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PICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION(measuring, testing G01; systems for autographic writing, e.g. writing telegraphy, which involve following an outline{ G08C 21/00 }; information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer G11B; coding, decoding or code conversion, in general H03M; broadcast distribution or the recording of use made thereof H04H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • transmission of pictures or their transient or permanent reproduction either locally or remotely, by methods involving both the following steps:
  • step (a): the scanning of a picture, i.e. resolving the whole picture-containing area into individual picture-elements and the derivation of picture-representative electric signals related thereto, simultaneously or in sequence;
  • step (b): the reproduction of the whole picture-containing area by the reproduction of individual picture-elements into which the picture is resolved by means of picture-representative electric signals derived therefrom, simultaneously or in sequence;
  • (in group H04N 1/00) systems for the transmission or the reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures or patterns in which the local light variations composing a picture are not subject to variation with time, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films);
  • circuits specially designed for dealing with pictorial communication signals, e.g. television signals, as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

circuits or other parts of systems which form the subject of other subclasses

systems in which legible alphanumeric or like character forms are analysed according to step (a) of Note (1) to derive an electric signal from which the character is recognised by comparison with stored information

systems for the direct photographic copying of an original picture in which an electric signal representative of the picture is derived according to the said step (a) and employed to modify the operation of the system, e.g. to control exposure,

systems for the reproduction according to step (b) of Note (1) of pictures comprising alphanumeric or like character forms but involving the production of the EQUIVALENT of a signal which would be derived according to the above-mentioned step (a), e.g. by cams, punched card or tape, coded control signal, or other means

systems for the reproduction according to the above-mentioned step (b) of pictures comprising alphanumeric or like character forms and involving the generation according to the above-mentioned step (a) of picture-representative electric signals from a pre-arranged assembly of such characters, or records thereof, forming an integral part of the systems

printing, duplication or marking processes, or materials therefor

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

television systems

asystems for the transmission and reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures in which the local light variations composing a picture MAY change with time, e.g. natural "live" scenes, recordings of such scenes such as cinematograph films

Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof{( recording arrangements for measuring instruments G01D ; sensing record carriers G06K 7/00 ; character or pattern recognition G06K 9/00 ; mosaïc printer telegraph systems H04L 21/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • transmission of time-invariant pictures, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films), or their transient or permanent storage or reproduction either locally or remotely by methods involving both scanning and reproduction;
  • systems involving the generation, transmission, storage or reproduction of time-invariant pictures; image manipulation for such reproduction on particular output devices;
  • devices applied to the transmission, storage or reproduction of time-invariant pictures, e.g. facsimile apparatus, digital copiers, (digital) scanners, multifunctional peripheral devices;
  • circuits specially designed for dealing with pictorial communication signals, e.g. facsimile signals or colour image signals, as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range;
  • storage or transmission aspects of still video cameras.
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • H04N 1/00 is an application place for a large number of IT technologies, which are covered per se by the corresponding functional places
  • Image servers, hosts and clients use internally specific computing techniques. Corresponding techniques used in general computing are found in G06F or G06Q. This concerns data storage, software architectures, error detection or correction in general computing, monitoring, image retrieval, browsing, Internet browsing, computer security, billing or advertising
  • Image servers, hosts and clients use specific telecommunication techniques for the image transmission process. Corresponding techniques used in generic telecommunication networks are found in subclasses H04B, H04H, H04L, H04M, H04W. This concerns monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers, broadcast or multicast, maintenance, administration, testing, data processing in data switching networks, home networks, real-time data network services, data network security, applications for data network, wireless networks per se
  • Image scanners use specific scanning techniques. Corresponding techniques are found in G02B. This concerns optical scanning systems
  • Image reproducers use specific reproduction techniques. Corresponding techniques are found in B41J, G03G, G06K. This concerns printing, electrography, producing a permanent visual presentation of output data
  • General image processing techniques are found in G06T
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Printing mechanisms

Electrography; Magnetography

Image retrieval; Retrieval from Internet

Computer security

Storage management

Digital output to print unit

Producing a permanent visual presentation of output data; object-oriented print data processing in printers

Sensing record carriers

Character or pattern recognition

Payment schemes, Commerce

Image data processing in general

Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers

Broadcast communication

Maintenance or administration in data switching networks

Data processing in data switching networks

Message switching systems

Real-time data network services

Data network security

Applications for data network services

Public key encryption

Scanning details of electrically scanned solid-state devices

Capture aspects of still video cameras

Wireless networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supporting or handling copy material in printers

Handling thin or filamentary material

Colorimetry

Handling of copy material in photocopiers

G03G15/00G

Constructional details of equipement or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

Power management in computer systems

Adressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures

Input and output arrangements for computers

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces

Digital output to printers

Producing a permanent visual presentation of output data

Sensing record carriers

Character or pattern recognition

Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts

Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes

General-purpose image data processing

Image watermarking

Editing figures and text; Combining figures or text

Geometric image transformation in the plane of the image

Image enhancement or restoration

Image analysis

Image coding

Access-control involving the use of a pass

Access-control by means of a password

Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction

Secret communication; Jamming of communication

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received

Charging arrangements in data networks

Arrangements for secret or secure communication; Encryption

Simultaneous speech and telegraphic or other data transmission over the same conductors

Telephonic metering arrangements

Scanning of motion picture films

Television signal recording

Circuits for processing colour television signals

Connection management in wireless communications networks

Special rules of classification within this group

In this main group Indexing Codes are used:

The numbering of the codes is based on the numbering of the subgroups;

  • codes, e.g. T04N201/04D7M, which have a numbering the first part of which corresponds to a subgroup which is at the tip end of a subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 1/0402, are used to classify detailed information and may be applied to that subgroup, e.g. T04N201/04D7M may be used in combination with H04N 1/0402;
  • codes, e.g. H04N 2201/0402, which have a numbering the first part of which corresponds to a subgroup which is at the head or node end of a subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 1/04, are used to classify orthogonal information and may be applied to any subgroups in the corresponding subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 2201/0434 may be used in combination with H04N 1/0402 and/or H04N 1/1013.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Additional information

any information other than the still picture itself, but nevertheless associated with the still picture

Documents or the like

documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films)

Main-scan

the first completed scan

Mode

way or manner of operating

Scanning

the displacement of active reading or reproducing elements relative to the original or reproducing medium, or vice versa

Still picture apparatus

any apparatus generating, storing, transmitting or reproducing non-transient images

Single-mode communication

a communication in which the mode is not changed

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

IP

Internet Protocol

OS

Operating System

PC

Personal Computer

GPS

Global Positioning System

MFP

Multifunctional peripheral

MFD

Multifunctional device

RFID

Radio-frequency identification

In patent documents the following words or expressions are used as synonyms:

  • Complex device and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Complex machine and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Hybrid device and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Hybrid machine and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Digital camera and Still video camera
  • Metadata and Additional information
  • Fast scan and Main scan
  • Slow scan, Subscan and Sub scan
{Diagnosis, testing or measuring; Detecting, analysing or monitoring not otherwise provided for( error detection, error correction or monitoring in digital computers or digital computer components G06F 11/00 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Determining the necessity for preventing unauthorised reproduction

Detecting scanning velocity or position

Fault detection in circuits or arrangements for control supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device

Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original

Control or modification of tonal gradation or extreme levels, e.g. dependent on the contents of the original or references outside the picture,

Discrimination between different image types

{Systems or arrangements for the transmission of the picture signal}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmitting or receiving computer data via an image communication device

Transmitting or receiving image data via a computer or computer network

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver

{in a digital photofinishing system, i.e. a system where digital photographic images undergo typical photofinishing processing, e.g. printing ordering}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data processing systems for commerce

{Transmitting or receiving image data, e.g. facsimile data, via a computer, e.g. using e-mail, a computer network, the internet, I-fax}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Message switching systems, e.g. e-mail systems

{using an image reading or reproducing device, e.g. a facsimile reader or printer, as a local input to or local output from a computer( image input to or image output from a computer via a network H04N 1/00209 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Portable computers comprising integrated printing or scanning devices

G06F1/16P2P

{with a photographic apparatus, e.g. a photographic printer or a projector(photographic apparatus per se G03B, G03D)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Photographic apparatus per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G03B, G03D or G03G.

{with an electrophotographic copying machine, i.e. a photocopier}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G03G.

{with a printing apparatus, e.g. a laser beam printer}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in B41J or G06K 15/00.

{with a telecommunication apparatus, e.g. a switched network of teleprinters for the distribution of text-based information, a selective call terminal( details of transmission H04N 1/00095 ; establishing a communication with one of a facsimile machine or another apparatus sharing a single line H04N 1/32704 ; interfacing cordless telephone terminals with an accessory to increase the functionality of user interface H04M 1/72527 )}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in other H04 subclasses or other H04N main groups.

{with a television apparatus}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in other H04N main groups.

{with studio circuitry, devices or equipment, e.g. television cameras( television studio circuitry, devices or equipment per se H04N 5/222 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Television studio circuitry, devices or equipment per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in H04N 5/222 and subgroups.

{with receiver circuitry( television receiver circuitry per se H04N 5/44 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Television receiver circuitry per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in H04N 5/44 and subgroups.

{with a data reading, recognizing or recording apparatus, e.g. with a bar-code apparatus( arrangements for the associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with related apparatus G11B 31/00 )}
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G06K or G11B.

{Handling of original or reproduction media, e.g. cutting, separating, stacking}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Handling thin or filamentary material

Supporting or handling copy material in printers

Handling of copy material in photocopiers

G03G15/00G

{Preventing unauthorised reproduction}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Marking an unauthorised reproduction with identification

Restricting access

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preventing copies being made in photocopiers

Details of scanning heads;{Means for illuminating the original( circuit details thereof H04N 1/40 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of scanning arrangements

for picture information pick-up
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television cameras

{with means for collecting light from a line or an area of the original and for guiding it to only one or a relatively low number of picture element detectors( light-guides per se G02B 6/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Light-guides per se

Heads optically focused on only one picture element at a time{( H04N 1/0281 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for collecting light from a line or an area of the original and for guiding it to only one or a relatively low number of picture element detectors

for picture information reproduction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification.

This subject matter is now classified in B41J or G06K 15/00.

Scanning arrangements,{i.e. arrangements for the displacement of active reading or reproducing elements relative to the original or reproducing medium, or vice versa}( H04N 1/387 takes precedence; { scanning by varying the direction of light in general G02B 26/10 })
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical scanning systems

Projection optics in photocopiers

Character printers involving the fast moving of a light beam in two directions

Details of scanning heads

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Where possible both the main and sub scanning arrangements should be classified, using a class for the invention and an Indexing Code for subsidiary information. Manual scanning and scanning using two-dimensional arrays are exceptions to this rule.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Main scan direction

The direction of the first completed scan line

Detection, control or error compensation of scanning velocity or position({ H04N 1/0402 and } H04N 1/17 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scanning different formats; Scanning with different densities of dots per unit length, e.g. different numbers of dots per inch (dpi); Conversion of scanning standards

The scanning speed being dependent on content of picture

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detection, control or error compensation of scanning velocity or opposition in photographic character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction

Special rules of classification within this group

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the main and subscan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

{in subscanning direction, e.g. picture start or line-to-line synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the main scan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

in main scanning direction, e.g. synchronisation of line start or picture elements in a line
Special rules of classification within this group

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the subscan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

{using two-dimensional electrical scanning, e.g. cathode-ray tubes( using two-dimensional arrays H04N 1/195 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using oscillating or rotating mirrors
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optical details of the scanning system

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Character printers involving the fast moving of a light beam in two directions

{for the main-scan only}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optical details of the scanning system

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical printers using dot sequential main scanning by means of a light deflector

Character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction

using the sheet-feed movement{or the medium-advance or the drum-rotation movement}as the slow scanning component,{e.g. arrangements for the main-scanning}({ sheet-feed movement by translatory movement of a flat picture-bearing surface H04N 1/1008 ; main-scanning using oscillating or rotating mirrors H04N 1/113 ; } using multi-element arrays H04N 1/19 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction

{using a device, e.g. an optical fibre bundle, converting rectilinear scanning into circular line scanning or vice versa}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using a rotating endless belt carrying the scanning heads{or at least a part of the main scanning components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using a rotating helical element
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

using multi-element arrays
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical printers using arrays of radiation sources

Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point

{Simultaneously or substantially simultaneously scanning picture elements on more than one main scanning line, e.g. scanning in swaths}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point on more than one main scanning line

Simultaneously{or substantially simultaneously}scanning picture elements on one main scanning line{( details of the sub-scanning H04N 1/10 , H04N 1/12 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point on one main scanning line

Intermediate information storage( H04N 1/387 , H04N 1/41 take precedence; { for control between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device H04N 1/32358 } ; information storage in general G11 ; { indexing, editing G11B 27/00 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the storage results in a record that is not merely transient.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Storage resulting in a transient record, for control or supervision between image input and image output device

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Intermediate

having no limiting meaning

{using still video cameras}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image capture in digital cameras

Still video cameras

H04N101/00

involving production of a magnetic intermediate picture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetography

involving production of an electrostatic intermediate picture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrography

Mechanical arrangements for picture transmission, e.g. adaptation of clutches, gearing, gear transmissions{contains no documents}
Special rules of classification within this group

The subject matter concerned is classified in H04N 1/00567 or H04N 1/04.

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver{or between image input and image output device( H04N 1/38 , H04N 1/387 take precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for blanking or otherwise eliminating unwanted parts of pictures

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Communication control for transmission of digital information in general

Digital output from electrical digital data processing unit to print unit

{Automation of particular receiver jobs, e.g. rejecting unwanted calls( requesting a communication from a transmitter H04N 1/32771 ; with picture signal storage for forwarding messages H04N 1/32358 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic arrangements for answering calls in telephonic equipment

{Automation of particular transmitter jobs, e.g. multi-address calling, auto-dialing}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Telephonic equipment for signalling identity of wanted subscriber

{Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television bitstream transport arrangements involving transporting of additional information

H04N7/24T4

Television systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation, using bandwidth reduction involving the insertion of extra data

Broadcast communication systems specially adapted for using meta-information

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the word "metadata" is often used as a synonym for "additional information".

{embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image watermarking

Audio watermarking

G10L19/00W

{Transform domain methods( H04N 1/32309 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

In colour image data

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission of digital television signals using bandwidth reduction and involving the insertion of extra data

{using picture signal storage, e.g. at transmitter( H04N 1/17 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Storage results in a transient record, e.g. buffering

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scanning speed being dependent on content of picture

Storage resulting in a record which is other than merely transient

{intermediate the transmitter and receiver terminals, e.g. at an exchange}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stored and forward switching systems in transmission of digital information

{related to a single-mode communication, e.g. at the transmitter or at the receiver}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in received digital information

{Establishing a communication with one of a facsimile and another telecommunication apparatus sharing a single line}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Simultaneous speech and other data transmission over the same conductors in telephonic communication systems

Mode signalling or mode changing; Handshaking therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Negotiation of communication capabilities for communication control in transmission of digital information

{during transmission, input or output of the picture signal; within a single document or page}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems modifying digital information transmission characteristics according to link quality

for synchronising or phasing transmitter and receiver
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Obsolete subject matter, analog facsimile communication.

Circuits or arrangements for blanking or otherwise eliminating unwanted parts of pictures( H04N 1/387 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removing parts of the image e.g. smudges, extracting part of an image, screen out unwanted image regions, removing finger shadow, removing perforated holes when copying a perforated paper.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

Special rules of classification within this group

Drop out for parts of the image while changing color is in H04N 1/62, form drop out data in H04N 1/4177.

Composing, repositioning or otherwise{geometrically}modifying originals( photoelectronic composing of characters B41B 19/00 ; { image data processing or generation, in general G06T })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Composing e.g. combining 2 images. Reading of books and correction for geometric distortions due to curved (book page) original. Geometric modifications caused through warping of image.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Editing, producing a composite image by copying with focus on copy machine

Text processing

Pagination/imposition

Geometric modification and warping in general

Teaching/communicating with deaf, blind, mute people

{the composed originals being of different kinds, e.g. low- and high-resolution originals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. combining chart, text, logo (low resolution/bit depth) and photo (high resolution/bit depth) or foreground and background, with focus on image processing. Also high dynamic range (HDR) imagery when combined with H04N 1/407.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Combining objects while rendering PDL

Inserting foreground into background with focus on camera

{Repositioning or masking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Image cropping, cutting out, masking with arbitrary shape.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selection / ordering of images (from movies)

{defined only by a limited number of coordinate points or parameters, e.g. corners, centre; for trimming}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

User defines the corner coordinates to extract image for repositioning. Cutting out, cropping, number of points is important. Low resolution pre-scan and high-resolution main scan of part of platen.

{combined with enlarging or reducing( enlarging or reducing per se H04N 1/393 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Part of the image is enlarged/reduced to fit new position. Reducing for medium, zoom, belief map.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Corrections or small zoom factors

Enlarging or reducing

{Recombination of partial images to recreate the original image}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combining two images which have been scanned by a scanner which does not cover the entire image. Panoramic image creation, combination, stitching. Process is done digitally and not mechanically.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mosaic images or mosaicing.

Aligning images

Mechanical corrections

H04N1/04B

{Image rotation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rotating the image by any amount, e.g. 90degree. Also when printing double sided or 4 images on 1 page.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

When focus is on image processing.

{Skew detection or correction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to detecting and correcting skew, i.e. errors during scanning: normally less than 45degree.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

See also in G06K 9/3275.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical skew detection

Enlarging or reducing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mainly the mechanical enlargement process, whole image, DIN A4 to DIN A3 (larger than DIN A4).

Special rules of classification within this group

This subgroup takes precedence over H04N 1/04.

{with modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Digitally enlarging or reducing images with a change of resolution including e.g. interpolation (digital).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Beware of H04N 1/40068 which has resolution conversion where physical size is irrelevant.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interpolation in general

Picture signal circuits( H04N 1/387 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General documents regarding quality aspects, quantization (errors), scanning either B/W or color, video printer, frame grabber, memory arrangement or management, smear reduction for CCD.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Moving images, e.g. television

{Conversion of colour to monochrome}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Converting coloured documents into B&W so they can be printed on monotone printers, e.g. changing green into stripes, red into dots.... Converting from RGB via thresholding to grayscale.

{Circuits exciting or modulating particular heads for reproducing continuous tone value scales( H04N 1/401 , H04N 1/407 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Writing: control of print heads, stilus heads, electrostatic heads. Continuous driving signals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Overlap with G06K 15/12.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head

Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multipass inkjet

{for a plurality of reproducing elements simultaneously}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Writing: multiple print elements, essentially LED or thermal printheads, but also using several lasers in parallel.

{the reproducing element being a laser}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mainly continuous tone laser printers.

{Circuits for driving or energising particular reading heads or original illumination means( H04N 1/401 , H04N 1/407 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of light during reading of a document; circuits for driving diodes, analogue switches for light control. Also exposure time of sensor etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head

Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical details

Lamps per se

{Discrimination between different image types, e.g. two-tone, continuous tone}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Image segmentation, finds regions in bitmap image e.g. text, table, photo, line image; also "mixed raster content" or "MRC".

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For image processing per se

G06T5/00F

Character recognition, OCR

G06K9/20L

{Modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions( H04N 1/3935 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Change resolution while physical size is irrelevant, e.g. original image is 600dpi and printer is only capable of printing 300dpi, so conversion is necessary.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

With modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Increasing or decreasing spatial resolution

G06K15/02B10F2, G06K15/02B10F4

{Descreening, i.e. converting a halftone signal into a corresponding continuous-tone signal; Rescreening, i.e. combined descreening and halftoning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Descreening and/or rescreening, self-explanatory.

{Soft dot halftoning, i.e. producing halftone dots with gradual edges}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resolution enhancement by intelligently pacing sub-pixels when focus is on write head control.

General edge enhancement

{Multi-toning, i.e. converting a continuous-tone signal for reproduction with more than two discrete brightnesses or optical densities, e.g. dots of grey and black inks on white paper}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Provides more than just level 0 and level 255 for image, e.g. has levels 0, 127 and 255, i.e. multi-level halftoning. Typical documents: EP817464 (Seiko) shows two types of ink C1 and C2 (color multi-toning in H04N 1/52), EP889639 (Xerox) shows levels of white, light gray, dark gray and black.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General bit depth reduction

Variation of dot size

{Modification of content of picture, e.g. retouching( geometric modifications H04N 1/387 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Very few applications. Local modifications, e.g. making lighter and posterization of natural images.

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head( H04N 1/403 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to image readers, mostly line sensors. Shading correction, illumination profile, head calibration, positionally varying noise etc. Also defects in the image sensors. Compensation of ambient illumination.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Correction of isolated defects in image

Control of light source

Defect maps for area sensors

Ambient illumination also in

T04N201/00N

{of the reproducing head}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printers, corrects misaligned or defective heads; head calibration.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Malfunctioning inkjet nozzles

B41J2/165D1

Halftoning, i.e. converting the picture signal of a continuous-tone original into a corresponding signal showing only two levels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Halftoning in general, either B&W only or each color layer separately. Examples are EP126782, EP673150.

{producing a dispersed dots halftone pattern, the dots having substantially the same size( different sizes H04N 1/4057 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dispersed dots, i.e. dots that are not concentrated in clusters which spread out from a central point. Examples are US5317418 - e.g. Gaussian filter, blue noise; US5426122 - FM rasters.

{by error diffusion, i.e. transferring the binarising error to neighbouring dot decisions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Error diffusion for halftoning, note that error diffusion is also used for other purposes in other parts of H04N 1/00. Examples are EP507354, EP808055.

{with threshold modulated relative to input image data or vice-versa}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in this group are WO8906080, EP715451.

{producing a clustered dots or a size modulated halftone pattern}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Halftone dots grow from a central point and spread in all directions. Also dispersed clusters. Illustrative examples are US3688033, EP651560.

