaicing
For area sensors (Bayer matrix)
{using beam-splitters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Splitting light using prisms, half (dichroic) mirrors, diffraction grating - most applications deal with line sensors.

Picture reproducers ( for halftone screening H04N 1/52)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Color printers, hardware of apparatuses.

{Reproducing the colour component signals dot-sequentially or simultaneously in a single or in adjacent picture-element positions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dot by dot printing, point-wise scanning, essentially either inkjet or laser beam printer.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
More details on inkjets
{Reproducing the colour component signals line-sequentially}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Line-by-line printing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Alignment of dots
{Reproducing the colour component signals picture-sequentially, e.g. with reproducing heads spaced apart from one another in the subscanning direction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Picture-by-picture printing, i.e. one complete color separation after the other. Focus on image signal circuits, e.g. start-of-scan determination, sync marks on print medium, misregistration correction correcting misalignment of individual print heads with respect to each other. Facet or face-to-face errors. This is the typical way color laser printers work, when one latent image is generated after the other and one after the other developped and transferred.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Temperature
Purely mechanical corrections
G09G15/01
Trapping is also used against misregistration, but is an image modification
{using the same reproducing head for two or more colour components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using one drum for more than one color, thermal transfer printers.

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour halftoning, colour multi-toning e.g. with use of more than one cyan (C1 and C2), screens, error diffusion.

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 1/40087 or some subgroup of H04N 1/405 may be applied additionally to H04N 1/52.

Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours, e.g. for textile printing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing with additional colours, e.g. using orange and brown pigments additionally or white or gold, CMYKRGB printers.

Processing of colour picture signals (H04N 1/52 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General color image processing, color to 2-color converstion (e.g.. RGB to black/red). Film type, document type, slide type, text+image, detection of mouse marker.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening
Edge or detail enhancement; Noise or error suppression, e.g. colour misregistration correction (H04N 1/62 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Self-explanatory regarding noise and edge. A substantial part of this subgroup deals with trapping (spreading and choking image objects), either on bitmap or on page description language (PDL) level.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Retouching, i.e. modification of isolated colours only or in isolated picture areas only
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For integration of trapping in PDL workflow
G06K15/02B8H2
Colour correction or control { (H04N 1/54 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kinds of color correction. Estimating spectrum from XYZ input.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours
{with simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer (H04N 1/622 takes precedence; matching two or more picture reproducers H04N 1/6052) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Color corrections involving representation of the image on monitor, e.g. for interactive correction or for use as soft proofer.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Matching printer and monitor for softproofing per se
With simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer
{by simulating several colour corrected versions of the same image simultaneously on the same picture reproducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fairly self-explanatory, typically the user selects one of the several similated, corrected images.

{Conversion to subtractive colour signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Usually transformations from RGB to CMY, but also used generally for transformations to output device values, as far as the focus is on the transformation. Here (matrix) equations are used.

{using look-up tables (H04N 1/6025 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Look-up tables for color conversion, typically to CMY. Also interpolation methods to calculate the in-between values not stored in the tables, e.g. tetrahedal or cubic interpolations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Generating a fourth subtractive colour signal using look-up tables
{Generating a fourth subtractive colour signal, e.g. under colour removal, black masking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Essentially the transformations to CMYK which involve use of equations. Gray component replacement (GCR), undercolor removal (UCR).

{using look-up tables}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Four-colour look-up tables, also their interpolation.

{Correction or control of colour gradation or colour contrast (H04N 1/6058 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General control and correction of tone reproduction curves. Gray balance, white balance as result thereof. Aspects of saturation correction.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Reduction of colour to a range of reproducible colours
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
When focus is on white balance per se.
White balance in cameras
{controlled by characteristics of the picture signal generator or the picture reproducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Device profiles, e.g. ICC profiles, profile management for several devices, profile editing.

{using test pattern analysis (H04N 1/6055 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printer or scanner calibration using color test patterns.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Matching two or more picture signal generators or two or more picture reproducers using test pattern analysis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Color charts as such
G01G3/52
In electrophotography
G03G15/00C
For B&W
Camera calibration
{Matching two or more picture signal generators or two or more picture reproducers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specifically matching two (or more) devices to each other, e.g. for proofing, i.e. printer to printer or printer to monitor.

{using test pattern analysis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to the two device scenario.

{Reduction of colour to a range of reproducible colours, e.g. to ink- reproducible colour gamut}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gamut mapping and gamut conversion. Mainly within a device-independent space in order to map color reproducability of one device onto that of another device.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
In relation to general image processing and computer graphics
{adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Corrections to an image which depends on the type of image object, i.e. different corrections within one page, e.g. text and picture differently corrected.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Discrimination of image (object) types per se - (B&W),
Discrimination of image (object) types per se - (colour).
{Corrections to the hue}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only hue changes, not luminance or chroma or saturation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Saturation correction
{Colour balance, e.g. colour cast correction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Correction of e.g. color fog or blue shift in image.

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 1/6027 has precedence.

{within the L, C1, C2 colour signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. histogram technique in L*a*b* color space.

{controlled by factors external to the apparatus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Environmental factors.

{by viewing conditions, i.e. conditions at picture output}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. correction for sunlight on monitor, artifical lighting, flare.

{depending on characteristics of the input medium, e.g. film type, newspaper}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different film types have different properties, thus need to be corrected. For newspaper, correction due to the yellowing is necessary.

Retouching, i.e. modification of isolated colours only or in isolated picture areas only
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Correction limited to particular colors, e.g. the red of a red apple is selected and enhanced. Changing color information in a region.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For skin color
{with simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

With display of image on monitor for user selection and editing.

Systems for the transmission or the storage of the colour picture signal; Details therefor, e.g. coding or decoding means therefor { (H04N 7/26 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour coding closely related to apparatus.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compression of B&W
Compression per se
{Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Similar but for colour correction and not coding
For different coding for different image types, but limited to B&W
{using a reduced set of representative colours, e.g. each representing a particular range in a colour space}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Palletized colors, including methods of obtaining the palletization and their coding. Rounding, change from true color to 8bit using a pallette.

{Transmitting or storing colour television type signals, e.g. PAL, Lab; Their conversion into additive or subtractive colour signals or vice versa therefor (H04N 1/642 , H04N 1/644 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to e.g. YUV, Lab, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions
Using a reduced set of representative colours, e.g. each representing a particular range in a colour space
{Transmitting or storing the primary (additive or subtractive) colour signals; Compression thereof (H04N 1/642 to H04N 1/646 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to CMY or RGB, raw sensor data.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions
Transmitting or storing colour television type signals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Scanning details of television systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Scanning arrangements using moving aperture, refractor, reflector or lens
  • Scanning arrangements using switched light sources, solid-state devices or cathod-ray tube by deflecting elctron beams
  • Scanning arrangements for motion picture films
Details of television systems ( scanning details or combination thereof with generation of supply voltages H04N 3/00 ; specially adapted for colour television H04N 9/00 ; { servers specially adapted for the distribution of content H04N 21/20 ; client devices specially adapted for the reception of or interaction with content H04N 21/40} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects of television signal processing at the transmitter side or the receiver side

Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • H04N 5/00 distinguishes itself from synchronising techniques in transmission of a digital video signal with one or more other digital signals, which are found in H04N 7/00
  • H04N 5/00 distinguishes itself from picture signal processing and corresponding techniques, which are found in subclasses G06T, G09G. This concerns image processing not specific to a television signal (G06T) or video signal processing specific to visual displays (G09G), e.g. LCD or plasma panels
  • H04N 5/00 features transmitter techniques specially adapted to analog transmission of television signals. The corresponding function place for generic transmission are found in subclasses H04N 21/00, H04B, H04H, H04L, H04W. This concerns servers, broadcast or multicast, home networks, wireless networks per se.
  • H04N 5/00 features receiver techniques specially adapted to the reception of analog television signals. The corresponding place for digital television receivers is H04N 21/00.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional details related to the housing of computer displays
Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers
Diversity receivers
Broadcast receivers
Home automation networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Power management in computer systems
Image enhancement or restoration
Image analysis
Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
Control arrangements or circuits for visual indicators common to cathode-ray tube indicators and other visual indicators
Broadcast synchronizing
Synchronizing in TDMA
Receiver synchronizing
Selective content distribution
Wall TV displays
Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 5/00 features a number of symbols corresponding to a same number of Indexing Codes (e.g., H04N 5/4448 as symbol and H04N 5/4448 as Indexing Code symbol).

Allocation of symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to details of television elements will be given a H04N 5/00 group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to details of television elements will be given a H04N 5/00 group.
  • A document merely mentioning further details of television elements will not be given a group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant, e.g. when conversion of interlace to progressive scanning (H04N5/44V) involves motion estimation, H04N 5/145 is added.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Edging
detection of edges
Movement estimation
motion vector generation
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

GPS
global positioning system
PC
personal computer
STB
set top box
Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment; {Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in other devices e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuitry, devices and other equipment specially adapted to be used in television studio e.g. for mixing images or generation of special effects. This group covers further process and apparatus related to the concept of electronic image capturing using an electronic image sensor and the related control and processing of the generated electronic image signals

Image pickup devices using electronic image sensors (EIS) like e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, CCTV camera, surveillance camera, camcorders, digital cameras embedded in mobile phones, aspects peculiar to the presence of EIS in electronic still cameras, digital still cameras etc.

Electronic image capture by methods or arrangements involving at least the following step: the scanning of a picture, i.e. resolving the whole picture-containing area or scene into individual picture-elements and the derivation of picture-representative electric signals related thereto, simultaneously or in sequence, e.g. by reading an electronic solid-state image sensor (SSIS) pickup device (e.g. CCD or CMOS image sensor) as electronic image sensor converting optical image in formation into said electrical signals;

in colloquial speech said step is frequently formulated as e.g. capturing a video sequence, digital photographing, etc

Concerning cameras:

  • video cameras, TV cameras (e.g. in studios), CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras, camcorders; constructional and mechanical details related to such cameras even when not peculiar to the presence of the EIS e.g. housings
  • arrangements/methods for image capture using an electronic image sensor (EIS), i.e.((i) sensor read-out; (ii) processing or use of electrical image signals from the EIS for the generation of camera control signals,
  • for controlling the EIS or its read-out for e.g. exposure, scene selection for auto focussing, or electronic image enhancement or processing of image signals captured by the EIS, e.g. white balance, electronic motion blur correction, noise suppressing,
  • for controlling other camera functions, e.g. exposure, shaking by influencing optical parts of the camera, focussing,
  • in-camera image processing e.g. correction of lens distortion, defect pixel correction, noise suppression, removal of motion blur, improving the dynamic range of the final image;
  • electronic viewfinders, control of image pickup devices based on information displayed by the electronic viewfinder;
  • electrical and mechanical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details as in webcams or mobile phones;
  • remote control of cameras peculiar to the EIS, e.g. affecting their operation, or being based on a generated image signal;
  • adaptations peculiar to the presence or use of an EIS, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of EIS, integrated cleaning system for the EIS, dust mapping, cooling of the EIS, controlling the operation of the EIS by external input signals;
  • cameras wherein the inventive contribution lies in the interaction of features covered above with those covered by G03B e.g. switch-over between electronic motion-blur correction of electronic viewfinder during focussing and optical motion-blur correction of the lens during exposure, electronic-motion blur correction of the electronic image signal based on output signals of additional sensor, or interaction between mechanical shutter and electronic control of the charge accumulation period of the EIS;
  • applications concerning studios and image capturing devices that can not be classified in lower groups such as camera operation in general, like in studio or for TV events (sports,...), processing for simulating film look, virtual studio, virtual depth image, video assist system, other studio equipment e.g. prompter.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Groups in G03B are to be considered when the following aspects are concerned:

  • apparatus/methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film for image capture, apparatus/methods for printing, for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides by optical means, e.g. mounting of optical elements, flashes, and their related controls, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-)mechanical motion blur (anti-shake), cooling, beam shaping;
  • aspects of apparatus/methods for taking photographs using a electronic image sensor (EIS) for image capture, insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus/methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film, i.e. insofar not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. mounting of optical elements or flashes, and their related controls insofar as they are not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-)mechanical motion blur correction (anti-shake);
  • optical viewfinders;
  • remote control of cameras insofar not peculiar to the EIS, e.g. not affecting their operation, or being based on a generated image signal;
  • optical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details (e.g. lens actuators)

The following scheme is intended to illustrate the relationship between H04N and G03B:

media0.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radiation diagnosis, diagnostic aspect of medical imaging devices
Pyrometry, measuring temperature
Measuring X-rays, gamma radiation
Image processing in general i.e. not being exclusively adapted to be used in an image pickup device containing an EIS or in studio devices or equipment
Structure of CMOS image sensors
Optical elements or arrangements associated with solid state imager structures
Structure of CCD image sensors
Mounting structure in mobile phones

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Camera adapted for vehicles
Pattern recognition (e.g. details of face detection algorithms)
Surveillance systems with alarm
Mobile phones
Videophones
Closed circuit television system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical systems
Pattern recognition
Image processing
Editing of recorded image information
Solid state image structure
Broadcasting
Intermediate information storage using still video cameras
Testing of cameras
Use of solid state image sensors
Video recording
Aspect related to colour cameras
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Photography
the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, e.g. silver halide based chemical or an electronic image sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose such a light sensitive medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera
Camera
a device capturing image information represented by light patterns reflected or emitted from objects, and exposing a light sensitive film or an electronic image sensor during a timed exposure, usually through an optical lens, and producing an image on a light sensitive film or an electrical image information signal respectively
Projector
a device displaying image information by projection of light patterns, usually through an optical lens, wherein the light patterns are generated by illuminating an image, e.g. film or slide, or by converting an electric image signal into an optical signal using an electronic spatial light modulator
EIS
Electronic image sensor: optoelectronic transducer, converting optical image information into an electrical signal susceptible of being processed, stored, transmitted or displayed
Additional sensor
a sensor, other than the electronic image sensor, used for controlling a camera
ESLM
Electronic spatial light modulator: optoelectronic transducer converting electric signals representing image information into optical image information
Record
A registration (e.g. of sound or images) in permanent form by optical or electrical means for later reproduction
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SSIS
Solid State Image Sensor
CCD
Charge-Coupled Device
APS
active pixel sensor
CDS
correlated double sensing
CMOS
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
CIS
CMOS image sensor
AE
automatic exposure control
FPN
fixed pattern noise
NUC
non uniformity correction
HDR
high dynamic range
GUI
graphics user interface
AF
autofocus
AFE
analog front end
AGC
automatic gain control
DSP
digital signal processor
ENG
electronic news gathering
PTZ
pan tilt zoom
EVF
electronic viewfinder
OVF
optical viewfinder

In patent documents the following expressions/words "digital photography", "digital camera", "camcorder", "video camera", "still video", "camera" and "digital still camera" are often used as synonyms.

Television cameras; {Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in other devices e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles ( optical systems G02B; associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with TV camera or receiver in which the television signal is not significantly involved G11B 31/006 ; tubes H01J) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details of cameras (housing, mounting of optical parts, mounting of image sensing part, other camera parts). For example: camera module, endoscopes, borescopes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional details not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS in electronic still picture cameras, digital still picture camera.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical systems
Associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with TV camera or receiver in which the television signal is not significantly involved
Tubes
Devices for controlling television cameras, e.g. remote control; {Control of cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles} (H04N 5/235 takes precedence; { varying magnification for cameras, e.g. angle of view, by optical means only G02B 7/00} , G03B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Internal and external camera control. For example, autofocus, computer aided image capture, camera with further processing without influencing image capture process, camera control programs, detect malfunction, dust removal, face recognition aid, GUI (graphics user interface), modes like viewfinder or playback mode, autofocus mode, video mode, still capture mode..., panoramic field of view, power saving or management, shutter delay, image capture speed, synthesis of images in camera, image resolution change, zoom, remote control, camera shake detection and correction, control via network, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object
Circuitry {or methods} for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object {based on an electric image signals provided by an electronic image sensor ( exposure control for film cameras or cameras using an additional sensor G03B 7/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object. For example, dynamic range increase, bracketing, use of brightness histograms or brightness compensation by controlling shutter, filter, gain, illumination means, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Exposure control for film cameras or cameras using an additional sensor
Arrangements of television cameras { ( constructional details of cameras H04N 5/2251 ; stereoscopic picture signal generators H04N 13/0239 ; H04N 13/0242) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems using several cameras.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional details of cameras
Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques, e.g. for telecine ( scanning details therefor H04N 3/36 ; { standard conversion therefor H04N 7/0112} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Picture signal generation by scanning motion picture films i.e. cinematographic films in video signals e.g. telecine.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scanning details therefor
Standards conversion therefor
Picture signal generators using flying-spot scanners (H04N 5/253 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Obsolete technology.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques
Studio circuits, e.g. for mixing, switching-over, change of character of image, other special effect ; {Cameras specially adapted for the electronic generation of special effects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Studio circuits providing video special effects like combining different images, changing image aspect (geometric, orientation, etc.) or aesthetic/artistic aspect, providing transitions between images, background and foreground images synthesizing, mixing and switching.

Mobile studios
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mobile studios, e.g. television studio equipment installed in vehicles for outdoor broadcasting.

Transforming light or analogous information into electric information (H04N 5/222 takes precedence; scanning details H04N 3/00 ; light transforming elements H01J , H01L)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Photoelectric converting image sensors not classified in others subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Light transforming elements
Scanning details
Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment
Transforming X-rays { ( image transformers H01J 31/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and applications with image sensors transforming X-rays.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image transformers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-uniformity correction
Transforming infra-red radiation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and applications with image sensors transforming infra-red radiation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-uniformity correction
using solid-state image sensors [SSIS] (H04N 5/32 , H04N 5/33 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuitry and processing specific to e.g. CMOS or CCD solid state image sensors; includes particular sampling pattern e.g. windowing; includes noise correction e.g. defect pixels, dark current correction; includes particular functions achieved by scanning e.g. electronic shutter, control of the dynamic range.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transforming X-rays
Transforming infra-red radiation
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups H04N 5/335 to H04N 5/378 correspond to former ECLA groups H04N 5/2173-H04N 5/2176; H04N 5/335 and H04N 3/15-H04N 3/1568; they are presently being reclassified.

