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TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION (typewriters B41J; order telegraphs, fire or police telegraphs G08B; visual telegraphy G08B, G08C; teleautographic systems G08C; ciphering or deciphering apparatus per se G09C; coding, decoding or code conversion, in general H03M; arrangements common to telegraphic and telephonic communication H04M; selecting H04Q)
Definition statement
This subclass covers:

Transmission of signals having been supplied in digital form, e.g. data transmission, telegraphic communication, or methods or arrangements for monitoring.

As the scope of H04L covers a diversity of subject matter, the user is referred to the definitions for the main groups of H04L. The following list is intended to assist the user.

Systems:

Arrangements of general application:

network architectures or network communication protocols for network security H04L 63/00

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Arrangements applicable to telegraphic or telephonic communication

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Typewriters

Order telegraphs, fire or police telegraphs

Visual telegraphy

Teleautographic systems

Ciphering or deciphering apparatus per se

Coding, decoding or code conversion, in general

Selecting

Spread spectrum techniques in general

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received (correcting synchronisation H04L 7/00 ; { for digital computers G06F 11/00} ; arrangements in the transmission path H04B)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Codes for error detection or error correction, i.e. theoretical code construction and coding circuit architecture designs are classified in H04M 13/00; the application of such codes in transmission systems is covered by H04L 1/00 subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Codes for error detection or error correction per se, i.e. theoretical code construction and coding circuit architecture designs

Transmission

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer systems

Error correction or detection in electrical digital data processing

Coin-feed or like apparatus with coded identity card or credit card

Error correction in speech coding

Diversity Systems for radio transmission systems

Error correction in synchronization

Error detection and correction for transmission of compressed video (e.g. MPEG)

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification into the main group H04L 1/00 itself should be avoided and instead its relevant subgroups should be used by identifying the particular error technique used. If no other group can be assigned for error control applicable to transmission systems, then it may be assigned to this main group.

In addition an Indexing Code can be given under H04L 2001/0092 for network topology, which is of interest to H04L 1/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AM

Acknowledged Mode

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

AMR

Adaptive Multirate

ARQ

Automatic Repeat reQuest

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

BCH

Broadcast Channel

BER

Bit Error Rate

BLER

Block Error Rate

BPSK

Binary Phase Shift Keying

BW

Bandwidth

C-RNTI

Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

CE

Cyclic Extension

CP

Cyclic Prefix

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

CSI

Channel State Information

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

DCI

Downlink Control Information

DFT

Discrete Fourier Transform

DL

Downlink

DL-SCH

Downlink Shared Channel

DRA

Dynamic Resource Allocation

DRX

Discontinuous Reception

DTCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

E-UTRA

Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

E-UTRAN

Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

EPC

Evolved Packet Core

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing

FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access

FEC

Forward Error Correction

H-ARQ

Hybrid ARQ

HSDPA

High Speed Downlink Packet Access

HSUPA

High Speed Uplink Packet Access

IP

Internet Protocol

IPSec

Internet Protocol Security

LTE

Long Term Evolution

MAC

Medium Access Control

MAC

Message Authentication

NACK

Negative ACK

NAS

Non-Access Stratum

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

PAPR

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

PDCCH

Physical Dedicated Control Channel

PDCP

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

PHICH

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel

PUCCH

Physical Uplink Control Channel

PUSCH

Physical Uplink Shared Channel

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RRC

Radio Resource Control

SDMA

Space (or Spatial) Division Multiple Access

SIMO

Single Input Multiple Output

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

SIR

Signal-to-Interference Ratio

STC

Space Time Coding

UEP

Unequal error protections

UM

Unacknowledged Mode

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

{Systems modifying transmission characteristics according to link quality, e.g. power backoff (adaptive data allocation for multicarrier modulation H04L 5/0044 ; controlling transmission power for radio systems H04W 52/04)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

General link adaptation techniques, including power control for non-radio links, and handshaking procedures involving link adaptation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Splitting-up the transmission path, e.g. time, frequency etc.

Allocating sub-channels of the transmission path

Negotiation of transmission parameters unrelated to channel quality

Multichannel equalizers (attention: Indexing Code)

Adaptation of equalizers (attention: Indexing Code)

Transmit line pre-equalization, e.g. precoding, MIMO calibration

Allocation of payload for multicarrier modulation system

Adaptation of timing of transmitters in a network

Mode change for facsimile transmission

Network traffic and resource management

Communication route selection based on channel quality

Control of transmission power in radio systems

Wireless resource allocation

Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive techniques are covered by specific subgroups under H04L 1/0001 unless they are other aspects, e.g. frequency hopping, adaptive slew rate, adaptive interleaving, DSL power back-off.

ARQ adaptive retransmission aspects should be classified mainly under the H04L 1/16, H04L 1/18 subgroups.

{by adapting the transmission rate}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The end raw rate at which bits are transmitted through the channel, e.g. after encoding.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Allocation of payload for multicarrier modulation system

Management of data rate of a bus

Network nodes adapting their rate to physical link properties

Network congestion

Negotiation of communication rate in wireless communication systems

Power control taking into account the transmission rate

{by switching between different modulation schemes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also adaptive CDMA and direct sequence spread spectrum is covered by this subgroup.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

CDMA system aspects

Management of data rate of a bus

Network nodes adapting their rate to physical link properties

Negotiation of communication rate in wireless communication systems; network traffic / resource management

Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptation of modulation is classified in H04L 1/0003 even if line bitrate remains constant, e.g. switch-over from 8-QAM to 8-PSK.

Adaptation of modulation and coding schemes (MCS/AMR) are classifed also under H04L 1/0009.

Particular ARQ physical mapping aspects should be classified mainly under the H04L 1/1893 or H04L 1/1861.

{applied to control information}
Special rules of classification within this group

If the adaptation concerns both control and payload then only H04L 1/0003 is used.

{applied to payload information}
Special rules of classification within this group

If the adaptation concerns both control and payload then only H04L 1/0003 is used.

{by adapting the transmission format}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group covers adaptive formatting aspects, e.g. adaptive slot allocation, or adaptive packet formats other than coding.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Channel / frequency assignment

Adaptation of format of signaling

{by modifying the frame length}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Frame or packet length adaptation at lower OSI layers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Maximum packet size (MTU) for TCP/IP

{by adapting the channel coding (H04L 1/1812 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also switching between uncoded and coded modes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Unequal or adaptive error correction protection

Adapting channel coding for congestion

Special rules of classification within this group

ARQ redundancy schemes are classified under the subgroups of H04L 1/1812.

Repetition coding per se is classified also in H04L 1/08; other types of codes under the subgroups of H04L 1/004.

Adaptation of space-time coded transmissions, in particular modification of the space-time matrix is classified under the subgroups of H04L 1/0618.

Adaptation of modulation and coding schemes (MCS) are classified also under H04L 1/0003.

{applied to control information}
Special rules of classification within this group

If the adaptation concerns both control and payload then only H04L 1/0009 is used.

{applied to payload information}
Special rules of classification within this group

If the adaptation concerns both control and payload then only H04L 1/0009 is used.

{Rate matching, e.g. puncturing or repetition of code symbols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The coding rate must be adapted in rate matching operations for link adaptation.