{the pattern varying in one dimension only, e.g. dash length, pulse width modulation (PWM)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Growth of halftone dot in one direction only, includes Pulse Width Modulation. Illustrative examples are EP212990, US4951152.

{the pattern being a mixture of differently sized sub-patterns, e.g. spots having only a few different diameters( multi-toning H04N 1/40087 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different dot sizes, each dot has the same density. Illustrative examples are EP647059 (fig.5), US4680645 (fig.1).

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

For dots of different densities (inks) classify in H04N 1/40087.

{with details for producing a halftone screen at an oblique angle( H04N 1/4056 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative examples are GB2026283, WO9307709.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pattern varying in one dimension only

Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels, e.g. background level
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Selection of particular gamma correction table, correction depending on media scanned or printed on, film type correction, correction of tone scale for dot gain.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Similar to H04N 1/6027 for colour.

{dependent on the contents of the original}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Analysis of image content to determine final correction to be applied, e.g. automatic background deletion.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conversion to binary

{using histograms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Histogram analysis to determine tone correction parameters.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In context of pure image processing

{dependent on references outside the picture}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pre-scanning to read reference strips (B&W), which is used to set max and min levels. Very limited test patterns containing only black (offset correction) and white (gain correction), e.g. printed next to an image or as separate image. Standard pattern on monitor (no light for black reference and light on for white reference).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitor calibration per se

{using gradational references, e.g. grey-scale test pattern analysis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Test pattern analysis for gray scale corrections.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Edge or detail enhancement; Noise or error suppression
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Noise or error correction. Elimination of "streaky effects".

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image processing per se

Scanning correction due to reader error

{Edge or detail enhancement}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fairly self-explanatory. Has also first edge detection and then correction. Edge emphasis, sharpness correction, unsharp masking, smoothing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image processing per se

G06T5/00E

For color

For cameras

{Correction of errors due to scanning a two-sided document, i.e. show-through correction}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "show-through" and "see-through" are often used as synonyms.

{Removing errors due external factors, e.g. dust, scratches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removal of streaks, dust, blemishes, tears, scratches, hairs. Removing scratches from photographs using infrared image.

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction( by scanning H04N 1/17 ; { H04N 19/00 takes precedence; for data acquisition G06F 17/40 ; coding for image data processing in general G06T 9/00 ; data compression in general H03M 7/30 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General coding groups for still images, B&W, gray scale or each color component separately. This head group has using different coding techniques wihtin the same document, combination of different techniques, or choosing from different available coding mehtods (e.g.. characters with technique 1, pictures with technique 2).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Television systems for the transmission of television signals using bandwidth reduction

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coding of color images

For mixed image compression

{for halftone screened pictures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Image to be coded must be halftoned image only.

for the transmission{or storage}or reproduction of two-tone pictures, e.g. black and white pictures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

B&W images, i.e. binary coding.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Continuous tone compression

{involving the recognition of specific patterns, e.g. by symbol matching}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. huffman coding.

Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lossless coding, has a variety of coding methods, e.g. comparing different codings of a line and choosing shortest code; universal coding.

in which the picture-elements are subdivided or grouped into fixed one-dimensional or two-dimensional blocks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Block coding, also mix of Huffman and run-length coding.

using predictive or differential encoding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Predictive coding, arithmetic coding.

{Progressive encoding, i.e. by decomposition into high and low resolution components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different resolutions of the image, wavelet coding for binary images.

{involving the encoding of tone transitions with respect to tone transitions in a reference line}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Differential coding, i.e. coding the change data between two lines.

{encoding document change data, e.g. form drop out data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Templates, encodes the data change only; encode difference of image when template is known, e.g. scanned images of filled out form sheets.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color form drop-out

in which encoding of the length of a succession of picture-elements of the same value along a scanning line is the only encoding step{ H04N 1/4135 to H04N 1/417 take precedence }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

B&W runlength encoding.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Baseband signal showing more than two values or a continuously varying baseband signal is transmitted or recorded

Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information using predictive or differential encoding

Systems for two-way working{e.g. conference systems( H04N 1/32 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver, see: H04N 1/32

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television systems for two-way working

Secrecy systems
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preventing unauthorised reproduction

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity

Secret communication in general

Arrangements for secret or secure communication in transmission of digital information

Television secrecy systems

{Restricting access, e.g. according to user identity( mechanisms actuated y cards, PIN or the like in apparatus for dispensing G07F 7/08 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restricting access to computer systems

G06F21/00N5

Access-control involving the use of a pass

Access control in transmission of digital information

Protecting transmitted digital information from access by third parties

Verifying the identity or authority of a user of a system for the transmission of digital information

{Rendering the image unintelligible, e.g. scrambling}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Secret communication by adding a second signal to make the desired signal unintelligible

Systems rendering a television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible

Ciphering or deciphering apparatus for cryptographic purposes

{using digital data encryption}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for secret or secure communication using public key encryption algorithm

Colour picture communication systems{( colorimetry G01J 3/46 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour edit systems, printers with different recording modes for color and monochrome, decision as to print/scan color or B&W, general color applications for fax. Very general group.

{Conversion of monochrome to colour}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Very straightforward, conversion into color documents, e.g. pattern chart to color (opposite to H04N 1/40012). Generating false color representations.

Picture signal generators( for halftone screening H04N 1/52 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Color image readers, hardware of apparatuses.

{using the same detector device sequentially for different colour components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filter wheels to separate components.

{with sequential colour illumination of the original}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The use of different lights to read the image, e.g. first R, then G, finally B, e.g. successive RGB LED lighting.

{with separate detectors, each detector being used for one specific colour component}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using separate R, G and B sensor elements, typically line sensors. Has also documents on correcting chromatic aberrations of 3-line CCD sensor, also RGB sensor with additional monochrome sensor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Demosaicing

For area sensors (Bayer matrix)

{using beam-splitters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Splitting light using prisms, half (dichroic) mirrors, diffraction grating - most applications deal with line sensors.

Picture reproducers( for halftone screening H04N 1/52 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Color printers, hardware of apparatuses.

{Reproducing the colour component signals dot-sequentially or simultaneously in a single or in adjacent picture-element positions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dot by dot printing, point-wise scanning, essentially either inkjet or laser beam printer.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

More details on inkjets

{Reproducing the colour component signals line-sequentially}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Line-by-line printing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alignment of dots

{Reproducing the colour component signals picture-sequentially, e.g. with reproducing heads spaced apart from one another in the subscanning direction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Picture-by-picture printing, i.e. one complete color separation after the other. Focus on image signal circuits, e.g. start-of-scan determination, sync marks on print medium, misregistration correction correcting misalignment of individual print heads with respect to each other. Facet or face-to-face errors. This is the typical way color laser printers work, when one latent image is generated after the other and one after the other developped and transferred.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Temperature

Purely mechanical corrections

G09G15/01

Trapping is also used against misregistration, but is an image modification

{using the same reproducing head for two or more colour components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using one drum for more than one color, thermal transfer printers.

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour halftoning, colour multi-toning e.g. with use of more than one cyan (C1 and C2), screens, error diffusion.

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 1/40087 or some subgroup of H04N 1/405 may be applied additionally to H04N 1/52.

Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours, e.g. for textile printing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing with additional colours, e.g. using orange and brown pigments additionally or white or gold, CMYKRGB printers.

Processing of colour picture signals( H04N 1/52 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General color image processing, color to 2-color converstion (e.g.. RGB to black/red). Film type, document type, slide type, text+image, detection of mouse marker.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening

Edge or detail enhancement; Noise or error suppression, e.g. colour misregistration correction( H04N 1/62 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Self-explanatory regarding noise and edge. A substantial part of this subgroup deals with trapping (spreading and choking image objects), either on bitmap or on page description language (PDL) level.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Retouching, i.e. modification of isolated colours only or in isolated picture areas only

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For integration of trapping in PDL workflow

G06K15/02B8H2

Colour correction or control{( H04N 1/54 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kinds of color correction. Estimating spectrum from XYZ input.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours

{with simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer( H04N 1/622 takes precedence; matching two or more picture reproducers H04N 1/6052 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Color corrections involving representation of the image on monitor, e.g. for interactive correction or for use as soft proofer.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Matching printer and monitor for softproofing per se

With simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer

{by simulating several colour corrected versions of the same image simultaneously on the same picture reproducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fairly self-explanatory, typically the user selects one of the several similated, corrected images.

{Conversion to subtractive colour signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Usually transformations from RGB to CMY, but also used generally for transformations to output device values, as far as the focus is on the transformation. Here (matrix) equations are used.

{using look-up tables( H04N 1/6025 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Look-up tables for color conversion, typically to CMY. Also interpolation methods to calculate the in-between values not stored in the tables, e.g. tetrahedal or cubic interpolations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Generating a fourth subtractive colour signal using look-up tables

{Generating a fourth subtractive colour signal, e.g. under colour removal, black masking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Essentially the transformations to CMYK which involve use of equations. Gray component replacement (GCR), undercolor removal (UCR).

{using look-up tables}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Four-colour look-up tables, also their interpolation.

{Correction or control of colour gradation or colour contrast( H04N 1/6058 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General control and correction of tone reproduction curves. Gray balance, white balance as result thereof. Aspects of saturation correction.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Reduction of colour to a range of reproducible colours

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

When focus is on white balance per se.

White balance in cameras

{controlled by characteristics of the picture signal generator or the picture reproducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Device profiles, e.g. ICC profiles, profile management for several devices, profile editing.

{using test pattern analysis( H04N 1/6055 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printer or scanner calibration using color test patterns.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Matching two or more picture signal generators or two or more picture reproducers using test pattern analysis

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color charts as such

G01G3/52

In electrophotography

G03G15/00C

For B&W

Camera calibration

{Matching two or more picture signal generators or two or more picture reproducers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specifically matching two (or more) devices to each other, e.g. for proofing, i.e. printer to printer or printer to monitor.

{using test pattern analysis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to the two device scenario.

{Reduction of colour to a range of reproducible colours, e.g. to ink- reproducible colour gamut}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gamut mapping and gamut conversion. Mainly within a device-independent space in order to map color reproducability of one device onto that of another device.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In relation to general image processing and computer graphics

{adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Corrections to an image which depends on the type of image object, i.e. different corrections within one page, e.g. text and picture differently corrected.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Discrimination of image (object) types per se - (B&W),

Discrimination of image (object) types per se - (colour).

{Corrections to the hue}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only hue changes, not luminance or chroma or saturation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Saturation correction

{Colour balance, e.g. colour cast correction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Correction of e.g. color fog or blue shift in image.

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 1/6027 has precedence.

{within the L, C1, C2 colour signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. histogram technique in L*a*b* color space.

{controlled by factors external to the apparatus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Environmental factors.

{by viewing conditions, i.e. conditions at picture output}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eg. correction for sunlight on monitor, artifical lighting, flare.

{depending on characteristics of the input medium, e.g. film type, newspaper}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different film types have different properties, thus need to be corrected. For newspaper, correction due to the yellowing is necessary.

Retouching, i.e. modification of isolated colours only or in isolated picture areas only
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Correction limited to particular colors, e.g. the red of a red apple is selected and enhanced. Changing color information in a region.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For skin color

{with simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

With display of image on monitor for user selection and editing.

Systems for the transmission or the storage of the colour picture signal; Details therefor, e.g. coding or decoding means therefor{( H04N 19/00 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour coding closely related to apparatus.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compression of B&W

Compression per se

{Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Similar but for colour correction and not coding

For different coding for different image types, but limited to B&W

{using a reduced set of representative colours, e.g. each representing a particular range in a colour space}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Palletized colors, including methods of obtaining the palletization and their coding. Rounding, change from true color to 8bit using a pallette.

{Transmitting or storing colour television type signals, e.g. PAL, Lab; Their conversion into additive or subtractive colour signals or vice versa therefor( H04N 1/642 , H04N 1/644 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to e.g. YUV, Lab, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions

Using a reduced set of representative colours, e.g. each representing a particular range in a colour space

{Transmitting or storing the primary(additive or subtractive)colour signals; Compression thereof( H04N 1/642 to H04N 1/646 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limited to CMY or RGB, raw sensor data.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions

Transmitting or storing colour television type signals

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Scanning details of television systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Scanning arrangements using moving aperture, refractor, reflector or lens
  • Scanning arrangements using switched light sources, solid-state devices or cathod-ray tube by deflecting elctron beams
  • Scanning arrangements for motion picture films
Details of television systems( scanning details or combination thereof with generation of supply voltages H04N 3/00 ; specially adapted for colour television H04N 9/00 ; { servers specially adapted for the distribution of content H04N 21/20 ; client devices specially adapted for the reception of or interaction with content H04N 21/40 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects of television signal processing at the transmitter side or the receiver side

Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • H04N 5/00 distinguishes itself from synchronising techniques in transmission of a digital video signal with one or more other digital signals, which are found in H04N 7/00
  • H04N 5/00 distinguishes itself from picture signal processing and corresponding techniques, which are found in subclasses G06T, G09G. This concerns image processing not specific to a television signal (G06T) or video signal processing specific to visual displays (G09G), e.g. LCD or plasma panels
  • H04N 5/00 features transmitter techniques specially adapted to analog transmission of television signals. The corresponding function place for generic transmission are found in subclasses H04N 21/00, H04B, H04H, H04L, H04W. This concerns servers, broadcast or multicast, home networks, wireless networks per se.
  • H04N 5/00 features receiver techniques specially adapted to the reception of analog television signals. The corresponding place for digital television receivers is H04N 21/00.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details related to the housing of computer displays

Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers

Diversity receivers

Broadcast receivers

Home automation networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power management in computer systems

Image enhancement or restoration

Image analysis

Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes

Control arrangements or circuits for visual indicators common to cathode-ray tube indicators and other visual indicators

Broadcast synchronizing

Synchronizing in TDMA

Receiver synchronizing

Selective content distribution

Wall TV displays

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 5/00 features a number of symbols corresponding to a same number of Indexing Codes (e.g., H04N 5/4448 as symbol and H04N 5/4448 as Indexing Code symbol).

Allocation of symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to details of television elements will be given a H04N 5/00 group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to details of television elements will be given a H04N 5/00 group.
  • A document merely mentioning further details of television elements will not be given a group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant, e.g. when conversion of interlace to progressive scanning (H04N5/44V) involves motion estimation, H04N 5/145 is added.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Edging

detection of edges

Movement estimation

motion vector generation

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

GPS

global positioning system

PC

personal computer

STB

set top box

Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment;{Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in other devices e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuitry, devices and other equipment specially adapted to be used in television studio e.g. for mixing images or generation of special effects. This group covers further process and apparatus related to the concept of electronic image capturing using an electronic image sensor and the related control and processing of the generated electronic image signals

Image pickup devices using electronic image sensors (EIS) like e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, CCTV camera, surveillance camera, camcorders, digital cameras embedded in mobile phones, aspects peculiar to the presence of EIS in electronic still cameras, digital still cameras etc.

Electronic image capture by methods or arrangements involving at least the following step: the scanning of a picture, i.e. resolving the whole picture-containing area or scene into individual picture-elements and the derivation of picture-representative electric signals related thereto, simultaneously or in sequence, e.g. by reading an electronic solid-state image sensor (SSIS) pickup device (e.g. CCD or CMOS image sensor) as electronic image sensor converting optical image in formation into said electrical signals;

in colloquial speech said step is frequently formulated as e.g. capturing a video sequence, digital photographing, etc

Concerning cameras:

  • video cameras, TV cameras (e.g. in studios), CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras, camcorders; constructional and mechanical details related to such cameras even when not peculiar to the presence of the EIS e.g. housings
  • arrangements/methods for image capture using an electronic image sensor (EIS), i.e.((i) sensor read-out; (ii) processing or use of electrical image signals from the EIS for the generation of camera control signals,
  • for controlling the EIS or its read-out for e.g. exposure, scene selection for auto focussing, or electronic image enhancement or processing of image signals captured by the EIS, e.g. white balance, electronic motion blur correction, noise suppressing,
  • for controlling other camera functions, e.g. exposure, shaking by influencing optical parts of the camera, focussing,
  • in-camera image processing e.g. correction of lens distortion, defect pixel correction, noise suppression, removal of motion blur, improving the dynamic range of the final image;
  • electronic viewfinders, control of image pickup devices based on information displayed by the electronic viewfinder;
  • electrical and mechanical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details as in webcams or mobile phones;
  • remote control of cameras peculiar to the EIS, e.g. affecting their operation, or being based on a generated image signal;
  • adaptations peculiar to the presence or use of an EIS, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of EIS, integrated cleaning system for the EIS, dust mapping, cooling of the EIS, controlling the operation of the EIS by external input signals;
  • cameras wherein the inventive contribution lies in the interaction of features covered above with those covered by G03B e.g. switch-over between electronic motion-blur correction of electronic viewfinder during focussing and optical motion-blur correction of the lens during exposure, electronic-motion blur correction of the electronic image signal based on output signals of additional sensor, or interaction between mechanical shutter and electronic control of the charge accumulation period of the EIS;
  • applications concerning studios and image capturing devices that can not be classified in lower groups such as camera operation in general, like in studio or for TV events (sports,...), processing for simulating film look, virtual studio, virtual depth image, video assist system, other studio equipment e.g. prompter.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Groups in G03B are to be considered when the following aspects are concerned:

  • apparatus/methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film for image capture, apparatus/methods for printing, for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides by optical means, e.g. mounting of optical elements, flashes, and their related controls, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-)mechanical motion blur (anti-shake), cooling, beam shaping;
  • aspects of apparatus/methods for taking photographs using a electronic image sensor (EIS) for image capture, insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus/methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film, i.e. insofar not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. mounting of optical elements or flashes, and their related controls insofar as they are not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-)mechanical motion blur correction (anti-shake);
  • optical viewfinders;
  • remote control of cameras insofar not peculiar to the EIS, e.g. not affecting their operation, or being based on a generated image signal;
  • optical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details (e.g. lens actuators)

The following scheme is intended to illustrate the relationship between H04N and G03B:

media0.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Radiation diagnosis, diagnostic aspect of medical imaging devices

Pyrometry, measuring temperature

Measuring X-rays, gamma radiation

Image processing in general i.e. not being exclusively adapted to be used in an image pickup device containing an EIS or in studio devices or equipment

Structure of CMOS image sensors

Optical elements or arrangements associated with solid state imager structures

Structure of CCD image sensors

Mounting structure in mobile phones

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Camera adapted for vehicles

Pattern recognition (e.g. details of face detection algorithms)

Surveillance systems with alarm

Mobile phones

Videophones

Closed circuit television system

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical systems

Pattern recognition

Image processing

Editing of recorded image information

Solid state image structure

Broadcasting

Intermediate information storage using still video cameras

Testing of cameras

Use of solid state image sensors

Video recording

Aspect related to colour cameras

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Photography

the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, e.g. silver halide based chemical or an electronic image sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose such a light sensitive medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera

Camera

a device capturing image information represented by light patterns reflected or emitted from objects, and exposing a light sensitive film or an electronic image sensor during a timed exposure, usually through an optical lens, and producing an image on a light sensitive film or an electrical image information signal respectively

Projector

a device displaying image information by projection of light patterns, usually through an optical lens, wherein the light patterns are generated by illuminating an image, e.g. film or slide, or by converting an electric image signal into an optical signal using an electronic spatial light modulator

EIS

Electronic image sensor: optoelectronic transducer, converting optical image information into an electrical signal susceptible of being processed, stored, transmitted or displayed

Additional sensor

a sensor, other than the electronic image sensor, used for controlling a camera

ESLM

Electronic spatial light modulator: optoelectronic transducer converting electric signals representing image information into optical image information

Record

A registration (e.g. of sound or images) in permanent form by optical or electrical means for later reproduction

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SSIS

Solid State Image Sensor

CCD

Charge-Coupled Device

APS

active pixel sensor

CDS

correlated double sensing

CMOS

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor

CIS

CMOS image sensor

AE

automatic exposure control

FPN

fixed pattern noise

NUC

non uniformity correction

HDR

high dynamic range

GUI

graphics user interface

AF

autofocus

AFE

analog front end

AGC

automatic gain control

DSP

digital signal processor

ENG

electronic news gathering

PTZ

pan tilt zoom

EVF

electronic viewfinder

OVF

optical viewfinder

In patent documents the following expressions/words "digital photography", "digital camera", "camcorder", "video camera", "still video", "camera" and "digital still camera" are often used as synonyms.

Television cameras;{Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in other devices e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles( optical systems G02B; associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with TV camera or receiver in which the television signal is not significantly involved G11B 31/006 ; tubes H01J )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details of cameras (housing, mounting of optical parts, mounting of image sensing part, other camera parts). For example: camera module, endoscopes, borescopes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS in electronic still picture cameras, digital still picture camera.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical systems

Associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with TV camera or receiver in which the television signal is not significantly involved

Tubes

Devices for controlling television cameras, e.g. remote control;{Control of cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles}( H04N 5/235 takes precedence; { varying magnification for cameras, e.g. angle of view, by optical means only G02B 7/00 }, G03B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Internal and external camera control. For example, autofocus, computer aided image capture, camera with further processing without influencing image capture process, camera control programs, detect malfunction, dust removal, face recognition aid, GUI (graphics user interface), modes like viewfinder or playback mode, autofocus mode, video mode, still capture mode..., panoramic field of view, power saving or management, shutter delay, image capture speed, synthesis of images in camera, image resolution change, zoom, remote control, camera shake detection and correction, control via network, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object

Circuitry{or methods}for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object{based on an electric image signals provided by an electronic image sensor( exposure control for film cameras or cameras using an additional sensor G03B 7/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object. For example, dynamic range increase, bracketing, use of brightness histograms or brightness compensation by controlling shutter, filter, gain, illumination means, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Exposure control for film cameras or cameras using an additional sensor

Arrangements of television cameras{( constructional details of cameras H04N 5/2251 ; stereoscopic picture signal generators H04N 13/0239 ; H04N 13/0242 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems using several cameras.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details of cameras

Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques, e.g. for telecine( scanning details therefor H04N 3/36 ; { standard conversion therefor H04N 7/0112 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Picture signal generation by scanning motion picture films i.e. cinematographic films in video signals e.g. telecine.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scanning details therefor

Standards conversion therefor

Picture signal generators using flying-spot scanners( H04N 5/253 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Obsolete technology.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques

Studio circuits, e.g. for mixing, switching-over, change of character of image, other special effect ;{Cameras specially adapted for the electronic generation of special effects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Studio circuits providing video special effects like combining different images, changing image aspect (geometric, orientation, etc.) or aesthetic/artistic aspect, providing transitions between images, background and foreground images synthesizing, mixing and switching.