  • In many case it is useful to supplement an identified function covered in the range [H04N 5/335-H04N 5/3675] with an Indexing Code corresponding to the sensor technology CCD/MOS covered in H04N 5/372, H04N 5/374 or H04N 5/3745. As an example a dark current correction for CCD would be classified in H04N 5/361 and additionally Indexing Code H04N 5/372.
  • The sensor matrix defined in H04N 5/3745 is not meant to include the associated circuits. An A/D converter in an output register is classified in H04N 5/3742 or H04N 5/378 but not in H04N 5/37455.
  • Although not always specific to SSIS the noise/distortion produced by a lens is nevertheless classified in H04N 5/3572 and not in H04N 5/217. This has been done to facilitate the search. Corrections of chromatic aberrations, which can also be related to lenses are classified in H04N 9/045. All other noise suppression or disturbance minimisation in picture signal generation e.g. in a camera having an EIS should be classified in H04N 5/217.
  • Two groups specific to colour aspects are presently defined in H04N 5/3458 and H04N 5/3537, it avoids splitting an identical function between the H04N 5/335 and H04N 9/045.
Television signal recording ( diagnosis, testing or measuring for television signal recorders H04N 17/06 ; recording in connection with measuring G01D ; information storage {in which the television signal is not involved, driving, starting, stopping, head switching, editing, indexing} in general G11 , e.g. G11B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video data recording:

  • Specially adapted recording devices such as a VCR, PVR, high speed camera, camcorder or a specially adapted PC
  • Interfaces between recording devices and other devices for input and/or output of video signals such as TVs, video cameras, other recording devices
  • Video recorder programming
  • Adaptations of the video signal for recording on specific recording media such as HDD, tape, drums, holographic support, semiconductor memories
  • Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate such as trick play modes and stroboscopic recording
  • Processing of the video signal for noise suppression, scrambling, field or frame skip, bandwidth reduction
  • Impairing the picking up, for recording, of a projected video signal
  • Regeneration of either a recorded video signal or for recording the video signal
  • Video signal recording wherein the recorded video signal may be accompanied by none, one or more video signals (stereoscopic signals or video signals corresponding to different story lines)
  • Production of a motion picture film from a television signal

Details specific to this group:

Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • The subject-matter in the range H04N 5/92 - H04N 5/956 deals with recording and processing for recording of only black and white video signals while H04N 9/79 - H04N 9/898 deals with recording and processing for recording colour video signals.
  • H04N 5/76 (video recording) distinguishes itself from editing, which is found in G11B 27/00, in that the signals recorded and reproduced are video signals.
  • H04N 5/76 is a function place for recording or processing for recording. H04N 21/433 describes applications for recording in a distribution system.
  • H04N 5/76 features recording devices specially adapted to video data recording that can be programmed. The programming may be done by a user or a using an algorithm. Business methods where the video recording feature or step is well known is generally classified in G06Q30/00A.
  • H04N 5/76 contains recording devices that are characterised by the connection to other devices through an interface. Typically information is sent or received by a recorder through an interface that impacts the recording or playback function. Interfaces in general are found in H04N 5/44.
  • H04N 5/76 contains video cameras that record video data to a recording medium. Video cameras constructional details are found in H04N 5/225.
  • H04N 5/76 is an application place for video data trick play. Reproducing data in general at a rate different from the recording rate is found in G11B 27/005.
  • H04N 5/76 contains applications of video data processing for scrambling/encrypting video data for recording. Systems for rendering a video signal unintelligible are found in H04N 7/16 and H04N 21/00.
  • H04N 5/76 is an application place for video data reduction for recording. Video data compression is found in H04N 7/26.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Video data processing for printing
Business methods related to the distribution of video data content
G06Q30/00A
Video editing
Recording techniques specially adapted to a recording medium for recording digital data in general
Control of video recorders where the video signal is not substantially involved
Video camera constructional details
H04N4/225
Network video distribution
H04N5/24T6
Production of a video signal from a motion picture film
Interfaces
User interface of set top boxes
Video data coding

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems for buying and selling, i.a., video content
Alarm system using video cameras
Selective content distribution
Controlling video cameras
Video surveillance
Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 5/76 features a small number of ECLA subdivisions and has an additional associated Indexing Code scheme T04N576/00 (Indexing Code). A document does not explicitly mention that the video signal is a monochrome video signal is to be interpreted as being a colour video signal. As a consequence some classes in H04N 5/76 specific to monochrome signal recording have fallen out of use. Instead the corresponding colour symbols should be given to such documents:

Allocation of EC symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to video data recording will be given an H04N 5/76 EC group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to video data recording (in particular, if the document discloses a detailed video recording device) will be given a H04N 5/76 Indexing Code symbol.
  • A document containing invention information for more than one invention it may be given more than one H04N 5/76 EC group.
  • A document merely mentioning recording will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Allocation of Indexing Code symbols in combination with EC:

  • When assigning H04N 5/76 as EC group, giving an additional Indexing Code is mandatory.

Combined use of Indexing Code symbols:

  • Indexing Code symbols maybe allocated as necessary to describe additional information in document.

Symbol allocation rules:

  • Documents defining recording devices that have an interface, e.g., connected to a network, should have at least one of the more specific H04N 5/765 Indexing Code symbols.
  • Documents dealing with invention information about measures to prevent recording of projected images should be given the H04N 2005/91392 Indexing Code symbol.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Video or video data
Video signal, analogue or digital, with or without accompanying audio
{the recording apparatus and the television camera being placed in the same enclosure}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video cameras as recording devices.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Television cameras
between a recording apparatus and a television receiver
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
TV-receiver details
Recording/reproduction devices integrated in TV-receivers
on discs or drums
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Magnetic disks.

on tape
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video recording programming applications, although it reads (recording) "on tape".

Video recorder programming (reservation recording).

Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Trick play modes as well as processing for recording to enable the reproduction of video data at a rate different from the recording rate.
  • High speed recording cameras.
  • Speed control during recording, reproducing, reproducing at variable speed.
on discs or drums
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical discs.

for scrambling; {for copy protection} ( scrambling of a television signal for transmission H04N 7/167)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Scrambling and encryption of video data for recording.
  • Copy-protection systems.
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one Indexing Code H04N 5/913 symbol should be allocated to such document to further specify the scrambling method.

for bandwidth reduction ( bandwidth reduction H04N 7/12 ; using pulse code modulation H04N 7/24)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compression of analogue video signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compression of video signals
Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback { ( transmitter circuitry H04N 5/38 ; receiver circuitry H04N 5/44) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/82

Regeneration of the television signal or of selected parts thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/87

Signal drop-out compensation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/88

Time-base error compensation { (H04N 5/932 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Regeneration of analogue synchronisation signals
Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/89

Television systems ( details H04N 3/00 , H04N 5/00 ; systems specific to colour television H04N 11/00 ; stereoscopic television systems H04N 13/00 ; selective content distribution H04N 21/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • structural or hardware-related aspects of television systems, involving
  • analogue television signals or digital television signals processed at low level (e.g. physical layer in the OSI model);
  • details on conversion of television standards;
  • circuits for recovering digital non-picture data in analogue television signals;
  • specific arrangements allowing transmission of television signals via electric cables, optical fibres or using a GHz frequency band.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N 5/00 covers details of television systems and circuitry for processing analogue television signals or digital television signals processed at pixel level. Conversion between television standards and circuits for recovering digital non-picture data (slicers) are however classified in H04N 7/00.

H04N 9/00 and H04N 11/00 are to be considered when the focus is on colour aspects.

Aspects of diagnosis, testing and measuring for television systems are covered by H04N 17/00.

Television systems involving digital television signals not processed at low level should normally be classified in H04N 21/00.

Broadcast systems which are not specifically adapted for television signals should be classified in H04H.

Systems foreseen for the transmission/reception of data which may comprises inter alia television or video signals should be classified in respective telecommunication areas H04B, H04L, H04M and H04W.

General image processing not specific to television signals belongs to G06T. Video signal processing specific to visual displays belongs to G09G.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Aspects of video games
Recognition of data in general
Image data processing or generation, in general
Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address
Broadcast communication in general
Systems specific to colour television
Stereoscopic television systems
Selective content distribution
Scanning details of television systems
Details of television systems
Details of systems specific to colour television
Wireless networks in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes
Arrangements in vehicles for holding or mounting or controlling radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like
Mounting of cameras operative during drive (of a vehicle)
Arrangements for entertainment or communications for passenger or crew in aircraft, e.g. radio, television
Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce
Remote control devices
Electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices working with questions and answers
Simulators for teaching or training purposes
Miscellaneous advertising or display means not provided for elsewhere
Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address
Special rules of classification within this group

A document containing invention information relating to one of the subgroups will be given the relating EC symbol.

A document containing additional information relating to one of the subgroups will be given the relating Indexing Code.

A document merely mentioning a television system will not be given an EC symbol, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
3:2 pull-down pattern
a pattern of images where the first image is repeated 3 times and the second image is repeated twice
HDTV
High Definition TeleVision
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): a circuit-switched telephone network system
Letter-box system
television system which displays images comprising a central part and black bars above and below the central part
MAC
Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC): a satellite television transmission standard
Video signal
television signal
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CRT
Cathode Ray Tube, a technology of display
CATV
Community Antenna Television
CCTV
Closed Circuit TeleVision
EPG
Electronic Programme Guide
GUI
Graphics User Interface
MATV
Master Antenna TeleVision
MPEG
Motion Picture Experts Group; a family of standards used for coding audio-visual information in a digital compressed format
PC
Personal Computer
PVR
Personal Video Recorder
STB
Set-Top Box
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
VOD
Video On Demand
{ Special television systems not provided for by H04N 7/007 to H04N 7/18 ( still pictures via a television channel H04N 1/00098) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission of still pictures via a television channel

Places in relation to which this subgroup is residual:

Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system
Conversion of standards
High-definition television systems
Systems for the transmission of digital non-picture data, e.g. of text during the active part of a television frame
Systems for the transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by a single carrier
Systems for the simultaneous transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by more than one carrier
Systems for the simultaneous or sequential transmission of more than one television signal, e.g. additional information signals, the signals occupying wholly or partially the same frequency band
Adaptations for transmission by electric cable
Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal
Systems for two-way working
Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast
Adaptations for transmission via a GHz frequency band, e.g. via satellite
Adaptations for optical transmission
Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation
{Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • systems with auxiliary information data allowing improved picture quality transmitted during the active part of the TV signal, e.g. in black bands at the upper and lower edges of the picture;
  • letter-box systems.
Conversion of standards {involving analogue television standards or digital television standards processed at pixel level ( video transcoding H04N 7/26941 ; image scaling in general G06T 3/40 ; adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal G09G 5/005) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image scaling in general
Video signal processing specific to visual displays
Frame rate conversion for reducing blurring effect in a hold-type liquid crystal display (LCD)
Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal
Interpolation filters
Studio circuits for television systems involving alteration of picture size or orientation
Saving bandwidth in low bit-rate video transmission
Processing specific to video coder/decoder: transcoding to realise interoperability between different video coding standards
Processing specific to video coder/decoder: subsampling at the coder and/or sample restitution by interpolation at the coder or decoder
Circuits specific for processing colour signals
Conversion of colour television standards
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Receiver circuitry for receiving on more than one standard at will
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FRC
Frame Rate Converter
FRUC
Frame Rate Up-Converter
MC-FRC
Motion Compensation - Frame Rate Converter
NTSC
National Television System Committee
PAL
Phase alternating line
SECAM
Séquentiel couleur à mémoire (Sequential Colour with Memory)
High-definition television systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

High-definition colour television systems
H04N11/24
Systems for the transmission of digital non-picture data, e.g. of text during the active part of a television frame { ( transmission of digital non-picture data during the vertical blanking interval only H04N 7/088) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems using the active part of a television signal or part of it for transmitting digital non-picture data not foreseen to be watched as such on a display.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission of still pictures via a television channel
Transmission of digital non-picture data during the vertical blanking interval
Circuits for the digital non-picture data signal, e.g. for slicing of the data signal, for regeneration of the data-clock signal, for error detection or correction of the data signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Circuits for recovering data transmitted during the non-active part of the television signal, e.g. vertical or horizontal blanking interval;
  • Circuits for recovering data transmitted during the active part of the television signal instead of the pictorial signal.
Systems for the transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by a single carrier { (H04N 7/084 , H04N 7/087 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for transmitting in a particular way both picture and sound by a single carrier.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the horizontal blanking interval
Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the vertical blanking interval
Systems for the simultaneous transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by more than one carrier { (H04N 7/084 , H04N 7/087 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for transmitting in a particular way both picture and sound by more than one carrier.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the horizontal blanking interval
Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the vertical blanking interval
Systems for the simultaneous or sequential transmission of more than one television signal, e.g. additional information signals, the signals occupying wholly or partially the same frequency band, {e.g. by time division (H04N 7/007 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CC
Closed Caption
CRI
Clock Run-In
HBI
Horizontal Blanking Interval
RIC
Run-In Clock
VBI
Vertical Blanking Interval
Adaptations for transmission by electric cable (H04N 7/12 takes precedence; { transmission by lines H04B 3/00 ; wired broadcast systems H04H 20/76 ; CATV (Community Antenna Television) systems H04H 20/78} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coaxial connectors for coaxial cables
H01R17/12
Networks for connecting several sources or loads, working on different frequencies or frequency bands, to a common load or source, particularly adapted for use in common antenna systems
Networks for connecting several sources or loads, working on the same frequency or frequency band, to a common load or source, particularly adapted for use in common antenna systems
Line transmission systems, in general
Repeater circuits for signals in two different frequency ranges transmitted in opposite directions over the same transmission path
Arrangements of wired systems for broadcast
CATV systems
Home automation networks
Distribution of signals within a home automation network, e.g. involving splitting/multiplexing signals to/from different paths
Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal (H04N 7/24 takes precedence; { by special scanning H04N 3/00} ; high definition television systems H04N 7/015)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scanning details of television systems
High-definition television systems
Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour television systems with bandwidth reduction
Systems for two-way working ( {H04N 7/12 , } H04N 7/173 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal
Systems with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal
Telephonic communication systems combined with television receiver for reception of entertainment or information matter

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of, or interaction with, content, e.g. STB [set-to-box]; Operations thereof
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems for two-way working in the scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like
Conference systems ( { video terminal details H04N 7/141} ; telephonic conference arrangements H04M 3/56 ; { computer conferencing H04L 12/1813} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional details of the terminal equipment, e.g. arrangements of the camera and the display
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for conference in data switching networks
Telephonic conference arrangements
Multimedia conference systems
Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Television systems, where transmitters such as head-ends distribute analog television signals to television receivers. Typically, the access to analog television information is restricted based on a subscription system, where the television viewer will be charged for accessing the programs he/she has selected. To prevent eavesdropping, the transmitted analog signals are scrambled by the transmitter, e.g. in the time or amplitude domain, and descrambled at reception. Such systems can work in a unidirectional mode, where the transmitter decides which analog television programs the subscriber is entitled to view or in a bidirectional mode, where the user can request to view a movie.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Unidirectional or bidirectional television systems involving the distribution of digital video signals fall within the scope of H04N 21/00.

{Constructional details of the subscriber equipment (H04N 7/164 takes precedence; coin-freed and like apparatus in general G07F) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coin-freed and like apparatus in general
Coin-freed apparatus
{Authorising the user terminal, e.g. by paying; Registering the use of a subscription channel, e.g. billing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Entitlement systems, where the receiver is entitled to access the analog television program. Usually the user is billed therefor
  • Analog conditional access systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Payment schemes
E-commerce
{by receiver means only}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Television programs are broadcast in a scrambled form and only receivers fitted with e.g. a conditional access card can descramble them.

{Centralised control of user terminal ( subsequent to an upstream request signal H04N 7/17345) ; Registering at central ( by two-way working H04N 7/17309) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where typically head-ends select which receivers are entitled to receive the analog television programs.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Registering at central by two-way working
Centralised control of user terminal subsequent to an upstream request signal
Systems rendering the television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible { secret communication in general H04K 1/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Systems operating in the time domain, e.g. by displacing synchronisation signals relative to active picture signals or vice versa or by changing or reversing the order of active picture signal portions
  • Systems operating in the amplitude domain, e.g. by modifying synchronisation signals or by inverting the polarity of active picture signal portions
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Secret communication in general
{Providing digital key or authorisation information for generation or regeneration of the scrambling sequence ( pseudo-random number generators in general G06F 7/58) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scrambling or descrambling of analog television signals based on digital keys

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pseudo-random number generators in general
Computer security
Cryptography in general
Network security
with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bidirectional systems

{Transmission or handling of upstream communications}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of analog signal processing, coding or modulating in the upstream channel

{Direct or substantially direct transmission and handling of requests}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Typically on-demand systems for analog TV programs

{Handling of requests in head-ends}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of analog Video-on-Demand servers

Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast { ( television transmission of measured quantities G01D 5/39 ; intruder alarm or detection by television surveillance G08B 13/196 , G08B15/00B) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body combined with television appliances
Arrangements in vehicles for holding or mounting or controlling radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like
Mounting of cameras operative during drive of a vehicle; Arrangements of control thereof relative to the vehicle
Arrangements for entertainment or communications for passenger or crew in aircraft, e.g. radio, television
Scanning a visible indication of a measured value and reproducing this indication at a remote place, e.g. on the screen of a cathode-ray tube
Recognition of data in general
Image processing in general
Burglar, theft, or intruder alarms using television cameras
Signal generation from motion picture films
Adaptations for transmission via a GHz frequency band, e.g. via satellite
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Space-based or airborne stations for radio transmission systems
Arrangements of satellite networks for broadcast
Adaptations for optical transmission
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light
Arrangements of optical systems for broadcast
Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation (H04N 21/00 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television
Source coding or decoding of a digital video signal
Error protection or correction of a digital video signal
Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 21/00 takes precedence, except for source coding or decoding of a digital video signal (H04N 7/26 takes precedence in this case), and for error protection, detection or correction of a digital video signal (H04N 7/64 takes precedence in this case):

Systems for transmission of a pulse code modulated video signal with one or more other pulse code modulated signals, e.g. an audio signal or a synchronizing signal ( assembling of a multiplex stream by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetised elementary stream at server side H04N 21/236 ; disassembling of a multiplex stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of Service Information, disassembling of packetised elementary stream at client side H04N 21/434)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Assembling of a multiplex stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetised elementary stream at server side
Disassembling of a multiplex stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of Service Information, disassembling of packetised elementary stream at client side
the signals being synchronous { (H04N 21/23602 , H04N 21/23614 , H04N 21/2365 , H04N 21/2368 , H04N 21/4341 , H04N 21/4342 , H04N 21/4347 , H04N 21/4348 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

older multiplexing/demultiplexing and transport technologies which were used before the introduction of MPEG system layer, based on a format, e.g. a frame format, usable for transmission or recording of compressed or uncompressed video data, possibly combined with other content, e.g. audio

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multiplexing/demultiplexing of asynchronous signals, e.g. MPEG system layer type signals, involving the use of transport streams, program streams
Use of PCR for clock recovery
Use of time stamps (PTS, DTS) for content synchronisation
Special rules of classification within this group

Multiplexing/demultiplexing video and audio: H04N 21/2368, H04N 21/4341 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing video and additional data: H04N 21/23614,

H04N 21/4348 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing several video streams: H04N 21/2365, H04N 21/4347 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing isochronously with video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI: H04N 21/23602, H04N 21/4342 take precedence.

Synchronising systems therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Synchronisation for signals falling under H04N 7/54

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of PCR for clock recovery
Use of time stamps (PTS, DTS) for content synchronisation
Details of colour television systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Picture signal generators
  • Picture reproducers using opto-mechanical scanning, cathod-ray tubes, solid-state colour displays or projection devices
  • Conversion of monochrome to colour image signals
  • Colour synchronisation
  • Processing brightness and chrominance signal in relation with each other
  • Processing of colour signals in general as well as specifically for recording
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
ESLM
Electronic Spatial Light Modulator
DMD
Deformable mirror device
LCLV
Liquid Crystal Light Valve
D-ILA
Direct Drive Image Light Amplifier
HDR
High Dynamic Range
LCOS
Liquid Crystal On Silicon
DSP
Digital Signal Processor
DLP
Digital Light Processor
CRT
Cathode Ray Tube
RGB
Red Green Blue
CYM
Cyan Yellow Magenta
Picture reproducers ( devices or arrangements for the electro-, magneto- or acousto-optical modulation or deflection of light beams G02F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video walls (excluding multi-projection displays)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Video walls or multiscreen displays when each modular display is a projection device.
using demagnetisation or compensation of external magnetic fields
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of degaussing circuits.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of CRT or electron-beam tubes
Projection devices for colour picture display {e.g. using electronic spatial light modulators (ESLM) ( projection devices using film stock, photographic film or slides, G03B 21/00 and subgroups ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Image projection using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], i.e. processing of electrical image signals provided to the ESLM for the generation of projector control signals, for controlling the ESLM, e.g. control of the light source
  • based on electronic image signal, light conditioning specially adapted for the ESLM
  • in-projector image processing, electronic image data manipulation, e.g. during display or projection
  • details of projectors peculiar to the use of an ESLM, e.g. dichroic
  • and polarizing arrangements specially adapted for the ESLM
  • remote control of projectors peculiar to the ESLM, e.g. affecting their operation, or based on a generated image signal;
  • adaptations peculiar to the use of an ESLM and/or the display, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data
  • and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of ESLM, integrated
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass G03B contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Aspects of apparatus/methods for projecting or viewing images using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus/methods for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides, i.e. insofar as not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. mounting of optical elements not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, and their related controls not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, optical keystone correction;
  • (opto-)mechanical image enhancement in printers or projectors (e.g. keystone correction);
  • constructional aspects of projectors, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, light
  • integrating means not peculiar to the ESLM;

Subclass G02B contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Optical image modulation using direction light control e.g. deformable mirror devices (DMD's),
  • laser speckle optics,
  • head-up projection displays (head-mounted displays).

Subclass G02F contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Control of light using liquid crystals.