Special rules of classification within this group

Use of multiple puncturing patterns is covered by H04L 1/0068; general rate matching without regard to link quality is covered H04L 1/0067.

{by adapting the source coding}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Adaptive speech coding per se, no transmission involved

Adaptive video coding per se, no transmission involved

{characterised by the adaptation strategy}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This class is used for special adaptation strategies for adopting a transmission mode, e.g. select an MCS mode, which do not fall within its subclasses. For example, use of special utility or cost functions is classified here.

{involving special memory structures, e.g. look-up tables}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This class is used for uncommon memory structures, e.g. switching tables, look-up tables and the like.

{where the mode-switching is based on Quality of Service requirement}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Guarantee of QoS and interaction of QoS parameters of higher layers and of the physical and data link layers. Adaptation takes into account types of data, e.g. real-time data.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Wireless network traffic management

{based on latency requirement}
Special rules of classification within this group

Latency aspects per se should be classified only here and not in any higher subgroups.

{in which mode-switching is based on a statistical approach}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Special statistical approaches for mode-switching including future system or channel conditions mode-switching decision, e.g. calculation of confidence intervals or sequential testing for early decisions.

{Algorithms with memory of the previous states, e.g. Markovian models}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Algorithms explicitly using Markov chains.

{in which the algorithm uses adaptive thresholds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Algorithms in which the adaptation thresholds themselves are adapted according to e.g. state of transmitter or receiver.

{in which mode-switching is influenced by the user}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. during the negotiation phase.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Re-negotiation phase of parameters unrelated to channel quality

{characterised by the signalling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Signaling conveying adaptation commands or channel quality indicators, scheduling and formatting aspects thereof.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Antenna switching / beamforming based on receiver feedback

MIMO systems with feedback

Measuring or estimating channel quality parameters

Monitoring or testing of receivers with feedback of measurements to the transmitter

Signaling for administration of a divided path

Special rules of classification within this group

The appropriate sub-group should be assigned and the main sub-class be avoided.

Signal quality per se is classified in H04L 1/20.

{Transmission of mode-switching indication}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Both for forward and reverse direction.

{Transmission of channel quality indication}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Monitoring or testing of receivers with feedback of measurements to the transmitter

{Formatting}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

How the actual signaling is conveyed.

Special rules of classification within this group

The appropriate sub-group should be assigned and the main sub-class be avoided. Mere error control coding of signaling is not assigned by this class.

{Reduction of the amount of signalling, e.g. retention of useful signalling or differential signalling (power control H04W 52/04)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Wireless Transmission Power Control

Special rules of classification within this group

Protection of CQI (channel quality indicator) or TFCI (or transport format combination indicator) with error control is classified in H04L 1/0072.

{Multiple signaling transmission (H04L 1/1664 , F15 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Systems acting by means of fluids in general; Fluid-pressure actuators, e.g. servo-motors; Details of fluid-pressure systems, not otherwise provided for

F15

Details of the supervisory signal being transmitted together with payload signals; piggybacking

Special rules of classification within this group

The class should not be assigned if the commands include an acknowledgement indication.

Piggybacked acknowledgements or transmission of command with acknowledgement indication is classified in H04L 1/1664 , H04L 1/1671 .

{Without explicit signalling}
Special rules of classification within this group

Implicit signaling is not classified here either but in relevant subgroups under H04L 1/0033, H04L 1/0036.

{arrangements specific to the transmitter}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Specific parameters of transmitter aspects, i.e. circuit or computer-based implementation, e.g. amplifying circuit, etc. according to channel quality.

Special rules of classification within this group

The class should be assigned only if its subclass is not relevant.

{where the transmitter decides based on inferences, e.g. use of implicit signalling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mode switching based on ACK/NACK indications (ACK/NACKs are used as derivative channel quality indicators).

{arrangements specific to the receiver}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Specific parameters of receiver aspects, i.e. circuit or computer-based implementation, e.g. demodulator, etc. according to channel quality.

Special rules of classification within this group

The class should be assigned only if any subclass is not relevant.

{Blind format detection (for detection of modulation format H04L 27/0012)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

CDMA code identification

Identification of modulation type

{other detection of signalling, e.g. detection of TFCI explicit signalling (H04L 1/0046 , H04L 27/0012 and H04L 25/0262 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Code rate detection or code type detection

Arrangements for identifying the type of modulation

Arrangements for detecting the data rate of an incoming signal

Special rules of classification within this group

Code rate detection of code type detection are classified in H04L 1/0046.

{by using forward error control (H04L 1/0618 takes precedence; coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or correction H03M 13/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Application of FEC codes in transmission systems.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Error correction or detection in electrical digital data processing

Error correction in speech coding

Error detection/correction (code construction per se, coding and decoding architectures)

Codes for error detection or error correction per se

Space-time coding

Error correction in synchronization

Error correction for video transmission (e.g. MPEG)

Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive FEC is classified in H04L 1/0009.

Space-time/frequency coding/decoding is classified in H04L 1/0618, H04L 1/0606

Repetition coding is classified in H04L 1/08.

Hybrid ARQ redundancy schemes (ARQ combined with FEC) are classified under the subgroups of H04L 1/1812.

{Arrangements at the transmitter end}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware circuit design or functional computer-implemented arrangements.

{Encoding specially adapted to other signal generation operation, e.g. in order to reduce transmit distortions, jitter, or to improve signal shape (H04L 1/0067 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The FEC encoding operation is specifically designed by taking into account other signal generation operations (e.g. properties of the modulator or local oscillator).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Rate matching

For PSK signal shaping, e.g. trellis shaping, coset coding

QAM signal shaping, e.g. trellis shaping, coset coding

Special rules of classification within this group

Classes H04L 1/0058, H04L 1/006, H04L 1/0067 are considered first before giving the above subclass.

{Arrangements at the receiver end}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware circuit design or functional computer-implemented arrangements.

{Code rate detection or code type detection (H04L 1/0038 takes precedence; detection of the data rate H04L 25/0262 ; for packet format H04L 1/0091)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Data rate detection

Blind format detection

Packet format detection

Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive code rate or code type detection is classified in H04L 1/0038.

Packet format detection is classified in H04L 1/0091.

{Decoding adapted to other signal detection operation (in conjunction with sequence estimation or equalization H04L 25/03286)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The FEC encoding operation is specifically designed by taking into account other signal generation operations (e.g. properties of the demodulator, sensitivity to errors of later signal processing stages).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Sequence estimation or equalization

{in conjunction with detection of multiuser or interfering signals, e.g. iteration between CDMA or MIMO detector and FEC decoder (for spatial equalizer H04L 25/03286)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

In conjunction with spatial equalization

Synchronization based on error correcting/detecting codes

with channel-decoding circuitry

{Iterative decoding, including iteration between signal detection and decoding operation}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Turbo coding and decoding per se

Turbo equalization

{Maximum-likelihood or sequential decoding, e.g. Viterbi, Fano, ZJ algorithms}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Sequence estimation, e.g. Viterbi decoding arrangements

{Systems characterized by the type of code used (H04L 1/08 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

By repeating transmission, e.g. Verdan system

Special rules of classification within this group

Repetition coding is classified in H04L 1/08.