Mobile studios
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mobile studios, e.g. television studio equipment installed in vehicles for outdoor broadcasting.

Transforming light or analogous information into electric information( H04N 5/222 takes precedence; scanning details H04N 3/00 ; light transforming elements H01J , H01L )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Photoelectric converting image sensors not classified in others subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Light transforming elements

Scanning details

Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment

Transforming X-rays{( image transformers H01J 31/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and applications with image sensors transforming X-rays.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Image transformers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-uniformity correction

Transforming infra-red radiation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and applications with image sensors transforming infra-red radiation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-uniformity correction

using solid-state image sensors [SSIS]( H04N 5/32 , H04N 5/33 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuitry and processing specific to e.g. CMOS or CCD solid state image sensors; includes particular sampling pattern e.g. windowing; includes noise correction e.g. defect pixels, dark current correction; includes particular functions achieved by scanning e.g. electronic shutter, control of the dynamic range.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transforming X-rays

Transforming infra-red radiation

Special rules of classification within this group

Groups H04N 5/335 to H04N 5/378 correspond to former ECLA groups H04N 5/2173-H04N 5/2176; H04N 5/335 and H04N 3/15-H04N 3/1568; they are presently being reclassified.

  • In many case it is useful to supplement an identified function covered in the range [H04N 5/335-H04N 5/3675] with an Indexing Code corresponding to the sensor technology CCD/MOS covered in H04N 5/372, H04N 5/374 or H04N 5/3745. As an example a dark current correction for CCD would be classified in H04N 5/361 and additionally Indexing Code H04N 5/372.
  • The sensor matrix defined in H04N 5/3745 is not meant to include the associated circuits. An A/D converter in an output register is classified in H04N 5/3742 or H04N 5/378 but not in H04N 5/37455.
  • Although not always specific to SSIS the noise/distortion produced by a lens is nevertheless classified in H04N 5/3572 and not in H04N 5/217. This has been done to facilitate the search. Corrections of chromatic aberrations, which can also be related to lenses are classified in H04N 9/045. All other noise suppression or disturbance minimisation in picture signal generation e.g. in a camera having an EIS should be classified in H04N 5/217.
  • Two groups specific to colour aspects are presently defined in H04N 5/3458 and H04N 5/3537, it avoids splitting an identical function between the H04N 5/335 and H04N 9/045.
Television signal recording( diagnosis, testing or measuring for television signal recorders H04N 17/06 ; recording in connection with measuring G01D ; information storage {in which the television signal is not involved, driving, starting, stopping, head switching, editing, indexing} in general G11 , e.g. G11B )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video data recording:

  • Specially adapted recording devices such as a VCR, PVR, high speed camera, camcorder or a specially adapted PC
  • Interfaces between recording devices and other devices for input and/or output of video signals such as TVs, video cameras, other recording devices
  • Video recorder programming
  • Adaptations of the video signal for recording on specific recording media such as HDD, tape, drums, holographic support, semiconductor memories
  • Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate such as trick play modes and stroboscopic recording
  • Processing of the video signal for noise suppression, scrambling, field or frame skip, bandwidth reduction
  • Impairing the picking up, for recording, of a projected video signal
  • Regeneration of either a recorded video signal or for recording the video signal
  • Video signal recording wherein the recorded video signal may be accompanied by none, one or more video signals (stereoscopic signals or video signals corresponding to different story lines)
  • Production of a motion picture film from a television signal

Details specific to this group:

Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • The subject-matter in the range H04N 5/92 - H04N 5/956 deals with recording and processing for recording of only black and white video signals while H04N 9/79 - H04N 9/898 deals with recording and processing for recording colour video signals.
  • H04N 5/76 (video recording) distinguishes itself from editing, which is found in G11B 27/00, in that the signals recorded and reproduced are video signals.
  • H04N 5/76 is a function place for recording or processing for recording. H04N 21/433 describes applications for recording in a distribution system.
  • H04N 5/76 features recording devices specially adapted to video data recording that can be programmed. The programming may be done by a user or a using an algorithm. Business methods where the video recording feature or step is well known is generally classified in G06Q30/00A.
  • H04N 5/76 contains recording devices that are characterised by the connection to other devices through an interface. Typically information is sent or received by a recorder through an interface that impacts the recording or playback function. Interfaces in general are found in H04N 5/44.
  • H04N 5/76 contains video cameras that record video data to a recording medium. Video cameras constructional details are found in H04N 5/225.
  • H04N 5/76 is an application place for video data trick play. Reproducing data in general at a rate different from the recording rate is found in G11B 27/005.
  • H04N 5/76 contains applications of video data processing for scrambling/encrypting video data for recording. Systems for rendering a video signal unintelligible are found in H04N 7/16 and H04N 21/00.
  • H04N 5/76 is an application place for video data reduction for recording. Video data compression is found in H04N 19/00.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Video data processing for printing

Business methods related to the distribution of video data content

G06Q30/00A

Video editing

Recording techniques specially adapted to a recording medium for recording digital data in general

Control of video recorders where the video signal is not substantially involved

Video camera constructional details

H04N4/225

Network video distribution

H04N5/24T6

Production of a video signal from a motion picture film

Interfaces

User interface of set top boxes

Video data coding

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems for buying and selling, i.a., video content

Alarm system using video cameras

Selective content distribution

Controlling video cameras

Video surveillance

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 5/76 features a small number of ECLA subdivisions and has an additional associated Indexing Code scheme T04N576/00 (Indexing Code). A document does not explicitly mention that the video signal is a monochrome video signal is to be interpreted as being a colour video signal. As a consequence some classes in H04N 5/76 specific to monochrome signal recording have fallen out of use. Instead the corresponding colour symbols should be given to such documents:

Allocation of EC symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to video data recording will be given an H04N 5/76 EC group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to video data recording (in particular, if the document discloses a detailed video recording device) will be given a H04N 5/76 Indexing Code symbol.
  • A document containing invention information for more than one invention it may be given more than one H04N 5/76 EC group.
  • A document merely mentioning recording will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Allocation of Indexing Code symbols in combination with EC:

  • When assigning H04N 5/76 as EC group, giving an additional Indexing Code is mandatory.

Combined use of Indexing Code symbols:

  • Indexing Code symbols maybe allocated as necessary to describe additional information in document.

Symbol allocation rules:

  • Documents defining recording devices that have an interface, e.g., connected to a network, should have at least one of the more specific H04N 5/765 Indexing Code symbols.
  • Documents dealing with invention information about measures to prevent recording of projected images should be given the H04N 2005/91392 Indexing Code symbol.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Video or video data

Video signal, analogue or digital, with or without accompanying audio

{the recording apparatus and the television camera being placed in the same enclosure}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video cameras as recording devices.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television cameras

between a recording apparatus and a television receiver
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

TV-receiver details

Recording/reproduction devices integrated in TV-receivers

on discs or drums
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Magnetic disks.

on tape
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video recording programming applications, although it reads (recording) "on tape".

Video recorder programming (reservation recording).

Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Trick play modes as well as processing for recording to enable the reproduction of video data at a rate different from the recording rate.
  • High speed recording cameras.
  • Speed control during recording, reproducing, reproducing at variable speed.
on discs or drums
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical discs.

for scrambling;{for copy protection}( scrambling of a television signal for transmission H04N 7/167 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Scrambling and encryption of video data for recording.
  • Copy-protection systems.
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one Indexing Code H04N 5/913 symbol should be allocated to such document to further specify the scrambling method.

for bandwidth reduction( bandwidth reduction H04N 7/12 ; using pulse code modulation H04N 7/24 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compression of analogue video signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Compression of video signals

Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback{( transmitter circuitry H04N 5/38 ; receiver circuitry H04N 5/44 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/82

Regeneration of the television signal or of selected parts thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/87

Signal drop-out compensation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/88

Time-base error compensation{( H04N 5/932 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No longer used for classification

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Regeneration of analogue synchronisation signals

Special rules of classification within this group

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/89

Television systems (details H04N 3/00, H04N 5/00; methods or arrangements, for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals H04N 19/00; selective content distribution H04N 21/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • structural or hardware-related aspects of television systems, involving
  • analogue television signals or digital television signals processed at low level (e.g. physical layer in the OSI model);
  • details on conversion of television standards;
  • circuits for recovering digital non-picture data in analogue television signals;
  • specific arrangements allowing transmission of television signals via electric cables, optical fibres or using a GHz frequency band.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N 5/00 covers details of television systems and circuitry for processing analogue television signals or digital television signals processed at pixel level. Conversion between television standards and circuits for recovering digital non-picture data (slicers) are however classified in H04N 7/00.

H04N 9/00 and H04N 11/00 are to be considered when the focus is on colour aspects.

Aspects of diagnosis, testing and measuring for television systems are covered by H04N 17/00.

Television systems involving digital television signals not processed at low level should normally be classified in H04N 21/00.

Broadcast systems which are not specifically adapted for television signals should be classified in H04H.

Systems foreseen for the transmission/reception of data which may comprises inter alia television or video signals should be classified in respective telecommunication areas H04B, H04L, H04M and H04W.

General image processing not specific to television signals belongs to G06T. Video signal processing specific to visual displays belongs to G09G.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Aspects of video games

Recognition of data in general

Image data processing or generation, in general

Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address

Broadcast communication in general

Systems specific to colour television

Stereoscopic television systems

Selective content distribution

Scanning details of television systems

Details of television systems

Details of systems specific to colour television

Wireless networks in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes

Arrangements in vehicles for holding or mounting or controlling radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like

Mounting of cameras operative during drive (of a vehicle)

Arrangements for entertainment or communications for passenger or crew in aircraft, e.g. radio, television

Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce

Remote control devices

Electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices working with questions and answers

Simulators for teaching or training purposes

Miscellaneous advertising or display means not provided for elsewhere

Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address

Special rules of classification within this group

A document containing invention information relating to one of the subgroups will be given the relating EC symbol.

A document containing additional information relating to one of the subgroups will be given the relating Indexing Code.

A document merely mentioning a television system will not be given an EC symbol, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

3:2 pull-down pattern

a pattern of images where the first image is repeated 3 times and the second image is repeated twice

HDTV

High Definition TeleVision

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): a circuit-switched telephone network system

Letter-box system

television system which displays images comprising a central part and black bars above and below the central part

MAC

Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC): a satellite television transmission standard

Video signal

television signal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CRT

Cathode Ray Tube, a technology of display

CATV

Community Antenna Television

CCTV

Closed Circuit TeleVision

EPG

Electronic Programme Guide

GUI

Graphics User Interface

MATV

Master Antenna TeleVision

MPEG

Motion Picture Experts Group; a family of standards used for coding audio-visual information in a digital compressed format

PC

Personal Computer

PVR

Personal Video Recorder

STB

Set-Top Box

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

VOD

Video On Demand

{ Special television systems not provided for by H04N 7/007 to H04N 7/18 ( still pictures via a television channel H04N 1/00098 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmission of still pictures via a television channel

Places in relation to which this subgroup is residual:

Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system

Conversion of standards

High-definition television systems

Systems for the transmission of digital non-picture data, e.g. of text during the active part of a television frame

Systems for the transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by a single carrier

Systems for the simultaneous transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by more than one carrier

Systems for the simultaneous or sequential transmission of more than one television signal, e.g. additional information signals, the signals occupying wholly or partially the same frequency band

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

Systems for two-way working

Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems

Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast

Adaptations for transmission via a GHz frequency band, e.g. via satellite

Adaptations for optical transmission

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

{Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • systems with auxiliary information data allowing improved picture quality transmitted during the active part of the TV signal, e.g. in black bands at the upper and lower edges of the picture;
  • letter-box systems.
Conversion of standards{involving analogue television standards or digital television standards processed at pixel level( video transcoding H04N 19/40 ; image scaling in general G06T 3/40 ; adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal G09G 5/005 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Image scaling in general

Video signal processing specific to visual displays

Frame rate conversion for reducing blurring effect in a hold-type liquid crystal display (LCD)

Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal

Interpolation filters

Studio circuits for television systems involving alteration of picture size or orientation

Saving bandwidth in low bit-rate video transmission

Processing specific to video coder/decoder: transcoding to realise interoperability between different video coding standards

Processing specific to video coder/decoder: subsampling at the coder and/or sample restitution by interpolation at the coder or decoder

Circuits specific for processing colour signals

Conversion of colour television standards

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Receiver circuitry for receiving on more than one standard at will

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FRC

Frame Rate Converter

FRUC

Frame Rate Up-Converter

MC-FRC

Motion Compensation - Frame Rate Converter

NTSC

National Television System Committee

PAL

Phase alternating line

SECAM

Séquentiel couleur à mémoire (Sequential Colour with Memory)

High-definition television systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

High-definition colour television systems

H04N11/24

Systems for the transmission of digital non-picture data, e.g. of text during the active part of a television frame{( transmission of digital non-picture data during the vertical blanking interval only H04N 7/088 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems using the active part of a television signal or part of it for transmitting digital non-picture data not foreseen to be watched as such on a display.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmission of still pictures via a television channel

Transmission of digital non-picture data during the vertical blanking interval

Circuits for the digital non-picture data signal, e.g. for slicing of the data signal, for regeneration of the data-clock signal, for error detection or correction of the data signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Circuits for recovering data transmitted during the non-active part of the television signal, e.g. vertical or horizontal blanking interval;
  • Circuits for recovering data transmitted during the active part of the television signal instead of the pictorial signal.
Systems for the transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by a single carrier{( H04N 7/084 , H04N 7/087 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for transmitting in a particular way both picture and sound by a single carrier.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the horizontal blanking interval

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the vertical blanking interval

Systems for the simultaneous transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by more than one carrier{( H04N 7/084 , H04N 7/087 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for transmitting in a particular way both picture and sound by more than one carrier.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the horizontal blanking interval

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the vertical blanking interval

Systems for the simultaneous or sequential transmission of more than one television signal, e.g. additional information signals, the signals occupying wholly or partially the same frequency band,{e.g. by time division( H04N 7/007 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CC

Closed Caption

CRI

Clock Run-In

HBI

Horizontal Blanking Interval

RIC

Run-In Clock

VBI

Vertical Blanking Interval

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable( H04N 7/12 takes precedence; { transmission by lines H04B 3/00 ; wired broadcast systems H04H 20/76 ; CATV (Community Antenna Television) systems H04H 20/78 })
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coaxial connectors for coaxial cables

H01R17/12

Networks for connecting several sources or loads, working on different frequencies or frequency bands, to a common load or source, particularly adapted for use in common antenna systems

Networks for connecting several sources or loads, working on the same frequency or frequency band, to a common load or source, particularly adapted for use in common antenna systems

Line transmission systems, in general

Repeater circuits for signals in two different frequency ranges transmitted in opposite directions over the same transmission path

Arrangements of wired systems for broadcast

CATV systems

Home automation networks

Distribution of signals within a home automation network, e.g. involving splitting/multiplexing signals to/from different paths

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal( H04N 7/24 takes precedence; { by special scanning H04N 3/00 } ; high definition television systems H04N 7/015 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scanning details of television systems

High-definition television systems

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour television systems with bandwidth reduction

Systems for two-way working({ H04N 7/12 , } H04N 7/173 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

Systems with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal

Telephonic communication systems combined with television receiver for reception of entertainment or information matter

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of, or interaction with, content, e.g. STB [set-to-box]; Operations thereof

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for two-way working in the scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like

Conference systems({ video terminal details H04N 7/141 } ; telephonic conference arrangements H04M 3/56 ; { computer conferencing H04L 12/1813 })
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details of the terminal equipment, e.g. arrangements of the camera and the display

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for conference in data switching networks

Telephonic conference arrangements

Multimedia conference systems

Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Television systems, where transmitters such as head-ends distribute analog television signals to television receivers. Typically, the access to analog television information is restricted based on a subscription system, where the television viewer will be charged for accessing the programs he/she has selected. To prevent eavesdropping, the transmitted analog signals are scrambled by the transmitter, e.g. in the time or amplitude domain, and descrambled at reception. Such systems can work in a unidirectional mode, where the transmitter decides which analog television programs the subscriber is entitled to view or in a bidirectional mode, where the user can request to view a movie.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Unidirectional or bidirectional television systems involving the distribution of digital video signals fall within the scope of H04N 21/00.

{Constructional details of the subscriber equipment( H04N 7/164 takes precedence; coin-freed and like apparatus in general G07F )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Coin-freed and like apparatus in general

Coin-freed apparatus

{Authorising the user terminal, e.g. by paying; Registering the use of a subscription channel, e.g. billing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Entitlement systems, where the receiver is entitled to access the analog television program. Usually the user is billed therefor
  • Analog conditional access systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Payment schemes

E-commerce

{by receiver means only}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Television programs are broadcast in a scrambled form and only receivers fitted with e.g. a conditional access card can descramble them.

{Centralised control of user terminal( subsequent to an upstream request signal H04N 7/17345 ); Registering at central( by two-way working H04N 7/17309 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where typically head-ends select which receivers are entitled to receive the analog television programs.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Registering at central by two-way working

Centralised control of user terminal subsequent to an upstream request signal

Systems rendering the television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible{ secret communication in general H04K 1/00 }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Systems operating in the time domain, e.g. by displacing synchronisation signals relative to active picture signals or vice versa or by changing or reversing the order of active picture signal portions
  • Systems operating in the amplitude domain, e.g. by modifying synchronisation signals or by inverting the polarity of active picture signal portions
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Secret communication in general

{Providing digital key or authorisation information for generation or regeneration of the scrambling sequence( pseudo-random number generators in general G06F 7/58 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scrambling or descrambling of analog television signals based on digital keys

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pseudo-random number generators in general

Computer security

Cryptography in general

Network security

with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bidirectional systems

{Transmission or handling of upstream communications}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of analog signal processing, coding or modulating in the upstream channel

{Direct or substantially direct transmission and handling of requests}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Typically on-demand systems for analog TV programs

{Handling of requests in head-ends}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of analog Video-on-Demand servers

Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast{( television transmission of measured quantities G01D 5/39 ; intruder alarm or detection by television surveillance G08B 13/196 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body combined with television appliances

Arrangements in vehicles for holding or mounting or controlling radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like

Mounting of cameras operative during drive of a vehicle; Arrangements of control thereof relative to the vehicle

Arrangements for entertainment or communications for passenger or crew in aircraft, e.g. radio, television

Scanning a visible indication of a measured value and reproducing this indication at a remote place, e.g. on the screen of a cathode-ray tube

Recognition of data in general

Image processing in general

Burglar, theft, or intruder alarms using television cameras

Signal generation from motion picture films

Adaptations for transmission via a GHz frequency band, e.g. via satellite
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Space-based or airborne stations for radio transmission systems

Arrangements of satellite networks for broadcast

Adaptations for optical transmission
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light

Arrangements of optical systems for broadcast

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation( H04N 21/00 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television

Source coding or decoding of a digital video signal

Error protection or correction of a digital video signal

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 21/00 takes precedence, except for source coding or decoding of a digital video signal (H04N 19/00 takes precedence in this case), and for error protection, detection or correction of a digital video signal (H04N 19/89 takes precedence in this case):

Systems for transmission of a pulse code modulated video signal with one or more other pulse code modulated signals, e.g. an audio signal or a synchronizing signal( assembling of a multiplex stream by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetised elementary stream at server side H04N 21/236 ; disassembling of a multiplex stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of Service Information, disassembling of packetised elementary stream at client side H04N 21/434 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Assembling of a multiplex stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetised elementary stream at server side

Disassembling of a multiplex stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of Service Information, disassembling of packetised elementary stream at client side

the signals being synchronous{( H04N 21/23602 , H04N 21/23614 , H04N 21/2365 , H04N 21/2368 , H04N 21/4341 , H04N 21/4342 , H04N 21/4347 , H04N 21/4348 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

older multiplexing/demultiplexing and transport technologies which were used before the introduction of MPEG system layer, based on a format, e.g. a frame format, usable for transmission or recording of compressed or uncompressed video data, possibly combined with other content, e.g. audio

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Multiplexing/demultiplexing of asynchronous signals, e.g. MPEG system layer type signals, involving the use of transport streams, program streams

Use of PCR for clock recovery

Use of time stamps (PTS, DTS) for content synchronisation

Special rules of classification within this group

Multiplexing/demultiplexing video and audio: H04N 21/2368, H04N 21/4341 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing video and additional data: H04N 21/23614,

H04N 21/4348 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing several video streams: H04N 21/2365, H04N 21/4347 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing isochronously with video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI: H04N 21/23602, H04N 21/4342 take precedence.