Subclass G09F 9/00 contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Indicating arrangements for variable information (e.g. street or stadium displays).
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical systems in general
Dichroic and polarizing arrangements in general
Devices for controlling direction of light e.g. DMD's
Head-up displays
Speckle reduction
Film projectors
Details
Projection screens
Image processing per se
Displaying of variable information using colour tubes
Control of colour illumination sources
Liquid crystal colour display with specific pixel layout
Characterised by the way in which colour is displayed
Using circuits for interfacing with colour displays
Using colour palettes
3D picture reproducers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical systems
Light control
Film projection and photography
Projection arrangements for image reproduction e.g. using eidophor
{scanning a light beam on the display screen ( scanning a light beam on a screen in displays other than projection devices G09G 3/02 ; scanning systems in general G02B 26/10 ; projectors using laser light sources in general H04N 9/3161) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scanning projection devices wherein a light beam (e.g. a point beam or a linear beam from a laser or an LED) is scanned across a screen (e.g. using scanning mirrors).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
XY Scanning, scanning systems in general
Laser speckle optics
Semiconductors lasers
Projectors using laser light sources in general
Colour synchronisation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Synchronisation of the modulated colour signal in relationship with the colour subcarrier,
  • colour subcarrier generation in relationship with the extracted burst.
Circuits for processing colour signals (H04N 9/77 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Color video sampling format conversion e.g. 4:2:2 to 4:2:0
  • Gamut mapping and Colour Space Conversions
  • Multiprimary colour signal conversion
  • Colour sampling in digital video e.g. 4:4:4, 4:2:0, 4:1:1
  • Processing of the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • Input colour signal detection relating to the type and standard of colour signals
  • Synchronous modulation and demodulation of the colour signals
  • Image enhancement or disturbance suppression specific to the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • Colour space transformation of the demodulated colour signal
  • Amplitude contol and gamma control of the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • DC contol control of the modulated colour television signal according to vertical blanking reference
  • White balance control of the demodulated colour signal for display or at electronic image capture level
  • Mixing of foreground and background colour video signals using chroma keying
Relationship between large subject matter areas

With respect to colour or chrominance aspects, subclass H04N 1/00 contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Aspects of apparatus/methods for controlling or correcting colour video signals originating from a scanned picture signal e.g. facsimile, document, photo.
  • Subclass G06T contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:
  • General purpose data processing of an image or enhancement of such image not particularly adapted to a motion video signal
  • Subclass H03D contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:
  • Demodulation of amplitude modulated signals
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image processing per se
Amplitude modulated demodulation
Colour picture communication system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image processing, image enhancement
Amplitude demodulation
Colour picture signal processing
Facsimile colour picture signal processing
Colour television signal testing
Colour TV processing for recording
Special rules of classification within this group

Demodulation circuits adapted to a particular standard are classified in:

{Multi-purpose receivers, e.g. for auxiliary information (H04N 9/642 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits for multiple input selection or for selecting a particular colour signal type.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multi-standard receivers
{Multi-standard receivers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multistandard colour decoding circuits.

{Hue control means, e.g. flesh tone control}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Face detection circuits,
  • Hue control.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hue control relating to non moving picture signals
for synchronous demodulators
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Demodulation circuits adapted to the NTSC standard
Demodulation circuits adapted to the PAL standard
Demodulation circuits adapted to the SECAM standard
for matrixing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour space transformation circuits.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Color space transformation circuits relating to non moving picture signals
colour balance circuits, e.g. white balance circuits, colour temperature control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour balance control.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Color balance control relating to non moving picture signals
Circuits for processing the brightness signal and the chrominance signal relative to each other, e.g. adjusting the phase of the brightness signal relative to the colour signal, correcting differential gain or differential phase ( circuits for matrixing H04N 9/67)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Separation of luminance and chrominance signals from a multiplexed composite colour television signal
  • Processing of luminance and chrominance signals in relationship to each-other (differential gain, differential phase, luminance and chrominance correlated enhancement or noise suppression...)
Processing of colour television signals in connection with recording
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video data recording:

  • Specially adapted recording devices such as a VCR, PVR, high speed camera, camcorder or a specially adapted PC
  • Interfaces between recording devices and other devices for input and/or output of video signals such as TVs, video cameras, other recording devices
  • Video recorder programming
  • Adaptations of the video signal for recording on specific recording media such as HDD, tape, drums, holographic support, semiconductor memories
  • Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate such as trick play modes and stroboscopic recording
  • Processing of the video signal for noise suppression, scrambling, field or frame skip, bandwidth reduction
  • Impairing the picking up, for recording, of a projected video signal
  • Regeneration of either a recorded video signal or for recording the video signal
  • Video signal recording wherein the recorded video signal may be accompanied by none, one or more video signals (stereoscopic signals or video signals corresponding to different story lines)
  • Production of a motion picture film from a television signal

Details specific to this group:

  • The recording equipment is for personal use and not for studio use
  • The subgroups of H04N 9/79 are for colour video signals
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • Recording and processing for recording of video signals covered by the subject-matter in the range H04N 5/76 - H04N 5/907 is classified in said range irrespectively of said video signals being in colour or black and white.
  • The range H04N 9/79 - H04N 9/898 deals with recording and processing for recording colour video signals while the corresponding range H04N 5/92 - H04N 5/956 deals with recording and processing for recording black and white video signals.
  • H04N 9/79 (video recording) distinguishes itself from editing, which is found in G11B 27/00, in that the signals recorded and reproduced are video signals.
  • H04N5/79 is a function place for recording or processing for recording. H04N 21/433 describes applications for recording in a distribution system.
  • H04N 9/79 features recording devices specially adapted to video data recording that can be programmed. The programming may be done by a user or a using an algorithm. Business methods where the video recording feature or step is well known is generally classified in G06Q30/00A.
  • H04N 9/79 contains recording devices that are characterised by the connection to other devices through an interface. Typically information is sent or received by a recorder through an interface that impacts the recording or playback function. Interfaces in general are found in H04N 5/44.
  • H04N 9/79 contains video cameras that record video data to a recording medium. Video cameras constructional details are found in H04N 5/225.
  • H04N 9/79 is an application place for video data trick play. Reproducing data in general at a rate different from the recording rate is found in G11B 27/005.
  • H04N 9/79 contains applications of video data processing for scrambling/encrypting video data for recording. Systems for rendering a video signal unintelligible are found in H04N 7/16 and H04N 21/00.
  • H04N 9/79 is an application place for video data reduction for recording. Video data compression is found in H04N 7/26.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Video data processing for printing
Business methods related to the distribution of video data content
G06Q30/00A
Video editing
Recording techniques specially adapted to a recording medium for recording digital data in general
Control of video recorders where the video signal is not substantially involved
Video camera constructional details
H04N4/225
Network video distribution
H04N5/24T6
Production of a video signal from a motion picture film
Interfaces
User interface of set top boxes
Video data coding

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems for buying and selling, i.a., video content:
Alarm system using video cameras
Selective content distribution
Controlling video cameras:
Video surveillance:
Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 9/79 features a small number of ECLA subdivisions and has an additional associated Indexing Code scheme T04N576/00 (Indexing Code). A document does not explicitly mention that the video signal is a monochrome video signal is to be interpreted as being a colour video signal. As a consequence some classes in H04N 5/76 specific to monochrome signal recording have fallen out of use. Instead the corresponding colour symbols should be given to such documents.

Allocation of EC symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to video data recording will be given an H04N 9/79 EC group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to video data recording (in particular, if the document discloses a detailed video recording device) will be given a H04N 9/79 Indexing Code symbol.
  • A document containing invention information for more than one invention it may be given more than one H04N 9/79 EC group.
  • A document merely mentioning recording will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.
  • Allocation of Indexing Code symbols in combination with EC:
  • When assigning H04N 9/79 or a subclass thereof as EC group, giving an additional Indexing Code is optional.
  • Combined use of Indexing Code symbols:
  • Indexing Code symbols maybe allocated as necessary to describe additional information in document.
  • Symbol allocation rules:
  • Documents defining recording devices that have an interface, e.g., connected to a network, should have at least one of the more specific H04N 5/765 Indexing Code symbols.
  • Documents dealing with invention information about measures to prevent recording of projected images should be given the H04N 2005/91392 Indexing Code symbol.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Video or video data
video signal analogue or digital with or without accompanying audio
{for more than one standard}
Special rules of classification within this group

The symbols H04N 9/7925 and corresponding H04N 9/7925 are not used. Instead documents that deal with the subject-matter of recording a plurality of video formats should be given the H04N 9/7921 or the corresponding H04N 9/7921 symbol.

{involving data reduction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coding/decoding when done using an MPEG standard.

{involving the multiplexing of an additional signal and the colour video signal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems, where additional information, necessary to retrieve the video data, e.g., chapter marks, navigation packs, time stamps is recorded with the video information, either on the same recording medium or on an associated recording medium.

Colour television systems ( details H04N 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects specific to transmission of colour television signal, in particular for transmission of analog colour television signal (e.g. NTSC, PAL, SECAM)

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N 11/00 distinguishes itself from transmission systems using pulse code modulation with bandwidth reduction, wherein the chrominance component or any type of colour component is submitted to a processing equivalent to the processing of the luminance component, e.g. MPEG standards, which are found in H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Colour picture communication systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
High-definition television systems
Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 11/00 features a number of EC symbols corresponding to a same number of Indexing Codes (e.g., H04N 11/14 as EC symbol and H04N 11/14 as Indexing Code symbol)

Allocation of EC symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

A document containing invention information relating to colour television systems will be given a H04N 11/00 EC group

A document containing additional information relating to colour television systems will be given a H04N 11/00 EC group

A document merely mentioning details of colour television systems will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Stereoscopic {or multiview} television systems; Details thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where a three-dimensional effect or different views according to the viewpoint location are provided to one or more viewers by means of electronic signals representing a plurality of images or signals including depth information, e.g. taken from different viewpoint locations representing the interocular distance.

In particular, this group covers systems which :

  • include electronic signal processing aspects, e.g. to provide signals for driving a stereoscopic display, or to generate signals by means of a stereoscopic camera; wherein
  • said processing aspects are specially adapted to stereoscopic (or multiview) devices, i.e. different from the corresponding normal, non-stereoscopic aspects due to the presence of different pictures to be sent to the viewers' eyes.

Examples:

  • Stereoscopic and multiview electronic image pick up devices (video cameras, digital still cameras)
  • Stereoscopic and multiview display devices
  • Electronic signal processors

- for stereoscopic television signal processing

- for monoscopic to stereoscopic conversion (including computer systems)

- for stereoscopic image generation (including from a computer model)

- for stereoscopic displays (e.g. left/right synchronization, stereoscopic format conversion, depth adaptation)

- for displays providing different 2D images to different viewers (e.g. for use in vehicles)

- for devices which generate a two-dimensional "look around" effect, e.g. non-stereoscopic multiview systems (see however exclusions here below).

  • Devices generating a real 3D image, i.e. an image having a volume (volumetric displays)
  • Pseudostereoscopic systems

Some systems falling under the definition set out above of "stereoscopic systems" but wherein the viewer's eyes do not see different images, may provide a pseudo-stereoscopic effect and are classified in H04N 13/00. The effect must go beyond that provided by the mere display of a 3D object on a 2D screen (like in a CAD system).

An Indexing Code (see below) is to be allocated to such systems, which in the main scheme are to be classified under the head group if no better class is found.

Example:Wiggle stereoscopy: pseudo-stereo systems providing a three-dimensional effect by means of normal 2D image signals, by periodic oscillating motion of a 3D object.

  • Multiview systems:

- systems providing different 2D or 3D views of the same scene to one or more viewers according to the viewpoint location (called "look around" effect)

- systems providing different 2D or 3D views of different scenes to different viewers (called "privacy")

These systems are classified in H04N 13/00 if they provide said views simultaneously or at least at a high frame rate so as to be simultaneously viewed by the observers.

However, multiview systems wherein said 2D views are provided to a viewer one at a time, e.g. by user selection, are not classified inH04N 13/00, because they are actually normal 2D systems although the viewpoint can be selected at will.

Examples of multiview devices falling under H04N 13/00:

- the so called "look-around" display systems including display with lenticular screen providing different views of a common scene at different viewing positions

- the so called "privacy" display systems including display with parallax barrier providing different views of different scenes to different viewers in 2D or 3D (for example in a vehicle, wherein on a common screen the driver is watching GPS while the passenger is watching a movie)

- Multi-user displays displaying different pictures for different viewers wearing shutter glasses to select one of said pictures (this is also "privacy"), wherein said pictures are 2D or 3D pictures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several sections in H04N 5/00 and H04N 7/00 relate to the basic monoscopic video aspects from which corresponding stereoscopic aspects are derived. Classification and search in these sections is therefore to be considered every time no specifically stereoscopic aspects are present.

G06T, image processing and generation in general, includes G06T7/00X which relates to stereoscopic image processing in general, i.e. not being adapted to be used with devices falling under H04N 13/00, e.g. stereoscopic image analysis, generation of depth values from stereoscopic images, stereoscopic image segmentation, generation of monoscopic images from stereoscopic images, etc.

Image processing adapted for driving or controlling stereoscopic image devices falling under H04N 13/00 may be classified in H04N 13/00 as well or even just in H04N 13/00. E.g. analysis of video signal to perform real time control of a stereoscopic video camera, or to identify the image transmission format to drive a stereoscopic display is classified just in H04N 13/00 if there are no image analysis aspects.

Sometimes a normal 2D display displaying solid objects, e.g. a CAD system wherein the viewer can rotate 3D objects to see them from any direction, is called "a 3D display". Of course such displays are not to be classified in H04N 13/00 because a viewer sees the same picture with both eyes and because, if there is more than one viewer, all viewers see the same picture. Such documents are classified in G06T 19/00.

Concerning G02B (optical systems), optical devices are often inextricably connected with the devices falling under H04N 13/00, because essential to provide the stereoscopic effect. Classification also in G02B should be considered every time a relevant optical aspect is present in a stereoscopic system. Classification only in G02B should be considered every time no electronic control aspects are present.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Stereoscopic endoscopes
Arrangements for determining or recording eye movement (e.g. for gaze detection)
Printing stereoscopic images
Illumination with structured light for measuring contours or curvature of an object
Optical systems with means for monitoring data relating to the user, e.g. head-tracking, eye-tracking
Head mounted displays
Optical systems for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects
Spectacles having an electro-optical light valve (not switching at video field frequency)
Spectacles having passive polarizing filters
Stereoscopic film apparatus
Stereoscopic photographic or similar processes
Holographic imaging devices, even if providing a tv-like experience
Input/output in interaction with the human body (virtual reality)
Stereoscopic image processing in general, i.e. not being specially adapted to be used with devices falling under H04N 13/00, e.g. stereoscopic image analysis, generation of depth values from stereoscopic images, stereoscopic image segmentation, generation of monoscopic images from stereoscopic images
G06T7/00X
Stereoscopic television signal compression encoding, including stereoscopic and multiview signal encoding

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Stereoscopic endoscopes and medical devices
Vehicle mounted cameras, including stereoscopic cameras
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical systems (comprising elements used in stereoscopic systems)
Calculation or rendering of a monoscopic view of a 3D graphics object
Generation of 3D graphical models or scenes
Video stream synchronization / multiplexing / packetization aspects
Video signal reformatting
Aspects concerning subtitles or other OSD information
Generation or processing of metadata
Television cameras
Arrangements of television cameras (not for capturing stereoscopic images)
Projection displays
Recording, including multiplexing another television signal
Video standard conversion
Colour signal processing circuits
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification of additional information corresponding to the contents of the orthogonal groups (see here below) is compulsory. If additional information relates to technical aspects which are not strictly connected with the main technical features classified, classification is not compulsory but advisable. On the other hand, embodiments equivalent to the main embodiments classified by default should not classified even if explicitly described; classification of the main embodiments is considered to be sufficient.

Example:

An invention concerning a time variant parallax barrier display is to be classified in H04N13/00A3B. If there are colour aspects, H04N 13/0422 must be added. If in one of the embodiments the invention is applied to a lenticular screen display, additional classification in H04N13/00A1 is not considered to be necessary. If on the other hand one of the embodiments discloses aspects concerning image processing, classification in the relevant subgroups of H04N 13/0003 should be considered.

  • Orthogonal groups

Some H04N 13/00 groups are to be regarded as "orthogonal", i.e. groups where stereoscopic aspects are classified as ECLA codes even though they are not strictly connected to the main teaching of the document (provided that such aspects are relevant), in order to make a search more efficient by AND-ing said codes with the codes relating to the main aspects. The orthogonal groups of each of the three main subsections H04N 13/0003, H04N 13/02 and H04N 13/04 are listed therein.

These groups are orthogonal to all groups.

Examples: see the above mentioned subsections.

  • ECLA codes

In the past, ECLA codes were allocated with a kind of deep indexing system, i.e. any relevant aspect, even not strictly connected with the main teaching of the document, was given a corresponding ECLA code. There is therefore a large number of documents (provisionally) having quite many ECLA and Indexing Codes. This practice has been discontinued and should presently not be followed.

  • Indexing Codes

In the past, Indexing Codes have been used during a reorganization made by students, wherein students allocated a set of Indexing Codes to be reviewed later by examiners. However, such codes were seldom removed by the examiners when the corresponding ECLA codes were allocated. There is therefore a large number of documents (provisionally) having identical ECLA and Indexing Codes, and even some irrelevant Indexing Codes. This practice has been discontinued and should presently not be followed. These Indexing Codes should be disregarded.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Stereoscopic
Providing (exactly) two different views, one for the left eye and one for the right eye
2D
Two dimensional
3D
Three dimensional, sometimes also used to mean stereoscopic
Autostereoscopic display
A display device not requiring glasses to provide a stereoscopic effect to the viewer
Multiview
Providing more than two different views to one or more viewers according to their viewing position or direction; the views can be 2D or 3D
Volumetric display
A device generating a "solid" image, i.e. not an image on the surface of a display, but one having a real depth. Such systems have been considered to fall within the definition of stereoscopic systems because the viewer's eyes perceive two different pictures.
Lenticular lens (screen)
An array of very thin cylindrical lenslets (normally less than 1mm wide) placed vertically in front or behind a display or light modulator in order to generate optically directive views in autostereoscopic displays / cameras
Parallax barrier
An array of very thin slits performing the same function of the lenticular screen; it may be electronically generated, switchable, adaptive, etc
Fly-eye lenticular screen
An array of very small bidimensional lenses (typically circular / hemispherical) placed in front of a display, light modulator or image sensor like a normal lenticular screen, providing bidimensional parallax
Pseudostereo(scopic) effect
Stereoscopic or 3D visual effect obtained without sending different views to the viewer's eyes; the same term is sometimes used to denote the effect due to a wrong viewer's position in front of an autostereoscopic effect, whereby the right image is seen by the left eye and vice versa
Integral imaging
A technique of image capture or display which uses a fly's eye or a lenticular screen in front of the image sensor/display in order to capture/display images with parallax
Plenoptic camera
A camera, normally non-stereoscopic, using a technique allowing focussing after image capture, by means of a lenticular lens array combined with a plurality of (small) image sensors
Light-field camera
See plenoptic camera
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
SLM
Spatial Light Modulator
OSD
On-Screen Display
CAD
Computer Aided Design

In patent documents the terms "3D"and "stereoscopic" are sometimes used as synonyms.

The terms "lenticular screen", "lenticular lens array" and "lenticular array" are used as synonyms.

{Stereoscopic image signal coding, multiplexing, processing, recording or transmission ( television signal bandwidth reduction H04N 7/26 ; image coding for general purpose image data processing G06T 9/00 ; transformation of the video signal for recording, including multiplexing of another television signal H04N 5/9205 ; for colour signals, H04N 9/8227 ; selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD H04N 21/00 ; assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetized elementary stream H04N 21/236 ; disassembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. demultiplexing audio and video streams or extraction of additional data from a video stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of service information at client side, disassembling of packetized elementary stream H04N 21/434) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing of stereoscopic image communication signals not strictly connected to the devices forming the subject of H04N 13/02 and H04N 13/04.

Special rules of classification within this group

Orthogonal groups (definition of orthogonal groups: see H04N 13/00) :

It is however not excluded that in some cases one of the above groups may be assigned as the sole classification code.

As regards the H04N 13/00 Indexing Codes, see bullet point "Indexing Codes" in paragraph "Special rules of classification" here above.

The additional scheme H04N 2213/00 includes Indexing Codes T04N213/00X which relate to general aspects concerning the whole H04N 13/00.

Selected codes are listed here below.

H04N 2213/002 (Eyestrain reduction by processing stereoscopic signals or controlling stereoscopic devices)

This code is used to indicate eye strain aspects in general, i.e. not necessarily falling under the definition of H04N 13/0033. E.g. eye strain reduction not obtained by processing the stereoscopic video signal, but by controlling a display device so that disparity is reduced.

H04N 2213/003 and H04N 2213/005 (aspects relating to the "2D+depth" and

"3D+depth" image format)

This code is used to indicate that aspects concerning the above formats are present in a document. If a depth map is processed, H04N 13/0022 should be allocated.

Classification in these Indexing Codes is not mandatory.

H04N 2213/006 (Pseudostereoscopic systems)

See the bullet point "Pseudostereoscopic systems" in paragraph "Special rules of classification" here above.