{Block codes (H04L 1/0061 , H04L 1/0064 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Block codes such as Reed-Solomon codes, LDPC codes, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Error detection codes

Concatenated codes

Special rules of classification within this group

Classes H04L 1/0061 and H04L 1/0064 take precedence.

{Block-coded modulation}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Coded modulation with block coding per se

{Trellis-coded modulation}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Coded modulation with trellis coding per se

{Rate matching (H04L 1/0013 and H04L 1/08 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

By repeating transmission, e.g. Verdan system

Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive rate matching according to link quality is covered by H04L 1/0013.

Repetition coding is covered by H04L 1/08.

{Puncturing patterns}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Puncturing patterns (adaptive and non-adaptive).

{Unequal error protection (for format H04L 1/0078 ; for codes per se H03M 13/35)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Unequal error protection

Avoidance of errors by organising the transmitted data in a format specifically designed to deal with errors

Special rules of classification within this group

Unequal error protection formatting arrangements is covered by H04L 1/0086.

General aspects of UEP is covered by old Indexing Code H04L 2001/0098. (not used anymore).

{Use of interleaving (interleaving per se H03M 13/27)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of interleavers, which interchange data elements in the time domain in transmission systems.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Diversity arrangements, see H04L 1/02.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Interleaving per se and its memory designs

Spatial/frequency diversity for radio communication

Assignment of physical channels and/or subcarriers

Special rules of classification within this group

Turbo coding interleavers are not classified here since they are considered integral part of the turbo coder.

Non-adaptive formatting arrangements is covered by H04L 1/0086.

{Error control for data other than payload data, e.g. control data}
Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive FEC for control data is covered by H04L 1/001.

{Special arrangements for feedback channel}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of FEC of feedback such as CQI, ACK.

Special rules of classification within this group

ACK/NACK repetition coding is covered by H04L 1/1858.

{Transmission of coding parameters to receiver (H04L 1/0023 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details concerning transmission of FEC related parameters related to signaling information.

Special rules of classification within this group

Transmission of signaling for adaptation purposes is covered by H04L 1/0023.

{Distributed coding, e.g. network coding, involving channel coding (coding in both space and time H04L 1/0618 ; cooperative diversity H04B 7/022)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of error control at intermediate node, e.g. exclusive OR signal coding or stronger re-encoding arrangements at relay.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cooperative diversity

Active relay systems

Special rules of classification within this group

Coding in both space and time is covered by H04L 1/0618.

Topology aspect is covered by H04L 2001/0097.

{Avoidance of errors by organising the transmitted data in a format specifically designed to deal with errors, e.g. location (forward error control, e.g. FEC, CRC H04L 1/004 ; adaptive formatting H04L 1/0006 ; mappings H04L 27/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Physical mapping

Special rules of classification within this group

Adaptive formatting is covered by H04L 1/0006.

FEC coding, e.g. CRC is covered by H04L 1/004.

{Formats for control data (H04L 1/16 takes precedence; training sequences H04L 25/00 and H04L 27/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

By using return channel in which the signals are sent back to the transmitter to be checked

Training sequences

Baseband systems

Modulated-carrier systems

Special rules of classification within this group

Acknowledgement formats is covered by H04L 1/16 and H04L 1/1607.

{fields explicitly indicating existence of error in data being transmitted, e.g. so that downstream stations can avoid decoding erroneous packet; relays}
Special rules of classification within this group

Arrangements for preventing errors in the return channel, e.g. handshaking are covered by Indexing Code H04L 2001/125.

{Unequal error protection (H04L 27/00 and H04L 1/004 take precedence for layer 1/2 aspects, e.g. bit loading)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Constellation mapping aspects

Bit loading is covered by

by using forward error control

Special rules of classification within this group

UEP for coding is covered by H04L 1/007.

General aspects of UEP is covered by old Indexing Code H04L 2001/0098. (not used anymore).

{arrangements specific to transmitters}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware circuit design or functional computer-implemented functions.

{arrangements specific to receivers, e.g. format detection (detection of data rate H04L 25/0262 ; detection of coding rate H04L 1/0046)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware circuit design or functional computer-implemented functions.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Data rate detection is covered by

Special rules of classification within this group

Code rate detection is covered by H04L 1/0046.

by diversity reception (in general H04B 7/02)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Space-time coding techniques (i.e. for radio) are classified beneath, see relevant subclasses.

In addition, non-radio diversity arrangements involving redundant, simultaneous signal transmission.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Radio diversity arrangements (except space-time coded arrangements) are covered by

Special rules of classification within this group

The class should be assigned only if any subclass is not applicable.

using frequency diversity
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Radio frequency diversity is covered by

{Space-time modulation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements with constellation plane partitioning taking space-time diversity into account in equivalence to trellis coded modulation in non-diversity schemes.

{Space-time coding}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Radio space diversity arrangements

{Transmitter arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware circuit design or functional computer-implemented arrangement.

{Receiver arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware circuit design or functional computer-implemented arrangement.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Sphere detection

{block codes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Transmitted space-time matrices that are considered each as one block coded entity.

Special rules of classification within this group

For symbol block coding prior to space-time matrix transmission H04L 1/0057.

{by means of convolutional encoding}
Special rules of classification within this group

For symbol convolutional coding prior to space-time matrix transmission H04L 1/0059.

{Limited orthogonality systems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Semi-orthogonal space-time matrix arrangements to increase the transmission rate.

{characterised by the signaling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Signaling pertaining to the space-time matrix.

Special rules of classification within this group

For normal adaptive transmissions H04L 1/0001.

by repeating transmission, e.g. Verdan system {(H04L 1/1858 and H04L 1/189 take precedence)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptive and non-adaptive rate matching

Transmission or retransmission of more than one copy of a message

Transmission or retransmission of more than one copy of an acknowledgement message

by using return channel
Special rules of classification within this group

Arrangements for preventing errors in the return channel, e.g. handshaking are covered also by Indexing Code H04L 2001/125.

in which the signals are sent back to the transmitter to be checked {echo systems}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Echo cancellation

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loop-back testing

in which the return channel carries supervisory signals, e.g. repetition request signals
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Status reports for improving the reliability of multicast or broadcast data in data switching networks

{Group acknowledgement, i.e. the acknowledgement message defining a range of identifiers, e.g. of sequence numbers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Explicit indications of ranges of acknowledged data packets, e.g. sequence numbers SN:5 to 16, 23 to 25. Rules may be involved to further compress the sequence number or other signaling.

{List acknowledgements, i.e. the acknowledgement message consisting of a list of identifiers, e.g. of sequence numbers (H04L 1/1614 takes precedence)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Bitmaps where list acknowledgements appear as 0s and 1s are in H04L 1/1614.

Automatic repetition systems, e.g. van Duuren system; {ARQ protocols}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

TCP / IP protocols per se

{Details of sliding window management}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Window size / update for TCP/IP

{for semi-reliable protocols, e.g. for less sensitive applications such as streaming video (buffer level management for video bitstream receiver H04N 21/44004)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Buffer level management for video bitstream receiver.