Synchronising systems therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Synchronisation for signals falling under H04N 7/54

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Use of PCR for clock recovery

Use of time stamps (PTS, DTS) for content synchronisation

Details of colour television systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Picture signal generators
  • Picture reproducers using opto-mechanical scanning, cathod-ray tubes, solid-state colour displays or projection devices
  • Conversion of monochrome to colour image signals
  • Colour synchronisation
  • Processing brightness and chrominance signal in relation with each other
  • Processing of colour signals in general as well as specifically for recording
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

ESLM

Electronic Spatial Light Modulator

DMD

Deformable mirror device

LCLV

Liquid Crystal Light Valve

D-ILA

Direct Drive Image Light Amplifier

HDR

High Dynamic Range

LCOS

Liquid Crystal On Silicon

DSP

Digital Signal Processor

DLP

Digital Light Processor

CRT

Cathode Ray Tube

RGB

Red Green Blue

CYM

Cyan Yellow Magenta

Picture reproducers( devices or arrangements for the electro-, magneto- or acousto-optical modulation or deflection of light beams G02F )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video walls (excluding multi-projection displays)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Video walls or multiscreen displays when each modular display is a projection device.

using demagnetisation or compensation of external magnetic fields
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of degaussing circuits.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of CRT or electron-beam tubes

Projection devices for colour picture display{e.g. using electronic spatial light modulators(ESLM)( projection devices using film stock, photographic film or slides, G03B 21/00 and subgroups )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Image projection using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], i.e. processing of electrical image signals provided to the ESLM for the generation of projector control signals, for controlling the ESLM, e.g. control of the light source
  • based on electronic image signal, light conditioning specially adapted for the ESLM
  • in-projector image processing, electronic image data manipulation, e.g. during display or projection
  • details of projectors peculiar to the use of an ESLM, e.g. dichroic
  • and polarizing arrangements specially adapted for the ESLM
  • remote control of projectors peculiar to the ESLM, e.g. affecting their operation, or based on a generated image signal;
  • adaptations peculiar to the use of an ESLM and/or the display, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data
  • and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of ESLM, integrated
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass G03B contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Aspects of apparatus/methods for projecting or viewing images using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus/methods for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides, i.e. insofar as not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. mounting of optical elements not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, and their related controls not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, optical keystone correction;
  • (opto-)mechanical image enhancement in printers or projectors (e.g. keystone correction);
  • constructional aspects of projectors, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, light
  • integrating means not peculiar to the ESLM;

Subclass G02B contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Optical image modulation using direction light control e.g. deformable mirror devices (DMD's),
  • laser speckle optics,
  • head-up projection displays (head-mounted displays).

Subclass G02F contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Control of light using liquid crystals.

Subclass G09F 9/00 contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Indicating arrangements for variable information (e.g. street or stadium displays).
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optical systems in general

Dichroic and polarizing arrangements in general

Devices for controlling direction of light e.g. DMD's

Head-up displays

Speckle reduction

Film projectors

Details

Projection screens

Image processing per se

Displaying of variable information using colour tubes

Control of colour illumination sources

Liquid crystal colour display with specific pixel layout

Characterised by the way in which colour is displayed

Using circuits for interfacing with colour displays

Using colour palettes

3D picture reproducers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical systems

Light control

Film projection and photography

Projection arrangements for image reproduction e.g. using eidophor

{scanning a light beam on the display screen( scanning a light beam on a screen in displays other than projection devices G09G 3/02 ; scanning systems in general G02B 26/10 ; projectors using laser light sources in general H04N 9/3161 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scanning projection devices wherein a light beam (e.g. a point beam or a linear beam from a laser or an LED) is scanned across a screen (e.g. using scanning mirrors).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

XY Scanning, scanning systems in general

Laser speckle optics

Semiconductors lasers

Projectors using laser light sources in general

Colour synchronisation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Synchronisation of the modulated colour signal in relationship with the colour subcarrier,
  • colour subcarrier generation in relationship with the extracted burst.
Circuits for processing colour signals( H04N 9/77 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Color video sampling format conversion e.g. 4:2:2 to 4:2:0
  • Gamut mapping and Colour Space Conversions
  • Multiprimary colour signal conversion
  • Colour sampling in digital video e.g. 4:4:4, 4:2:0, 4:1:1
  • Processing of the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • Input colour signal detection relating to the type and standard of colour signals
  • Synchronous modulation and demodulation of the colour signals
  • Image enhancement or disturbance suppression specific to the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • Colour space transformation of the demodulated colour signal
  • Amplitude contol and gamma control of the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • DC contol control of the modulated colour television signal according to vertical blanking reference
  • White balance control of the demodulated colour signal for display or at electronic image capture level
  • Mixing of foreground and background colour video signals using chroma keying
Relationship between large subject matter areas

With respect to colour or chrominance aspects, subclass H04N 1/00 contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Aspects of apparatus/methods for controlling or correcting colour video signals originating from a scanned picture signal e.g. facsimile, document, photo.
  • Subclass G06T contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:
  • General purpose data processing of an image or enhancement of such image not particularly adapted to a motion video signal
  • Subclass H03D contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:
  • Demodulation of amplitude modulated signals
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Image processing per se

Amplitude modulated demodulation

Colour picture communication system

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image processing, image enhancement

Amplitude demodulation

Colour picture signal processing

Facsimile colour picture signal processing

Colour television signal testing

Colour TV processing for recording

Special rules of classification within this group

Demodulation circuits adapted to a particular standard are classified in:

{Multi-purpose receivers, e.g. for auxiliary information( H04N 9/642 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits for multiple input selection or for selecting a particular colour signal type.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Multi-standard receivers

{Multi-standard receivers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multistandard colour decoding circuits.

{Hue control means, e.g. flesh tone control}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Face detection circuits,
  • Hue control.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hue control relating to non moving picture signals

for synchronous demodulators
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Demodulation circuits adapted to the NTSC standard

Demodulation circuits adapted to the PAL standard

Demodulation circuits adapted to the SECAM standard

for matrixing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour space transformation circuits.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color space transformation circuits relating to non moving picture signals

colour balance circuits, e.g. white balance circuits, colour temperature control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Colour balance control.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color balance control relating to non moving picture signals

Circuits for processing the brightness signal and the chrominance signal relative to each other, e.g. adjusting the phase of the brightness signal relative to the colour signal, correcting differential gain or differential phase( circuits for matrixing H04N 9/67 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Separation of luminance and chrominance signals from a multiplexed composite colour television signal
  • Processing of luminance and chrominance signals in relationship to each-other (differential gain, differential phase, luminance and chrominance correlated enhancement or noise suppression...)
Processing of colour television signals in connection with recording
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Video data recording:

  • Specially adapted recording devices such as a VCR, PVR, high speed camera, camcorder or a specially adapted PC
  • Interfaces between recording devices and other devices for input and/or output of video signals such as TVs, video cameras, other recording devices
  • Video recorder programming
  • Adaptations of the video signal for recording on specific recording media such as HDD, tape, drums, holographic support, semiconductor memories
  • Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate such as trick play modes and stroboscopic recording
  • Processing of the video signal for noise suppression, scrambling, field or frame skip, bandwidth reduction
  • Impairing the picking up, for recording, of a projected video signal
  • Regeneration of either a recorded video signal or for recording the video signal
  • Video signal recording wherein the recorded video signal may be accompanied by none, one or more video signals (stereoscopic signals or video signals corresponding to different story lines)
  • Production of a motion picture film from a television signal

Details specific to this group:

  • The recording equipment is for personal use and not for studio use
  • The subgroups of H04N 9/79 are for colour video signals
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • Recording and processing for recording of video signals covered by the subject-matter in the range H04N 5/76 - H04N 5/907 is classified in said range irrespectively of said video signals being in colour or black and white.
  • The range H04N 9/79 - H04N 9/898 deals with recording and processing for recording colour video signals while the corresponding range H04N 5/92 - H04N 5/956 deals with recording and processing for recording black and white video signals.
  • H04N 9/79 (video recording) distinguishes itself from editing, which is found in G11B 27/00, in that the signals recorded and reproduced are video signals.
  • H04N5/79 is a function place for recording or processing for recording. H04N 21/433 describes applications for recording in a distribution system.
  • H04N 9/79 features recording devices specially adapted to video data recording that can be programmed. The programming may be done by a user or a using an algorithm. Business methods where the video recording feature or step is well known is generally classified in G06Q30/00A.
  • H04N 9/79 contains recording devices that are characterised by the connection to other devices through an interface. Typically information is sent or received by a recorder through an interface that impacts the recording or playback function. Interfaces in general are found in H04N 5/44.
  • H04N 9/79 contains video cameras that record video data to a recording medium. Video cameras constructional details are found in H04N 5/225.
  • H04N 9/79 is an application place for video data trick play. Reproducing data in general at a rate different from the recording rate is found in G11B 27/005.
  • H04N 9/79 contains applications of video data processing for scrambling/encrypting video data for recording. Systems for rendering a video signal unintelligible are found in H04N 7/16 and H04N 21/00.
  • H04N 9/79 is an application place for video data reduction for recording. Video data compression is found in H04N 19/00.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Video data processing for printing

Business methods related to the distribution of video data content

G06Q30/00A

Video editing

Recording techniques specially adapted to a recording medium for recording digital data in general

Control of video recorders where the video signal is not substantially involved

Video camera constructional details

H04N4/225

Network video distribution

H04N5/24T6

Production of a video signal from a motion picture film

Interfaces

User interface of set top boxes

Video data coding

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems for buying and selling, i.a., video content:

Alarm system using video cameras

Selective content distribution

Controlling video cameras:

Video surveillance:

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 9/79 features a small number of ECLA subdivisions and has an additional associated Indexing Code scheme T04N576/00 (Indexing Code). A document does not explicitly mention that the video signal is a monochrome video signal is to be interpreted as being a colour video signal. As a consequence some classes in H04N 5/76 specific to monochrome signal recording have fallen out of use. Instead the corresponding colour symbols should be given to such documents.

Allocation of EC symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to video data recording will be given an H04N 9/79 EC group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to video data recording (in particular, if the document discloses a detailed video recording device) will be given a H04N 9/79 Indexing Code symbol.
  • A document containing invention information for more than one invention it may be given more than one H04N 9/79 EC group.
  • A document merely mentioning recording will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.
  • Allocation of Indexing Code symbols in combination with EC:
  • When assigning H04N 9/79 or a subclass thereof as EC group, giving an additional Indexing Code is optional.
  • Combined use of Indexing Code symbols:
  • Indexing Code symbols maybe allocated as necessary to describe additional information in document.
  • Symbol allocation rules:
  • Documents defining recording devices that have an interface, e.g., connected to a network, should have at least one of the more specific H04N 5/765 Indexing Code symbols.
  • Documents dealing with invention information about measures to prevent recording of projected images should be given the H04N 2005/91392 Indexing Code symbol.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Video or video data

video signal analogue or digital with or without accompanying audio

{for more than one standard}
Special rules of classification within this group

The symbols H04N 9/7925 and corresponding H04N 9/7925 are not used. Instead documents that deal with the subject-matter of recording a plurality of video formats should be given the H04N 9/7921 or the corresponding H04N 9/7921 symbol.

{involving data reduction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coding/decoding when done using an MPEG standard.

{involving the multiplexing of an additional signal and the colour video signal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems, where additional information, necessary to retrieve the video data, e.g., chapter marks, navigation packs, time stamps is recorded with the video information, either on the same recording medium or on an associated recording medium.

Colour television systems( details H04N 9/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects specific to transmission of colour television signal, in particular for transmission of analog colour television signal (e.g. NTSC, PAL, SECAM)

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N 11/00 distinguishes itself from transmission systems using pulse code modulation with bandwidth reduction, wherein the chrominance component or any type of colour component is submitted to a processing equivalent to the processing of the luminance component, e.g. MPEG standards, which are found in H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Colour picture communication systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

High-definition television systems

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 11/00 features a number of EC symbols corresponding to a same number of Indexing Codes (e.g., H04N 11/14 as EC symbol and H04N 11/14 as Indexing Code symbol)

Allocation of EC symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

A document containing invention information relating to colour television systems will be given a H04N 11/00 EC group

A document containing additional information relating to colour television systems will be given a H04N 11/00 EC group

A document merely mentioning details of colour television systems will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Stereoscopic{or multiview}television systems; Details thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where a three-dimensional effect or different views according to the viewpoint location are provided to one or more viewers by means of electronic signals representing a plurality of images or signals including depth information, e.g. taken from different viewpoint locations representing the interocular distance.

In particular, this group covers systems which :

  • include electronic signal processing aspects, e.g. to provide signals for driving a stereoscopic display, or to generate signals by means of a stereoscopic camera; wherein
  • said processing aspects are specially adapted to stereoscopic (or multiview) devices, i.e. different from the corresponding normal, non-stereoscopic aspects due to the presence of different pictures to be sent to the viewers' eyes.

Examples:

  • Stereoscopic and multiview electronic image pick up devices (video cameras, digital still cameras)
  • Stereoscopic and multiview display devices
  • Electronic signal processors

- for stereoscopic television signal processing

- for monoscopic to stereoscopic conversion (including computer systems)

- for stereoscopic image generation (including from a computer model)

- for stereoscopic displays (e.g. left/right synchronization, stereoscopic format conversion, depth adaptation)

- for displays providing different 2D images to different viewers (e.g. for use in vehicles)

- for devices which generate a two-dimensional "look around" effect, e.g. non-stereoscopic multiview systems (see however exclusions here below).

  • Devices generating a real 3D image, i.e. an image having a volume (volumetric displays)
  • Pseudostereoscopic systems

Some systems falling under the definition set out above of "stereoscopic systems" but wherein the viewer's eyes do not see different images, may provide a pseudo-stereoscopic effect and are classified in H04N 13/00. The effect must go beyond that provided by the mere display of a 3D object on a 2D screen (like in a CAD system).

An Indexing Code (see below) is to be allocated to such systems, which in the main scheme are to be classified under the head group if no better class is found.

Example:Wiggle stereoscopy: pseudo-stereo systems providing a three-dimensional effect by means of normal 2D image signals, by periodic oscillating motion of a 3D object.

  • Multiview systems:

- systems providing different 2D or 3D views of the same scene to one or more viewers according to the viewpoint location (called "look around" effect)

- systems providing different 2D or 3D views of different scenes to different viewers (called "privacy")

These systems are classified in H04N 13/00 if they provide said views simultaneously or at least at a high frame rate so as to be simultaneously viewed by the observers.

However, multiview systems wherein said 2D views are provided to a viewer one at a time, e.g. by user selection, are not classified inH04N 13/00, because they are actually normal 2D systems although the viewpoint can be selected at will.

Examples of multiview devices falling under H04N 13/00:

- the so called "look-around" display systems including display with lenticular screen providing different views of a common scene at different viewing positions

- the so called "privacy" display systems including display with parallax barrier providing different views of different scenes to different viewers in 2D or 3D (for example in a vehicle, wherein on a common screen the driver is watching GPS while the passenger is watching a movie)

- Multi-user displays displaying different pictures for different viewers wearing shutter glasses to select one of said pictures (this is also "privacy"), wherein said pictures are 2D or 3D pictures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several sections in H04N 5/00 and H04N 7/00 relate to the basic monoscopic video aspects from which corresponding stereoscopic aspects are derived. Classification and search in these sections is therefore to be considered every time no specifically stereoscopic aspects are present.

G06T, image processing and generation in general, includes G06T7/00X which relates to stereoscopic image processing in general, i.e. not being adapted to be used with devices falling under H04N 13/00, e.g. stereoscopic image analysis, generation of depth values from stereoscopic images, stereoscopic image segmentation, generation of monoscopic images from stereoscopic images, etc.

Image processing adapted for driving or controlling stereoscopic image devices falling under H04N 13/00 may be classified in H04N 13/00 as well or even just in H04N 13/00. E.g. analysis of video signal to perform real time control of a stereoscopic video camera, or to identify the image transmission format to drive a stereoscopic display is classified just in H04N 13/00 if there are no image analysis aspects.

Sometimes a normal 2D display displaying solid objects, e.g. a CAD system wherein the viewer can rotate 3D objects to see them from any direction, is called "a 3D display". Of course such displays are not to be classified in H04N 13/00 because a viewer sees the same picture with both eyes and because, if there is more than one viewer, all viewers see the same picture. Such documents are classified in G06T 19/00.

Concerning G02B (optical systems), optical devices are often inextricably connected with the devices falling under H04N 13/00, because essential to provide the stereoscopic effect. Classification also in G02B should be considered every time a relevant optical aspect is present in a stereoscopic system. Classification only in G02B should be considered every time no electronic control aspects are present.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Stereoscopic endoscopes

Arrangements for determining or recording eye movement (e.g. for gaze detection)

Printing stereoscopic images

Illumination with structured light for measuring contours or curvature of an object

Optical systems with means for monitoring data relating to the user, e.g. head-tracking, eye-tracking

Head mounted displays

Optical systems for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects

Spectacles having an electro-optical light valve (not switching at video field frequency)

Spectacles having passive polarizing filters

Stereoscopic film apparatus

Stereoscopic photographic or similar processes

Holographic imaging devices, even if providing a tv-like experience

Input/output in interaction with the human body (virtual reality)

Stereoscopic image processing in general, i.e. not being specially adapted to be used with devices falling under H04N 13/00, e.g. stereoscopic image analysis, generation of depth values from stereoscopic images, stereoscopic image segmentation, generation of monoscopic images from stereoscopic images

G06T7/00X

Stereoscopic television signal compression encoding, including stereoscopic and multiview signal encoding

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Stereoscopic endoscopes and medical devices

Vehicle mounted cameras, including stereoscopic cameras

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical systems (comprising elements used in stereoscopic systems)

Calculation or rendering of a monoscopic view of a 3D graphics object

Generation of 3D graphical models or scenes

Video stream synchronization / multiplexing / packetization aspects

Video signal reformatting

Aspects concerning subtitles or other OSD information

Generation or processing of metadata

Television cameras

Arrangements of television cameras (not for capturing stereoscopic images)

Projection displays

Recording, including multiplexing another television signal

Video standard conversion

Colour signal processing circuits

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification of additional information corresponding to the contents of the orthogonal groups (see here below) is compulsory. If additional information relates to technical aspects which are not strictly connected with the main technical features classified, classification is not compulsory but advisable. On the other hand, embodiments equivalent to the main embodiments classified by default should not classified even if explicitly described; classification of the main embodiments is considered to be sufficient.

Example:

An invention concerning a time variant parallax barrier display is to be classified in H04N13/00A3B. If there are colour aspects, H04N 13/0422 must be added. If in one of the embodiments the invention is applied to a lenticular screen display, additional classification in H04N13/00A1 is not considered to be necessary. If on the other hand one of the embodiments discloses aspects concerning image processing, classification in the relevant subgroups of H04N 13/0003 should be considered.

  • Orthogonal groups

Some H04N 13/00 groups are to be regarded as "orthogonal", i.e. groups where stereoscopic aspects are classified as ECLA codes even though they are not strictly connected to the main teaching of the document (provided that such aspects are relevant), in order to make a search more efficient by AND-ing said codes with the codes relating to the main aspects. The orthogonal groups of each of the three main subsections H04N 13/0003, H04N 13/02 and H04N 13/04 are listed therein.

These groups are orthogonal to all groups.

Examples: see the above mentioned subsections.

  • ECLA codes

In the past, ECLA codes were allocated with a kind of deep indexing system, i.e. any relevant aspect, even not strictly connected with the main teaching of the document, was given a corresponding ECLA code. There is therefore a large number of documents (provisionally) having quite many ECLA and Indexing Codes. This practice has been discontinued and should presently not be followed.

  • Indexing Codes

In the past, Indexing Codes have been used during a reorganization made by students, wherein students allocated a set of Indexing Codes to be reviewed later by examiners. However, such codes were seldom removed by the examiners when the corresponding ECLA codes were allocated. There is therefore a large number of documents (provisionally) having identical ECLA and Indexing Codes, and even some irrelevant Indexing Codes. This practice has been discontinued and should presently not be followed. These Indexing Codes should be disregarded.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Stereoscopic

Providing (exactly) two different views, one for the left eye and one for the right eye

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional, sometimes also used to mean stereoscopic

Autostereoscopic display

A display device not requiring glasses to provide a stereoscopic effect to the viewer

Multiview

Providing more than two different views to one or more viewers according to their viewing position or direction; the views can be 2D or 3D

Volumetric display

A device generating a "solid" image, i.e. not an image on the surface of a display, but one having a real depth. Such systems have been considered to fall within the definition of stereoscopic systems because the viewer's eyes perceive two different pictures.

Lenticular lens (screen)

An array of very thin cylindrical lenslets (normally less than 1mm wide) placed vertically in front or behind a display or light modulator in order to generate optically directive views in autostereoscopic displays / cameras

Parallax barrier

An array of very thin slits performing the same function of the lenticular screen; it may be electronically generated, switchable, adaptive, etc

Fly-eye lenticular screen

An array of very small bidimensional lenses (typically circular / hemispherical) placed in front of a display, light modulator or image sensor like a normal lenticular screen, providing bidimensional parallax

Pseudostereo(scopic) effect

Stereoscopic or 3D visual effect obtained without sending different views to the viewer's eyes; the same term is sometimes used to denote the effect due to a wrong viewer's position in front of an autostereoscopic effect, whereby the right image is seen by the left eye and vice versa

Integral imaging

A technique of image capture or display which uses a fly's eye or a lenticular screen in front of the image sensor/display in order to capture/display images with parallax

Plenoptic camera

A camera, normally non-stereoscopic, using a technique allowing focussing after image capture, by means of a lenticular lens array combined with a plurality of (small) image sensors

Light-field camera

See plenoptic camera

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

SLM

Spatial Light Modulator

OSD

On-Screen Display

CAD

Computer Aided Design

In patent documents the terms "3D"and "stereoscopic" are sometimes used as synonyms.

The terms "lenticular screen", "lenticular lens array" and "lenticular array" are used as synonyms.

{Stereoscopic image signal coding, multiplexing, processing, recording or transmission( television signal bandwidth reduction H04N 19/00 ; image coding for general purpose image data processing G06T 9/00 ; transformation of the video signal for recording, including multiplexing of another television signal H04N 5/9205 ; for colour signals, H04N 9/8227 ; selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD H04N 21/00 ; assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetized elementary stream H04N 21/236 ; disassembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. demultiplexing audio and video streams or extraction of additional data from a video stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of service information at client side, disassembling of packetized elementary stream H04N 21/434 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing of stereoscopic image communication signals not strictly connected to the devices forming the subject of H04N 13/02 and H04N 13/04.