Further classification information on subgroups of H04N 13/0003:

H04N 13/0011 (Transformation of stereoscopic image signals corresponding to virtual viewpoints):

Attention should be paid to the word "transformation": here a new virtual image is generated starting from one or more already existing stereoscopic images, e.g. by interpolation. A computer-generated new stereoscopic image not deriving from existing images is to be classified in H04N 13/0275.

H04N 13/0018 (Improving the 3D impression of a displayed stereoscopic image by modifying the image content):

If the content is not modified, this group is not relevant. E.g. if the 3D impression is improved by horizontally shifting one of the images with respect to the other, or by modifying the depth map, then the document should be classified in H04N 13/0022.

Examples of features which should be classified in this group (if their purpose is that indicated in the title):

  • Addition of depth cues such as defocusing, coloring, shadows
  • Geometric correction or warping
  • Left/right or temporal crosstalk reduction

H04N 13/0022 (Aspects relating to depth or disparity adjustment):

This group comprises the documents dealing with depth adjustment. E.g.

  • Control of disparity between L and R images
  • Processing of depth map
  • Non-linear processing of depth in order to adapt it to display features such as screen size

Aspects relating to eye strain (fatigue) reduction by reducing depth should be classified here and in H04N 13/0033 if they are independent from the display device, i.e. if depth is obtained by acting on the video signal and not on display features (in both cases, the Indexing Code H04N 2213/002 can additionally be allocated).

If depth adjustment is obtained by acting only on device parameters, i.e. there is no stereoscopic signal processing, the document should not be classified here but only in the relevant device groups, H04N 13/02 and H04N 13/04.

E.g. if depth is adjusted by controlling the baseline (the distance between two cameras of a stereo camera), it should be classified in H04N 13/0239 in combination with H04N 13/0296 (or possibly with H04N 13/0246).

H04N 13/0029 (Format conversion):

This group deals with the conversion of any kind of stereoscopic format into another one, e.g. from side-by-side to top-bottom or "2D+depth", or still to side-by-side but with a different size, resolution or frame rate.

Documents wherein a stereoscopic signal (format) is generated from monoscopic source signals should not be classified here but in H04N 13/0048 or in the relevant groups in H04N 13/02.

Aspects concerning format conversion should be classified here if (as for all processing aspects) they go beyond the equivalent processing of monoscopic TV signals, e.g. a PAL to NTSC conversion wherein no particular stereoscopic features are involved is to be classified in H04N 7/01 only.

H04N 13/004 (Mixing stereoscopic image signals):

This group deals with the generation of one image including the weighted sum of two source images, i.e. wherein the contents of both source images are visible (as opposed to overlaid pictures).

A window showing a second image within a first one (e.g. picture-in-picture) should be classified in H04N 13/0456.

Overlays such as subtitles and similar graphic images are to be classified in H04N 13/007.

H04N 13/0048 (Encoding, multiplexing or demultiplexing different image signal components in stereoscopic image signals):

This group deals with the structure of the stereoscopic video signal, i.e. how the different image signals which constitute a stereoscopic (or multiview) image signal are put together in order to form a complete video signal e.g. for storage or transmission. As for the preceding group, only stereoscopic features are classified - see the references in the note attached to the definition of this group for non-stereoscopic features.

As indicated in the ECLA definition of this group, "encoding" does not include compression encoding, which is to be classified in H04N 19/00769.

"Multiplexing" and "demultiplexing" are to be meant in the general sense mentioned above, i.e. any manner to form a stereoscopic image frame, stream or signal from e.g.

  • left and the right signals
  • a 2D image and a depth image

by arranging the components in a format having e.g.

  • alternate L/R frames or fields
  • side by side L/R images
  • top/down L/R images
  • main layer / enhancement layer
  • component images having different resolutions

Further, attention should be paid to the term "image signal components" which is meant in a strict sense. Non-image signal components are to be classified in H04N 13/0062 and subgroups, however, due to the lack of a better place, documents comprising metadata or other non-image signal components were classified here till October 2011. Until the reorganization of H04N 13/00 is completed, a search for such aspects should include this group as well.

H04N 13/0055 (Recording or reproducing stereoscopic image signals),

H04N 13/0059 (Transmission of stereoscopic image signals):

These "orthogonal" groups are used to classify the corresponding aspects, even though such aspects are often quite close to the corresponding monoscopic ones, because once a stereoscopic video stream has been assembled, it is generally recorded or transmitted with conventional techniques. Special attention should therefore be paid to the groups indicated in the note attached to these groups and to H04N 13/0003.

H04N 13/0066 (Metadata associated to a stereoscopic image signal):

Metadata concerning stereoscopic features included in a stereoscopic video stream or image file should be classified here. Other types of metadata are not to be taken into account, they are classified in H04N 21/00, see the note attached to this group and to H04N 13/0062.

Concerning non-stereoscopic metadata multiplexing, please see also the paragraph at the end of the note concerning H04N 13/0048.

H04N 13/007 (Subtitles or other OSD information associated to a stereoscopic image signal):

Stereoscopic features of subtitles or other OSD information included in a stereoscopic video stream (separate from the image(s) ) should be classified here, e.g. how to three-dimensionally merge a subtitle with the main image, how to avoid depth conflicts, depth interference, etc.

The same comments made for metadata apply for non-stereoscopic aspects of these features.

Picture signal generators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Devices for stereoscopic or multiview electronic image signal generation, including computer-generated stereoscopic image signals;
  • Signal processing and control systems therefor.

Note:

The generated stereoscopic signals may be in any format, e.g. L + R, 2D + depth map, 3D + depth map. Note however that the devices which do not capture optical images (e.g. 3D scanners, time-of-flight cameras, rangefinders etc) are not classified in H04N 13/00: they are classified in the groups indicated here below.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
3D scanners
Time-of-flight [TOF] cameras
Depth or shape recovery
Generation of a depth map from stereoscopic image signals
G06T7/00X2
Optical systems (comprising elements used in stereoscopic systems)
Calculation or rendering of a monoscopic view of a 3D graphics object
Generation of 3D graphical models or scenes
Video stream synchronization / multiplexing / packetization aspects
Video signal reformatting
Aspects concerning subtitles or other OSD information
Generation or processing of metadata
Television cameras
Arrangements of television cameras (not for capturing stereoscopic images)
Projection displays
Recording, including multiplexing another television signal
Video standard conversion
Colour signal processing circuits
Special rules of classification within this group

Examples of orthogonal groups:

Plenoptic cameras which do not generate more than one viewpoint are to be classified in the relevant groups of H04N 5/00.

Plenoptic cameras / integral imaging cameras, which provide more than one viewpoint, are to be classified in H04N 13/02, in particular in H04N 13/0282 if they provide more than two different geometrical viewpoints.

Further/other classes are allocated as normal, according to the special technical features of the device concerned, e.g. H04N 13/0232.

Further classification information on subgroups of H04N 13/02:

H04N 13/0232 (Stereoscopic cameras having a fly-eye lenticular screen):

Plenoptic cameras i.e. lens array cameras for providing stereoscopic or 3D images are classified here even if each lens of the fly-eye lenticular screen is placed on a different chip (the image sensor is considered to be one even if it is composite).

H04N 13/0246 (Calibration aspects relating to the control of a stereoscopic camera):

Aspects relating to the control of a stereoscopic camera in order to obtain aligned images, i.e. images which only differ by a horizontal disparity but have no rotation, or other geometric distortion therebetween. As indicated in the note attached to this group, the so-called stereo (camera) calibration aspects wherein an already captured image pair is processed to determine and compensate the same above mentioned distortions are to be classified in G06T 7/002, such aspects differing from the aspects classified in this group in that they do not "relate to the control of a stereoscopic camera".

H04N 13/0253 (Stereoscopic cameras in combination with an electromagnetic radiation source for illuminating the subject):

Only aspects relating to the use of light for obtaining a stereoscopic image are to be classified here, e.g. illumination with structured light in order to capture depth, illumination from different sides or with different colours for left and right images etc. Normal illumination devices (flash or continuous illumination) are classified in H04N 5/2256 and if exposure aspects are involved, in H04N 5/2354. If structured illumination is used for measuring contours or curvatures, see G01B 11/25.

H04N 13/026 (Stereoscopic picture signal generators with monoscopic to stereoscopic image conversion):

Devices obtaining a stereoscopic image from one or more existing monoscopic images are to be classified here. In this group the capturing conditions of the monoscopic images are unknown or irrelevant, whereas in H04N 13/0207 and subgroups stereoscopic images are generated from a camera controlled to provide images of different viewpoints, so that no "conversion" is necessary. There is thus no overlap between these two groups.

Please note that this group provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in its subgroups. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

H04N 13/0275 (Stereoscopic picture signal generation from a 3D object model, e.g. computer generated stereoscopic image signals):

This group and its subgroup H04N 13/0278 relate to systems using a computer for generating a stereoscopic image, e.g. a fully synthetic stereoscopic image from a CAD-type 3D object model. Note that the generation of a virtual image starting from already existing stereoscopic images is to be classified in H04N 13/0011 and subgroups. Attention should be paid to this detail in order to decide whether to search / classify in this group.

H04N 13/0285 and N (Stereoscopic picture signal generators generating monoscopic and stereoscopic images):

Please note that H04N 13/0292 provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in H04N 13/0285 and M1. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

Picture reproducers { ( optical systems for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects G02B 27/22) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Devices for stereoscopic or multiview electronic image signal display;
  • Devices for volumetric three dimensional electronic image signal display;
  • Signal processing and control systems therefor.

Attention should be paid to the optical structure and optical devices of some stereoscopic displays (e.g. those provided with lenticular screens), which are to be classified and searched also (or exclusively) in G02B 27/22.

Special rules of classification within this group

Image processing specially adapted for use with a specific display device should be classified in this section, not in H04N 13/0003. E.g. signal multiplexing (interlacing) for displaying a stereoscopic input signal by means of a lenticular screen display is classified in H04N 13/0404; however, if the multiplexed signal is not just used within the display but e.g. created to be transmitted elsewhere, then H04N 13/0048 should be added.

Several H04N 13/04 sections are to be regarded as "orthogonal" groups (see the corresponding note of H04N 13/00). Examples:

It is however not excluded that in some cases one of the above groups may be assigned as the sole classification code.

Besides codes corresponding to the H04N 13/00 codes, the Indexing Code scheme further comprises the following three Indexing Codes:

T04N13/00S, T04N13/00S1 and T04N13/00S2

which relate to the so-called "Privacy" aspects i.e. devices displaying different images to different viewers, the images not being different viewpoints of the same scene. A typical example of such systems is a display used in vehicles wherein the driver sees navigation-related information whereas the passenger sees a TV film.

As regards the additional scheme H04N 2213/00, section T04N213/04 relates to aspects concerning displays. It includes the following two Indexing Codes:

H04N 2213/007 (Aspects relating to detection of stereoscopic image format)

This is typically made by analysis of the video signal or detection of embedded metadata e.g. to ascertain if a received stereoscopic signal is compatible with a display device (if it's not compatible, and it is converted to a compatible format, then H04N 13/0029 should additionally be allocated).

H04N 2213/008 (Aspects relating to glasses for viewing stereoscopic images): Here typically shutter glasses or polarizing glasses are meant. Note that only non-trivial aspects should be classified here, i.e. not all documents where shutter glasses are driven or synchronized. E.g. this Indexing Code should be allocated to documents dealing with glasses having integrated devices providing power supply for the LCD shutters, or comprising special synchronization receivers capable of driving the glasses in absence of a continuous sync signal from the display.

Further classification information on subgroups of H04N 13/04

H04N 13/0415 (Autostereoscopic displays with slanted parallax optics):

By "slanted parallax optics" it is meant a lenticular screen or parallax barrier placed at an angle with respect to the pixel columns of the display, so that a cylindrical lenslet of the lenticular array or a slit of the parallax barrier overlap more than one pixel column.

Note that this group is "orthogonal" - a slanted lenticular screen display will be classified in H04N 13/0404 and here.

H04N 13/0418 (Autostereoscopic displays using an array of controllable light sources or a moving aperture or light source):

Here are to be classified displays working on the principle of using an illumination source (e.g. a collimated light beam illuminating a light modulator) to provide directivity to the light emitted by the display, so as to direct an image to one viewer's eye. Typically, the emitted light direction is changed by controlling the position of the illumination source.

H04N 13/0438 (Temporally multiplexed displays):

Here are to be classified those displays working on the principle of temporally (alternatively) switching one or more pictures and using synchronized spectacles to select the picture to be sent to a viewer's eye. Note that polarization switching is to be classified here since all other H04N 13/0429 subgroups relate to spatially multiplexed displays.

The search for devices using passive polarizing glasses is therefore to be performed both in H04N 13/0434 and in this group.

H04N 13/0445 (Multiview displays, i.e. displays generating more than two geometrical viewpoints without observer tracking):

This is a "orthogonal group". Please note that this group provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in its subgroups. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

H04N 13/0452 and N (Stereoscopic displays generating monoscopic and stereoscopic images):

Please note that H04N 13/0456 provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in H04N 13/0452 and M1. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects specific to measuring or testing of values involved in the television signal processing at the transmitter side and/or the receiver side, for analog or digital television signal.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N 17/00 features test techniques for all the devices which belong to the television chain: television cameras, transmission path, television receivers or recorders, distribution systems which are found in H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 9/00, H04N 11/00, H04N 21/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electronic inspection or testing of displays and display drivers, e.g. of LED or LCD displays
Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 17/00 features a limited number of EC symbols and has an associated Indexing Code scheme with additional subdivisions: H04N 17/00

Allocation of EC symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

  • a document containing invention information relating to testing of television systems or details will be given a H04N 17/00 EC group
  • a document containing additional information relating to testing of television systems or details will be given a H04N 17/00 EC group
  • a document merely mentioning details of colour television systems will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Monitoring aspects are also covered in the appropriate main groups, e.g. H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00.

{Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Methods or arrangements of digital video coding and compression of an input digital video sequence for the purpose of further transmission (e.g. by broadcasting) or of storage (e.g. at servers, set-top boxes or hard-disks) and further reproduction at viewer premises.
  • Certain subgroups are related to the standards H.261 to H.264, MPEG-1 to MPEG-4, AVC, to the draft standards SVC, HEVC and to future related standards.
  • Methods or arrangements for transform coding of static images suitable for compression of digital video signals, e.g. related to the standards JPEG, JPEG 2000, in view of the close technical relationship with the cited standards, are also covered by said special subgroups.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

The scope of H04N 19/00 and its subgroups is limited to the part of digital video coding and compression strictly comprised between the digital video input and the compressed video output that provides digital coded video to further processing stages such as transmission and storage, i.e. it is limited only to the generation of the elementary video stream, e.g. as defined by the MPEG standards.

  • Processing stages after the compressed video output (e.g. fragmentation in packet units, encapsulation, medium adaptation for transport, video distribution) are generally covered by H04N 21/00 or H04H and processing stages before the digital video input or after decoding (e.g. resampling, interpolation, cropping, rotation) are generally covered by G06T, unless their operation is interactive with functional units of the compressor generating the elementary video stream and is consequently covered also by specific subgroups of H04N 19/00.
  • Computer graphics compression is covered by G06T 9/00.
  • General compression algorithms are covered by H03M 7/00.
  • Processing of documents or images for scanning, transmission or reproduction (e.g. telefax) is covered by H04N 1/00.
  • Details of digital television cameras, digital television receivers and digital video recorders are covered by H04N 5/00.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Audio Analysis or Processing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Information retrieval and database structures therefor in image databases
Pattern recognition (characters, fingerprints)
Hardware for image processing
2D image generation
2D image animation (e.g. sprites in general)
3D image rendering
3D image modelling
Image or sequence resampling in general
Image restoration
Image analysis, e.g. analysis of motion
Computer graphics compression
Signal processing for video editing and recording on a special recording medium
General data coding
Details of multimedia broadcast systems
Processing of documents or images for scanning, transmission or reproduction (e.g. telefax)
Compression of two-tone or discrete tone static images (e.g. fax transmission, compression in JBIG, GIF or PNG format)
Colour conversion
Stereoscopic or multiview television systems
Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems
Selective content distribution
Video cameras
Studio equipments
Television receivers
Video recording and play (e.g. trick play)
Closed circuit TV systems, details of video-surveillance cameras and circuits
Special rules of classification within this group

In this group, it is appropriate to use multi-aspect classification, because the subject of the invention generally relates to the interaction or interrelationship of different technical aspects, each provided for in this main group, wherein all those different aspects are to be classified.

The classification should be directed at non trivial aspects only. Aspects not necessarily interacting with the claimed aspects are also classified.

The description and the figures should be object of the classification, and not only the claims.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group
AVC
Advanced Video Coding
SVC
Scalable Video Coding
HEVC
High Efficiency Video Coding
{using adaptive coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Static or dynamic adaptation in the interaction of the different building blocks or processes of the digital video compressor or decompressor, e.g. regulation of the parameters involved in the compression algorithm as a function of the channel capacity or of the desired quality of the reconstructed video signal.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling the complexity of the video stream at the transmitter side, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream
Controlling the complexity of the video stream at the receiver side, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream
Special rules of classification within this group

Each adaptive coding aspect should, as far as possible, be classified with entries from each one of the H04N 19/00012, H04N 19/00133, H04N 19/00254 and H04N 19/00345 subgroups.

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{characterised by an element, parameter or selection affected, i.e. controlled, by the adaptive coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The definition of the element, parameter or selection, which is affected by the adaptive coding, wherein element is to be understood as a functional block or process in the digital video compressor or decompressor.

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{Coding or prediction mode selection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of the coding mode or of the prediction mode, as provided in detail in the lower-ranking subgroups.

{Selection of the reference unit for prediction within a chosen coding or prediction mode, e.g. weighted prediction or adaptive choice of position and number of pixels used for prediction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of the reference unit for prediction within a chosen coding or prediction mode, e.g. weighted prediction or adaptive choice of position and number of pixels used for prediction, choice between different motion estimators or compensators (e.g. between diamond search and full search, between global and local motion compensation), adaptive choice of the reference frame or block in motion compensation, e.g. as in the figure below.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple frame prediction
Bidirectional image interpolation, B-frames
Long-term prediction
Special rules of classification within this group

The assignment of a class under H04N 19/00254 is obligatory.

{between spatial and temporal predictive coding, e.g. picture refresh or intra-inter mode decision}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding, e.g. picture refresh by insertion of an intra-coded frame, as e.g. periodically or at scene change, or decision among intra-mode and inter-mode as in the figure.

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Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Intra-frame, I-frame
Frame coded with spatial prediction
Inter-frame, P-frame
Frame coded with temporal prediction in one temporal direction
Bidirectional-frame, B-frame
Frame coded with temporal prediction in both temporal directions
Anchor frame
A frame usable for prediction of other frames, i.e. an intra-frame or an inter-frame
{among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes, e.g. a plurality of inter-prediction modes as in the standard H.263 or in the standard H.264, as shown below.

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{among a plurality of spatial predictive coding modes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection among a plurality of spatial predictive coding modes, e.g. a plurality of intra-prediction modes as the directional block intra-prediction modes in the standard H.264 shown below.

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{suitable for a given display mode, e.g. for interlaced or progressive display mode}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of a given display mode, e.g. interlaced or progressive as in the figure (as in MBAFF of H.264), and of the associated coding or prediction mode.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conversion at the pixel level of a picture from interlaced to progressive display mode and viceversa
H04N7/01D
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
MBAFF
Macroblock-adaptive frame-field coding
{Structure of a group-of-pictures [GOP], e.g. number of B-frames between two anchor frames (H04N 19/0003 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of the structure of a group-of-pictures [GOP], e.g. of the number of P-frames, B-frames between two anchor frames, e.g. as in the figure below.

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bidirectional image interpolation, B-frames
Special rules of classification within this group

The present group should be assigned when explicit reference to adapting the length or the composition of a GOP is made, e.g. by changing the number of B-frames between anchor frames or by changing the number of P-frames between I-frames.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Group-of-pictures
A group of successive pictures forming a logic unit within a coded video sequence in H.26x and MPEG standards.
Open GOP
A GOP which uses referenced pictures from the previous GOP at the current GOP boundary.
Closed GOP
A GOP that uses no referenced pictures from the previous GOP at the current GOP boundary (e.g. the classic GOP starting with an I frame)
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

GOF
Group of frames.
GOP
Group of Pictures
{Code volume assigned before coding to a coding unit}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of the target rate or code volume assigned to a coding unit before coding the unit itself, e.g. to a picture or a group-of-pictures, as done within the rate controller in the figure below (US7940843), or selection of frame rate.