{Transmission or retransmission of more than one copy of acknowledgement message (repetition in general H04L 1/08)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Repetition coding in general

{Physical mapping arrangements (for ACK signaling see also H04L 5/0053)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Constellation / mapping rearrangements due to retransmissions, and mapping of receiver-initiated transmissions to resource blocks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Allocation of signaling

{ARQ related signaling (H04L 1/1607 takes precedence)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Acknowledgement signaling per se is classified in H04L 1/1607.

{Details of sliding window management}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Window size / update for TCP/IP

{for semi-reliable protocols, e.g. for less sensitive applications like streaming video (buffer level management for video bitstream control arrangements H04N 21/44004)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Buffer level management for video bitstream receiver

{Transmission or retransmission of more than one copy of a message (repetition in general H04L 1/08)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Repetition coding in general H04L 1/08.

{Physical mapping arrangements (physical resource mapping in general H04L 5/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Constellation / mapping rearrangements due to retransmissions, and mapping of transmitter-initiated transmissions to resource blocks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Physical resource mapping in general

using signal quality detector
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Measurement characteristics of individual pulses

Measurement of noise, signal-to-noise

Measuring or estimating channel quality parameters

Measurement of signal quality by testing

Measurement of optical signal-to-noise, bit error rate, quality factor

{Frame classification, e.g. bad, good or erased (frame indication per se H04L 1/0082)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Frame indication per se H04L 1/0082.

{jitter monitoring}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Jitter measurement by testing

Measurement of noise, signal-to-noise

using redundant apparatus to increase reliability {(see G06F 11/08 to G06F 11/20)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. redundant stand-by links.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Error detection / correction

Switching spare elements

Redundant control systems

Redundant systems in computer networks

Redundancy in electrical buses

Other transmission systems with redundant channels

Testing correct operation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Testing correct operation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Arrangements for testing circuits and fault location

Testing storage memories

Testing of line transmission systems

Testing of transmitters / receivers

Testing / monitoring arrangements

Monitoring / testing of exchanges

Testing arrangements for wireless transmission

SDH/SONET monitoring

Testing for optical arrangements

H04B10/08

Measurement of non-linear distortion

Measuring characteristics of individual pulses, e.g. deviation from pulse flatness, rise time, duration

{at the transmitter, using a loop-back}
Special rules of classification within this group

Echo systems are in H04L 1/14.

Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path (multiplex communication in general H04J;{ orthogonal multiplex systems H04J 11/00})
Definition statement
This group covers:

Arrangements for dividing a transmission path, for allocating sub-channels, signalling for multiple channel indication and duplex/half-duplex systems.

This group works at the physical layer, for wireless or line communications (ADSL).

The arrangements for dividing the transmission path involve multiple access techniques capable of supporting multiple users by sharing the available system resources. Examples of such multiple-access techniques include Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) systems, Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA) systems, multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access (multicarrier CDMA) systems, i.e. any combination of multicarrier signals and a code division.

An OFDM system may implement a radio technology such as Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA), Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.16 (WiMax), IEEE 802.20, Flash-OFDM, etc.

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a release of UMTS that uses E-UTRA, which employs OFDM on the downlink and SC-FDMA on the uplink.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Spread-spectrum techniques

Frequency hopping for spread spectrum

Spatial multiplexing for diversity systems (the same signal is transmitted by the different antennas).

Time division multiple access (TDMA)

Orthogonal CDMA (i.e. using Walsh codes)

Code division multiple access (CDMA)

Code allocation

Multicarrier modulation techniques

Multicarrier demodulation techniques

Multicarrier synchronisation aspects

Wireless communication networks; Local resource management

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multiplex communication in general

Conditioning for two-way transmission in general

Data switching networks

Systems using multi-frequency codes

Special rules of classification within this group

When the multiple access scheme relies on the use of multicarrier signals, and if what is important is how the signal is modulated/demodulated, or "hardware" aspects in the transmitter or the receiver to produce or recover (like synchronisation) such signal or aspects related to the peak power reduction, then the classes under H04L 27/2601 are relevant. Otherwise, to indicate that the signal involved is, for example, an OFDM signal, then the class under H04L 5/0007 is used instead.

Subgroups H04L 5/22, H04L 5/225, H04L 5/24, H04L 5/245, H04L 5/26 are inactive. The classification should be done in H04J 3/00.

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

DMT

Discrete Multi-Tone

MC-CDMA

Multicarrier CDMA

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OFDMA

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

SC-FDMA

Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

CC

Component Carrier

CoMP

Cooperative Multi-point

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing

FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access

IFDMA

Interleaved Frequency Division Multiple Access

MIMO

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output

PRB

Physical Resource Block

RA

Resource Allocation

SDMA

Spatial Division Multiple Access

SRS

Sounding Reference Signal

TDD

Time Division Duplex

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "pilot signals" is often used with the meaning of "Reference Signals" or "training signals" or "sounding signals".

In patent documents the expression "persistent allocation" is often used with the meaning that the resources allocated to the user equipment (UE) are valid until the UE receives another allocation which will then override the previous one. This would typically happen in case the channel conditions have changed (or AMR codec changes) and, thus, the previous allocation would no longer be suitable for the user.

{Arrangements for dividing the transmission path (duplexing H04L 5/14 ; multiplexing of different sources on one path H04J)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group answers the question "How is the transmission path split up?". Since the signals are digital, it is considered that there is always a time dimension, and thus, the minimum number of dimensions is two.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Two-way operation using the same type of signal

Multiplex communication in general

{the frequencies being orthogonal e.g. OFDM(A), DMT}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The case of an access method allowing multiple users to share the same frequency band by subdividing the band into orthogonal frequency channels. If the frequencies are not orthogonal then the group H04L 5/0005 should be given instead.

Frequency hopping for multicarrier signals, SC-FDMA and IFDMA are also covered by H04L 5/0007.

{in which a distinct code is applied, as a temporal sequence, to each frequency}
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should contain the cases of spreading codes in the time domain, where chips of the code are applied in sequence, once at a time, to each of the subcarriers.

{in which one code is applied, as a temporal sequence, to all frequencies}
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should contain the cases of spreading codes in the time domain, where each frequency sees the same spreading code (for example, multicarrier DS-CDMA).

{in which codes are applied as a frequency-domain sequences, e.g. MC-CDMA}
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should contain the cases of spreading codes in the frequency domain. Each chip of the spreading code is transmitted through a different subcarrier.

{Time-frequency-space}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The combination OFDM and MIMO; or frequency reuse.

{Variable division (signaling therefor H04L 5/0092)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Changes from time-frequency to time-frequency-space, for example.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Indication of how the channel is divided

{Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Sub-channels are what the path is split up into according to H04L 5/0001.

{Distributed allocation, i.e. involving a plurality of allocating devices, each making partial allocation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group answers the question of "Who makes the allocation?". Cooperative allocation (for example in CoMP systems or cognitive radio systems or when dealing with ICIC, Inter-cell Interference Cancellation) is classified under H04L 5/0032, which implies a plurality of base stations that cooperates or exchanges information to perform the allocation.

{Inter-user or inter-terminal allocation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The allocation for plurality of users, thus, to indicate which user gets what.

{intra-user or intra-terminal allocation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Single user case, what a single user does with its resources.