Special rules of classification within this group

Orthogonal groups (definition of orthogonal groups: see H04N 13/00) :

It is however not excluded that in some cases one of the above groups may be assigned as the sole classification code.

As regards the H04N 13/00 Indexing Codes, see bullet point "Indexing Codes" in paragraph "Special rules of classification" here above.

The additional scheme H04N 2213/00 includes Indexing Codes T04N213/00X which relate to general aspects concerning the whole H04N 13/00.

Selected codes are listed here below.

H04N 2213/002 (Eyestrain reduction by processing stereoscopic signals or controlling stereoscopic devices)

This code is used to indicate eye strain aspects in general, i.e. not necessarily falling under the definition of H04N 13/0033. E.g. eye strain reduction not obtained by processing the stereoscopic video signal, but by controlling a display device so that disparity is reduced.

H04N 2213/003 and H04N 2213/005 (aspects relating to the "2D+depth" and

"3D+depth" image format)

This code is used to indicate that aspects concerning the above formats are present in a document. If a depth map is processed, H04N 13/0022 should be allocated.

Classification in these Indexing Codes is not mandatory.

H04N 2213/006 (Pseudostereoscopic systems)

See the bullet point "Pseudostereoscopic systems" in paragraph "Special rules of classification" here above.

Further classification information on subgroups of H04N 13/0003:

H04N 13/0011 (Transformation of stereoscopic image signals corresponding to virtual viewpoints):

Attention should be paid to the word "transformation": here a new virtual image is generated starting from one or more already existing stereoscopic images, e.g. by interpolation. A computer-generated new stereoscopic image not deriving from existing images is to be classified in H04N 13/0275.

H04N 13/0018 (Improving the 3D impression of a displayed stereoscopic image by modifying the image content):

If the content is not modified, this group is not relevant. E.g. if the 3D impression is improved by horizontally shifting one of the images with respect to the other, or by modifying the depth map, then the document should be classified in H04N 13/0022.

Examples of features which should be classified in this group (if their purpose is that indicated in the title):

  • Addition of depth cues such as defocusing, coloring, shadows
  • Geometric correction or warping
  • Left/right or temporal crosstalk reduction

H04N 13/0022 (Aspects relating to depth or disparity adjustment):

This group comprises the documents dealing with depth adjustment. E.g.

  • Control of disparity between L and R images
  • Processing of depth map
  • Non-linear processing of depth in order to adapt it to display features such as screen size

Aspects relating to eye strain (fatigue) reduction by reducing depth should be classified here and in H04N 13/0033 if they are independent from the display device, i.e. if depth is obtained by acting on the video signal and not on display features (in both cases, the Indexing Code H04N 2213/002 can additionally be allocated).

If depth adjustment is obtained by acting only on device parameters, i.e. there is no stereoscopic signal processing, the document should not be classified here but only in the relevant device groups, H04N 13/02 and H04N 13/04.

E.g. if depth is adjusted by controlling the baseline (the distance between two cameras of a stereo camera), it should be classified in H04N 13/0239 in combination with H04N 13/0296 (or possibly with H04N 13/0246).

H04N 13/0029 (Format conversion):

This group deals with the conversion of any kind of stereoscopic format into another one, e.g. from side-by-side to top-bottom or "2D+depth", or still to side-by-side but with a different size, resolution or frame rate.

Documents wherein a stereoscopic signal (format) is generated from monoscopic source signals should not be classified here but in H04N 13/0048 or in the relevant groups in H04N 13/02.

Aspects concerning format conversion should be classified here if (as for all processing aspects) they go beyond the equivalent processing of monoscopic TV signals, e.g. a PAL to NTSC conversion wherein no particular stereoscopic features are involved is to be classified in H04N 7/01 only.

H04N 13/004 (Mixing stereoscopic image signals):

This group deals with the generation of one image including the weighted sum of two source images, i.e. wherein the contents of both source images are visible (as opposed to overlaid pictures).

A window showing a second image within a first one (e.g. picture-in-picture) should be classified in H04N 13/0456.

Overlays such as subtitles and similar graphic images are to be classified in H04N 13/007.

H04N 13/0048 (Encoding, multiplexing or demultiplexing different image signal components in stereoscopic image signals):

This group deals with the structure of the stereoscopic video signal, i.e. how the different image signals which constitute a stereoscopic (or multiview) image signal are put together in order to form a complete video signal e.g. for storage or transmission. As for the preceding group, only stereoscopic features are classified - see the references in the note attached to the definition of this group for non-stereoscopic features.

As indicated in the ECLA definition of this group, "encoding" does not include compression encoding, which is to be classified in H04N 19/597.

"Multiplexing" and "demultiplexing" are to be meant in the general sense mentioned above, i.e. any manner to form a stereoscopic image frame, stream or signal from e.g.

  • left and the right signals
  • a 2D image and a depth image

by arranging the components in a format having e.g.

  • alternate L/R frames or fields
  • side by side L/R images
  • top/down L/R images
  • main layer / enhancement layer
  • component images having different resolutions

Further, attention should be paid to the term "image signal components" which is meant in a strict sense. Non-image signal components are to be classified in H04N 13/0062 and subgroups, however, due to the lack of a better place, documents comprising metadata or other non-image signal components were classified here till October 2011. Until the reorganization of H04N 13/00 is completed, a search for such aspects should include this group as well.

H04N 13/0055 (Recording or reproducing stereoscopic image signals),

H04N 13/0059 (Transmission of stereoscopic image signals):

These "orthogonal" groups are used to classify the corresponding aspects, even though such aspects are often quite close to the corresponding monoscopic ones, because once a stereoscopic video stream has been assembled, it is generally recorded or transmitted with conventional techniques. Special attention should therefore be paid to the groups indicated in the note attached to these groups and to H04N 13/0003.

H04N 13/0066 (Metadata associated to a stereoscopic image signal):

Metadata concerning stereoscopic features included in a stereoscopic video stream or image file should be classified here. Other types of metadata are not to be taken into account, they are classified in H04N 21/00, see the note attached to this group and to H04N 13/0062.

Concerning non-stereoscopic metadata multiplexing, please see also the paragraph at the end of the note concerning H04N 13/0048.

H04N 13/007 (Subtitles or other OSD information associated to a stereoscopic image signal):

Stereoscopic features of subtitles or other OSD information included in a stereoscopic video stream (separate from the image(s) ) should be classified here, e.g. how to three-dimensionally merge a subtitle with the main image, how to avoid depth conflicts, depth interference, etc.

The same comments made for metadata apply for non-stereoscopic aspects of these features.

Picture signal generators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Devices for stereoscopic or multiview electronic image signal generation, including computer-generated stereoscopic image signals;
  • Signal processing and control systems therefor.

Note:

The generated stereoscopic signals may be in any format, e.g. L + R, 2D + depth map, 3D + depth map. Note however that the devices which do not capture optical images (e.g. 3D scanners, time-of-flight cameras, rangefinders etc) are not classified in H04N 13/00: they are classified in the groups indicated here below.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

3D scanners

Time-of-flight [TOF] cameras

Depth or shape recovery

Generation of a depth map from stereoscopic image signals

G06T7/00X2

Optical systems (comprising elements used in stereoscopic systems)

Calculation or rendering of a monoscopic view of a 3D graphics object

Generation of 3D graphical models or scenes

Video stream synchronization / multiplexing / packetization aspects

Video signal reformatting

Aspects concerning subtitles or other OSD information

Generation or processing of metadata

Television cameras

Arrangements of television cameras (not for capturing stereoscopic images)

Projection displays

Recording, including multiplexing another television signal

Video standard conversion

Colour signal processing circuits

Special rules of classification within this group

Examples of orthogonal groups:

Plenoptic cameras which do not generate more than one viewpoint are to be classified in the relevant groups of H04N 5/00.

Plenoptic cameras / integral imaging cameras, which provide more than one viewpoint, are to be classified in H04N 13/02, in particular in H04N 13/0282 if they provide more than two different geometrical viewpoints.

Further/other classes are allocated as normal, according to the special technical features of the device concerned, e.g. H04N 13/0232.

Further classification information on subgroups of H04N 13/02:

H04N 13/0232 (Stereoscopic cameras having a fly-eye lenticular screen):

Plenoptic cameras i.e. lens array cameras for providing stereoscopic or 3D images are classified here even if each lens of the fly-eye lenticular screen is placed on a different chip (the image sensor is considered to be one even if it is composite).

H04N 13/0246 (Calibration aspects relating to the control of a stereoscopic camera):

Aspects relating to the control of a stereoscopic camera in order to obtain aligned images, i.e. images which only differ by a horizontal disparity but have no rotation, or other geometric distortion therebetween. As indicated in the note attached to this group, the so-called stereo (camera) calibration aspects wherein an already captured image pair is processed to determine and compensate the same above mentioned distortions are to be classified in G06T 7/002, such aspects differing from the aspects classified in this group in that they do not "relate to the control of a stereoscopic camera".

H04N 13/0253 (Stereoscopic cameras in combination with an electromagnetic radiation source for illuminating the subject):

Only aspects relating to the use of light for obtaining a stereoscopic image are to be classified here, e.g. illumination with structured light in order to capture depth, illumination from different sides or with different colours for left and right images etc. Normal illumination devices (flash or continuous illumination) are classified in H04N 5/2256 and if exposure aspects are involved, in H04N 5/2354. If structured illumination is used for measuring contours or curvatures, see G01B 11/25.

H04N 13/026 (Stereoscopic picture signal generators with monoscopic to stereoscopic image conversion):

Devices obtaining a stereoscopic image from one or more existing monoscopic images are to be classified here. In this group the capturing conditions of the monoscopic images are unknown or irrelevant, whereas in H04N 13/0207 and subgroups stereoscopic images are generated from a camera controlled to provide images of different viewpoints, so that no "conversion" is necessary. There is thus no overlap between these two groups.

Please note that this group provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in its subgroups. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

H04N 13/0275 (Stereoscopic picture signal generation from a 3D object model, e.g. computer generated stereoscopic image signals):

This group and its subgroup H04N 13/0278 relate to systems using a computer for generating a stereoscopic image, e.g. a fully synthetic stereoscopic image from a CAD-type 3D object model. Note that the generation of a virtual image starting from already existing stereoscopic images is to be classified in H04N 13/0011 and subgroups. Attention should be paid to this detail in order to decide whether to search / classify in this group.

H04N 13/0285 and N (Stereoscopic picture signal generators generating monoscopic and stereoscopic images):

Please note that H04N 13/0292 provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in H04N 13/0285 and M1. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

Picture reproducers{( optical systems for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects G02B 27/22 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Devices for stereoscopic or multiview electronic image signal display;
  • Devices for volumetric three dimensional electronic image signal display;
  • Signal processing and control systems therefor.

Attention should be paid to the optical structure and optical devices of some stereoscopic displays (e.g. those provided with lenticular screens), which are to be classified and searched also (or exclusively) in G02B 27/22.

Special rules of classification within this group

Image processing specially adapted for use with a specific display device should be classified in this section, not in H04N 13/0003. E.g. signal multiplexing (interlacing) for displaying a stereoscopic input signal by means of a lenticular screen display is classified in H04N 13/0404; however, if the multiplexed signal is not just used within the display but e.g. created to be transmitted elsewhere, then H04N 13/0048 should be added.

Several H04N 13/04 sections are to be regarded as "orthogonal" groups (see the corresponding note of H04N 13/00). Examples:

It is however not excluded that in some cases one of the above groups may be assigned as the sole classification code.

Besides codes corresponding to the H04N 13/00 codes, the Indexing Code scheme further comprises the following three Indexing Codes:

T04N13/00S, T04N13/00S1 and T04N13/00S2

which relate to the so-called "Privacy" aspects i.e. devices displaying different images to different viewers, the images not being different viewpoints of the same scene. A typical example of such systems is a display used in vehicles wherein the driver sees navigation-related information whereas the passenger sees a TV film.

As regards the additional scheme H04N 2213/00, section T04N213/04 relates to aspects concerning displays. It includes the following two Indexing Codes:

H04N 2213/007 (Aspects relating to detection of stereoscopic image format)

This is typically made by analysis of the video signal or detection of embedded metadata e.g. to ascertain if a received stereoscopic signal is compatible with a display device (if it's not compatible, and it is converted to a compatible format, then H04N 13/0029 should additionally be allocated).

H04N 2213/008 (Aspects relating to glasses for viewing stereoscopic images): Here typically shutter glasses or polarizing glasses are meant. Note that only non-trivial aspects should be classified here, i.e. not all documents where shutter glasses are driven or synchronized. E.g. this Indexing Code should be allocated to documents dealing with glasses having integrated devices providing power supply for the LCD shutters, or comprising special synchronization receivers capable of driving the glasses in absence of a continuous sync signal from the display.

Further classification information on subgroups of H04N 13/04

H04N 13/0415 (Autostereoscopic displays with slanted parallax optics):

By "slanted parallax optics" it is meant a lenticular screen or parallax barrier placed at an angle with respect to the pixel columns of the display, so that a cylindrical lenslet of the lenticular array or a slit of the parallax barrier overlap more than one pixel column.

Note that this group is "orthogonal" - a slanted lenticular screen display will be classified in H04N 13/0404 and here.

H04N 13/0418 (Autostereoscopic displays using an array of controllable light sources or a moving aperture or light source):

Here are to be classified displays working on the principle of using an illumination source (e.g. a collimated light beam illuminating a light modulator) to provide directivity to the light emitted by the display, so as to direct an image to one viewer's eye. Typically, the emitted light direction is changed by controlling the position of the illumination source.

H04N 13/0438 (Temporally multiplexed displays):

Here are to be classified those displays working on the principle of temporally (alternatively) switching one or more pictures and using synchronized spectacles to select the picture to be sent to a viewer's eye. Note that polarization switching is to be classified here since all other H04N 13/0429 subgroups relate to spatially multiplexed displays.

The search for devices using passive polarizing glasses is therefore to be performed both in H04N 13/0434 and in this group.

H04N 13/0445 (Multiview displays, i.e. displays generating more than two geometrical viewpoints without observer tracking):

This is a "orthogonal group". Please note that this group provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in its subgroups. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

H04N 13/0452 and N (Stereoscopic displays generating monoscopic and stereoscopic images):

Please note that H04N 13/0456 provisionally includes also the documents classified before 6/10/2011 which, in the present new scheme, should be classified in H04N 13/0452 and M1. These documents will be reclassified in due time.

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects specific to measuring or testing of values involved in the television signal processing at the transmitter side and/or the receiver side, for analog or digital television signal.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N 17/00 features test techniques for all the devices which belong to the television chain: television cameras, transmission path, television receivers or recorders, distribution systems which are found in H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 9/00, H04N 11/00, H04N 21/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electronic inspection or testing of displays and display drivers, e.g. of LED or LCD displays

Special rules of classification within this group

H04N 17/00 features a limited number of EC symbols and has an associated Indexing Code scheme with additional subdivisions: H04N 17/00

Allocation of EC symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

  • a document containing invention information relating to testing of television systems or details will be given a H04N 17/00 EC group
  • a document containing additional information relating to testing of television systems or details will be given a H04N 17/00 EC group
  • a document merely mentioning details of colour television systems will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Monitoring aspects are also covered in the appropriate main groups, e.g. H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00.

Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Methods or arrangements of digital video coding and compression of an input digital video sequence for the purpose of further transmission (e.g. by broadcasting) or of storage (e.g. at servers, set-top boxes or hard-disks) and further reproduction at viewer premises.
  • Certain subgroups are related to the standards H.261 to H.264, MPEG-1 to MPEG-4, AVC, to the draft standards SVC, HEVC and to future related standards.
  • Methods or arrangements for transform coding of static images suitable for compression of digital video signals, e.g. related to the standards JPEG, JPEG 2000, in view of the close technical relationship with the cited standards, are also covered by said special subgroups.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

The scope of H04N 19/00 and its subgroups is limited to the part of digital video coding and compression strictly comprised between the digital video input and the compressed video output that provides digital coded video to further processing stages such as transmission and storage, i.e. it is limited only to the generation of the elementary video stream, e.g. as defined by the MPEG standards.

  • Processing stages after the compressed video output (e.g. fragmentation in packet units, encapsulation, medium adaptation for transport, video distribution) are generally covered by H04N 21/00 or H04H and processing stages before the digital video input or after decoding (e.g. resampling, interpolation, cropping, rotation) are generally covered by G06T, unless their operation is interactive with functional units of the compressor generating the elementary video stream and is consequently covered also by specific subgroups of H04N 19/00.
  • Computer graphics compression is covered by G06T 9/00.
  • General compression algorithms are covered by H03M 7/00.
  • Processing of documents or images for scanning, transmission or reproduction (e.g. telefax) is covered by H04N 1/00.
  • Details of digital television cameras, digital television receivers and digital video recorders are covered by H04N 5/00.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Audio Analysis or Processing

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Information retrieval and database structures therefor in image databases

Pattern recognition (characters, fingerprints)

Hardware for image processing

2D image generation

2D image animation (e.g. sprites in general)

3D image rendering

3D image modelling

Image or sequence resampling in general

Image restoration

Image analysis, e.g. analysis of motion

Computer graphics compression

Signal processing for video editing and recording on a special recording medium

General data coding

Details of multimedia broadcast systems

Processing of documents or images for scanning, transmission or reproduction (e.g. telefax)

Compression of two-tone or discrete tone static images (e.g. fax transmission, compression in JBIG, GIF or PNG format)

Colour conversion

Stereoscopic or multiview television systems

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems

Selective content distribution

Video cameras

Studio equipments

Television receivers

Video recording and play (e.g. trick play)

Closed circuit TV systems, details of video-surveillance cameras and circuits

Special rules of classification within this group

In this group, it is appropriate to use multi-aspect classification, because the subject of the invention generally relates to the interaction or interrelationship of different technical aspects, each provided for in this main group, wherein all those different aspects are to be classified.

The classification should be directed at non trivial aspects only. Aspects not necessarily interacting with the claimed aspects are also classified.

The description and the figures should be object of the classification, and not only the claims.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

MPEG

Moving Picture Experts Group

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group

AVC

Advanced Video Coding

SVC

Scalable Video Coding

HEVC

High Efficiency Video Coding

Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]( broadcast communication H04H ; arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems for communication control or processing being characterised by a protocol H04L 29/06 ; { broadcast or conference over packet-switching networks H04L 12/18 , } real-time bi-directional transmission of motion video data H04N 7/14 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Interactive video distribution processes, systems, or elements thereof, which are characterised by point-to-multipoint system configurations, and which are mainly used for motion video data unidirectional distribution or delivery resulting from interactions between systems operators, e.g. access or service providers, or users e.g. subscribers, and system elements
  • Such systems include dedicated communication systems, such as television distribution systems, which primarily distribute or deliver motion video data in the manner indicated, which may, in addition, provide a framework for further, diverse data communications or services in either unidirectional or bi-directional form. However, video will occupy most of the downlink bandwidth in the distribution process.
  • Typically, system operators interface with transmitter-side elements or users’ interface with receiver-side elements in order to facilitate, through interaction with such elements, the dynamic control of data processing or data flow at various points in the system. This interaction is typically occasional or intermittent in nature.
  • Processes, systems or elements thereof specially adapted to the generation, distribution and processing of data, which is either associated with video content, e.g. metadata, ratings, or related to the user or his environment and which has been actively or passively gathered. This data is either used to facilitate interaction or to alter or target the content.
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • H04N 21/00 is an application place for a large number of IT technologies, which are covered by the corresponding functional places
  • Video servers and clients use internally specific computing techniques. Corresponding techniques used in general computing are found in G06F. This concerns data storage, software architectures, error detection or correction, monitoring, video retrieval, browsing, Internet browsing, computer security, billing or advertising
  • Video servers and clients use specific telecommunication techniques for the video distribution process. Corresponding techniques used in generic telecommunication networks are found in subclasses H04B, H04H, H04L, H04W. This concerns monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers, synchronisation in time-division multiplex, broadcast or multicast, maintenance, administration, testing, data processing in data switching networks, home networks, real-time data network services, data network security, applications for data network, wireless networks per se.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Storage management

Software architectures; Program control

Error detection or correction; Monitoring

Video retrieval; Retrieval from Internet

Computer security

Billing; Advertising

Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers

Broadcast communication

Synchronisation in time-division multiplex

Broadcast or multicast in data switching networks

Maintenance or administration in data switching networks

Data processing in data switching networks

Message switching systems

Real-time data network services

Data network security

Applications for data network services

Real-time bi-directional transmission of motion video data

Wireless networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications

Resetting in general

Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

Power management in computer systems

Input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection

G06F03/01B8

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces

RAID arrays per se

Interfaces to printers

Digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays

Addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures

Prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures

Printing data

Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

Methods or arrangements for recognising movements or behaviour

Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts

Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes

Computer systems using learning methods

Banking in general

Image watermarking in general

Image enhancement or restoration in general

Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal

Details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes

Details of audio signal transcoding

Arrangements for data linking, networking or transporting, or for controlling an end to end session in a satellite broadcast system

Arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems

Allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding

ARQ protocols

Charging arrangements in data networks

Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation

Key distribution for secret or secure communication

Key distribution for secret or secure communication, using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server

Arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television receivers

Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end

Television picture signal circuitry for Scene change detection

Reproduction of recorded television signals

Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver

Television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate

Conversion of standards in analog television systems

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems

Signal processing in analog two-way television systems

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation using bandwidth reduction involving transcoding

Reproduction of recorded television signals

Special rules of classification within this group
  • According to IPC rules, the full disclosure of the document is considered for classification. However classification should be limited to:

- Features providing a contribution to the invention or

- Non-claimed features, which clearly stand out from what is well known in this field and are sufficiently disclosed (thus excludes features appearing only in a list of possible alternatives, e.g. the video client being a TV receiver, Set-Top-Box, PC, mobile phone, ..)