Special rules of classification within this group

When the assignment of data rate or code amount to a coding unit before coding is determined as a function of the data rate or code amount at the encoder output, an entry from the H04N 19/00169 subgroups should be attributed.

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{Filter, e.g. for pre- or post-processing ( sub-band filter banks H04N 19/00824) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the filtering is required to be part of an adaptive coding process, e.g. quantization controlling the filtering process, adaptive switching function after filtering process, optional filtering characteristics, adaptive selection of a filter type or of filter parameters, like strength and taps, as within the filter indicated in the figure below in function of a threshold determination.

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Relationship between large subject matter areas

Filters in general are covered in H03H.

Image filtering for image enhancement or restoration is covered in G06T 5/00, G06T 5/20.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filter definition or implementation for sub-band based transform
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of filtering operation specifically adapted to video compression and not necessarily of adaptive nature
Pre-processing or post-processing specifically adapted to video compression
{Selection of the subdivision of a picture into coding blocks, e.g. having a rectangular or non-rectangular shape}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of the subdivision of a picture into coding blocks, i.e. the determination of the grid of blocks covering a picture.

The selection may involve the shape, e.g. rectangular or non-rectangular, or the size of the blocks, e.g. in the standard H.264 with selection among 4x4, 4x8, 8x4, 8x8 pixel block sizes as shown in the figures below.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Segmentation or edge detection for image analysis
Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive segmentation aspects during video compression should be classified here.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Macroblock
A MPEG coding unit including 16 x 16 pixels subdivided into four 8 x 8 blocks.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "block", "sub-block" and "tile" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the word "tile" is often used in the context of the standard JPEG 2000 and of transform coding of static images.

{Selection from a plurality of transforms or standards, e.g. selection between discrete cosine transform [DCT] and subband or selection between H.263 and H.264}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection from a plurality of alternative compression algorithms within a video compressor, e.g. selection among discrete cosine transform [DCT] and subband transform, or the selection from a plurality of video compression standards, e.g. selection among H.263 and H.264, selection among MPEG-2 and MPEG-4.

media14.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Video compression based on transform coding
Special coding techniques and algorithms
Special rules of classification within this group

The identification of each alternative compression algorithms is made by assigning the relevant subgroups of H04N 19/00775 or H04N 19/00945.

{Selection of transform size, e.g. 8x8 or 2x4x8 DCT, or subband transforms of varying structure or type}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The selection of transform size within the same predetermined transform algorithm, e.g. 4x4 or 8x8 DCT as in the figure below, or 8x8 or 2x4x8 DCT for frame-based and for field-based block compression, respectively, or sub-band transforms of varying hierarchical structure or type.

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{Quantisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein specific details of a controlled quantiser is provided, e.g. frame type or input video characteristics controlling the quantiser, adaptive quantisation based on output or transmission buffer fullness, choice between fine or coarse quantisation.

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Special rules of classification within this group

Quantisation is omnipresent in video compression. The mere mentioning of quantisation (e.g., figures, claims) should not be classified here.

Therefore, this subgroup should be assigned together with relevant subgroups of H04N 19/00133, H04N 19/00254, H04N 19/00345 when special adaptivity details are disclosed, although without special mathematical details about the quantisation algorithm itself.

Mathematical details are classified in H04N 19/00096.

{characterized by details about quantisation, normalisation or weighting functions, e.g. normalisation parameters or matrices, variable uniform quantisers or weighting matrices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special algorithms used for quantisation in video compression, e.g. the choice of normalisation parameters or matrices, details of variable uniform quantisers or the calculation of quantisation weighting matrices.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group should be assigned particularly together with relevant subgroups of H04N 19/00133, H04N 19/00254, H04N 19/00345 when special adaptivity details are disclosed together with the specification of technical details for the quantisation algorithm.

{Prioritisation of hardware or computational resources}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of resource allocation or assignment (e.g. CPU time, memory, allocation of digital processing units, workload distribution among processors), e.g. skipping of encoding or decoding steps or switching off computing or hardware units, like e.g. motion estimation/compensation or transform units.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filtering control
Sampling, masking or truncation of coding units
Availability of hardware or computational resources
Implementation details or hardware specific for video compression
Special rules of classification within this group

This group has a complementary scope with respect to the corresponding subgroup H04N 19/00206, where the available assigned resources control the encoding operation.

{Scanning of coding units, e.g. zig-zag scan of transform coefficients}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The adaptation of the scanning of coding units, e.g. the choice of a zig-zag scan of transform coefficients in a transform compressor, as in the figure, or the use of flexible macroblock ordering [FMO].

media18.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Definition of the coding unit
Video coding involving rearrangement of data among different coding units
Techniques for FMO
Special rules of classification within this group

This group has to be assigned necessarily in conjunction with at least one subgroup of H04N 19/00254, necessary to define the coding units that are scanned.

{Adaptive entropy coding, e.g. adaptive variable length coding, Huffman or arithmetic coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the entropy coding is adapted, e.g. frame type determining the coding table, CABAC, CAVLC, choosing among different VLC methods for coding as in the figure.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conversion to or from variable length codes in general
Conversion to or from run-length codes in general
Entropy coding for video compression
Run-length coding for video compression
Special rules of classification within this group

The relevant groups of H04N 19/00945 have also to be assigned, if the entropy coding per se is non-trivial.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

VLC
Variable Length Coding
CABAC
Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding
CAVLC
Context-Adaptive Variable Length Coding
{Sampling, masking or truncation of coding units, e.g. adaptive resampling, frame skipping, frame interpolation or high frequency transform coefficient masking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adaptive sampling, masking or truncation of coding units, e.g. adaptive resampling, frame skipping, frame interpolation or high frequency transform coefficient masking, i.e. suppression or setting to zero, macroblock skipping, as in the figure.

media20.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptive prioritisation of hardware or computational resources
Definition of the coding unit
Temporal sampling or interpolation for video coding
Spatial sampling or interpolation for video coding
Special rules of classification within this group

This group has to be assigned necessarily in conjunction with at least one subgroup of H04N 19/00254, necessary to define the coding units that are skipped or truncated.

{characterised by an element, parameter or criterion affecting, i.e. controlling, the adaptive coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The definition of an element, a parameter or criteria, which exercises the control of an adapted element or selection as classified in H04N 19/00012 in the adaptive coding, wherein element is to be understood as a functional block or process in the digital video compressor or decompressor.

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{Incoming video signal characteristics or properties}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The characteristics or properties of the images forming the incoming video not covered in the subgroups, e.g. the display size.

{Measure of motion inside a coding unit, e.g. average field, frame or block difference}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measure of motion inside a coding unit, e.g. measure of temporal prediction errors, such as average difference calculated on a field, on a frame or on a block in two different time instants.

media22.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Analysis of motion in general
Motion estimation or compensation for video compression
{using motion vectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The measure of motion performed by explicitly using motion vectors (e.g magnitude, direction, variance, reliability measures).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Analysis of motion in general
Motion estimation or compensation for video compression
{Measure of coding unit complexity, e.g. activity measure or edge presence estimation (H04N 19/00169 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The measure of coding unit complexity, e.g. by means of an activity measure, as in the figure below by means e.g. of flatness detection or energy of transform coefficients, by means of the detection of edge presence or by means of a measure of spatial prediction error.

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Edge detection in general
Measure of complexity defined by data rate or code amount at the encoder output
{Detection of scene cut or change}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The adaptive control of the video compression in response to detected scene cut or change.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Scene change detection in television systems
Methods for scene cut or change detection in conjunction with video coding or compression
{Data rate or code amount at the encoder output}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The adaptive control of video compression by using information about the data rate or code amount at the encoder output.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptation of the assignment of code volume to a coding unit before coding
{related to rate-distortion ( rate-distortion as a criterion for motion estimation H04N 19/00672) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The adaptation of encoding as a function of data rate or code amount determined according to rate-distortion criteria, e.g. as a function of a cost function.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rate-distortion as a criterion for motion estimation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaption based on objective or estimated subjective visual quality after decoding
Adaption obtained by applying rate-distortion criteria using Lagrange multiplier based optimisation
H04N19/00A4A
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is often relevant in combination with the subgroup H04N 19/00345.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Cost function
A function of target parameters, as output rate and quality measurement after decoding (e.g. distortion).
{with estimation of the code amount by means of a model, e.g. mathematical model or statistical model}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The estimation of the code amount by means of a model, e.g. a mathematical model or a statistical model, as done in the MPEG-2 Test Model 5 (TM5), cf.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaption obtained by applying methods for calculating encoding parameters
H04N19/00A4C
{with measurement and check of actual compressed data size at the memory before deciding storage at the transmission buffer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The estimation of the code amount by off-line encoding, i.e. encoding without storing at the transmission buffer, e.g. by means of a separate encoder as in the figure below, and counting of the actual data size of the compressed elementary stream.

The estimation covered by the present subgroup is opposed to the modelling covered by H04N 19/00181.

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{with measurement of buffer fullness}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the video coding by using the measurement of fullness in the transmission buffer, where the buffer may be implicit, as e.g. in the cases of a storage medium, a memory, a physical channel having a certain bit capacity.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Management of transmitter-side video buffer
{Objective or estimated subjective visual quality after decoding, e.g. measurement of distortion ( use of rate-distortion criteria H04N 19/00175) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of video coding by means of quality after decoding, as measured, e.g. by means of distortion measurement, or as estimated by means of subjective tests.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Quality measurement of images in general is covered in G06T 7/00.

Quality measurement of video in the context of diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems is covered by H04N 17/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of rate-distortion criteria
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Inspection of images, e.g. flaw detection
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should be assigned, when quality is not particularly linked to output bit-rate.

{Availability of hardware or computational resources, e.g. encoding based on power-saving criteria}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of video coding in dependence of the availability of hardware or computational resources, e.g. encoding based on power-saving criteria, time constrained encoding.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Allocation or assignment of hardware or computational resources.
Implementation details or hardware specific for video compression
Special rules of classification within this group

This group has a complementary scope with respect to the corresponding subgroup H04N 19/00103, covering the allocation or assignment of hardware or computational resources.

{Assigned coding mode, i.e. the coding mode is predefined or preselected to be further used for selection of another element or parameter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of video coding as a function of the coding mode assigned to the unit to be coded, i.e. the coding mode of the unit to be coded is predefined or preselected.

The group H04N 19/00218 covers the case that the coding mode is the prediction type used for the unit to be coded, e.g. intra, inter or bidirectional, as in the figure below.

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The group H04N 19/00224 covers the case that the assigned coding mode is suitable for a given display mode, e.g. for interlaced or progressive display mode, as in the figure below.

The head group H04N 19/00212 covers all other cases.

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Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not the same as the corresponding group H04N 19/00018, covering details of adapting the selection of the coding mode.

{User input}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the video encoding by means of the input from a user, e.g. from a user interface as in the figure.

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{Feedback from the receiver or from the transmission channel}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of encoding the elementary video stream as a function of the feedback from the client/receiver or from the transmission channel, as e.g. in the figure below.

The subgroup H04N 19/00242 covers in particular the case that the feedback consists of a measure of transmission errors, e.g. by means of a bit- or packet-error-rate measure, and the subgroup H04N 19/00236 covers all remaining cases.

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Relationship between large subject matter areas

The control of encoding as a function of the feedback from the receiver or from the transmission channel in a general telecommunication context is covered in H04L and H04W.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control signalling related to video distribution between receiver, transmitter and network components
Transmission of management data between client and server
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is often assigned in combination with the group H04N 19/00545.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

BER
Bit Error Rate
PER
Packet Error Rate
{Position within a video image, e.g. region of interest [ROI]}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the video encoding as a function of a coding unit's position within a video image, e.g. the adoption of coding parameters adapted to a region of interest, different coding of foreground and of background, different coding at the image centre and at the image borders.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image segmentation, e.g. for determination of region of interest
Image region as coding unit
Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive video coding depends generally indirectly on the position within an image, e.g. coding parameters may be varied across coding units, e.g. blocks.

The present subgroup covers the case when the spatial position within the image as criterion is explicitly and directly defined, as in the examples indicated above.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ROI
Region Of Interest
{characterised by the structural or semantic portion of the video signal being the object or the subject of the adaptive control during the coding, i.e. the coding unit (H04N 19/00012 , H04N 19/00133 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The definition of the portion of the video signal that undergoes the adaptive control, defined as the coding unit.

Further details of subgroups

The subgroups of H04N 19/00254, cf. the list below, define explicitly which coding units are meant and H04N 19/00254 is residual with respect to its subgroups.

the unit being an image region, e.g. object
where the region is a picture, frame or field
where the region is a slice, e.g. line of blocks or group of blocks
where the region is a block or a macroblock
the unit being a group-of-pictures [GOP]
the unit being a scene or shot
the unit being a set of transform coefficients
the unit being a pixel, e.g. luminance value
the unit being bits, e.g. of the compressed video stream
the unit being a colour or chrominance component
the unit being a scalable video layer
the unit being a video data packet, e.g. a network abstraction layer [NAL] unit
the unit relating to sub-band structure, e.g. hierarchical level, directional tree, e.g. low-high [LH], high-low [HL], high-high [HH]
the unit being a variable length codeword
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Element, parameter or selection affected by the adaptive coding
Element, parameter or criterion affecting the adaptive coding
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image segmentation, e.g. for determination of region of interest
Methods for scene cut or change detection in conjunction with video coding or compression
Hierarchical and scalability techniques
Assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream; assembling of a packetised elementary stream
Multiplex stream processing at transmitter side
Multiplex stream processing at receiver side
Sub-band based transform coding
Adaptive entropy coding
Details of entropy coding for video coding
Special rules of classification within this group

The present group and its subgroups must only be assigned, if a coding unit is explicitly disclosed with reference to the definition of adaptive coding method or apparatus.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
(Video) Object
MPEG-4 object, i.e. a region of the image with arbitrary shape
Slice
A set of blocks within an image, e.g. a line of blocks.
Block
A rectangular matrix of pixels.
Macroblock
MPEG coding unit formed by four blocks arranged as a 2 x 2 matrix.
Group of picture
MPEG coding unit formed by a set of consecutive pictures.
(Scalable) Layer
Coding unit of a scalable encoded video elementary stream
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

GOB
Group of Blocks
GOP
Group of Pictures
GOF
Group of Frames
FMO
H.264 Flexible Macroblock Ordering

In patent documents the following expressions "slice" and "GOB" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following words,"block" and "tile" are often used as synonyms.

{characterised by a formulation applied to the adaptation, e.g. adaptation method or type}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special mathematical or algorithmic formulations for the methods or tools used for video coding adaptation.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group is residual with respect to its subgroups.

{using Lagrange multiplier based optimisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The formulation in terms of optimisation based on Lagrange multiplier techniques, as e.g. in the cost function defined as C = R + λ D, where R is the output rate and D is the distortion after decoding.

{the formulation being iterative or recursive}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Iterative algorithm and techniques applied to the adaptation of video coding.

The special case of two pass or two-step algorithms are covered by H04N 19/00363.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cascading of steps or functional blocks for performing a single operation, e.g. filtering
{adapted to the computation of encoding parameters, e.g. by averaging previously computed encoding parameters (H04N 19/00684 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the mathematical laws or algorithms used for computation of encoding parameters (like e.g. quantisation step, coding mode), e.g. estimating a current encoding parameter by averaging previously computed encoding parameters, deriving the coding mode for the current coding unit from the coding mode of the neighbouring coding units.

Further details of subgroups

The subgroup H04N 19/00375 covers the determination of the initial value of an encoding parameter, e.g. of a quantisation step or of a target bit rate.

The subgroup H04N 19/00381 covers details of smoothing of a sequence of encoding parameters, e.g. by averaging, by choice of the maximum, minimum or median value, e.g. determining the quantisation step in the current coding block as an average of the steps in the surrounding blocks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Formulations for initializing motion vector search
Formulations for processing of calculated motion vectors
{using video object coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of object-based video coding, as e.g. according to the standard MPEG-4.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Details of shape coding and image coding based on geometric models (e.g. wireframe models, coding details of synthetic picture components) are covered by G06T 9/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Contour coding
Hierarchical and scalability techniques (cf. H04N 19/00418)
Decomposing video signals into objects
Generating or manipulating the scene composition of objects
Rendering scenes according to scene graphs
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
(Video) Object
MPEG-4 object, i.e. a region of the image with arbitrary shape
Alpha-plane
A discrete bitmap (generally binary) defining the part of a frame constituting a given object, e.g. in terms of the position of the pixels belonging to the object or in terms of the position of the blocks covering the object.
Sprite
A unified background image derived by compositing the backgrounds of the single frames of a video sequence, e.g. having a camera motion throughout a video segment (within e.g. a scene, a shot, a GOP, a sequence). It may be static or dynamic.
Scene description coding
The coded representation of the spatiotemporal positioning of audio-visual objects as well as their behaviour in response to interaction, as e.g. in the standard MPEG-4 Part 11.
Synthetic/natural hybrid coding
Part of the MPEG-4 standard relating to coding facial animation and mesh compression.
Synthetic picture component
A picture component that is coded by geometric modelling with synthesizing at reconstruction (e.g. avatar).
Natural picture component
A picture component that is coded "as it stands" without geometric modelling.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

BIFS
BInary Format for Scenes
SNHC
Synthetic/Natural Hybrid Coding
VOL
Video Object Layer
VOP
Video Object Plane

In patent documents the following expressions/words "object", "video object" and "video object plane (VOP)" are often used as synonyms.

{using hierarchical techniques, e.g. scalability (H04N 19/00818 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of video coding, where the elementary video stream is coded so that it contains a hierarchy of different compressed representations of the same video sequence, wherein each representation may correspond e.g. to a different video resolution or video format. Layered coding is also covered here.

The hierarchy may be incremental, as e.g. in scalable video coding (like the extension of the standard H.264 called Scalable Video Coding [SVC]).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sub-band based transform coding
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Decomposing video signals into layers at the transmitter side
Controlling the complexity of the video stream at the transmitter side, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream
Decomposing video signals into layers at the receiver side
Controlling the complexity of the video stream at the receiver side, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Temporal scalability
Scalability in terms of frame rate, meaning that a given bit stream includes different sub-streams each with a different frame rate or sub-streams that, when combined, increase the output frame rate.
Spatial scalability
Scalability in terms of spatial video sampling rate or resolution (e.g. quantisation step size, pixel bit depth), meaning that a given bit stream includes different sub-streams each with a different frame size or resolution or sub-streams that, when combined, increase the output frame size or resolution.
{in the temporal domain}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Performing hierarchical or layered coding by acting on temporal resolution, e.g. temporal scalability.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Temporal sub- or re-sampling or interpolation for video coding
{in the spatial domain}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Performing hierarchical or layered coding by acting on spatial resolution, e.g. spatial scalability.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spatial sub- or re-sampling or interpolation for video coding
{with arrangements to assign different transmission priorities to video input data or to video coded data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The preliminary organisation of the video elementary stream with assignment of different priorities or importance to data to be further transmitted, e.g. for transmission or dropping.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protocols for client-server architecture
Error resilience techniques for digital video coding involving data partitioning
Multimode transmission, e.g. transmitting content basic layer and enhancement layers over different transmission paths or with different error corrections
{using video transcoding, i.e. partial or full decoding of a coded input stream and re-encoding of the decoded output stream}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transcoding of the elementary video stream at the level of digital video coding, i.e. partial or full decoding of a coded input stream and re-encoding of the decoded output stream, e.g. cf. EP2091019 (transcoder operation 73, 76)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Video standard conversion at the pixel level, e.g. for analog television
Reformatting video signals for video conference systems
Processing of video elementary streams at a server involving reformatting operations of video signals
Processing of video elementary streams at a client device involving reformatting operations of video signals
Communication protocols, e.g. transcoding therefor
Transcoder arrangements for base stations in mobile radio systems
H04Q7/302
General computer file format conversion
Distillation of HTML documents for optimising th visualization of content
{characterised by implementation details or hardware specific for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation, memory arrangements, parallel processing or hardware for motion estimation or compensation (H04N 19/00824 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Implementation details or hardware specific for elementary video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation, memory arrangements, parallel processing or hardware for motion estimation or compensation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filter definition or implementation details for defining sub-band transforms
Software or hardware implementations of Fourier, Walsh or analogous domain transformations
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Binary arithmetic
Execution of machine instructions
Pipelines
Resource allocation
Transfer of information, buses
Digital computing
Complex mathematical operations
General purpose image data processing, e.g. hardware architectures therefor
Decoder specific implementations
Special rules of classification within this group

Implementation details or hardware specific for decompression require assignment of the subgroup H04N 19/00533 as well.

{involving memory arrangements (H04N 19/00515 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of memory arrangements or management specifically dedicated to video compression.