{allocation of payload}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Allocation of payload or data in the available subchannels.

{Determination of how many bits are transmitted on different sub-channels}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The case of having different modulations in the different subcarriers.

{Allocation of pilot signals, i.e. of signals known to the receiver}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Pilot or reference signal patterns.

{Allocation of signaling, i.e. of overhead other than pilot signals}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Where (for example, in the time-frequency grid) to send ACK/NacK signals, CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) signals and in general any control signalling which is not a known signal to the receiver (pilots, sounding reference symbols, SRS, or synchronisation signals are known to the receiver and they are classified under H04L 5/0048). In order words, which physical resources are used for signalling.

{Rate requirement of the data, e.g. scalable bandwidth, data priority}
Special rules of classification within this group

According to QoS (Quality of Service) is also classified here.

{Timing of allocation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The subgroups answer the question "How often the allocation is updated?". For Persistent allocation (if the update is due to channel conditions change, then H04L 5/0085), fixed allocation (H04L 5/008).

{Indication of how the channel is divided}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

How the channel is divided, for instance, for indicating that the whole frequency band is divided into a certain number of subcarriers, or that the base station informs the mobile how according to H04L 5/0001 the channel is divided. Both uplink or downlink.

{Indication of how sub-channels of the path are allocated}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The signalling of the Content of the allocation. For example, which carriers are allocated, how many bits are allocated to each subcarrier, etc. Both uplink or downlink.

the signals being represented by different frequencies (combined with time-division multiplexing H04L 5/26)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

FDM. Different data signals for transmission on a single communications channel are multiplexed, whereby each signal (single carrier) is assigned a non-overlapping frequency range within the main channel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

combined with the use of different frequencies

Two-way operation using the same type of signal, i.e. duplex ({duplex repeaters H04L 25/22} ; conditioning for two-way transmission in general H04B 3/20 ; { for interconnection between telephone switching centres H04Q 3/00})
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

ADSL systems. FDD systems.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Repeaters for converting two wires to four wires

Reducing echo effects or singing

Selecting arrangements

{for modulated signals (H04L 5/1469 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example, Zipper (a time-synchronised frequency division duplex implementation of discrete multi-tone, DMT, modulation).

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter {(synchronisation of electronic time-pieces G04G 7/00 ; synchronisation of generators of electric oscillations or pulses H03L ; synchronising in TV system H04N 5/04 ; regeneration of clock signals for television systems H04N 7/0352)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Bit or symbol synchronization of digital receivers.

Synchronization of packets or bursts in radio or optical transmission.

Bit or symbol synchronization of digital recording system, if this system is not specially adapted to recording.

Bit or symbol synchronization of in a memory system, if the system is not specially adapted to memorizing.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Synchronisation of electronic time-pieces

Synchronisation of generators of electric oscillations or pulses

Synchronising in TV system

Regeneration of clock signals for television systems

Synchronization of OFDM

Synchronization in CDMA

Synchronization of frames and in TDM networks, including timestamps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

PLL or DLL

Memory systems

Recording

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

TDM

Time Division Multiplex

PLL

Phase Locked Loop

DLL

Delay Locked Loop

{Initialisation of the receiver (H04L 7/0075 and H04L 7/10 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Calibration of synchronizers.

Special rules of classification within this group

H04L 7/0075 and H04L 7/10 take precedence.

{Synchronisation information channels, e.g. clock distribution lines}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Source synchronous systems.

Transmission of clock on a dedicated channel, line or link.

Clockwise and counterclockwise clock distribution.

Clock distributed as sinus or standing wave

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Clock distribution in computers or integrated circuits

Clock distribution in semiconductor memory systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data over clock

{by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The received clock is compared with a local clock of the receiver. The comparison controls the synchronisation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

The data is not used in the detection of the error or in other parts of the synchronisation. Using the received data for synchronization is classified under H04L 7/02 or H04L 7/04.

Special rules of classification within this group

Synchronization of received clock and local clock by PLL or DLL, H03L 7/00 takes precedence.

{correction of synchronization errors}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Correction of the synchronisation error in receiver or transmitter

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Detection of synchronisation error by means of signal transition, e.g. PLL

{correction by interpolation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Applies also to clock interpolation in the transmitter for the purpose of synchronisation.

Special rules of classification within this group

If clock interpolation for synchronization is performed at the transmitter, also H04L 7/0091 should be applied.

{interpolation of clock signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covers interpolation of received clock of source synchronous systems.

Covers interpolation of local, e.g. interpolation among several local phase shifted clocks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selection out of many clock phases for synchronisation, e.g. phase picking, if the control uses transitions of the received data

{interpolation of received data signal}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital Filters, e.g. FIR Filter

Detection of synchronization error by monitoring at least on equalizer tap weight

Rate adaption

Equalizers per se

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following abbreviations are often used:

SRC

Sample Rate Conversion

{Correction by delay}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Delay of other signals than clock or information data, e.g. delay of additional signalling among transmitter and receiver

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Delay of command signals specific for memory systems, e.g. strobe signal DQS

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selection out of many clock phases for synchronisation, e.g. phase picking, if the control uses transitions of the received data

{Delay of clock signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Delay of a received clock signal, e.g. a clock signal received by via a clock line. Delay of a clock signal in the receiver or in the transmitter

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

H04L 7/0337 takes precedence if the synchronization makes use of the transitions of the received data signal

{Delay of data signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Delay of a received data signal.

Delay of the data signal in the transmitter, e.g. the transmitter receiver an information regarding the synchronisation error.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

H04L 7/0337 takes precedence if the synchronization makes use of the transitions of the received data signal

{Correction by an elastic buffer}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

An elastic buffer or FIFO is used to compensate the synchronisation error

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronisation using elastic buffers in time multiplexing systems or packet multiplexing systems

Elastic buffers in computer systems

Rate adaption, e.g. from 8 kHz to 9.2 kHz

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

FIFO

First-In First-Out buffer

{Detection of the synchronisation error by features other than the received signal transition (by means of signal transition H04L 7/033)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Synchronization by sample processing, e.g. Wave-Difference-Method.

Determination of gradients.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

By means of signal transition

Special rules of classification within this group

Synchronization by determining maximum of first derivation of sampled waveform as estimate of zero or threshold crossing: H04L 7/0334 takes precedence.

Synchronization by determining zero of the second derivation of the sampled waveform: H04L 7/007 takes precedence.

{detection of error based on equalizer tap values}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection of error by monitoring of equalizer taps, e.g. center tap tracking.

{detection of error based on data decision error, e.g. Mueller type detection}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Error of the data decision, e.g. subtracting input from output of the decision device, to control synchronisation.

Timing Function: Combining of the error with input signals or not decided symbols.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization based on data transition by sample processing of at least three levels, e.g. soft decisions.

{detection of error based on transmission code rule}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Synchronization using properties of line codes like Manchester, PPM or RZ. Synchronization using properties of block codes as 4b/5b.