  • The scheme uses multi-dimensional classification, allowing to allocate symbols to describe a system. A short document focussing solely on one specific aspect may receive 1 or 2 symbols whereas a lengthy document with a very complex system architecture and a lot of non-trivial non-claimed features may receive 10-12 symbols
  • When a whole system is disclosed its structural and functional aspects should be described according to their location in the video distribution chain (entity model):

H04N21/2x:

for details of servers or processes related to the reception of the content from the content provider or related to the distribution of content to clients. Network interfaces are included but not the communication aspects with clients

H04N21/4x:

for structural details of client devices or processes related among others to the processing, storing or displaying of the received content as well as user interfaces for accessing video services

H04N21/6x:

for the nature of the downlink / uplink or the exchange of control signals or data between clients, servers, network

H04N21/8x:

for specific multimedia content or processes taking place before distribution (usually by the content provider)

  • And independently according to their appropriate layer:

H04N21/x[1-2]:

System architecture and topology

H04N21/x[3-4]:

Functional and application aspects related to bit-stream processing or elementary operations

H04N21/x[5-6]:

Functional and application aspects related to system management

H04N21/x[7-8]:

Services and functionalities offered to the end-user

  • The classification scheme has thus a matrix structure and symbols taken from its different cells allow to classify the relevant aspects of a document as seen above.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Additional data

designates still pictures, textual, graphical or executable data such as software. It is used to convey supplemental information and can be generated prior to or during the distribution process itself, e.g. metadata, keys.

Content

designates video or audio streams, which may be combined with additional data. Video data will always be present and occupy most of the downlink bandwidth in the distribution process

Server

designates an apparatus designed for adapting the content received from the content provider to the distribution network. It also manages the distribution to client devices or intermediate components over a network. Further servers may also be present for gathering or generating additional data, e.g. rights management server

Additional data server

designates a server, which sole purpose is the distribution or management of additional data. It is not in charge of the distribution of video or audio data

Client

designates an apparatus such as a TV receiver, a set-top-box, a PC-TV, a mobile appliance (e.g. mobile phone or receiver in a vehicle), for receiving video, audio and possibly additional data from one or several servers or intermediate components via a network for further processing, storing or displaying. It can also transmit this data on a home-based local network to further devices, e.g. a home server transmitting video to PCs and set-top-boxes within a home.

Local network

pertains to a restricted area, e.g. a home or a vehicle, and designates the link between a client and its peripheral devices

Network

is to be distinguished from "local network": "network" designates the link between the server and the clients, or between the server and the intermediate components, or between the intermediate components and the clients, or between remotely located clients

Distribution

encompasses broadcasting, multicasting and unicasting techniques for transmitting content from one or more sources to one or more receiving stations. The distribution follows a request by a receiving station to the source, e.g. VOD or from a customization of the content by the source, e.g. targeting advertisements to a demographic group in a unidirectional or bidirectional system. Additionally, distribution encompasses techniques where the client acts as a source and another client acts as a receiving station, e.g. a peer-to-peer system for sharing video among client devices

End-user

designates a physical person, e.g. a TV viewer, who consumes the content using the client device. He is the final recipient of the content distributed by the server

Interaction

covers actions occurring between or among two or more objects that have an effect upon one another, wherein objects comprise users, system operators, system elements, or content. The user may interact with content locally at the client device, e.g. for requesting additional data stored within the client device. The user may interact with content remotely through a server e.g. for VOD playback control or for uploading video to a server. The client device may interact with the content e.g. selecting content based upon the user profile. The client device may interact with a server using a return channel, e.g. for authenticating client or uploading client hardware capabilities. The server may interact with a client device, e.g. to force a client to tune to an advertisement channel

Upstream

designates the direction of data flow towards the source, e.g. a server receiving a request via a mobile phone network

Downstream

designates the direction of data flow towards a client, e.g. a client receiving data originating from a server

Elementary stream

An elementary stream (ES) as defined by the MPEG communication protocol designates the output of an audio or video encoder

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

VOD

Video On Demand

SI

Service Information

IP

Internet Protocol

OS

Operating System

PCR

Program Clock References

STB

Set-top-box

PC

Personal Computer

PVR

Personal Video Recorder

GPS

Global Positioning System

ECM

Entitlement Control Message

EMM

Entitlement Management Message

ROI

Region Of Interest

PIN

Personal identification number

DSM-CC

Digital Storage Media - Command and Control Protocol

RTP

Real-time Transport Protocol

UMID

Unique Material Identifier

MHEG

Hypermedia information coding Expert Group

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

{Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising methods and components in the main broadcast server, headend, video-on-demand server, or server associated with the headend/video-on-demand server, which includes services, management and operations performed on the bitstream for distribution to client devices or an intermediate component over a network. The server adapts the content received from the content provider to the distribution network and only provides a network interface. Addressing issues and the exchange of control signals with the clients or the network are placed by definition in the T-model. The first layer of this subgroup pertains to the physical description of the server, e.g. its internal components, the sources of the content. The server may consist of a single physical entity or of a plurality of interconnected sub-servers. The second layer is directed to elementary specialized functions such as the storage and retrieval of the content, the processing of the elementary multimedia streams, the multiplexing thereof, the insertion of additional data, the processing of the data at the downstream and upstream network interfaces (e.g. channel coding, network adaptation, handling of clients requests), the monitoring of internal processes, e.g. server load, or of network interfaces, e.g. downstream bandwidth. The third layer describes the management of the content and of the system, such as client device or user management, scheduling issues e.g. according to bandwidth or billing policies, creation of virtual channels, management of services not directly linked to the distribution of multimedia content, e.g. billing, shopping, rights. The last layer is directed to data services directly accessible by the user, such as hosting of private data. The subgroup is directed to documents related to the insertion of server related data into a signal, such as time information inserted into EPG information. Raw multimedia data per se, is placed in H04N 21/80. The subgroup is directed to documents related to server functions, such as transmitting data to the user however, server characteristics initiated or performed on behalf of a user request is placed in the H04N 21/60. Examples of documents placed in the S-model (1) This subgroup is directed towards a server, which could be the source of additional information related to the World Wide Web. (2) This subgroup is directed towards alteration of the scene composition in regards to video objects (e.g. MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 objects). (3) This subgroup is directed towards multiplexing of video and audio streams for transmission. (4) This subgroup is directed towards the distribution of video data throughout a dwelling where the user is unaware of other users (e.g. a Hotel, Airplane or Train). Systems that provide video distribution within a dwelling where the user is aware of other users (e.g. a home gateway) is classified elsewhere. (5) This subgroup is directed to local storage built into (or next to) the server (H04N 21/218) and placement of the data onto the local storage device (H04N 21/231) (note: this is typically used in a VOD environment). Systems which are concerned about the specific details of storage or recording of video data, where the claimed invention is directed to how the video is stored or recorded (e.g. placement of the recording heads within a local storage device on a server), are classified elsewhere. (6) The subgroup is directed to documents related to the insertion of server related data into a signal, such as time information inserted into EPG information.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Generation of the timestamps used for synchronization purposes

Streaming audio/video via internet

URLs sent in the video signal

{Server components or server architectures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical description of the multimedia server. As most of the components are always present (e.g. modulator, memory), a symbol should be allocated only if one of the component has a critical function in the invention. It should be further noted, that most of the components have already an entry in other technical fields and that for example the circuitry of a modulator is not part of this model. The server is used to distribute the content in a very limited geographical area, such as a single building. It is localized in the same building. It can be for example a hotel or hospital. The server and clients are localized in a movable object, such as an aircraft, a train or a bus.

{Specialised server platform, e.g. server located in an airplane, hotel, hospital( arrangements specially adapted for local area broadcast systems H04H 20/61 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Servers been specially adapted to systems located in a confined environment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted for local area broadcast systems

[located in a single building, e.g. hotel, hospital or museum( arrangements specially adapted for plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63 ; adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems H04N 7/106 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server is used to distribute the content in a very limited geographical area, such as a single building. It is localized in the same building. It can be for example a hotel, multiple dwelling units, hospital or museum, movie theater if serving different projection rooms.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB2411329

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted for plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems

[located in mass transportation means, e.g. aircraft, train or bus( flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications B64D 11/0015 ; arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems H04H 20/62 ; moving wireless networks H04W 84/005 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server and clients are localized in a movable object, such as an aircraft, a train or a bus.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1903800

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications

Arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems

Moving wireless networks

[Source of audio or video content, e.g. local disk arrays( details of retrieval in video databases G06F 17/30843 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source, from which the multimedia server accesses the multimedia content.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of retrieval in video databases

G06F17/30M5

[enabling multiple viewpoints, e.g. using a plurality of cameras]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • The same scene shot by different cameras under different angles.
  • Panoramic video.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB2355137

[comprising remotely distributed storage units, e.g. when movies are replicated over a plurality of video servers( distributed storage of data in a network H04L 29/08549 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source located remotely, like in other video servers, when all available movies are distributed over a plurality of video servers of same importance.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0158163

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Distributed storage of data in a network

Systems involving a hierarchy between servers

[comprising local storage units]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The video source is built into the server or next to it. It is typical for a VOD server. Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2003229684

[involving memory arrays, e.g. RAID disk arrays( RAID arrays per se G06F 3/0689 ; use of parity to protect data in RAID systems G06F 11/1008 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Videos stored on disk arrays.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US6587640

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

RAID arrays per se

Use of parity to protect data in RAID systems

[involving removable storage units, e.g. tertiary storage such as magnetic tapes or optical disks]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Videos retrieved from magnetic or optical tapes.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO9935562, XP001159230

[Cache memory( caches in web servers or browsers G06F 17/30902 ; intermediate storage and caching in data networks H04L 29/08801 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical aspects of the cache.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1315091

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Caching operation on the server side

Caches in web servers or browsers

Intermediate storage and caching in data networks

[Live feed]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Live feeds from cameras, or satellite at a headend.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2007216783

{Secondary servers, e.g. proxy server, cable television head-end( intermediate processing or storage in data networks H04L 29/08702 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Local servers for serving mobile terminals.
  • The concept of secondary server is used to describe a hierarchy among several servers, as for example in distributed systems.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1204244, WO2006130139

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Intermediate processing or storage in data networks

{being a cable television head-end( CATV in broadcast systems H04H 20/78 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Local server in a broadcast system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US7269841

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

CATV in broadcast systems

{being a public access point, e.g. for downloading to or uploading from clients( arrangements specially adapted to plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Public access point, where content can be downloaded to / uploaded from clients. Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0150401

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted to plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems

{local VOD servers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Local VOD server to serve a small area.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP0740470

{Characteristics of the server or}Internal components of the server
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2003026280

{Server identification by a unique number or address, e.g. serial number( addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Identification number of the server. It can be used for authenticating the server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2006101380

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Addressing and naming in data networks

{Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Elementary specialized functions. They can be implemented in software or hardware. Their task is to control the corresponding hardware component and to provide a service to the upper layer. e.g. network synchronization using a master clock for downstream/upstream transmissions. Synchronization of transmitters.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Handling or recovery of errors occurring in the server

{Content storage operation, e.g. caching movies for short term storage, replicating data over plural servers, prioritizing data for deletion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Organization and the action of storage as well as writing actions. Storage can be performed in disk arrays as found in VOD servers as well as internal databases, caching of movies or data or any memory related problem.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 7,017,174 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Retrieving and reading data in the server

Server-side memory management

{using load balancing strategies, e.g. by placing or distributing content on different disks, different memories or different servers( storage management G06F 3/0604 ; allocation of resources considering the load in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/505 ; techniques for rebalancing the load in a distributed system G06F 9/5083 ; access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. load balancing, in data networks H04L 29/08144 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods describing the placement or distribution of content on different disks or different servers with the aim of providing a balanced load within the (distributed) system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Storage management

Allocation of resources considering the load in multiprogramming arrangements

Techniques for rebalancing the load in a distributed system

Access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. load balancing, in data networks

Data replication on different disks or servers

{involving caching operations( prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures G06F 12/0862 ; caching at an intermediate stage in a data network H04L 29/08801 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Caching action, for example of movies in a local VOD server. The storage has a temporary aspect and must be distinguished from buffering as performed in the video encoder which holds the multimedia data for a brief period of time.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0169926 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures

Caching at an intermediate stage in a data network

Buffering on the encoder side

{by placing content in organized collections, e.g. EPG data repository( details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases G06F 17/30843 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the generation and the management of a local database because it is trivial that local data are always stored in some kind of database (from simple lists to complex structures).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases

G06F17/30M5

{involving housekeeping operations for stored content, e.g. prioritizing content for deletion because of storage space restrictions( storage management, e.g. defragmentation G06F 3/0604 ; snloading stored programs G06F 9/445 ; housekeeping operations in file systems, e.g. deletion policies G06F 17/30067 ; buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks H04L 49/90 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Algorithms, describing which data are prioritized for deletion (e.g. oldest or less used data) are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0169926 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Housekeeping operations in file systems, e.g. deletion policies

Storage management, e.g. defragmentation

Unloading stored programs

Buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks

{involving data replication, e.g. over plural servers( synchronization of replicated data G06F 11/1658 ; error detection or correction by means of data replication G06F 11/2053 ; replication in distributed file systems G06F 17/30067 ; replication in distributed file systems G06F 17/30283 ; replication or mirroring of data in data networks H04L 29/0854 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Content replicated over different servers or over different hard disks.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Synchronization of replicated data

Error detection or correction by means of data replication

Replication in distributed file systems

Replication in distributed file systems

Replication or mirroring of data in data networks

{Data placement on disk arrays( data placement in general G06F 3/0604 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Data block placement strategies in the disk array of video servers.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 028 587 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Data placement in general

{using interleaving}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Successive file blocks stored on different disks.
  • A whole sector localized on one disk only.
{using striping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A data sector distributed over several disks (RAID technology).

{Content retrieval operation{locally}within server, e.g. reading video streams from disk arrays( storage management G06F 3/0604 ; details of querying and searching of video data from a database G06F 17/30843 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operations linked to the retrieval of the multimedia stream from the disks. It covers disk scheduling and file mapping

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0172205 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Storage management

Details of querying and searching of video data from a database

G06F17/30M5

Content storage

{using file mapping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 992 992 A1

{Scheduling disk or memory reading operations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0186951 A1

{Processing of audio elementary streams( details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes G10L 19/167 ; arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems H04H 60/58 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Audio stream management.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: FR 2 850 821 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring,identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems

{involving reformatting operations of audio signals, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another( details of audio signal transcoding G10L 19/173 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reformatted audio stream, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0013270 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of audio signal transcoding

{Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing of content streams, manipulating MPEG-4 scene graphs( video encoding or transcoding processes per se H04N 19/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Video stream management.
  • The control of the encoder, video scaling and transcoding aspects, synchronization, interactive control of playback, composition of MPEG-4 objects or embedding of graphics or text.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/117435 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Video encoding or transcoding processes per se

Embedding

{involving management of server-side video buffer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Buffer level control.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0193350 A1, US 2006/0262813 A1

{for generating or manipulating the scene composition of objects, e.g. MPEG-4 objects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spatial composition of MPEG-4 objects at the program generation using a scene graph.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0110297 A1, US2006222071

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scene rendering using a scene graph

{involving operations for analysing video streams, e.g. detecting features or characteristics( filtering for image enhancement G06T 5/00 ; methods or arrangements for recognising scenes G06K 9/00624 ; arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems H04H 60/59 ; television picture signal circuitry for scene change detection H04N 5/147 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of features (e.g. logo) in a video stream, extraction of characteristics directly from the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 301 039 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes

Image analysis per se

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring,identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems

Television picture signal circuitry for Scene change detection

{involving splicing one content stream with another content stream, e.g. for inserting or substituting an advertisement}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Splicing of at least one video stream with another stream (video or not) at the server level. It can be used for inserting or substituting a piece of video such as a commercial.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0033633 A1, XP 2098561 A1

{involving reformatting operations of video signals for distribution or compliance with end-user requests or end-user device requirements( media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06489 ; video transcoding H04N 19/40 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The original A/V stream received from the content provider is reformatted.The output format is defined here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/001791 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

Details of conversion of video standards at pixel level

Video transcoding

{by transcoding between formats or standards, e.g. from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 or from Quicktime to Realvideo( conversion of standards in analog television systems H04N 7/01 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transcoding between standards (e.g. MPEG-2 to MPEG-4) or between format such as Quicktime to Realvideo.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,747,706 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Conversion of standards in analog television systems

{by decomposing into objects, e.g. MPEG-4 objects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The components have been coded according to MPEG-4 and become objects.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2006221178

{by decomposing into layers, e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Content divided in layers (e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers).
  • MDC (multiple description coding).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2009002303

{by media transcoding, e.g. video is transformed into a slideshow of still pictures or audio is converted into text}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Transcoding between modalities (e.g audio to text).
  • Slideshow of still pictures transformed in a video.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0163317 A1

{the reformatting operation being performed only on part of the stream, e.g. a region of the image or a time segment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The reformatting operation is performed on part of the stream, the part being spatial region of the image or a time segment.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0080878 A1

{by altering signal-to-noise ratio parameters, e.g. requantization}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • New quantization parameters are introduced allowing to change the resolution of each video frame.
  • Degradation of the signal by addition of noise.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0152317 A1

{by altering the spatial resolution, e.g. for clients with a lower screen resolution}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server provides a video with a spatial resolution commensurate with, e.g. the display capabilities of the client

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0039478 A1

{for performing aspect ratio conversion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server reformats video to alter aspect ratio, e.g. between 4:3 and 16:9

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 679 893 A2

{by altering the temporal resolution, e.g. decreasing the frame rate by frame skipping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alteration of the frame rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,510,554 B1

{for generating different versions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different versions of the same audio/video stream are created and stored for later immediate retrieval.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 796 394 A2

{involving video stream encryption( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 , analogue secrecy systems H04N 7/16 ; Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 ; arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation H04L 12/22 ; security arrangements in wireless networks H04W 12/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Scrambling of the video stream, encryption of the content stream.
  • Scrambling of multimedia content in general.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0085734 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

Arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation

Multiplex stream encryption in the server

Security arrangements in wireless networks

{by pre-encrypting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Covering encryption of content before storage in a (VOD) server, also known as off-line encryption.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0215578

{by partially encrypting, e.g. encrypting the ending portion of a movie}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not all of the signal is scrambled or different parts are encrypted differently, e.g. to reduce processor load or to enable a reduced quality presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0021412 A1

{Processing of additional data, e.g. scrambling of additional data, processing content descriptors( arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information H04H 20/28 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Insertion of software modules and additional data in the video stream. The specific nature of the additional data is not considered.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,636,890 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information

Calculation of the repetition rate and of the timing of insertion of additional data by the server-side scheduler

Processing of additional data on the client side

{involving encryption of additional data( arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/013126 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

{specifically adapted to content descriptors, e.g. coding, compressing or processing of metadata}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coding/compression or more generally modification of additional data associated with the content.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP2037684

{involving reformatting operations of additional data, e.g. HTML pages( optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet G06F 17/30905 ; message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in stored and forward packet switching H04L 12/5825 ; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06489 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additional informations such as an HTML page are reformatted by the server. Translation in a different language.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/071264 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet

Message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in stored and forward packet switching

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

{by altering the spatial resolution}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modified resolution of the additional information. It can be used, e.g. to reformat additional data for different destination client devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/33976 A1

{for generating different versions, e.g. for different recipient devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server generates at least one other version of the original additional data, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 860 880 A2

Assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, e.g. inserting a Uniform Resource Locator [URL] into a video stream, multiplexing software data into a video stream; Remultiplexing of multiplex streams; Insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bit-rate; Assembling of a packetized elementary stream{( multiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 65/00 ; stereoscopic image multiplexing or transmission H04N 13/0003 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transport stream generation. Takes as input video or audio streams or already multiplexed AV stream (remultiplexing) and outputs a single Transport Stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 363 439 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Multiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP

{Multiplexing isochronously with the video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 777 383 A1

{Remultiplexing multiplex streams, e.g. involving modifying time stamps or remapping the packet identifiers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modification of bitstream parameters, e.g. restamping, transmultiplexing, remapping of PIDs.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: XP 2040478 A1

{Insertion of stuffing data into a multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bitrate( synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems using bit stuffing for systems with different or fluctuating information rates H04J 3/073 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Insertion of stuffing bits/bytes/packets in the packetised stream to e.g. obtain a constant bitrate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0008736 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems using bit stuffing for systems with different or fluctuating information rates

H04J3/07B

{Multiplexing of additional data and video streams( arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information H04H 20/28 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multiplexing in an MPEG stream according to the DVB standard or generally speaking, insertion of additional data in the streaming of a digital TV system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,976,266 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information

{by inserting additional data into a data carousel, e.g. inserting software modules into a DVB carousel( arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/16 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Insertion in a DVB carousel.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/082289 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems

{Generation or processing of Service Information [SI}]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generation of MPEG SI and PSI tables.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 917 370 A2

{Multiplexing of several video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0018379 A1

{Statistical multiplexing, e.g. by controlling the encoder to alter its bitrate to optimize the bandwidth utilization}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The typical structure of a stat mux is a multiplexer which sends command signals back to the video coder(s) to make them change parameters (e.g. bitrate) so as to optimise the global use of the bandwidth.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 928 115 A1

{Multiplexing of audio and video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0237187 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Generation of timestamps for synchronization purposes

{Communication with additional data server}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 9953689 A1

{Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams( hybrid Fiber Coaxial HFC networks for downstream channel allocation for video distribution H04L 12/2801 ; flow control in packet networks H04L 12/569 ; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176 ; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing H04L 29/08945 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing the transport stream after its assembly and sending it over the network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0229365 A1, WO 002/5219 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for downstream channel allocation for video distribution

Flow control in packet networks

Formation of RTP packets

Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing

{Controlling the feeding rate to the network, e.g. by controlling the video pump}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The video pump is responsible for feeding the program content to the network at the correct data rate, for example after having received a control signal from the network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0262813 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Video streams retrieval