The subgroup H04N 19/0049 and its subgroups cover details of memory downsizing techniques.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Techniques for memory access in motion estimation or compensation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Accessing, addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures in general
Memory management for general purpose image data processing
Control arrangements or circuits for visual indicators common to cathode-ray tube indicators and other visual indicators, e.g. display memories
Static storage for general purpose data processing, e.g. memories, shift registers
Special rules of classification within this group

Details of the techniques used for the recompression is covered by the subgroup H04N 19/00503.

{Decoders specifically adapted therefor, e.g. video decoders which are asymmetric with the encoder}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video decoders not symmetric with the corresponding encoders, i.e. decoding means or steps are not a mere reversal of the corresponding encoding means or steps, or specific hardware or software implementations details for the video decoder.

Further details of subgroups

The subgroup H04N 19/00539 covers details of performing at the decoder the compensation of the decoding error deriving from inverse transform mismatch, e.g. Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform [IDCT] mismatch due to the digital implementation of the inverse transform, which is not the exact mathematical inverse transform.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Complex mathematical operations
Implementation details or hardware specific for video encoding and decoding
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is only assigned, when a decoder is disclosed that is not symmetric with its corresponding encoder or when specific hardware or software implementations details are provided for the decoder.

Implementations details require entries also in the subgroups of H04N 19/00478.

{for transmitting additional information in the video signal during the compression process, e.g. the additional information being encoding parameters (H04N 19/0069 , H04N 19/00872 , H04N 19/00884 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein additional information is provided and transmitted within the compressed video signal, e.g. flag information or ancillary encoding information without details of syntax related data structure, watermarking.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motion vector coding and transmission
Insertion of resynchronisation markers into the bitstream
Syntax aspects related to video coding
Special rules of classification within this group

Encoding parameters are generally included for transmission in the video elementary stream.

This group and its subgroups should be assigned if special details are provided about their insertion for transmission in the stream, e.g. compression is covered by H04N 19/00551.

{characterised by embedding the information to be invisible}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the embedding of additional information during the coding process, which is embedded into the image part or into the auxiliary information of the elementary video bit stream in order to be invisible, e.g. by watermarking.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Invisibly embedding information at the level of the packetised stream is covered in H04N 21/00.

Invisibly embedding information in static images is covered in H04N 1/00.

Invisibly embedding information in video sequences and images in general and not within the process of digital video coding is covered in G06T 1/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generation or processing of content or additional data for video distribution by content creator independently of the distribution process; Content for video distribution per se
Generation of protective data involving watermarking as additional data for video distribution
Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information in scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like
General purpose image watermarking
Special rules of classification within this group

The precedence rules of the higher subgroup H04N 19/00545 do not apply to the present subgroup.

{using compressed domain processing techniques other than decoding, e.g. modification of transform coefficients, of VLC data or of run-length data ( motion estimation in a transform domain H04N 19/00636 ; Processing of decoded motion vectors H04N 19/00684) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of compressed domain processing techniques other than decoding, e.g. modification of transform coefficients, of VLC data or of run-length data, filtering in the compressed domain, cf. US20070189608 (see par [0009]: 8x8 DCT coefficients are modified to embed hidden data), WO2010149554

(because of the representation Y=AX - page 5, lines 20-27: an image is represented as vector by A which is a matrix of DCT atoms -, modification of A is at DCT level), EP2091019 (see block 75 of Figure 7 reproduced below).

media32.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motion estimation in a transform domain
Processing of decoded motion vectors
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should not be used when the compressed domain technique is covered by its more specific subgroups.

{using predictive coding (H04N 19/00781 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Predictive digital video coding techniques not otherwise provided in other subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Predictive coding used in combination with transform coding
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is a residual subgroup and should be used only when no more specific subgroups apply.

{involving temporal prediction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Predictive digital video coding techniques involving temporal prediction not otherwise provided in other subgroups.

Details of temporal prediction are classified here.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adaptive coding with adaptive selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding
Adaptive coding with adaptive selection among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes
{using conditional replenishment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Temporal predictive coding using conditional replenishment, i.e. transmitting only a portion of a picture, in which a change has been detected with respect to the corresponding co-located portion of the immediately previous picture.

Conditional replenishment may be seen also as motion compensated temporal predictive encoding, using only skipping or transmission with zero motion vector.

{Motion estimation or compensation therefor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein specific details of motion estimation or compensation particularly adapted to video compression are provided and is not provided otherwise for in its subgroups, e.g. specific block matching techniques.

Details of disparity estimation and compensation in stereoscopic or multi-view video coding are also covered in this group and in its subgroups.

For a synopsis of motion estimation techniques in video coding, see the figure below.

media33.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Movement detection in television systems not related to digital video coding
Conversion of standards for analogue television systems, at pixel level involving interpolation processes involving the use of motion vectors
Determining parameters from multiple pictures in general
Analysis of motion by image analysis in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Mere mention of motion estimation or compensation does not qualify for assigning the present subgroup and its indented subgroups.

Only non trivial aspects are classified.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Motion vector
A two-dimensional vector used for inter prediction that provides an offset from the coordinates in the decoded picture to the coordinates in a reference picture.
Global motion estimation
Process to estimate the part of motion in a video sequence caused by camera motion, e.g. background motion by panning or zooming.
Multiresolution motion estimation
Motion estimation performed on the same picture of a video sequence at different spatial sampling resolutions (coarse-to-fine: starting from the lowest resolution; fine-to-coarse: starting from the highest resolution).
Full-search motion estimation
Motion estimation performed by exhaustive testing of all possible motion vectors within the search window.
Multi-step motion estimation
Motion estimation using an iterative method other than full search and generally simpler and sub-optimal.
Block-matching motion estimation
Classic motion estimation based on the search of a best matching block in a reference frame.
Occlusion
A part of background or of a foreground object that is hidden in one frame and then uncovered in a following frame.
(Motion) Search window
A region in a reference frame, where the search for the block or feature best matching the current block or feature is performed.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

MV
Motion Vector
GMV
Global Motion Vector
MAE
Mean Absolute Error
MAD
Mean Absolute Difference
SAD
Sum of Absolute Differences
MSE
Mean Squared Error
CCF
Cross-Correlation Function
PDC
Pixel Difference Classification
DFD
Displaced Frame Difference

In patent documents the following expressions "reference frame" and "anchor frame" are often used as synonyms.

{Motion estimation based on rate-distortion criteria}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rate-distortion as a criterion for adaptive coding
{Processing of motion vectors, e.g. details on the further processing of determined or generated motion vectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the determined or existing motion vectors are subjected to further processing or modification, e.g. scaling of motion vectors for scalability or transcoding purposes, encoding of motion vectors, reducing or dropping of motion vectors.

Motion vector coding and predictive coding is covered in the subgroups.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processing of encoding parameters different from motion vectors
{with multiple frame prediction using more than one reference frame in a given prediction direction}
Special rules of classification within this group

B-frames are omnipresent in encoders based e.g. on the standards MPEG-1,2,4 and H.263. Long-term prediction and multiple frame prediction are also commonplace features e.g. of the standard H.264 and of its extensions.

Therefore, said subgroups should be assigned only for non trivial aspects.

The following classification table applies:

For one reference frame per direction and Bi-directional motion estimation or compensation classify in H04N 19/00721.

For more than one reference frame per direction and Uni-directional motion estimation or compensation classify in H04N 19/00715.

For more than one reference frame per direction and Bi-directional motion estimation or compensation classify in H04N 19/00715 and H04N 19/00721.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Bidirectional motion estimation and compensation
Temporal interpolation where a frame is predicted as a function both of a preceding anchor frame and of a succeeding anchor frame, e.g. by averaging.
Long-term prediction
Prediction of a frame from an anchor frame that is not the closest anchor frame preceding or succeeding the frame to be predicted, cf. figure.
media34.jpg
{involving temporal sub-sampling or interpolation, e.g. decimation or subsequent interpolation of pictures in a video sequence}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sub-sampling or interpolation in the temporal domain during digital video compression or decompression.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Video re-sampling in the framework of standard conversion in the pixel domain (e.g. analogue television) is covered in H04N 7/01.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptive sampling for adaptive digital video coding
Video compression using hierarchical techniques in the temporal domain
Conversion of standards for analogue television systems, at pixel level involving interpolation processes
{involving spatial sub-sampling or interpolation, e.g. alteration of picture size or resolution}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sub-sampling or interpolation in the spatial domain during digital video compression or decompression.

Details of sub-sampling or interpolation operations during motion estimation and compensation with sub-pixel accuracy are also covered here.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptive sampling for adaptive digital video coding
Video compression using hierarchical techniques in the spatial domain
Motion estimation with sub-pixel accuracy
Conversion of standards for analogue television systems, at pixel level involving interpolation processes
Interpolation based image scaling
{involving spatial prediction techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Digital video compression involving spatial prediction techniques, e.g. details of intra prediction.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adaptive coding with adaptive selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding
Adaptive coding with adaptive selection among a plurality of spatial predictive coding modes
{adapted to multi-view video sequence encoding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of stereoscopic or multi-view digital video coding.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Stereoscopic television systems are covered by H04N 13/00.

Stereoscopic or multi-view image processing not adapted to digital video compression is covered by G06T.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Depth recovery from multiple images in general
Disparity estimation or compensation
{using transform coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transform based digital video coding.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Transform based video processing in general is covered in G06T, in particular G06T 3/00, G06T 5/00, G06T 7/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fourier, Walsh or analogous domain transformations in general
Implementation details of DCT transforms in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Transform based digital video coding is omnipresent in digital video coding applications, because virtually all video coding standards are transform based (DCT or wavelet based).

Therefore, the group and its subgroups should be assigned when transform coding, possibly in conjunction with predictive coding, constitutes a significant non trivial detail, e.g. in combination with an entry under H04N 19/00078.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelets [EZW]
Significance based coding technique illustrated in J. M. Shapiro, "Embedded Image Coding Using Zerotrees of Wavelet Coefficients", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 41, No. 12 (1993), p. 3445-3462.
Set partitioning in hierarchical trees [SPIHT]
Significance based coding technique illustrated in A. Said, W. A. Pearlman, "A New Fast and Efficient Image Codec Based on Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees", IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3 (June 1996), p. 243–250.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DCT
Discrete Cosine Transform
KLT
Karhunen-Loève Transform
DST
Discrete Sine Transform
FFT
Fast Fourier Transform
WLT
WaveLet Transform
MCTF
Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering

In patent documents the following expressions "discrete cosine transform" and "cosine transform" are often used as synonyms.

{the transform being operated outside the prediction loop}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transform based predictive video coders of the type displayed in the figure below, i.e. where the transform is operated before or after the prediction loop.

media35.png

{characterised by filter definition or implementation details}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Implementation details or hardware specific for video compression
Implementation details of wavelet transforms in general
{using error resilience, e.g. data partitioning, resync markers or reversible VLC [RVLC]}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for error resilience in digital video coding at the level of encoding the elementary video stream.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Error resilience techniques for storage at video servers or for channel coding adapted to video distribution are covered in H04N 21/00.

Coding, decoding or code conversion for error correction in general is covered in H03M 13/00.

Preventing errors by adapting the channel coding is covered in H04L 1/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Places in relation to witch this group is residual:

Data partitioning, i.e. separation of data into packets or partitions according to importance
Unequal error protection, i.e. providing more protection according to the importance of the data
Insertion of resynchronisation markers into the bitstream
Reversible variable length codes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Channel coding of digital bit-stream for video distribution
Systems for detection or correction of transmission errors in the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Resynchronisation marker
A special Variable Length Coding binary word inserted to allow re-initialisation of VLC decoding, which is forced by the marker.
Reversible Variable Length Coding
VLC allowing backward decoding of the stream, i.e. decoding of a VLC coded binary string starting from the end to the beginning.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Resync marker
Resynchronisation marker
RVLC
Reversible Variable Length Coding
UEP
Unequal Error Protection
{characterised by syntax aspects related to video coding, e.g. in relation with compression standards}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein details about standards related coding syntax or about using the syntax in the coding process are provided, e.g. H.264 supplemental enhancement information (SEI), headers definitions, details of elementary stream parsing.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Syntax
The definition of the binary codes and values that make up a conforming elementary video bit stream.
Semantics
The definition of the meaning of the syntax and of the process flow for decoding the syntax elements to produce the digital video output.
Hypothetical reference decoder
A reference basic standard compliant decoder defined in the standard and constraining in terms of memory and CPU a standard compliant decoder.
Profile / Level
Operational level of a standard compliant decoder, which uses a predefined subset of the features defining the complete decoder according to the standard. The definition of the predefined subset falls also within the prescriptions of the standard.
{Details of filtering operation specially adapted to video compression, e.g. for pixel interpolation (H04N 19/00824 , H04N 19/00909 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein a filtering operation specifically adapted to video compression is included but not necessarily adaptive in the video compression or decompression process, with details of the filtering operation provided.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filter definition or implementation for sub-band based transform
Filtering for removal of coding artifacts
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptive filtering operation
Pre-processing or post-processing specifically adapted to video compression
Image filtering for image enhancement or restoration
Impedance networks, e.g. resonant circuits, filters in general
{involving filtering within a prediction loop}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The insertion of the filtering within a prediction loop and details of such filter. This subgroup is of relevance, only if it contributes to define non trivial details of the filtering operation as in-loop filtering.

media36.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filter definition or implementation for sub-band based transform
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptive filtering operation
Special rules of classification within this group

Subgroups H04N 19/00896 and H04N 19/00903 describe non-trivial filtering structures regardless whether the filtering is adapted in the sense of H04N 19/00066.

So, if the filtering is in-loop, it is classified in H04N 19/00896. If it is pre or post filtering, it is classified in H04N 19/00903 and in the subgroups H04N 19/00909-H04N 19/00933. If any filtering is part of an adaptive video coding process, then, H04N 19/00066 should be additionally assigned.

Examples of relevant documents are US20010036320 (Figure 5), EP0772365 (Figure 1), US20080267297 (Figure 1, cf. the figure under H04N 19/00903).

{using pre-processing or post-processing specially adapted to video compression}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the pre or post processing operation is present as a functional block but not necessarily adaptive in the video coding process, e.g. the pre or post processing is respectively performed prior to the input of, or after the output of, the video coding process.

This group is of relevance, only if the subject-matter to be classified contributes to define non trivial details of pre- or post-processing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
In-loop filtering
Special rules of classification within this group

Subgroups H04N 19/00896 and H04N 19/00903 describe non-trivial filtering structures regardless whether the filtering is adapted in the sense of H04N 19/00066.

So, if the filtering is in-loop, it is classified in H04N 19/00896. If it is pre or post filtering, it is classified in H04N 19/00903 and in the subgroups H04N 19/00909-H04N 19/00933. If any filtering is part of an adaptive video coding process, then, H04N 19/00066 should be additionally assigned.

Examples of relevant documents are US20010036320 (Figure 5), EP0772365 (Figure 1), US20080267297 (Figure 1, reproduced below).

media37.jpg

{involving reduction of coding artifacts, e.g. of blockiness}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing techniques (e.g. filtering or interpolation in the spatial or in the temporal domain) adapted to reducing artifacts caused by digital video compression, e.g. blockiness from block-based transform compression, frame freeze or jerkiness from dropping frames at compression or transmission, false contours from limited bit depth resolution.

Further details of subgroups

The subgroup H04N 19/00915 covers details of techniques suitable for reducing blockiness artifacts, where the block subdivision applied at encoding is detected in decompressed video subsequent to video decoding.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filtering or interpolation as an error concealment technique
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image enhancement and restoration in general
Circuitry for suppressing or minimising disturbance (e.g. moiré, halo) in television systems
In-loop filtering
{involving scene cut or change detection in conjunction with video compression}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for scene cut or change detection executed in combination with video compression.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image analysis in general
Circuitry for scene change detection in television systems.
Scene cut detection in adaptive video coding
{involving rearrangement of data among different coding units, e.g. shuffling, interleaving, scrambling, permutation of pixel data or permutation of transform coefficient data among different blocks}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for the rearrangement of data among different coding units at the level of a single elementary video stream within the operation of the video coder, e.g. shuffling, interleaving, scrambling, permutation of pixel data or permutation of transform coefficient data among different blocks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Analogue secrecy systems in television systems
Adaptive scanning of coding units
Processing of video elementary streams for video distribution involving video stream encryption at the transmitter side
Processing of video elementary streams involving video stream decryption
Processing of video elementary streams involving video stream encryption at the receiver side
{including methods or arrangements for detection of transmission errors at the decoder}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for detecting transmission errors at the digital video decoder and at the level of the elementary video stream.

Further details of subgroups

The subgroup H04N 19/00933 covers details of detection in combination with error concealment.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coding, decoding or code conversion for error detection or error correction in general
Decoders specifically adapted for video decompression
Methods or arrangements, for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using error resilience
Channel decoding in selective content distribution
Monitoring of downstream path of the transmission network at the receiver side
Monitoring of client processing errors or hardware failure in selective video distribution
Monitoring network process errors by the network
Detection or correction of transmission errors in systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation
{ using special coding techniques not provided for in groups H04N 19/00006 - H04N 19/00939 , e.g. vector quantisation, quad-tree, matching pursuit or fractals }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Video coding techniques for non-pixel based applications are covered in G06T 9/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using adaptive coding
Using video coding
Using hierarchical techniques, e.g. scalability
Using video transcoding
Characterised by implementation details or hardware specific for video compression or decompression
Decoders specifically adapted therefor
For transmitting additional information in the video signal during the compression process
Using compressed domain processing techniques other than decoding
Using predictive coding
Using transform coding
Using error resilience
Characterised by syntax aspects related to video coding
Details of filtering operation specifically adapted to video compression
Using pre-processing or post-processing specifically adapted to video compression
{for entropy coding, e.g. variable length coding [VLC} , arithmetic coding ( entropy coding in adaptive coding H04N 19/00121) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the entropy coding is especially adapted to video compression, e.g. specifics of table entries for fixed and variable length coding, details of MPEG Huffman coding, details of H.264 arithmetic coding.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conversion to or from variable length codes in general
Variable length coding in an adaptive video coding process
Run-length coding for video compression
Special rules of classification within this group

The group H04N 19/00121 has also to be assigned, if the entropy coding is of adaptive nature.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

VLC
Variable Length Coding
{involving run-length coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the run-length coding is especially adapted to video compression.

In run-length coding a run, i.e. a sequence of identical data values, is coded by a representation of the data value together with the length of the sequence.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conversion to or from run-length codes in general
Variable length coding in an adaptive video coding process
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

RLE
Run-Length Encoding
{Vector quantisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video compression using vector quantisation, i.e. by dividing a large set of points into groups (vectors)having approximately the same number of points closest to them and by representing each group by a single code, which is associated with its centroid point.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vector coding in general
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

VQ
Vector Quantisation
{Tree coding, e.g. quad-tree}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video compression using tree coding.

Two-dimensional tree coding is called quad-tree coding and is performed by partitioning an image or a video frame by recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions, until each region may be represented by a single colour or codeword, and coding the resulting tree data structure in which each internal node has exactly four children and each termination node (leaf) corresponds to a resulting region with the colour or codeword associated to it, cf. R. Finkel and J.L. Bentley (1974). "Quad Trees: A Data Structure for Retrieval on Composite Keys". Acta Informatica 4 (1): 1–9.

Tree coding in higher dimension is defined correspondingly (e.g. octree, performed in three-dimensions by subdivision into eight volumetric regions).

media38.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image coding using tree coding, e.g. quadtree, octree
{Matching pursuit coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video compression using matching pursuit coding, cf. G. Mallat and Z. Zhang, "Matching Pursuits with Time-Frequency Dictionaries", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, December 1993, pp. 3397–3415.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

MP
Matching Pursuit
{Adaptive-dynamic-range coding [ADRC} ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video compression using adaptive-dynamic-range coding, cf. Kondo et al., "Adaptive dynamic range coding scheme for future HDTV digital VTR", Proceedings of Signal Processing of HDTV, III. Fourth International Workshop on HDTV and Beyond, Turin, Italy, 4-6 Sept. 1991, p. 43-50 (XP000379937) and cf. US5444487 (Kondo et al.), Aug. 1995 (see figure below).

media39.jpg

Special rules of classification within this group

The "adaptive" in the name of the technique is not per se directly related with the adaptivity defined in H04N 19/00006 and subgroups.