Also covers violations of such coding rules to transmit synch information.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Line coding

Block coding mb/nb

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

PPM

Pulse Position Modulation

{detection of error based on maximum signal power, e.g. peak value, maximizing autocorrelation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covers SCCL detectors, Sample Correlate Choose Largest.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization by maximum signal power on symbols known to the receiver, e.g. fixed synchronization information or UW. Correlation of UW for synchronization

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

UW

Unique Word

{with photonic or optical means}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group covers clock synchronisation using at least one optical device that is essential for the functioning of the synchronizer. A synchronizer used in an optical transmission system but using exclusively electrical means for synchronization has to be classified in the other respective groups of H04L 7/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical regenerators and retiming, e.g. 2R,3R

Optical TDM, alignment of optical frames and time slots

Computer systems or integrated circuits with clock distribution at least partially optical

Non-linear optical devices

Laser devices

H01D

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following abbreviations are often used:

NOLM

Non-linear Optical Loop Mirror

TOAD

Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer

{Receiver details}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details in the construction of the synchronizer in the receiver, e.g. adaption of signals among various parts of the receiver; constructional details

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of RF receivers

{taking measures against momentary loss of synchronisation, e.g. inhibiting the synchronisation, using idle words or using redundant clocks}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fail safe clock arrangements in TDM equipment

Introducing fill or idle bits into the data to maintain synchronization

PLL or DLL with redundancy

PLL or DLL with arrangements for protection against power supply fail

Error detection or correction of clock faults in computer systems

Special rules of classification within this group

This class can be applied additionally to any other class in H04L 7/00

{Preprocessing of received signal for synchronisation, e.g. by code conversion, pulse generation or edge detection}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization by spectral filtering

{Transmitter details}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The transmitter is adapted to the synchronisation process, e.g. the receiver provides signalling concerning the synchronisation error to the transmitter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization in computer networks, e.g. Time of Day

Buffers between clock domains

Speed or phase control by the received code signals, the signals containing no special synchronisation information {(H04L 7/0075 takes precedence; tuning or selecting resonant circuits H03J ; using the properties of error detecting or correcting codes H04L 7/048)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The error is based on the received code signal.

Synchronisation is achieved by intermediate buffering, multiple phases and/or intermediate clocks. Synchronisation of interfaces or among equipments having different clock phases or clock domains

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

with photonic or optical means

Tuning resonant circuits

using the properties of error detecting or error correcting codes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer systems with synchronization between clock domains

Bistable circuits with means to increase reliability, e.g. avoid metastability

Computer systems with buffering between clock domains

Synchronization based on transition of the received code signal

extracting the synchronising or clock signal from the received signal spectrum, e.g. by using a resonant or bandpass circuit
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A spectral line at clock rate of NRZ data can be generated, e.g. by squaring or differentiating and subsequent filtering, e.g. SAW filter or FFT.

Covers detection of synchronization error by measuring a spectral property of a known code signal, e.g. UW or dotting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Repeaters with retiming

Manipulating pulses with desired output intervals by the use of time reference signals, e.g. clock signals

Manipulating pulses by resonant circuits

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following abbreviations are often used:

Dotting

Sequence of alternating pulses, e.g. 1010..

UW

Unique Word

using the transitions of the received signal to control the phase of the synchronising-signal-generating means, e.g. using a phase-locked loop
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

PLL with edge detectors, and at least partial analog loop elements, e.g. VCO;

Edge detectors like HOGGE type or ALEXANDER type.

The term "control" does not limit the scope to "tracking" or "closed loop" but includes also feed-forward control.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

PLL or DLL

Transition or edge detectors

Measuring phase angle between a voltage and a current

Special rules of classification within this group

Initialization of the PLL is further classified in H04L 7/0004.

Special adaptions for preventing loss of synchronization or loss of lock are also classified in H04L 7/0083

{with a digital phase-locked loop [PLL] processing binay samples, e.g. add/subtract logic for correction of receiver clock (H04L 7/0337 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group also covers detection of the synchronization error by measuring the length of the received bits, e.g. by oversampling and sample processing of binary samples.

Covers correction of the synchronization error by add/subtract logic.

Digital implementation of DTTL.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization by integrate/dump

Selection or interpolation among plural phase shifted clocks

DPLL in general

Comparing the phase or frequency

Special rules of classification within this group

H04L 7/0337 takes precedence

For the pulse length measurement is done by analogue means, e.g. integrate/dump, H04L 7/0332 takes precedence.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following abbreviations are often used:

PWD

Pulse Width Distortion

DTTL

Data Transition Tracking Loop

{with an integrator-detector}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Analogue techniques of determining the synchronization error by measuring a pulse length esp. for line codes with a transition in the bit cell like Manchester coding or NRZI.

Analogue implementation of DTTL.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Digital implementation of DTTL

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Line coding

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

DTTL

Data Transition Tracking Loop

{Processing of samples having at least three levels, e.g. soft decisions}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Samples processed of more than binary values, if the processing evaluates a symbol transition.

First and also higher order derivatives of the sampled waveform, if a transition is detected.

Statistical analysis of the samples, e.g. histogram.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Synchronization by detection of decision error of samples

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Demodulators

{Selecting between two or more discretely delayed clocks or selecting between two or more discretely delayed received code signals}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The selected phase is looped back into the phase error detection.

Comparison of the actually selected phase with a previously selected phase is not feed backward under this definition. Such a comparison functions as a filter, e.g. for reducing large phase jumps or jitter.

Phase aligners in switches of communication networks or packet receivers.

Phase aligners for electronic displays, e.g. DVI or HDMI interfaces, if the invention is not specially adapted to such a display, e.g. using special signals.

Synchronization by phase picking.

Covers also interpolation among different clock phases.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization in a TDM node

Electronic displays

Computer interfaces or busses

Special rules of classification within this group

Selection in an open loop control: H04L 7/0338 takes precedence.

Speed or phase control by synchronisation signals {(H04L 7/0075 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Documents that only refer to the use of a synchronisation signal, e.g. UW, without further specifying their structure or the way it is detected.

Comma free codes.

Forbidden code words.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Synchronization signals in TDM frames: H04J 3/0602.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronization information for carrier synchronization in demodulators

Buffers between clock domains

Special rules of classification within this group

Special synchronisation signals, e.g. midambles or variable UW: H04L 7/041.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following abbreviations or words are often used:

Dotting

Alternating 1010... sequence or sequence of complex phase reversal, e.g. ABAB constellation points during training of a MODEM

UW

Unique Word as generic synonym for synchronisation data in the received signal.

{using special codes as synchronising signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Code construction.

Theory of codes used for synchronization.

Training sequences or midambles.

Variable Synchronization codes, e.g. according to synchronization state or for transmission of low rate data like signalling.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Corresponding special codes for TDM frames

Training sequences for carrier synchronization

{Detectors therefor, e.g. correlators, state machines (digital correlators in general G06F 17/15)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Cross-correlation or auto-correlation.

Peak detection, threshold control at the output of the correlator.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selective call receivers

Correlation computing

Detectors of FAW in TDM frames

Special rules of classification within this group

Windowing around expected location of the synchronization information, H04L 7/08 takes precedence.