{Adapting the multiplex stream to a specific network, e.g. an Internet Protocol [IP}network( transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bitstream adapted to a specific network. The type of network or protocol used is classified elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 953 936 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM

Channel coding{or modulation}of digital bit-stream, e.g. QPSK modulation( arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding H04L 1/0009 ; analogue front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line H04L 27/0002 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Protection of the digital bitstream (e.g. RS coding) and modulation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,591,391 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding

Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line

{Channel allocation( H04N 21/266 takes precedence ); Bandwidth allocation( H04N 21/24 takes precedence; allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems H04J 3/1682 ; arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management H04L 12/2439 ; Admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692 ; negotiating bandwidth in wireless networks H04W 28/16 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Channel and bandwidth allocation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/088667 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems

Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management

Admission control, resource allocation in open networks

Negotiating bandwidth in wireless networks

{Stream processing in response to a playback request from an end-user, e.g. for trick-play}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Management of the video stream after receiving an upstream playback control signal from the client, for example in a VOD system to pause or ffwd the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 5864682 A1

{Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing of the transport stream as received from the network and before being adapted to the delivery medium.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0217452 A1

{involving embedding information at multiplex stream level, e.g. embedding a watermark at packet level}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Embedding of data in a piece of content, for example picture, text in a video.
  • The operations performed by a content provider at a workstation to create an interactive multimedia presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1255249

{involving multiplex stream encryption}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only the descrambling/decrypting of the transport stream is described here. The descrambling/decrypting of the video stream is described elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0075285 A1

{by partially encrypting, e.g. encrypting only the ending portion of a movie}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0160218 A1

Interfacing the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. prioritizing client{content}requests( hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for upstream channel allocation for video distribution H04L 12/2801 ; flow control in data networks H04L 12/569 ; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176 ; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests H04L 29/08945 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This interface manages the uplink signals coming from all the clients and is used for example to handle requests (e.g requests for a particular multimedia service).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0028897 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for upstream channel allocation for video distribution

Flow control in data networks

Formation of RTP packets

Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests

{involving handling client requests( scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in data switching networks H04L 29/08945 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0078218 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in data switching networks

{characterized by admission policies( admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692 ; arrangements for network security using user profiles for access control H04L 29/06836 ; access security in wireless networks H04W 12/08 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Admission policies of clients in video servers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Admission control, resource allocation in open networks

Arrangements for network security using user profiles for access control

Access security in wireless networks

{Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. monitoring of server load, available bandwidth, upstream requests( monitoring of server performance or load G06F 11/34 ; monitoring or testing of transmitters in general H04B 17/0002 ; arrangements for observation, testing or troubleshooting for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/12 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring is an internal process, which checks permanently user requests, the bandwidth available at the different network interfaces or any internal processes. It can generate reports of system usage.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0270598 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Monitoring of server performance or load

Monitoring or testing of transmitters in general

Arrangements for observation, testing or troubleshooting for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast

{Monitoring of the client buffer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server monitors the client buffer.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0237187 A1

{Monitoring of the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. bandwidth available( traffic monitoring in data switching networks H04L 12/2418 ; monitoring data switching networks utilization H04L 12/2668 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring of the available bandwidth or bit rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/054926 A1, US 2007/0153692 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Traffic monitoring in data switching networks

Monitoring data switching networks utilization

{Monitoring of server processing errors or hardware failure( error or fault detection G06F 11/07 ; monitoring in general G06F 11/30 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of an error during content distribution, content loading, multiplex management, hardware failure.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2006218600,WO0031975,US 2002/0066050 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Error or fault detection

Monitoring in general

{Monitoring of the internal components or processes of the server, e.g. server load( allocation of resources in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/50 ; performance measurement of computer activity G06F 11/34 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The load or processing capabilities of the server are monitored.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444,WO2010058215, US2008209481,

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Allocation of resources in multiprogramming arrangements

Performance measurement of computer activity

{Monitoring of transmitted content, e.g. distribution time, number of downloads( arrangements for monitoring programmes for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/14 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring of aired content for logging and verification purposes. It can be sent to a rights server or an advertiser for billing. Includes the number of times content has been downloaded (not requested, which is classified elsewhere).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/017640 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for monitoring programmes for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast

{Monitoring of the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. client requests( monitoring data switching networks utilization H04L 12/2668 ; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08945 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Requests from clients received at the upstream interface are monitored.
  • Includes log files of client requests.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0116067 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Monitoring data switching networks utilization

Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in network applications in communication control or processing

{Operating System [OS}processes, e.g. server setup( arrangements for programme control G06F 9/00 ; program loading or initiating in general G06F 9/445 ; multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/46 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Basic functions provided by the operating system like memory management, event handling, multitasking, multithreading, setup.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0197073 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Program loading or initiating in general

Multiprogramming arrangements

{Synchronization processes, e.g. processing of Program Clock References [PCR}( synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems H04J 3/06 ; arrangements for synchronising broadcast or distribution via plural systems in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/18 ; arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter H04L 7/00 ; synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end H04N 5/067 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Synchronization issues.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 339 182 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for synchronising broadcast or distribution via plural systems in broadcast distribution systems

Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end

{Management operations performed by the server for facilitating the content distribution or administrating data related to end-users or client devices, e.g. end-user or client device authentication, learning user preferences for recommending movies( maintenance or administration in data networks H04L 12/24 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server-side system management

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Maintenance or administration in data networks

{Learning process for intelligent management, e.g. learning user preferences for recommending movies( details of learning user preferences for the retrieval of video data in a video database G06F 17/30843 ; computer systems using learning methods G06N 3/08 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Server-side agents are similar to the agents implemented on the client and perform similar operations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of learning user preferences for the retrieval of video data in a video database

G06F17/30M5

Computer systems using learning methods

Client-side agents

{Processing of multiple end-users' preferences to derive collaborative data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preference data are processed to determine similarities between users. They can be clustered to have a limited number of grous of viewers. They are used to enrich the profile of one user by adding data from similar users.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Deriving a common profile for several users on the same client, e.g. family profile

{Management at additional data server, e.g. shopping server, rights management server( arrangements for maintenance or administration in data networks H04L 12/24 ; Protocols involving third party service providers for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08666 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Non-video distribution application.
  • A whole range of services, which do not deal directly with the distribution of multimedia content. They play a crucial part of the associated business model but because of their non-technical nature, they are separated from the other management functions. They can also be provided by a 3rd party.
  • Support/help center, the HLR of a mobile phone network for collecting the position of a mobile client.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data networks

Protocols involving third party service providers for network applications in communication control or processing

{Rights Management( protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment G06F 21/10 ; security in data switching network management H04L 12/2461 ; security management or policies for network security H04L 29/06986 ; access security in wireless networks H04W 12/08 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

External server specially adapted to perform rights management operations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment

Security in data switching network management

Security management or policies for network security

Access security in wireless networks

Client-side monitoring of content usage

Definition of usage data

{for selling goods, e.g. TV shopping( payment schemes, payment architectures or payment protocols for electronic shopping systems G06Q 20/12 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shopping and product management aspect. The shopping application is classified elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Payment schemes, payment architectures or payment protocols for electronic shopping systems

Billing{e.g. for subscription services}( payment schemes, architectures or protocols G06Q 20/00 ; e-commerce G06Q 30/00 ( arrangements for billing for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/21 ; charging arrangements in data networks H04L 12/14 ))
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Billing aspects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for billing for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

Charging arrangements in data networks

{involving characteristics of content or additional data, e.g. video resolution or the amount of advertising}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The price depends on the nature of the program offered. It can be also inversely proportional to the amount of commercials inserted.

{Third Party Billing, e.g. billing of advertiser}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Billing aspects not pertaining to the end-user or subscriber but to a third party such as an advertiser. Billing can be performed according to monitored viewer selections.

{Client or end-user data management, e.g. managing client capabilities, user preferences or demographics, processing of multiple end-users preferences to derive collaborative data( arrangements for services using the result on the distributing side of broadcast systems H04H 60/66 ; data switching network applications involving user or terminal profiles H04L 29/08918 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Customer management. Maintains databases for storing data about the clients it is connected to and their users.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0231854 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for services using the result on the distributing side of broadcast systems

Data switching network applications involving user or terminal profiles

{Management of client data( protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08927 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The management system stores data pertaining to the client device, regardless of its user.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0066128 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing

{involving client authentication( restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33 ; authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing H04L 29/06755 ; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server authenticates the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0118063 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code

Authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing

Authentication in wireless network security

{involving client display capabilities, e.g. screen resolution of a mobile phone( optimising the visualisation of content during browsing in the Internet G06F 17/30905 ; processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks H04W 8/22 ; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Clients may being diverse by nature and have different display capabilities, e.g. TV, PC, mobile phone, PDA,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2009/002324 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optimising the visualisation of content during browsing in the Internet

Reformatting of the video stream by the server, e.g. based on client parameters

Authentication in wireless network security

Processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks

{involving client hardware characteristics, e.g. manufacturer, processing or storage capabilities( allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/5044 ; allocation of resources considering software capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/5055 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A hardware profile contains a client ID, a STB manufacturer, model, general processing and memory/storage capabilities, except for display.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements

Allocation of resources considering software capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements

{involving the geographical location of the client( retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations G06F 17/3087 ; Arrangements for identifying locations of receiving stations in broadcast systems H04H 60/51 ; protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing H04L 29/08657 ; services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 4/02 ; locating users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 64/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server determines or is aware of the location of the client device. The determination can be performed by retrieving data from a HLR in a mobile phone network or by triangulation methods. This must be distinguished from user demographical data, classified elsewhere. It is typically used for targeting location dependent programs or additional informations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/136109 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations

Arrangements for identifying locations of receiving stations in broadcast systems

Protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing

Services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks

Locating users or terminals in wireless networks

{Generation of a revocation list, e.g. of client devices involved in piracy acts}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server keeps a list of client devices, which have been reported to been involoved in piracy acts, such as falsifying the decryption card.

{involving client software characteristics, e.g. OS identifier}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The software profile contains a record of the type of software installed on the client, including version number for automatic upgrades.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Detrails of operating systems in cients

Executable data per se

{Management of end-user data( customer care in data networks H04L 12/249 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The management system stores data related to its users regardless of the client device they use.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Customer care in data networks

{involving end-user authentication( restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33 ; arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system H04L 9/32 ; authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing H04L 29/06755 ; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Storage of physical characteristics of the user (e.g. fingerprint). The server authenticates the user of the client device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code

Arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system

Authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing

Authentication in wireless network security

{being end-user demographical data, e.g. age, family status or address( arrangements for identifying locations of users in broadcast systems H04H 60/52 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

When the user registers for the 1st time, he provides demographical data such as his gender, age, family status, profession, adress and ZIP code. Covers general interests but not viewing interests.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for identifying locations of users in broadcast systems

{being end-user preferences( retrieval of video data in a video database based on user preferences G06F 17/30843 ; arrangements for recognizing users' preferences H04H 60/46 ; protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08936 ; processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks H04W 8/18 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preferences may be derived from viewing history of the user and have been collected dynamically. Preferences can also be collected at user registration by providing general interests.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Retrieval of video data in a video database based on user preferences

G06F17/30M5

Arrangements for recognizing users' preferences

Protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing

Client-side monitoring of end-user

Uploading data stored on the client to server

Processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks

{Content or additional data distribution scheduling, e.g. sending additional data at off-peak times, updating software modules, calculating the carousel transmission frequency, delaying a video stream transmission, generating play-lists( scheduling strategies for dispatcher in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/4881 ; arrangements for scheduling broadcast services or broadcast-related services H04H 60/06 ; flow control in packet networks H04L 12/569 ; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08963 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The function of the scheduler is to plan the distribution of the multimedia content over time. It must guarantee, that the client can access the content, when it is supposed to. The scheduler considers a number of constraints, like different available bandwidths for example at day or night, or higher priorities if a user has paid a higher fee or the best timing for inserting a commercial (prime time). It has also to perform location resolution tasks, like for example assigning a time and channel to a TV program.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scheduling strategies for dispatcher in multiprogramming arrangements

Arrangements for scheduling broadcast services or broadcast-related services

Flow control in packet networks

Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests in network applications in communication control or processing

{the scheduling operation being performed under constraints}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduling algorithm performs optimization operations under constraints recevied as input data.

{involving the channel capacity, e.g. network bandwidth( flow control in packet networks H04L 12/569 ; admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692 ; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08954 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduler prioritizes the items to be transmiited according to the available network bandwidth.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Flow control in packet networks

Admission control, resource allocation in open networks

Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account in network applications in communication control or processing

{involving billing parameters, e.g. priority for subscribers of premium services}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduler defines priorities for the different items to be sent, for example according to billing policy (the user, who has been charged most will be served first).

{involving content or additional data duration or size, e.g. length of a movie, size of an executable file}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Duration of a movie or TV program.

{involving the time of distribution, e.g. the best time of the day for inserting an advertisement or airing a children program}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pertains to the time of the day, week,.., for example the best time of the day for inserting a commercial or airing a program suitable for children.

{for delaying content or additional data distribution, e.g. because of an extended sport event}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A TV program is delayed because of e.g. an expanded sport event.

{for generating a list of items to be played back in a given order, e.g. playlist, or scheduling item distribution according to such list( retrieval of multimedia data based on playlists G06F 17/30017 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generation of a playlist and scheduling content items according to a playlist.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Retrieval of multimedia data based on playlists

{for determining content or additional data repetition rate, e.g. of a file in a DVB carousel according to its importance( arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/16 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Algorithms considering at which frequency a piece of data should be repeated in the carousel, for example according to its importance. Also pertains to data which is repeated at a constant frequency.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems

{for distributing content or additional data in a staggered manner, e.g. repeating movies on different channels in a time-staggered manner in a near video on demand system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scheduling of NVOD services. Movies are repeated on different channels in a time-staggered manner.

{for associating distribution time parameters to content, e.g. to generate electronic program guide data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Metadata, such as program descriptors is received from the content provider, which itself is not aware of a transmission schedule. Therefore the creation of the EPG data consisting of metadata and time information is performed by the scheduler. The EPG user interface for program selection by the user is classified elsewhere.

{for providing content or additional data updates, e.g. updating software modules, stored at the client( deployment, distribution, installation, update of software G06F 8/65 ; error detection or correction during software upgrading G06F 11/1433 ; arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/25 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scheduler decides to update data or software resident in the client for example on a regular basis or according to special events.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Deployment, distribution, installation, update of software

Error detection or correction during software upgrading

Arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information

{Channel or content management, e.g. generation and management of keys and entitlement messages in a conditional access system, merging a VOD unicast channel into a multicast channel}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gathering multimedia content from different sources, analyzing it and creating appropriate channels for the clients. It receives input from the scheduler.

{for automatically generating descriptors from content, e.g. when it is not made available by its provider, using content analysis techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Documents describing the processing of these descriptors, for example in case-based systems, where an incoming piece of content is classified with other similar ones.

{for generating or managing entitlement messages, e.g. Entitlement Control Message [ECM}or Entitlement Management Message [EMM]( arrangements for conditional access to broadcast information or to broadcast-related services H04H 60/14 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generation and management of entitlement messages in a conditional access system. Pertains to ECM and EMM only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for conditional access to broadcast information or to broadcast-related services

{using retrofitting techniques, e.g. by re-encrypting the control words used for pre-encryption}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Trans-encryption of the ECMs resulting from pre-encryption (or re-encryption of the control words used for pre-encryption) for use with a different transmission key, also known as encryption renewal.

{for generating or managing keys in general( key distribution for secret or secure communication, using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server H04L 9/0802 ; key management for security in wireless networks H04L 29/06707 ; key management for network security in communication control or processing H04W 12/04 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generation and management of keys on the server side.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Key distribution for secret or secure communication, using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server

Key management for security in wireless networks

Key management for network security in communication control or processing

{for merging a unicast channel into a multicast channel, e.g. in a VOD application, when a client served by unicast channel catches up a multicast channel to save bandwidth( data multicast over packet-switching network H04L 12/18 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different channels can be merged in a single one. For example, in a VOD application, a client served by unicast channel catches up a multicast channel. Stream merging allows to minimize bandwidth.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Data multicast over packet-switching network

{Controlling the complexity of the video stream, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream based on the client capabilities}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The server controls the complexity of the video stream, for example based on its capabilities.

{Gathering content from different sources, e.g. Internet and satellite}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

How content is retrieved from different sources (e.g. satellite and internet) or from different content providers.

{Creating a channel for a dedicated end-user group, e.g. insertion of targeted commercials based on end-user profiles( information retrieval from the Internet by querying with filtering and personalisation G06F 17/30867 ; arrangements for replacing or switching information during the broadcast H04H 20/10 ; push services over packet-switching network H04L 12/1859 ; adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks H04L 12/583 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Generation of a personalized channel for one or a group of clients, according to their preferences. It also receives data from the scheduler.
  • Describes the insertion of targeted commercials by the server (with no further details at bitstream level).
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Information retrieval from the Internet by querying with filtering and personalisation

Arrangements for replacing or switching information during the broadcast

Push services over packet-switching network

Adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks

{Server based end-user applications}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aplications, where the end-user is aware that they are residing on the server, such as video hosting.

{Storing end-user multimedia data in response to end-user request{, e.g. network recorder}}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Storage of private data based on the explicit request of the end-user. The server holds private data received from the client as an extra service.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Management of user data for administrative purposes

{Video hosting of uploaded data from client}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Personal videos have been uploaded by clients, for example to be viewed by other users.

{Remote storage of video programs received via the downstream path, e.g. from the server}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source can be a storage dedicated for each user for example to record movies if the capacity of his hard disk is not sufficient.

{Content descriptor database or directory service for end-user access( details of content or meta data based information retrieval of video data in video databases G06F 17/30843 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Creation of directory services, for example by indexing metadata for easy retrieval (keyword search of movies).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of content or meta data based information retrieval of video data in video databases

G06F17/30M5

{Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of or interaction with content, e.g. set-top-box [STB}; Operations thereof( arrangements for distribution where lower stations, e.g. receivers, interact with the broadcast H04H 20/38 ; arrangements specially adapted for receiving broadcast information H04H 40/00 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter directed to the structure or operation of the client or end user device, such as a TV receiver, a set-top-box, a PC-TV, a mobile appliance (e.g. mobile phone or vehicle), being defined as receiving video and possibly additional data from one or several servers or intermediate component via network for further processing, storing and displaying. This also includes the transmission of these data on a home-based local network to further devices. The client extracts the raw multimedia content from the streams received from possibly heterogeneous sources (e.g. internet, broadcast network) and only provides a network interface. Exchange of control signals with the server or the network are placed by definition in the T-model as well as the uploading of client data to the server.

The first layer of this subgroup pertains to the physical description of the client and attached devices, e.g. its internal components, plug-in cards, input means, peripherals.

The second layer is directed to elementary specialized functions such as the processing of the data received from the downstream network interface (e.g. channel decoding, descrambling) and transmitted from the upstream network interface, the demultiplexing into elementary streams and the processing thereof, the extraction of additional data, the local storage of the content within the client device or its forwarding to peripheral devices via a local network, the combined display of several pieces of content on the same screen (e.g. news ticker, advertisement in a separate window), the monitoring of e.g. internal processes, user actions, network bandwidth. This layer also encompasses the software structure of the client device.

The third layer describes high level functions such as the selection of content (e.g. in unidirectional systems where the whole content is sent to the client), the management of content usage (e.g. conditional access, rights), the creation of local virtual channels (e.g. by combining streams retrieved from the broadcast network and the hard disk), the adaptation by learning of internal parameters (e.g. viewer profile).

The last layer is directed to services or applications as provided to the end user of the system such as defining setting parameters, selecting programs, making requests to the server or accessing additional services (e.g. banking, shopping, WWW browsing, gaming).

The subgroup is directed to documents related to the reception and processing of received data.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for distribution where lower stations, e.g. receivers, interact with the broadcast

Arrangements specially adapted for receiving broadcast information

Transmission and reception details at the client device

Raw multimedia data per se

{Structure of client; Structure of client peripherals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware level. Physical description of the multimedia client. As most of the components are always present (e.g. tuner, memory), there is no need to describe them all to avoid unnecessary classification work. An index should be allocated only if one of the component has a critical function in the invention. It should be further noted, that most of the components have already an entry in other technical fields and that for example the circuitry of a tuner is not part of this model.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/017436 A2

{using peripherals receiving signals from specially adapted client devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A peripheral is considered here as an external device, which receives multimedia data from the client (which excludes cards) being in the immediate vicinity of the client (same room or house). The most common example is the video recorder but other devices on a home network are possible. Covered are also PDA, game console or remote controls with a display.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0143801 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Input-only peripherals

Communication aspects with peripherals

{characterized by an identification number or address, e.g. local network address( protecting specific internal or external computer components used for computing or processing information by creating or determining hardware identification G06F 21/73 ; addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Identification number of the peripheral device, network address on the local network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0254651 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Protecting specific internal or external computer components used for computing or processing information by creating or determining hardware identification

Addressing and naming in data networks

{PC}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device, typically a STB here, is connected to a personal computer, allowing e.g. to extract data or software multiplexed with the video signal and to forward it to a PC.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/ 0146598 A1

{for generating hard copies of the content, e.g. printer, electronic paper( interfaces to printers G06F 3/12 ; printing data G06K 15/02 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The printer can be used for printing coupons or any additional data received by the STB. Covers also electronic paper.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1492338 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Interfaces to printers

Printing data

{additional display device, e.g. video projector( digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays G06F 3/1423 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additional display device, e.g. projector. Excludes the main display device (e.g. TV set), which is always present.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2009/0040233 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays

{portable device, e.g. remote control with a display, PDA, mobile phone( constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application G06F 1/1626 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Device receiving data from the client device, being typically a remote control with a display, a PDA or a mobile phone. Excludes PC, printer, additional display, recorder.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 2023350 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

{home appliance, e.g. lighting, air conditioning system, metering devices( home automation data switching networks exchanging configuration information on appliance services H04L 12/2807 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A home appliance can be a lighting or an air conditioning system or metering devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/0181 02 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Home automation data switching networks exchanging configuration information on appliance services

{external recorder( interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver H04N 5/775 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A recording device can be a VCR an external hard disk. DVD players as source of video or additional data are also covered here. Personal video recorders with an internal hard disk are covered elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0002951 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver

{Specialised client platforms, e.g. receiver in car or embedded in a mobile appliance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

different emodiments of video client platforms.