However, the subgroups of H04N 19/00006 should be assigned when necessary.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ADRC
Adaptive-Dynamic-Range Coding
{using noise or error feedback, e.g. quantisation noise feedback}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The correction of the error signal to be compressed by using a function of the detected noise or quantisation error, as in the figure.

media40.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details about quantisation, normalisation or weighting functions
{involving fractal coding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lossy video compression using fractal algorithms, as described in Y. Fisher, D. N. Rogovin and T.-P. J. Shen, "Fractal (Self-VQ) Encoding of Video Sequences", Proc. of the Conference on Visual Communications and Image Processing '94, Chicago, IL, USA, 25-29 Sept. 1994, SPIE, vol. 2308, p. 1359-1370 (1994).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods for coding digital video signals using vector quantisation
Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand] ( broadcast communication H04H ; arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems for communication control or processing being characterised by a protocol H04L 29/06 ; { broadcast or conference over packet-switching networks H04L 12/18 , } real-time bi-directional transmission of motion video data H04N 7/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Interactive video distribution processes, systems, or elements thereof, which are characterised by point-to-multipoint system configurations, and which are mainly used for motion video data unidirectional distribution or delivery resulting from interactions between systems operators, e.g. access or service providers, or users e.g. subscribers, and system elements
  • Such systems include dedicated communication systems, such as television distribution systems, which primarily distribute or deliver motion video data in the manner indicated, which may, in addition, provide a framework for further, diverse data communications or services in either unidirectional or bi-directional form. However, video will occupy most of the downlink bandwidth in the distribution process.
  • Typically, system operators interface with transmitter-side elements or users’ interface with receiver-side elements in order to facilitate, through interaction with such elements, the dynamic control of data processing or data flow at various points in the system. This interaction is typically occasional or intermittent in nature.
  • Processes, systems or elements thereof specially adapted to the generation, distribution and processing of data, which is either associated with video content, e.g. metadata, ratings, or related to the user or his environment and which has been actively or passively gathered. This data is either used to facilitate interaction or to alter or target the content.
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • H04N 21/00 is an application place for a large number of IT technologies, which are covered by the corresponding functional places
  • Video servers and clients use internally specific computing techniques. Corresponding techniques used in general computing are found in G06F. This concerns data storage, software architectures, error detection or correction, monitoring, video retrieval, browsing, Internet browsing, computer security, billing or advertising
  • Video servers and clients use specific telecommunication techniques for the video distribution process. Corresponding techniques used in generic telecommunication networks are found in subclasses H04B, H04H, H04L, H04W. This concerns monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers, synchronisation in time-division multiplex, broadcast or multicast, maintenance, administration, testing, data processing in data switching networks, home networks, real-time data network services, data network security, applications for data network, wireless networks per se.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Storage management
Software architectures; Program control
Error detection or correction; Monitoring
Video retrieval; Retrieval from Internet
Computer security
Billing; Advertising
Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers
Broadcast communication
Synchronisation in time-division multiplex
Broadcast or multicast in data switching networks
Maintenance or administration in data switching networks
Data processing in data switching networks
Message switching systems
Real-time data network services
Data network security
Applications for data network services
Real-time bi-directional transmission of motion video data
Wireless networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications
Resetting in general
Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application
Power management in computer systems
Input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection
G06F03/01B8
Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces
RAID arrays per se
Interfaces to printers
Digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays
Addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures
Prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures
Printing data
Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions
Methods or arrangements for recognising movements or behaviour
Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts
Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes
Computer systems using learning methods
Banking in general
Image watermarking in general
Image enhancement or restoration in general
Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal
Details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes
Details of audio signal transcoding
Arrangements for data linking, networking or transporting, or for controlling an end to end session in a satellite broadcast system
Arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems
Allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems
Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding
ARQ protocols
Charging arrangements in data networks
Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line
Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter
Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock
Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation
Key distribution for secret or secure communication
Key distribution for secret or secure communication, using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server
Arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system
Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television receivers
Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end
Television picture signal circuitry for Scene change detection
Reproduction of recorded television signals
Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver
Television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate
Conversion of standards in analog television systems
Adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems
Signal processing in analog two-way television systems
Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation using bandwidth reduction involving transcoding
Reproduction of recorded television signals
Special rules of classification within this group
  • According to IPC rules, the full disclosure of the document is considered for classification. However classification should be limited to:

- Features providing a contribution to the invention or

- Non-claimed features, which clearly stand out from what is well known in this field and are sufficiently disclosed (thus excludes features appearing only in a list of possible alternatives, e.g. the video client being a TV receiver, Set-Top-Box, PC, mobile phone, ..)

  • The scheme uses multi-dimensional classification, allowing to allocate symbols to describe a system. A short document focussing solely on one specific aspect may receive 1 or 2 symbols whereas a lengthy document with a very complex system architecture and a lot of non-trivial non-claimed features may receive 10-12 symbols
  • When a whole system is disclosed its structural and functional aspects should be described according to their location in the video distribution chain (entity model):

H04N21/2x:

for details of servers or processes related to the reception of the content from the content provider or related to the distribution of content to clients. Network interfaces are included but not the communication aspects with clients

H04N21/4x:

for structural details of client devices or processes related among others to the processing, storing or displaying of the received content as well as user interfaces for accessing video services

H04N21/6x:

for the nature of the downlink / uplink or the exchange of control signals or data between clients, servers, network

H04N21/8x:

for specific multimedia content or processes taking place before distribution (usually by the content provider)

  • And independently according to their appropriate layer:

H04N21/x[1-2]:

System architecture and topology

H04N21/x[3-4]:

Functional and application aspects related to bit-stream processing or elementary operations

H04N21/x[5-6]:

Functional and application aspects related to system management

H04N21/x[7-8]:

Services and functionalities offered to the end-user

  • The classification scheme has thus a matrix structure and symbols taken from its different cells allow to classify the relevant aspects of a document as seen above.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Additional data
designates still pictures, textual, graphical or executable data such as software. It is used to convey supplemental information and can be generated prior to or during the distribution process itself, e.g. metadata, keys.
Content
designates video or audio streams, which may be combined with additional data. Video data will always be present and occupy most of the downlink bandwidth in the distribution process
Server
designates an apparatus designed for adapting the content received from the content provider to the distribution network. It also manages the distribution to client devices or intermediate components over a network. Further servers may also be present for gathering or generating additional data, e.g. rights management server
Additional data server
designates a server, which sole purpose is the distribution or management of additional data. It is not in charge of the distribution of video or audio data
Client
designates an apparatus such as a TV receiver, a set-top-box, a PC-TV, a mobile appliance (e.g. mobile phone or receiver in a vehicle), for receiving video, audio and possibly additional data from one or several servers or intermediate components via a network for further processing, storing or displaying. It can also transmit this data on a home-based local network to further devices, e.g. a home server transmitting video to PCs and set-top-boxes within a home.
Local network
pertains to a restricted area, e.g. a home or a vehicle, and designates the link between a client and its peripheral devices
Network
is to be distinguished from "local network": "network" designates the link between the server and the clients, or between the server and the intermediate components, or between the intermediate components and the clients, or between remotely located clients
Distribution
encompasses broadcasting, multicasting and unicasting techniques for transmitting content from one or more sources to one or more receiving stations. The distribution follows a request by a receiving station to the source, e.g. VOD or from a customization of the content by the source, e.g. targeting advertisements to a demographic group in a unidirectional or bidirectional system. Additionally, distribution encompasses techniques where the client acts as a source and another client acts as a receiving station, e.g. a peer-to-peer system for sharing video among client devices
End-user
designates a physical person, e.g. a TV viewer, who consumes the content using the client device. He is the final recipient of the content distributed by the server
Interaction
covers actions occurring between or among two or more objects that have an effect upon one another, wherein objects comprise users, system operators, system elements, or content. The user may interact with content locally at the client device, e.g. for requesting additional data stored within the client device. The user may interact with content remotely through a server e.g. for VOD playback control or for uploading video to a server. The client device may interact with the content e.g. selecting content based upon the user profile. The client device may interact with a server using a return channel, e.g. for authenticating client or uploading client hardware capabilities. The server may interact with a client device, e.g. to force a client to tune to an advertisement channel
Upstream
designates the direction of data flow towards the source, e.g. a server receiving a request via a mobile phone network
Downstream
designates the direction of data flow towards a client, e.g. a client receiving data originating from a server
Elementary stream
An elementary stream (ES) as defined by the MPEG communication protocol designates the output of an audio or video encoder
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

VOD
Video On Demand
SI
Service Information
IP
Internet Protocol
OS
Operating System
PCR
Program Clock References
STB
Set-top-box
PC
Personal Computer
PVR
Personal Video Recorder
GPS
Global Positioning System
ECM
Entitlement Control Message
EMM
Entitlement Management Message
ROI
Region Of Interest
PIN
Personal identification number
DSM-CC
Digital Storage Media - Command and Control Protocol
RTP
Real-time Transport Protocol
UMID
Unique Material Identifier
MHEG
Hypermedia information coding Expert Group
XML
eXtensible Markup Language
{Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising methods and components in the main broadcast server, headend, video-on-demand server, or server associated with the headend/video-on-demand server, which includes services, management and operations performed on the bitstream for distribution to client devices or an intermediate component over a network. The server adapts the content received from the content provider to the distribution network and only provides a network interface. Addressing issues and the exchange of control signals with the clients or the network are placed by definition in the T-model. The first layer of this subgroup pertains to the physical description of the server, e.g. its internal components, the sources of the content. The server may consist of a single physical entity or of a plurality of interconnected sub-servers. The second layer is directed to elementary specialized functions such as the storage and retrieval of the content, the processing of the elementary multimedia streams, the multiplexing thereof, the insertion of additional data, the processing of the data at the downstream and upstream network interfaces (e.g. channel coding, network adaptation, handling of clients requests), the monitoring of internal processes, e.g. server load, or of network interfaces, e.g. downstream bandwidth. The third layer describes the management of the content and of the system, such as client device or user management, scheduling issues e.g. according to bandwidth or billing policies, creation of virtual channels, management of services not directly linked to the distribution of multimedia content, e.g. billing, shopping, rights. The last layer is directed to data services directly accessible by the user, such as hosting of private data. The subgroup is directed to documents related to the insertion of server related data into a signal, such as time information inserted into EPG information. Raw multimedia data per se, is placed in H04N 21/80. The subgroup is directed to documents related to server functions, such as transmitting data to the user however, server characteristics initiated or performed on behalf of a user request is placed in the H04N 21/60. Examples of documents placed in the S-model (1) This subgroup is directed towards a server, which could be the source of additional information related to the World Wide Web. (2) This subgroup is directed towards alteration of the scene composition in regards to video objects (e.g. MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 objects). (3) This subgroup is directed towards multiplexing of video and audio streams for transmission. (4) This subgroup is directed towards the distribution of video data throughout a dwelling where the user is unaware of other users (e.g. a Hotel, Airplane or Train). Systems that provide video distribution within a dwelling where the user is aware of other users (e.g. a home gateway) is classified elsewhere. (5) This subgroup is directed to local storage built into (or next to) the server (H04N 21/218) and placement of the data onto the local storage device (H04N 21/231) (note: this is typically used in a VOD environment). Systems which are concerned about the specific details of storage or recording of video data, where the claimed invention is directed to how the video is stored or recorded (e.g. placement of the recording heads within a local storage device on a server), are classified elsewhere. (6) The subgroup is directed to documents related to the insertion of server related data into a signal, such as time information inserted into EPG information.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Generation of the timestamps used for synchronization purposes
Streaming audio/video via internet
URLs sent in the video signal
{Server components or server architectures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical description of the multimedia server. As most of the components are always present (e.g. modulator, memory), a symbol should be allocated only if one of the component has a critical function in the invention. It should be further noted, that most of the components have already an entry in other technical fields and that for example the circuitry of a modulator is not part of this model. The server is used to distribute the content in a very limited geographical area, such as a single building. It is localized in the same building. It can be for example a hotel or hospital. The server and clients are localized in a movable object, such as an aircraft, a train or a bus.

{Specialised server platform, e.g. server located in an airplane, hotel, hospital ( arrangements specially adapted for local area broadcast systems H04H 20/61) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Servers been specially adapted to systems located in a confined environment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements specially adapted for local area broadcast systems
[located in a single building, e.g. hotel, hospital or museum ( arrangements specially adapted for plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63 ; adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems H04N 7/106) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server is used to distribute the content in a very limited geographical area, such as a single building. It is localized in the same building. It can be for example a hotel, multiple dwelling units, hospital or museum, movie theater if serving different projection rooms.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB2411329

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements specially adapted for plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems
Adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems
[located in mass transportation means, e.g. aircraft, train or bus ( flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications B64D 11/0015 ; arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems H04H 20/62 ; moving wireless networks H04W 84/005) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server and clients are localized in a movable object, such as an aircraft, a train or a bus.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1903800

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications
Arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems
Moving wireless networks
[Source of audio or video content, e.g. local disk arrays ( details of retrieval in video databases G06F17/30M5) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source, from which the multimedia server accesses the multimedia content.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of retrieval in video databases
G06F17/30M5
[enabling multiple viewpoints, e.g. using a plurality of cameras]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • The same scene shot by different cameras under different angles.
  • Panoramic video.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB2355137

[comprising remotely distributed storage units, e.g. when movies are replicated over a plurality of video servers ( distributed storage of data in a network H04L 29/08549) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source located remotely, like in other video servers, when all available movies are distributed over a plurality of video servers of same importance.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0158163

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Distributed storage of data in a network
Systems involving a hierarchy between servers
[comprising local storage units]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The video source is built into the server or next to it. It is typical for a VOD server. Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2003229684

[involving memory arrays, e.g. RAID disk arrays ( RAID arrays per se G06F 3/0689 ; use of parity to protect data in RAID systems G06F 11/1008) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Videos stored on disk arrays.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US6587640

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
RAID arrays per se
Use of parity to protect data in RAID systems
[involving removable storage units, e.g. tertiary storage such as magnetic tapes or optical disks]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Videos retrieved from magnetic or optical tapes.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO9935562, XP001159230

[Cache memory ( caches in web servers or browsers G06F 17/30902 ; intermediate storage and caching in data networks H04L 29/08801) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical aspects of the cache.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1315091

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Caching operation on the server side
Caches in web servers or browsers
Intermediate storage and caching in data networks
[Live feed]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Live feeds from cameras, or satellite at a headend.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2007216783

{Secondary servers, e.g. proxy server, cable television head-end ( intermediate processing or storage in data networks H04L 29/08702) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Local servers for serving mobile terminals.
  • The concept of secondary server is used to describe a hierarchy among several servers, as for example in distributed systems.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1204244, WO2006130139

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Intermediate processing or storage in data networks
{being a cable television head-end ( CATV in broadcast systems H04H 20/78) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Local server in a broadcast system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US7269841

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
CATV in broadcast systems
{being a public access point, e.g. for downloading to or uploading from clients ( arrangements specially adapted to plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Public access point, where content can be downloaded to / uploaded from clients. Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0150401

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements specially adapted to plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems
{local VOD servers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Local VOD server to serve a small area.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP0740470

{Characteristics of the server or} Internal components of the server
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2003026280

{Server identification by a unique number or address, e.g. serial number ( addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Identification number of the server. It can be used for authenticating the server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2006101380

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Addressing and naming in data networks
{Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Elementary specialized functions. They can be implemented in software or hardware. Their task is to control the corresponding hardware component and to provide a service to the upper layer. e.g. network synchronization using a master clock for downstream/upstream transmissions. Synchronization of transmitters.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Handling or recovery of errors occurring in the server
{Content storage operation, e.g. caching movies for short term storage, replicating data over plural servers, prioritizing data for deletion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Organization and the action of storage as well as writing actions. Storage can be performed in disk arrays as found in VOD servers as well as internal databases, caching of movies or data or any memory related problem.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 7,017,174 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Retrieving and reading data in the server
Server-side memory management
{using load balancing strategies, e.g. by placing or distributing content on different disks, different memories or different servers ( storage management G06F 3/0604 ; allocation of resources considering the load in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/505 ; techniques for rebalancing the load in a distributed system G06F 9/5083 ; access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. load balancing, in data networks H04L 29/08144) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods describing the placement or distribution of content on different disks or different servers with the aim of providing a balanced load within the (distributed) system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Storage management
Allocation of resources considering the load in multiprogramming arrangements
Techniques for rebalancing the load in a distributed system
Access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. load balancing, in data networks
Data replication on different disks or servers
{involving caching operations ( prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures G06F 12/0862 ; caching at an intermediate stage in a data network H04L 29/08801) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Caching action, for example of movies in a local VOD server. The storage has a temporary aspect and must be distinguished from buffering as performed in the video encoder which holds the multimedia data for a brief period of time.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0169926 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures
Caching at an intermediate stage in a data network
Buffering on the encoder side
{by placing content in organized collections, e.g. EPG data repository ( details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases G06F17/30M5) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the generation and the management of a local database because it is trivial that local data are always stored in some kind of database (from simple lists to complex structures).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases
G06F17/30M5
{involving housekeeping operations for stored content, e.g. prioritizing content for deletion because of storage space restrictions ( storage management, e.g. defragmentation G06F 3/0604 ; snloading stored programs G06F 9/445 ; housekeeping operations in file systems, e.g. deletion policies G06F 17/30067 ; buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks H04L 49/90) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Algorithms, describing which data are prioritized for deletion (e.g. oldest or less used data) are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0169926 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Housekeeping operations in file systems, e.g. deletion policies
Storage management, e.g. defragmentation
Unloading stored programs
Buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks
{involving data replication, e.g. over plural servers ( synchronization of replicated data G06F 11/1658 ; error detection or correction by means of data replication G06F 11/2053 ; replication in distributed file systems G06F 17/30067 ; replication in distributed file systems G06F 17/30283 ; replication or mirroring of data in data networks H04L 29/0854) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Content replicated over different servers or over different hard disks.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Synchronization of replicated data
Error detection or correction by means of data replication
Replication in distributed file systems
Replication in distributed file systems
Replication or mirroring of data in data networks
{Data placement on disk arrays ( data placement in general G06F 3/0604) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Data block placement strategies in the disk array of video servers.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 028 587 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Data placement in general
{using interleaving}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Successive file blocks stored on different disks.
  • A whole sector localized on one disk only.
{using striping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A data sector distributed over several disks (RAID technology).