Synchronization state machines or diagrams for acquisition, search, verify or lock, H04L 7/10 takes precedence.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following abbreviations are often used:

UW

Unique Word. This term is even used even if the bits of the synchronization information could occur in other places of the received data, e.g. mimic in the payload

{Pseudo-noise [PN] codes variable during transmission (synchronisation of spread spectrum receivers H04B 1/69)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

PN codes used for synchronisation, if the PN synchronisation signals is varying during transmission, e.g. by a feedback shift-register. Fixed synchronisation signals, e.g. unique words, FAW signals, are not to be classified in this group. This also applies even if the synchronisation signal can be presented as a state of such a PN-code generator. Only if the generator is active and shifts, then the document is classified here.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Synchronisation of Spread Spectrum receivers

PN codes for synchronization of TDM frames

Scrambling

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

PN code

Pseudo-Noise or pseudorandom code

FAW

Frame Alignment Word

{using a single bit, e.g. start stop bit}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Synchronization by using a start bit or start/stop bit, incl. the use of the transition of the stop bit to the adjacent start bit.

Covers single synch pulses with differing length from information pulse length.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Two or more pulses with differing length compared to the length of the data bits

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Start/Stop transmission in general

{using a dotting sequence}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Complex phase reversals used for symbol synchronization in digital demodulators.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Transmission of a dotting sequence without further transmission of user data is a transmission of a clock signal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

If the dotting is degraded at the receiver to a sinus

Detection of dotting by spectral analysis, e.g. filter around basic frequency

Digital demodulators

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Dotting sequence

Alternating sequence, e.g. 1010... , 01010, ABAB

{using the properties of error detecting or error correcting codes, e.g. parity as synchronisation signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of Error Correcting or detecting codes for alignment of packets or ATM cells.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error Detection or correction codes in general, e.g. ECC or FEC

Synchronisation based on error coding or decoding or code conversion

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

the synchronisation signals differing from the information signals in amplitude, polarity, or frequency {or length}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

H04L as such is directed to transmission of digital signals, meaninig the information is transmitted in binary form. Synchronisation signals classified here have a different form than the information signal, e.g. a higher amplitude, a longer pulse width.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detection of the differing length by a digital means

Single pulse for synchronization

Detection the differing parameter based on the coding rule

Line codes and detectors therefore

{and superimposed by modulation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Synchronisation information is not transmitted in series with the information signals, i.e. as this is the case for packet headers. Instead, a synchronisation signal is provided by modulation of the information signal, e.g. by an amplitude modulation using a low modulation index

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Amplitude modulation of the synchronization information

The synchronization information is multiplexed as a differing type of modulation

the synchronisation signals recurring cyclically
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection by windowing around the expected recurring location of the synchronization information.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Frame synchronization of TDM frames

Arrangements for initial synchronisation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Variable synchronization information for initialisation.

During initialisation, variable means of the detector, e.g. low detection threshold and increasing threshold when synchronisation information is detected.

Signalling or handshaking for initialisation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Details of the phase-locked loop for assuring initial synchronisation

Special rules of classification within this group

Other means for synchronisation, H04L 7/0004 takes precedence.

Start/Stop bit detection, H04L 7/044 takes precedence.

Dotting detection, H04L 7/046 takes precedence.

{Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic} arrangements for secret or secure communication {(network architectures or network communication protocols for network security H04L 63/00 or for wireless network security H04W 12/00 ; security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorized activity G06F 21/00)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Cryptographic mechanisms including cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms, whereby a cryptographic protocol is a distributed cryptographic algorithm defined by a sequence of steps precisely specifying the actions required of two or more entities to achieve specific security objectives (e.g. cryptographic protocol for key agreement), and whereby a cryptographic algorithm is specifying the steps followed by a single entity to achieve specific security objectives (e.g. cryptographic algorithm for symmetric key encryption).

H04L 9/00 focuses on cryptographic mechanisms such as encryption schemes, digital signatures, hash functions, random number generation, key management, said cryptographic mechanisms providing information security such as privacy or confidentiality, data integrity, message authentication, entity authentication, authorization, validation, certification, time-stamping.

H04L 9/00 covers also countermeasures against attacks on cryptographic mechanisms.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04L 63/00 Networking architectures and network communication protocols for securing the traffic flowing through data packet networks and providing secure exchanges among applications communicating through data packet networks.

H04L 63/00 covers specifically network architectures and network communication protocols for supporting:

  • filtering (e.g. transferring, blocking, dropping) traffic according to security rules;
  • authenticating and authorizing the entities sending and/or receiving the traffic;
  • protecting the data packets against unauthorized reading or modification;
  • detecting intruders and preventing the transmission of unauthorized, malicious or forged packets;
  • lawful interception for legally authorised parties to access protected information.

H04L 63/00 focuses on network architectures (i.e. network entities involved, roles played by these entities) and network communication protocols (i.e. how these network entities communicate) regardless of the specifics of the cryptographic mechanism used.

G06F 21/00 Security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity, where the cryptographic mechanisms are not relevant.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Finite field arithmetic over elliptic curve (if not intended for cryptographic purposes)

Pseudo-random number generators (if not intended for cryptographic purposes)

Coding or ciphering apparatuses for cryptographic or other purposes involving the need for secrecy

Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security

Network architectures or network communication protocols for wireless network security

Security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Smarts-cards and PIN encryption

Protection against unauthorized use of memory

Character or pattern recognition

Payments on Internet

Electronic commerce or auctions

Copy protection

Aspects related to secret communication for (analogue) speech signals

Secrecy systems for scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents

Subscription TV encryption

Content distribution

Special rules of classification within this group

The classification of additional information is not seen as mandatory; it will be up to the classifier to decide whether the additional information should be classified or not (is pertinent or not). If considered pertinent, it should be classified.

Indexing Codes are to be used as orthogonal cross.

Invention may be assign more than one code if necessary.

Examples: US2007061572 is to be classified under H04L 9/0863, H04L 9/3273 and H04L 9/3226 since the subject-matter relates to different aspects.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

MAC

Message authentication code

DPA

Differential power analysis

SPA

Simple power analysis

PRNG

Pseudo random number generator

PKI

Public key infrastructure

KDC

Key distribution server

TTP

Trusted third party

CA

Certificate authority

IBE

Identity based encryption

DH

Diffie-Hellman

QKD

Quantum key distribution

TPM

Trusted platform module

PUF

Physically unclonable function

CRL

Certificate revocation list

In patent documents the words "encryption" and "ciphering" are often used as synonyms.

{Countermeasures against attacks on cryptographic mechanisms (network architectures or network communication protocols for protection against malicious traffic H04L 63/1441)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to protection and enhancement of cryptographic mechanisms against cryptographic attacks as replay, brute force or birthday attacks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for protection against malicious traffic

{involving public key infrastructure [PKI] trust models (network architecture or network communication protocol for supporting authentication of entities using certificates in a packet data network H04L 63/0823)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication infrastructures based on public-key cryptography.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architecture or network communication protocol for supporting authentication of entities using certificates in a packet data network

{involving homomorphic encryption}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to homomorphic cryptographic mechanisms.

the encryption apparatus using shift registers or memories for block-wise {or stream} coding, e.g. DES systems {or RC4; Hash functions; Pseudorandom sequence generators}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to symmetric-key encryption as DES, (i.e. same keys are used for encryption and decryption), hash functions as MD5, stream ciphers as RC4 or pseudorandom sequence generation.