{embedded in a portable device, e.g. video client on a mobile phone, PDA, laptop( constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application G06F 1/1626 ; arrangements specially adapted for mobile receivers in broadcast systems H04H 20/57 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device is a mobile phone, a PDA or any portable device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/097006 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

Arrangements specially adapted for mobile receivers in broadcast systems

{involving a public display, viewable by several users in a public space outside their home, e.g. movie theatre, information kiosk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display device viewable by several users in a public space outside their home (e.g. movie theater, information kiosk). Excludes access points for downloading informations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/067235 A1

{located in transportation means, e.g. personal vehicle( arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems H04H 20/62 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device is located in a vehicle, e.g. car entertainment system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/136109 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems

{embedded in a}Personal Computer [PC]]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device is a personal computer but not a portable device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 834798 A2

{Personal Video Recorder [PVR}( H04N 5/76 takes precedence; arrangements for broadcast specially adapted for accumulation-type receivers H04H 20/40 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device is a personal video recorder, STB with hard disk, Tivo,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2006/015186 82

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for broadcast specially adapted for accumulation-type receivers

Television signal recording

{External card to be used in combination with the client device, e.g. for conditional access}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A card is an external component, which can be inserted in a dedicated slot. It can be a smart card for a conditional access system or an extension module to upgrade the STB capabilities.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/141644 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

DVB common interfaces

{for conditional access}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The card holds a key for Conditional Access purposes (descrambling) or other decryption operations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1819163 A1

{for identification purposes, e.g. storing user identification data, preferences, personal settings or data( restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code in combination with an additional device, e.g. dongle or smart card G06F 21/123 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The card holds identification data of the user, preferences, personal settings or any kind of personal data.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1906650 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code in combination with an additional device, e.g. dongle or smart card

{providing its own processing capabilities, e.g. external module for video decoding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The card has its own processing capabilities (e.g. external module for video decoding).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1309182 A2

{providing storage capabilities, e.g. memory stick}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Extension module or storage capabilities, e.g. memory stick.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0257101 A1

{for payment( mechanisms actuated by coded identity card or credit card to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus G07F 7/08 ; payment schemes, architectures or protocols G06Q 20/00 ; e-commerce G06Q 30/00 ; charging arrangements in data networks H04L 12/14 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bank, credit card or prepaid card, to be used e.g. in TV shopping applications.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0001940 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Charging arrangements in data networks

{using}Input-only peripherals{i.e. input devices connected to specially adapted client devices( input devices also receiving signals from specially adapted client devices H04N 21/4104 )}, e.g. Global Positioning System [GPS]( input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer G06F 3/01 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices used to send information and control signals from the user and its environment to the client. It includes remote controls, keyboards, mouses, microphones as well as cameras or biosensors.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0212911 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Peripherals receiving signals from client devices

{biosensors, e.g. heat sensor for presence detection, EEG sensors or any limb activity sensors worn by the user( Input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection G06F 3/015 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Can be used as passive input from the user. Such devices can be heat sensor for presence detection, EEG sensors or any limb activity sensors worn by the user.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1991001 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection

{environmental sensors, e.g. for detecting temperature, luminosity, pressure, earthquakes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors connected to the client allow to determine e.g. temperature, luminosity, pressure, earthquakes. Includes position sensors (e.g. GPS).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0142722 A1

{sound input device, e.g. microphone}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any sound input device. Can be used to generate audio streams or to enter voice commands.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2009/0030681 A1

{User interfaces specially adapted for controlling a client device through a remote control device; Remote control devices therefor( interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces in general, see G06F 3/048 ; computer pointing devices in general, see G06F 3/033 ; user interfaces for controlling a tuning device of a television receiver through a remote control H03J 9/00 ; constructive details of casings for the remote control device H01H 9/0235 ; remote control of peripheral devices connected to a television receiver through the remote control device of the television receiver H04B 1/205 ; remote control devices in general G08C )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only remote control devices transmitting input data to the client device and located in the direct vicinity thereof are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: DE 10 2006 028 505 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces in general

Computer pointing devices in general

User interfaces for controlling a tuning device of a television receiver through a remote control

Constructive details of casings for the remote control device

Remote control of peripheral devices connected to a television receiver through the remote control device of the television receiver

Remote control devices in general

{Cameras( H04N 5/225 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The camera allows the client to become a video source, for example for uploading videos to a server, or identification purposes. Camera has the meaning of image generating device and covers also scanner (paper, fingerprint, retina) or any kind of imaging device. The camera allows the client to become a video source. It can be used for identifying the user or uploading videos to the server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/105246 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Television cameras

{Providing}Remote input by a user located remotely from the client device, e.g. at work
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device is controlled by an input device located at a distant location. A possible application could be that a user uses a mobile phone, a PDA or an office PC to program his STB at home. Input and client device are connected by a wide area network (e.g. internet).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0099560 A1

{Characteristics of or}Internal components of the client( H04N 5/44 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Internal components such as tuner, demodulator, demultiplexer, descrambler, video/audio decoder, CPU, volatile memory, hard disk, graphics board/circuitry, modem. It should be noted that certain components are typical for a multimedia client, like the ones used for video processing or the receiver circuitry.
  • Additonal built-in cards.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/057482 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Receiver circuitry

{for processing the incoming bitstream}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pieces of hardware processing the incoming bitstream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0120676 A1

{involving specific demultiplexing arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0144747 A1

{involving specific decryption arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1487211 A3

{involving specific tuning arrangements, e.g. two tuners}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The presence of at least 2 tuners in a client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0035668 A1

{involving a hybrid front-end, e.g. analog and digital tuners}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0035668 A1

{for reading from or writing on a non-volatile solid state storage medium, e.g. DVD, CD-ROM}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Internal reader / writer for DVD's, CD-ROM's and similar disks

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/088511 A1

{for processing graphics}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 00/28518

{for reading from or writing on a magnetic storage medium, e.g. hard disk drive}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0108331 A1

{the medium being removable}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removable hard disk within a client.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1883234 A2

{for modulating an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information or demodulating it to decode digital information, e.g. ADSL or cable modem}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0123329 A1

{Client identification by a unique number or address, e.g. serial number, MAC address, socket ID( addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware identification or serial number, also MAC address, socket ID.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1359710 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Addressing and naming in data networks

{for reading from or writing on a volatile storage medium, e.g. Random Access Memory [RAM}]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1758402 A1

{Processing of content or additional data, e.g. demultiplexing additional data from a digital video stream; Elementary client operations, e.g. monitoring of home network, synchronizing decoder's clock; Client middleware( demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 29/06176 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Elementary specialized functions. They can be implemented in software or hardware. Their task is to control the corresponding hardware component and to provide a service to the upper layer.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP

{Synchronizing client clock from received content stream, e.g. locking decoder clock with encoder clock, extraction of the PCR packets( arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock H04L 7/0012 ; arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation H04L 7/0083 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Clock recovery (extraction of the PCR packets).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0170593 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation

{Synchronizing display of multiple content streams, e.g. synchronisation of audio and video output or enabling or disabling interactive icons for a given period of time}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Synchronised presentation of the multimedia content according to the time stamps. Additional data can be synchronized to the main content. Also locking items at given times.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/005268 A2

Generation of visual interfaces{for content selection or interaction}; Content or additional data rendering( receiver circuitry for displaying additional information H04N 5/445 ; interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces G06F 3/048 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the generation of visual interfaces on a video client, involving graphical features, screen space management. They must be differentiated from applications making use of them such as EPG

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0062894 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces

End-user applications using user interfaces

{involving specific graphical features, e.g. screen layout, special fonts or colors, blinking icons, highlights or animations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Layout arrangement on the screen, overlays, menus in general

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0184047 A1

{for fitting data in a restricted space on the screen, e.g. EPG data in a rectangular grid}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Creation of a grid for e.g. an EPG application, where all the textual information is fitted, e.g. in a rectangular grid.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/078094 A2

{for displaying supplemental content in a region of the screen, e.g. an advertisement in a separate window}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A separate window or region is provided to display additional data, like a commercial or additional text

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0124057 A1

{by altering the content in the rendering process, e.g. blanking, blurring or masking an image region( image enhancement or restoration in general G06T 5/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • The displayed image can be altered according to certain parameters provided for example by an access control or censoring system. The image can be totally blanked or blurred or a region can be masked.
  • Only details of the filtering action.
  • Damping of brightness.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0222994 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Image enhancement or restoration in general

High-level filtering performed on a region of the image

{Content retrieval operation from a local storage medium, e.g. hard-disk( details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases G06F 17/30843 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Retrieval from local storage.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 796 374 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases

G06F17/30M5

{by playing back content from the storage medium( reproduction of recorded television signals H04N 5/76 ; reproduction of recorded television signals H04N 9/79 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Playback of media data from fixed or removable local storage devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 968 318 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Reproduction of recorded television signals

Reproduction of recorded television signals

{Content storage operation, e.g. storage operation in response to a pause request, caching operations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Local storage. The client uses part of his volatile or non volatile memory (e.g. hard disk) to store a part of the received multimedia data or data it has generated itself (e.g. monitored data).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 848 214 A1

{Caching operations, e.g. of an advertisement for later insertion during playback}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Caching operations, for example of commercials for later insertion or the generation of an internal database, for example for holding EPG data. The storage has a temporary aspect and must be distinguished from recording, which aims more at a long term archiving on request of the user. It is not meant either to describe buffering as performed in the video decoder, which holds the multimedia data for a brief period of time. Caching is an action, which is transparent to the end-user unlike recording.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 331 810 A1

{by placing content in organized collections, e.g. local EPG data repository( interfaces, Database management systems or updating for information retrieval G06F 17/30002 ; details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video database G06F 17/30843 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular details of the use of a local database. Also generation of directory structure, within the file system of the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0288988 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Interfaces, Database management systems or updating for information retrieval

Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video database

G06F17/30M5

{Processing operations in response to a pause request}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The incoming video stream (e.g. from live broadcast) can be paused. It is stored locally to allow the user to resume viewing later on.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 269 752 B1

{Recording operations( recording of a television signal H04N 5/76 ; arrangements for recording or accumulating broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/27 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The received data is recorded for archiving purposes. This should be distinguished from caching, which has a temporary aspect.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/129818 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for recording or accumulating broadcast information or broadcast-related information

{Housekeeping operations, e.g. prioritizing content for deletion because of storage space restrictions( storage management, e.g. defragmentation G06F 3/0604 ; unloading stored programs G06F 9/445 ; storage management in file systems G06F 17/30067 ; buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks H04L 49/90 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device has a limited memory. Algorithms, describing which data are prioritized for deletion (e.g. oldest or less used data) are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0193414 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Storage management, e.g. defragmentation

Unloading stored programs

Storage management in file systems

Buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks

Disassembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. demultiplexing audio and video streams, extraction of additional data from a video stream; Remultiplexing of multiplex streams; Extraction or processing of SI; Disassembling of packetized elementary stream{( demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 65/00 ; stereoscopic image multiplexing or transmission H04N 13/0003 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transport stream demultiplexing It takes as input transport streams and generates after demultiplexing A/V streams or remultiplexes several TS into a new transport stream. Demultiplexing includes PID filtering.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 965 591 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP

{Demultiplexing of audio and video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 776 134 A2

{Demultiplexing isochronously with video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Isochronously with the horizontal video sync, according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 777 383 A1

{Remultiplexing of multiplex streams, e.g. by modifying time stamps or remapping the packet identifiers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modification of bitstream parameters, e.g. restamping, transmultiplexing, remapping of PIDs.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 917 355 A1

{Extraction or processing of SI, e.g. extracting service information from an MPEG stream}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Retrieval of the system informations (SI).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/108570 A1, US 2005/0060758 A1

{involving stuffing data, e.g. packets or bytes( synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems with different or fluctuating information rates H04J 3/073 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Extraction of the software or additional data that have been inserted in the packetised stream by replacement of (or by using the bandwidth occupied by) the stuffing bits/bytes/packets.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 555 826 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems with different or fluctuating information rates

H04J3/07B

{Demultiplexing of several video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0026423 A1

{Demultiplexing of additional data and video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Extraction of the additional data from a digital video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/088645 A1

{by extracting from data carousels, e.g. extraction of software modules from a DVB carousel}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Extraction process of the data out of the DVB carousel.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/082289 A1

{Processing of additional data, e.g. decrypting of additional data, reconstructing software from modules extracted from the transport stream}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Software, additional data and generally speaking to non-streaming data. This part is dedicated to the retrieval of software modules and non audio-video information, such as additional data (descriptors, WWW pages,..)for example by extracting them from a DVB carousel or received from an internet site. Modules are reordered according to a directory module, checked for consistency and eventually the complete package is rebuilt.

{involving reassembling additional data, e.g. rebuilding an executable program from recovered modules}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

After recovery, all modules are ordered and the initial package rebuilt.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO9962248,WO2004082289,WO 2008/143447 A1

{involving decryption of additional data( arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/013126 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

{involving reformatting operations of additional data, e.g. HTML pages on a television screen( optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet G06F 17/30905 ; adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks H04L 12/5835 ; Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06496 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additional informations such as an HTML page are reformatted by the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/142648 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet

Adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

{by altering the spatial resolution e.g. to reformat additional data on a handheld device, attached to the STB}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The resolution of the additional informations is modified. It can be used, e.g. to reformat additional data on a handheld device, attached to the STB.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0148314 A1

{for generating different versions, e.g. for different peripheral devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device generates at least one other version of the original additional data, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/008739 A1

Interfacing a local distribution network, e.g. communicating with another STB, inside the home{; Interfacing an external card to be used in combination with the client device}( arrangements specially adapted plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • A series of interfaces allowing to communicate with cards and peripheral devices. It includes for example the DVB common interface, secure local communication, e.g. with a smart card or a video recorder, Firewire (IEEE 1394) connection to other video devices.
  • Communication aspects with these devices when the client becomes a home server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0124766 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems

{Interfacing a plurality of external cards, e.g. through a DVB Common Interface [DVB-CI}]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Connection via common interface (DVB-CI), multiple conditional access.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 921 857 A2

{Interfacing a Home Network, e.g. for connecting the client to a plurality of peripherals( home Audio Video Interoperability (HAVI) data switching networks H04L 12/2805 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Several peripherals connected to a home network.
  • Documents describing communication aspects on the home network or describing a home network with no special emphasis on the connected peripheral devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/097563 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Home Audio Video Interoperability (HAVI) data switching networks

{Interfacing an external recording device}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Communication between the client and an external connected recording device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 950 966 A1

Adapting the video{or multiplex}stream to a specific local network, e.g. a IEEE 1394 or Bluetooth® network
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adaptation of the bitstream to the local network: e.g. transport of video over firewire.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0007616 A1

{involving a wired protocol, e.g. IEEE 1394( high-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus H04L 12/40052 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and peripherals connected via a firewire (IEEE1394) link.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0007616 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

High-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus

{HDMI}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and peripherals connected via an HDMI connection.

{involving a wireless protocol, e.g. Bluetooth or wireless LAN( IEEE 802.11; arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems H04B 10/114 ; wireless local area data switching networks H04W ; flow control in wireless networks H04W 28/10 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Device and peripherals connected via a wireless link, such as Bluetooth or wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0273118 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems

Wireless local area data switching networks

Flow control in wireless networks

{Establishing a secure communication between the client and a peripheral device or smart card( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 ; security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity G06F 21/00 ; security arrangements in wireless networks H04W 12/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Secure communication with the peripheral or with a smart card.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 990 999 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Security arrangements in wireless networks

{Interfacing the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. for transmitting client requests to a VOD server( flow control in data networks H04L 12/569 ; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176 ; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests H04L 29/08945 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non physical details of phone or cable modems. Communication aspects with the server are to be found elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/007611 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Flow control in data networks

Formation of RTP packets

Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests

{Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network originating from a server, e.g. retrieving MPEG packets from an IP network( transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601 ; flow control in data networks H04L 12/569 ; processing of real-time packets H04L 29/06176 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The Downstream network interface processes the electromagnetic waves received from the network and outputs multimedia streams. It comprises channel tuning to get the baseband signal, channel decoding, descrambling.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/069581 A1, US 2007/0006259

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM

Flow control in data networks

Processing of real-time packets

{Recovering the multiplex stream from a specific network, e.g. recovering MPEG packets from ATM cells( transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The bitstream is adapted to a specific network. The type of network or protocol used is classified elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0210939 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM

{Demodulation or channel decoding, e.g. QPSK demodulation( analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line H04L 27/0002 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Demodulation and error correction.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/006833 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line

{Accessing a communication channel, e.g. channel tuning( tuning indicators; automatic tuning control H04N 5/50 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Channel selection.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/130116 A1

{involving operations to reduce the access time, e.g. fast-tuning for reducing channel switching latency}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fast channel change or rapid tuning relate to techniques, where the STB tries to display as quick as possible an image in the time interval starting after the user has issued a channel change command and before the decoding buffer could be filled. Those techniques comprise for example, decoding a low resolution stream, or a stream sent a higher rate,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/121801 A1

{Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream decrypting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processing of the transport stream as received from the network and before being sent to the demultiplexer.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 2 023 497 A1

{involving multiplex stream decryption( arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only the descrambling/decrypting of the transport stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0269063 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

Multiplex stream encryption

Video stream decryption

{by partial decryption, e.g. decrypting a multiplex stream that has been partially encrypted}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/011766 A1

{Processing of audio elementary streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Audio stream management.

{involving audio buffer management}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Buffering of the audio signal.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/031918 A2

{involving operations for analysing the audio stream, e.g. detecting features or characteristics in audio streams( arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems H04H 60/58 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The audio stream is parsed to extract or recognize some features or to detect embedded triggers.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0209055 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems

{by muting the audio signal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The audio stream is muted because, for example, rights have been violated or for censoring purposes.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0278732 A2

{involving reformatting operations of audio signals( details of audio signal transcoding G10L 19/173 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reformatted audio stream, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 775 959 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of audio signal transcoding

{Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing a video clip retrieved from local storage with an incoming video stream, rendering scenes according to MPEG-4 scene graphs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Video stream management. Receives the video stream from the demultiplexer and performs MPEG decoding, synchronization with other streams.
  • Management of the video decoder buffer.
{involving video buffer management, e.g. video decoder buffer or video display buffer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Buffer level control.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 107 601 A2

{involving operations for analysing video streams, e.g. detecting features or characteristics in the video stream( arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems H04H 60/59 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of features (e.g. logo) in a video stream, extraction of characteristics or generation of metadata in the client directly from the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB 2447876 A

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems

{involving rendering scenes according to scene graphs, e.g. MPEG-4 scene graphs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Spatial composition of a scene according to the scene graph in the rendering process. Scene graph updating following client/user control is covered here as well as the animation of objects.
  • Specific to the processing of MPEG-4 objects.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 715 681 A2

{involving splicing one content stream with another content stream, e.g. for substituting a video clip}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Splicing of at least one video stream with another stream (video or not) at the client level. It can be used for inserting or substituting a piece of video such as a commercial.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/046212 A1

{involving reformatting operations of video signals for household redistribution, storage or real-time display( adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal G09G 5/005 ; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06496 ; details of conversion of video standards at pixel level H04N 7/01 ; video transcoding H04N 19/40 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/008289 A2

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

Details of conversion of video standards at pixel level

Video transcoding

{for formatting on an optical medium, e.g. DVD}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The MPEG stream is preprocessed for formatting and recording on a DVD.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0081778 A1

{by transcoding between formats or standards, e.g. from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4( conversion of standards in analogue television systems H04N 7/01 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transcoding between standards (e.g. MPEG-2 to MPEG-4).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 372 333 A2

{by decomposing into layers, e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device generates a layered video stream from the original one.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0117371 A1

{by media transcoding, e.g. video is transformed into a slideshow of still pictures, audio is converted into text}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transcoding between modalities (e.g audio to text).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/049447

{the reformatting operation being performed only on part of the stream, e.g. a region of the image or a time segment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The reformatting operation is performed on part of the stream, the part being spatial region of the image or a time segment.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/067731

{by altering signal-to-noise parameters, e.g. requantization}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

New quantization parameters are introduced allowing to change the resolution of each video frame.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,441,754 B1

{by altering the spatial resolution, e.g. for displaying on a connected PDA}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Client-side alteration of the spatial resolution, mainly for dispalying on peripheral device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/085874 A2

{for performing aspect ratio conversion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Conversion of signal for displaying with a different aspect ratio or with a different resolution.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/13507 A2

{by altering the temporal resolution, e.g. by frame skipping( television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate H04N 5/783 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alteration of the frame rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 956 840 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate

{for generating different versions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device generates at least one other version of the original content, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 901 293 A1

{involving video stream decryption( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 ; arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Descrambling of the video stream, decryption of the content stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0169466 A1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

{by partially decrypting, e.g. decrypting a video stream that has been partially encrypted}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not all of the signal is scrambled or different parts are encrypted differently, e.g. to reduce processor load or to enable a reduced quality presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2009/021953 A1

{involving video stream encryption, e.g. re-encrypting a decrypted video stream for redistribution in a home network( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 ; arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The client device reencrypts the decrypted video stream, usually with another key. It can be used for secure recording.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 410 342 B1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

{Acquiring end-user identification( authentication in wireless communication networks H04W 12/06 ){e.g. using personal code sent by the remote control or by inserting a card}( restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33 )}