{Content retrieval operation {locally} within server, e.g. reading video streams from disk arrays ( storage management G06F 3/0604 ; details of querying and searching of video data from a database G06F17/30M5) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operations linked to the retrieval of the multimedia stream from the disks. It covers disk scheduling and file mapping

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0172205 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Storage management
Details of querying and searching of video data from a database
G06F17/30M5
Content storage
{using file mapping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 992 992 A1

{Scheduling disk or memory reading operations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0186951 A1

{Processing of audio elementary streams ( details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes G10L 19/167 ; arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems H04H 60/58) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Audio stream management.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: FR 2 850 821 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes
Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring,identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems
{involving reformatting operations of audio signals, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another ( details of audio signal transcoding G10L 19/173) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reformatted audio stream, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0013270 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of audio signal transcoding
{Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing of content streams, manipulating MPEG-4 scene graphs ( video encoding or transcoding processes per se H04N 7/26) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Video stream management.
  • The control of the encoder, video scaling and transcoding aspects, synchronization, interactive control of playback, composition of MPEG-4 objects or embedding of graphics or text.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/117435 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Video encoding or transcoding processes per se
Embedding
{involving management of server-side video buffer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Buffer level control.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0193350 A1, US 2006/0262813 A1

{for generating or manipulating the scene composition of objects, e.g. MPEG-4 objects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spatial composition of MPEG-4 objects at the program generation using a scene graph.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0110297 A1, US2006222071

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scene rendering using a scene graph
{involving operations for analysing video streams, e.g. detecting features or characteristics ( filtering for image enhancement G06T 5/00 ; methods or arrangements for recognising scenes G06K 9/00624 ; arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems H04H 60/59 ; television picture signal circuitry for scene change detection H04N 5/147) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of features (e.g. logo) in a video stream, extraction of characteristics directly from the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 301 039 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes
Image analysis per se
Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring,identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems
Television picture signal circuitry for Scene change detection
{involving splicing one content stream with another content stream, e.g. for inserting or substituting an advertisement}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Splicing of at least one video stream with another stream (video or not) at the server level. It can be used for inserting or substituting a piece of video such as a commercial.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0033633 A1, XP 2098561 A1

{involving reformatting operations of video signals for distribution or compliance with end-user requests or end-user device requirements ( media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06489 ; video transcoding H04N 7/26941) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The original A/V stream received from the content provider is reformatted.The output format is defined here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/001791 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications
Details of conversion of video standards at pixel level
Video transcoding
{by transcoding between formats or standards, e.g. from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 or from Quicktime to Realvideo ( conversion of standards in analog television systems H04N 7/01) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transcoding between standards (e.g. MPEG-2 to MPEG-4) or between format such as Quicktime to Realvideo.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,747,706 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Conversion of standards in analog television systems
{by decomposing into objects, e.g. MPEG-4 objects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The components have been coded according to MPEG-4 and become objects.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2006221178

{by decomposing into layers, e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Content divided in layers (e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers).
  • MDC (multiple description coding).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2009002303

{by media transcoding, e.g. video is transformed into a slideshow of still pictures or audio is converted into text}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Transcoding between modalities (e.g audio to text).
  • Slideshow of still pictures transformed in a video.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0163317 A1

{the reformatting operation being performed only on part of the stream, e.g. a region of the image or a time segment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The reformatting operation is performed on part of the stream, the part being spatial region of the image or a time segment.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0080878 A1

{by altering signal-to-noise ratio parameters, e.g. requantization}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • New quantization parameters are introduced allowing to change the resolution of each video frame.
  • Degradation of the signal by addition of noise.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0152317 A1

{by altering the spatial resolution, e.g. for clients with a lower screen resolution}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server provides a video with a spatial resolution commensurate with, e.g. the display capabilities of the client

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0039478 A1

{for performing aspect ratio conversion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server reformats video to alter aspect ratio, e.g. between 4:3 and 16:9

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 679 893 A2

{by altering the temporal resolution, e.g. decreasing the frame rate by frame skipping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alteration of the frame rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,510,554 B1

{for generating different versions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different versions of the same audio/video stream are created and stored for later immediate retrieval.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 796 394 A2

{involving video stream encryption ( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 , analogue secrecy systems H04N 7/16 ; Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 ; arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation H04L 12/22 ; security arrangements in wireless networks H04W 12/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Scrambling of the video stream, encryption of the content stream.
  • Scrambling of multimedia content in general.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0085734 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information
Arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation
Multiplex stream encryption in the server
Security arrangements in wireless networks
{by pre-encrypting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Covering encryption of content before storage in a (VOD) server, also known as off-line encryption.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0215578

{by partially encrypting, e.g. encrypting the ending portion of a movie}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not all of the signal is scrambled or different parts are encrypted differently, e.g. to reduce processor load or to enable a reduced quality presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0021412 A1

{Processing of additional data, e.g. scrambling of additional data, processing content descriptors ( arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information H04H 20/28) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Insertion of software modules and additional data in the video stream. The specific nature of the additional data is not considered.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,636,890 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information
Calculation of the repetition rate and of the timing of insertion of additional data by the server-side scheduler
Processing of additional data on the client side
{involving encryption of additional data ( arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/013126 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information
{specifically adapted to content descriptors, e.g. coding, compressing or processing of metadata}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coding/compression or more generally modification of additional data associated with the content.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP2037684

{involving reformatting operations of additional data, e.g. HTML pages ( optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet G06F 17/30905 ; message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in stored and forward packet switching H04L 12/5825 ; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06489) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additional informations such as an HTML page are reformatted by the server. Translation in a different language.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/071264 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet
Message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in stored and forward packet switching
Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications
{by altering the spatial resolution}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modified resolution of the additional information. It can be used, e.g. to reformat additional data for different destination client devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/33976 A1

{for generating different versions, e.g. for different recipient devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server generates at least one other version of the original additional data, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 860 880 A2

Assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, e.g. inserting a Uniform Resource Locator [URL] into a video stream, multiplexing software data into a video stream; Remultiplexing of multiplex streams; Insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bit-rate; Assembling of a packetized elementary stream { ( multiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 65/00 ; stereoscopic image multiplexing or transmission H04N 13/0003) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transport stream generation. Takes as input video or audio streams or already multiplexed AV stream (remultiplexing) and outputs a single Transport Stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 363 439 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP
{Multiplexing isochronously with the video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 777 383 A1

{Remultiplexing multiplex streams, e.g. involving modifying time stamps or remapping the packet identifiers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modification of bitstream parameters, e.g. restamping, transmultiplexing, remapping of PIDs.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: XP 2040478 A1

{Insertion of stuffing data into a multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bitrate ( synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems using bit stuffing for systems with different or fluctuating information rates H04J 3/073) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Insertion of stuffing bits/bytes/packets in the packetised stream to e.g. obtain a constant bitrate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0008736 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems using bit stuffing for systems with different or fluctuating information rates
H04J3/07B
{Multiplexing of additional data and video streams ( arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information H04H 20/28) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multiplexing in an MPEG stream according to the DVB standard or generally speaking, insertion of additional data in the streaming of a digital TV system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,976,266 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information
{by inserting additional data into a data carousel, e.g. inserting software modules into a DVB carousel ( arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/16) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Insertion in a DVB carousel.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/082289 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems
{Generation or processing of Service Information [SI} ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generation of MPEG SI and PSI tables.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 917 370 A2

{Multiplexing of several video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0018379 A1

{Statistical multiplexing, e.g. by controlling the encoder to alter its bitrate to optimize the bandwidth utilization}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The typical structure of a stat mux is a multiplexer which sends command signals back to the video coder(s) to make them change parameters (e.g. bitrate) so as to optimise the global use of the bandwidth.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 928 115 A1

{Multiplexing of audio and video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0237187 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Generation of timestamps for synchronization purposes
{Communication with additional data server}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 9953689 A1

{Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams ( hybrid Fiber Coaxial HFC networks for downstream channel allocation for video distribution H04L 12/2801 ; flow control in packet networks H04L 12/569 ; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176 ; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing H04L 29/08945) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing the transport stream after its assembly and sending it over the network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0229365 A1, WO 002/5219 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for downstream channel allocation for video distribution
Flow control in packet networks
Formation of RTP packets
Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing
{Controlling the feeding rate to the network, e.g. by controlling the video pump}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The video pump is responsible for feeding the program content to the network at the correct data rate, for example after having received a control signal from the network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0262813 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Video streams retrieval
{Adapting the multiplex stream to a specific network, e.g. an Internet Protocol [IP} network ( transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bitstream adapted to a specific network. The type of network or protocol used is classified elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 953 936 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM
Channel coding {or modulation} of digital bit-stream, e.g. QPSK modulation ( arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding H04L 1/0009 ; analogue front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line H04L 27/0002)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Protection of the digital bitstream (e.g. RS coding) and modulation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,591,391 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding
Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line
{Channel allocation (H04N 21/266 takes precedence ) ; Bandwidth allocation (H04N 21/24 takes precedence; allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems H04J 3/1682 ; arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management H04L 12/2439 ; Admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692 ; negotiating bandwidth in wireless networks H04W 28/16) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Channel and bandwidth allocation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/088667 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems
Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management
Admission control, resource allocation in open networks
Negotiating bandwidth in wireless networks
{Stream processing in response to a playback request from an end-user, e.g. for trick-play}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Management of the video stream after receiving an upstream playback control signal from the client, for example in a VOD system to pause or ffwd the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 5864682 A1

{Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing of the transport stream as received from the network and before being adapted to the delivery medium.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0217452 A1

{involving embedding information at multiplex stream level, e.g. embedding a watermark at packet level}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Embedding of data in a piece of content, for example picture, text in a video.
  • The operations performed by a content provider at a workstation to create an interactive multimedia presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1255249

{involving multiplex stream encryption}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only the descrambling/decrypting of the transport stream is described here. The descrambling/decrypting of the video stream is described elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0075285 A1

{by partially encrypting, e.g. encrypting only the ending portion of a movie}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0160218 A1

Interfacing the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. prioritizing client {content} requests ( hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for upstream channel allocation for video distribution H04L 12/2801 ; flow control in data networks H04L 12/569 ; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176 ; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests H04L 29/08945)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This interface manages the uplink signals coming from all the clients and is used for example to handle requests (e.g requests for a particular multimedia service).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0028897 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for upstream channel allocation for video distribution
Flow control in data networks
Formation of RTP packets
Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests
{involving handling client requests ( scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in data switching networks H04L 29/08945) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0078218 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in data switching networks
{characterized by admission policies ( admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692 ; arrangements for network security using user profiles for access control H04L 29/06836 ; access security in wireless networks H04W 12/08) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Admission policies of clients in video servers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Admission control, resource allocation in open networks
Arrangements for network security using user profiles for access control
Access security in wireless networks
{Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. monitoring of server load, available bandwidth, upstream requests ( monitoring of server performance or load G06F 11/34 ; monitoring or testing of transmitters in general H04B 17/0002 ; arrangements for observation, testing or troubleshooting for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/12) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring is an internal process, which checks permanently user requests, the bandwidth available at the different network interfaces or any internal processes. It can generate reports of system usage.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0270598 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring of server performance or load
Monitoring or testing of transmitters in general
Arrangements for observation, testing or troubleshooting for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast
{Monitoring of the client buffer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server monitors the client buffer.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0237187 A1

{Monitoring of the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. bandwidth available ( traffic monitoring in data switching networks H04L 12/2418 ; monitoring data switching networks utilization H04L 12/2668) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring of the available bandwidth or bit rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/054926 A1, US 2007/0153692 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Traffic monitoring in data switching networks
Monitoring data switching networks utilization
{Monitoring of server processing errors or hardware failure ( error or fault detection G06F 11/07 ; monitoring in general G06F 11/30) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of an error during content distribution, content loading, multiplex management, hardware failure.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2006218600,WO0031975,US 2002/0066050 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Error or fault detection
Monitoring in general
{Monitoring of the internal components or processes of the server, e.g. server load ( allocation of resources in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/50 ; performance measurement of computer activity G06F 11/34) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The load or processing capabilities of the server are monitored.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444,WO2010058215, US2008209481,

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Allocation of resources in multiprogramming arrangements
Performance measurement of computer activity
{Monitoring of transmitted content, e.g. distribution time, number of downloads ( arrangements for monitoring programmes for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/14) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring of aired content for logging and verification purposes. It can be sent to a rights server or an advertiser for billing. Includes the number of times content has been downloaded (not requested, which is classified elsewhere).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/017640 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for monitoring programmes for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast
{Monitoring of the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. client requests ( monitoring data switching networks utilization H04L 12/2668 ; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08945) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Requests from clients received at the upstream interface are monitored.
  • Includes log files of client requests.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0116067 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring data switching networks utilization
Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in network applications in communication control or processing
{Operating System [OS} processes, e.g. server setup ( arrangements for programme control G06F 9/00 ; program loading or initiating in general G06F 9/445 ; multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/46) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Basic functions provided by the operating system like memory management, event handling, multitasking, multithreading, setup.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0197073 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Program loading or initiating in general
Multiprogramming arrangements
{Synchronization processes, e.g. processing of Program Clock References [PCR} ( synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems H04J 3/06 ; arrangements for synchronising broadcast or distribution via plural systems in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/18 ; arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter H04L 7/00 ; synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end H04N 5/067) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Synchronization issues.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 339 182 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for synchronising broadcast or distribution via plural systems in broadcast distribution systems
Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems
Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter
Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end
{Management operations performed by the server for facilitating the content distribution or administrating data related to end-users or client devices, e.g. end-user or client device authentication, learning user preferences for recommending movies ( maintenance or administration in data networks H04L 12/24) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server-side system management

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Maintenance or administration in data networks
{Learning process for intelligent management, e.g. learning user preferences for recommending movies ( details of learning user preferences for the retrieval of video data in a video database G06F17/30M5 ; computer systems using learning methods G06N 3/08) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server-side agents are similar to the agents implemented on the client and perform similar operations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of learning user preferences for the retrieval of video data in a video database
G06F17/30M5
Computer systems using learning methods
Client-side agents
{Processing of multiple end-users' preferences to derive collaborative data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preference data are processed to determine similarities between users. They can be clustered to have a limited number of grous of viewers. They are used to enrich the profile of one user by adding data from similar users.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Deriving a common profile for several users on the same client, e.g. family profile
{Management at additional data server, e.g. shopping server, rights management server ( arrangements for maintenance or administration in data networks H04L 12/24 ; Protocols involving third party service providers for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08666) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Non-video distribution application.
  • A whole range of services, which do not deal directly with the distribution of multimedia content. They play a crucial part of the associated business model but because of their non-technical nature, they are separated from the other management functions. They can also be provided by a 3rd party.
  • Support/help center, the HLR of a mobile phone network for collecting the position of a mobile client.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data networks
Protocols involving third party service providers for network applications in communication control or processing
{Rights Management ( protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment G06F 21/10 ; security in data switching network management H04L 12/2461 ; security management or policies for network security H04L 29/06986 ; access security in wireless networks H04W 12/08) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

External server specially adapted to perform rights management operations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment
Security in data switching network management
Security management or policies for network security
Access security in wireless networks
Client-side monitoring of content usage
Definition of usage data
{for selling goods, e.g. TV shopping ( payment schemes, payment architectures or payment protocols for electronic shopping systems G06Q 20/12) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shopping and product management aspect. The shopping application is classified elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Payment schemes, payment architectures or payment protocols for electronic shopping systems
Billing {e.g. for subscription services} ( payment schemes, architectures or protocols G06Q 20/00 ; e-commerce G06Q 30/00 ( arrangements for billing for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/21 ; charging arrangements in data networks H04L 12/14) )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Billing aspects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for billing for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information
Charging arrangements in data networks
{involving characteristics of content or additional data, e.g. video resolution or the amount of advertising}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The price depends on the nature of the program offered. It can be also inversely proportional to the amount of commercials inserted.

{Third Party Billing, e.g. billing of advertiser}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Billing aspects not pertaining to the end-user or subscriber but to a third party such as an advertiser. Billing can be performed according to monitored viewer selections.

{Client or end-user data management, e.g. managing client capabilities, user preferences or demographics, processing of multiple end-users preferences to derive collaborative data ( arrangements for services using the result on the distributing side of broadcast systems H04H 60/66 ; data switching network applications involving user or terminal profiles H04L 29/08918) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Customer management. Maintains databases for storing data about the clients it is connected to and their users.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0231854 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for services using the result on the distributing side of broadcast systems
Data switching network applications involving user or terminal profiles
{Management of client data ( protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08927) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The management system stores data pertaining to the client device, regardless of its user.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0066128 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing
{involving client authentication ( restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33 ; authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing H04L 29/06755 ; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server authenticates the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0118063 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code
Authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing
Authentication in wireless network security
{involving client display capabilities, e.g. screen resolution of a mobile phone ( optimising the visualisation of content during browsing in the Internet G06F 17/30905 ; processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks H04W 8/22 ; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Clients may being diverse by nature and have different display capabilities, e.g. TV, PC, mobile phone, PDA,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2009/002324 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optimising the visualisation of content during browsing in the Internet
Reformatting of the video stream by the server, e.g. based on client parameters
Authentication in wireless network security
Processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks
{involving client hardware characteristics, e.g. manufacturer, processing or storage capabilities ( allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/5044 ; allocation of resources considering software capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/5055) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A hardware profile contains a client ID, a STB manufacturer, model, general processing and memory/storage capabilities, except for display.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements
Allocation of resources considering software capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements
{involving the geographical location of the client ( retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations G06F 17/3087 ; Arrangements for identifying locations of receiving stations in broadcast systems H04H 60/51 ; protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing H04L 29/08657 ; services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 4/02 ; locating users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 64/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server determines or is aware of the location of the client device. The determination can be performed by retrieving data from a HLR in a mobile phone network or by triangulation methods. This must be distinguished from user demographical data, classified elsewhere. It is typically used for targeting location dependent programs or additional informations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/136109 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations
Arrangements for identifying locations of receiving stations in broadcast systems
Protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing
Services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks
Locating users or terminals in wireless networks
{Generation of a revocation list, e.g. of client devices involved in piracy acts}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server keeps a list of client devices, which have been reported to been involoved in piracy acts, such as falsifying the decryption card.

{involving client software characteristics, e.g. OS identifier}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The software profile contains a record of the type of software installed on the client, including version number for automatic upgrades.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detrails of operating systems in cients
Executable data per se
{Management of end-user data ( customer care in data networks H04L 12/249) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The management system stores data related to its users regardless of the client device they use.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Customer care in data networks
{involving end-user authentication ( restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33 ; arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system H04L 9/32 ; authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing H04L 29/06755 ; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Storage of physical characteristics of the user (e.g. fingerprint). The server authenticates the user of the client device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code
Arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system
Authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing
Authentication in wireless network security
{being end-user demographical data, e.g. age, family status or address ( arrangements for identifying locations of users in broadcast systems H04H 60/52) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

When the user registers for the 1st time, he provides demographical data such as his gender, age, family status, profession, adress and ZIP code. Covers general interests but not viewing interests.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for identifying locations of users in broadcast systems
{being end-user preferences ( retrieval of video data in a video database based on user preferences G06F17/30M5 ; arrangements for recognizing users' preferences H04H 60/46 ; protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08936 ; processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks H04W 8/18) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preferences may be derived from viewing history of the user and have been collected dynamically. Preferences can also be collected at user registration by providing general interests.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Retrieval of video data in a video database based on user preferences
G06F17/30M5
Arrangements for recognizing users' preferences
Protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing
Client-side monitoring of end-user
Uploading data stored on the client to server
Processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks
{Content or additional data distribution scheduling, e.g. sending additional data at off-peak times, updating software modules, calculating the carousel transmission frequency, delaying a video stream transmission, generating play-lists ( scheduling strategies for dispatcher in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/4881 ; arrangements for scheduling broadcast services or broadcast-related services H04H 60/06 ; flow control in packet networks H04L 12/569 ; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08963) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The function of the scheduler is to plan the distribution of the multimedia content over time. It must guarantee, that the client can access the content, when it is supposed to. The scheduler considers a number of constraints, like different available bandwidths for example at day or night, or higher priorities if a user has paid a higher fee or the best timing for inserting a commercial (prime time). It has also to perform location resolution tasks, like for example assigning a time and channel to a TV program.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scheduling strategies for dispatcher in multiprogramming arrangements
Arrangements for scheduling broadcast services or broadcast-related services
Flow control in packet networks
Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests in network applications in communication control or processing
{the scheduling operation being performed under constraints}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduling algorithm performs optimization operations under constraints recevied as input data.

{involving the channel capacity, e.g. network bandwidth ( flow control in packet networks H04L 12/569 ; admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692 ; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08954) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduler prioritizes the items to be transmiited according to the available network bandwidth.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flow control in packet networks
Admission control, resource allocation in open networks
Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account in network applications in communication control or processing
{involving billing parameters, e.g. priority for subscribers of premium services}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduler defines priorities for the different items to be sent, for example according to billing policy (the user, who has been charged most will be served first).

{involving content or additional data duration or size, e.g. length of a movie, size of an executable file}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Duration of a movie or TV program.

{involving the time of distribution, e.g. the best time of the day for inserting an advertisement or airing a children program}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pertains to the time of the day, week,.., for example the best time of the day for inserting a commercial or airing a program suitable for children.

{for delaying content or additional data distribution, e.g. because of an extended sport event}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A TV program is delayed because of e.g. an expanded sport event.

{for generating a list of items to be played back in a given order, e.g. playlist, or scheduling item distribution according to such list ( retrieval of multimedia data based on playlists G06F 17/30017) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generation of a playlist and scheduling content items according to a playlist.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Retrieval of multimedia data based on playlists
{for determining content or additional data repetition rate, e.g. of a file in a DVB carousel according to its importance ( arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/16) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Algorithms considering at which frequency a piece of data should be repeated in the carousel, for example according to its importance. Also pertains to data which is repeated at a constant frequency.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems
{for distributing content or additional data in a staggered manner, e.g. repeating movies on different channels in a time-staggered manner in a near video on demand system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scheduling of NVOD services. Movies are repeated on different channels in a time-staggered manner.

{for associating distribution time parameters to content, e.g. to generate electronic program guide data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Metadata, such as program descriptors is received from the content provider, which itself is not aware of a transmission schedule. Therefore the creation of the EPG data consisting of metadata and time information is performed by the scheduler. The EPG user interface for program selection by the user is classified elsewhere.

{for providing content or additional data updates, e.g. updating software modules, stored at the client ( deployment, distribution, installation, update of software G06F 8/65 ; error detection or correction during software upgrading G06F 11/1433 ; arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/25) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduler decides to update data or software resident in the client for example on a regular basis or according to special events.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Deployment, distribution, installation, update of software
Error detection or correction during software upgrading
Arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information