{Block ciphers, i.e. encrypting groups of characters of a plain text message using fixed encryption transformation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Encrypting groups of characters of a plain text message using a fixed encryption transformation.

{with splitting of the data block into left and right halves, e.g. Feistel based algorithms, DES, FEAL, IDEA or KASUMI}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms as Feistel based algorithms, DES, FEAL, IDEA or KASUMI algorithms.

{Substitution permutation network [SPN], i.e. cipher composed of a number of stages or rounds each involving linear and nonlinear transformations, e.g. AES algorithms}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ciphers composed of a number of stages/rounds each involving linear or nonlinear transformations, as AES algorithm.

{Modes of operation, e.g. cipher block chaining [CBC], electronic codebook [ECB] or Galois/counter mode [GCM]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to modes of operation for block ciphers, as CBC (cipher block chaining), CFB (cipher feedback) or OFB (output feedback).

{Hash functions, e.g. MD5, SHA, HMAC or f9 MAC}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The design, structure or function of cryptographic hash functions, as message authentication codes (MAC) or modification detection codes (MDC).

{Encryption by serially and continuously modifying data stream elements, e.g. stream cipher systems, RC4, SEAL or A5/3}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to synchronous or asynchronous stream ciphers (i.e. encrypting individual characters of a plaintext message one at a time, using an encryption transformation which varies with time), and to key-stream generation.

{Pseudorandom key sequence combined element-for-element with data sequence, e.g. one-time-pad [OTP] or Vernam's cipher}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to encryption (combination) of data with (pseudo)random key-stream.

{with particular pseudorandom sequence generator}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to the design, structure, functionality or mechanism of pseudorandom sequence generators.

{producing a non-linear pseudorandom sequence}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to the design, structure, functionality or mechanism of pseudorandom sequence generators using non-linear functions.

Key distribution {or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting key management in a packet data network H04L 63/06)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to management of secret material including generation, distribution, sharing, updating of cryptographic keys or passwords.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting key management in a packet data network

{Key establishment, i.e. cryptographic processes or cryptographic protocols whereby a shared secret becomes available to two or more parties, for subsequent use}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to processes or cryptographic protocols whereby a secret (as cryptographic key, password) becomes available to two or more parties, for subsequent cryptographic use.

{Key transport or distribution, i.e. key establishment techniques where one party creates or otherwise obtains a secret value, and securely transfers it to the other(s) (network architectures or network communication protocols for key distribution in a packet data network H04L 63/062)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to key establishment techniques where one party creates or otherwise obtains a secret value, and securely transfers it to other(s).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for key distribution in a packet data network

{using key encryption key}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to managing (e.g. transport, distribute) cryptographic keys for securing information by using key encryption keys. Before transmission/distribution the cryptographic keys are encrypted with the key encryption keys. Passwords may be also used as cryptographic keys for encryption.

{using asymmetric-key encryption or public key infrastructure [PKI], e.g. key signature or public key certificates}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to managing (e.g. transport, distribute) cryptographic keys for securing information by using public key encryption. The cryptographic key is either encrypted with a private key (i.e. signature) and decrypted with the corresponding public key, or it is encrypted with a public key and decrypted with the corresponding private key. A public key infrastructure (PKI) may be also used wherein the public keys are certified.

{involving distinctive intermediate devices or communication paths (network architectures or network communication protocols using different networks H04L 63/18)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to exchanging/distributing cryptographic keys between communication partners by using distinctive intermediate devices or communication paths/channels. The paths/channels may be out-of-band channels or virtual paths.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols using different networks

{involving central third party, e.g. key distribution center [KDC] or trusted third party [TTP]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to centralized key units as key distribution center (KDC), trusted third party (TTP) or key translation center (KTC) that are used for cryptographic key management.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 546-549.

{involving conference or group key (network architectures or network communication protocols for key management in group communication in a packet data network H04L 63/065)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to secure mechanisms for distributing cryptographic group keys to different communication entities. To ensure the security of a multi-party communication, the multi-party communication messages are transmitted in encrypted form. The group key used for encrypting and decrypting the multi-party communication messages are only known to the group members, so as to ensure that the encrypted messages may be interpreted only by the group members.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for key management in group communication in a packet data network

{using tree structure or hierarchical structure}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to mechanisms for distributing cryptographic conference or group keys to different communication entities involving tree or hierarchical structures wherein the central key unit is the root and the group members are the leafs.

{Key agreement, i.e. key establishment technique in which a shared key is derived by parties as a function of information contributed by, or associated with, each of these (network architectures or network communication protocols for key exchange in a packet data network H04L 63/061)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to key establishment techniques in which a shared key is derived by parties as a function of information contributed by, or associated with, each of these, ideally such that no party can predetermine the resulting value.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for key exchange in a packet data network

{involving Diffie-Hellman or related key agreement protocols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to key agreement protocols that allow users or entities to exchange public key values and from these values and knowledge of their own corresponding private keys, securely compute a shared key, allowing for further secure communication.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 515-516.

{with user authentication or key authentication, e.g. ElGamal, MTI, MQV-Menezes-Qu-Vanstone protocol or Diffie-Hellman protocols using implicitly-certified keys}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to key agreement protocols providing user authentication or key authentication, to schemes as ElGamal, MTI, MQV or related protocols, to key agreement protocols using implicitly-certified keys, or to password-authenticated key agreement mechanisms as PAKE (password-authenticated key exchange), EKE (encrypted key exchange) or SPEKE (simple password exponential key exchange).

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 517-523.

{involving identity based encryption [IBE] schemes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to key agreement protocols involving IBE schemes (the public key of a user is the binary sequence corresponding to information identifying him in a non-ambiguous way).

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 561-562.

{Secret sharing or secret splitting, e.g. threshold schemes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to distribution of a secret amongst a group of participants, each of which is allocated a share of the secret; the secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own (threshold schemes).

{Quantum cryptography (transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light, infra-red H04B 10/00; wavelength-division multiplex systems H04J 14/02)} "
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to quantum key distribution (QKD), i.e. the process of using quantum communication to establish a shared key between two parties without a third party learning anything about that key, even if said third party can eavesdrop on all communication between said two parties.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio-waves

Wavelength-division multiplex systems

{involving additional nodes, e.g. quantum relays, repeaters, intermediate nodes or remote nodes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to QKD involving additional nodes as quantum relays, repeaters, intermediate or remote nodes.

{Details about key distillation or coding, e.g. reconciliation, error correction, privacy amplification, polarisation coding or phase coding}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to reconciliation, error correction, privacy amplification, polarisation or phase coding for QKD systems.

{Generation of secret information including derivation or calculation of cryptographic keys or passwords}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to generation, derivation, calculation or extraction of cryptographic keys or passwords.

{involving passwords or one-time passwords (network architectures or network communication protocols for using one-time keys in a packet data network H04L 63/067)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to derivation or generation of encryption keys from passwords.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for using one-time keys in a packet data network

{involving user or device identifiers, e.g. serial number, physical or biometrical information, DNA, hand-signature or measurable physical characteristics}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic key derivation or extraction involving user or device identifiers as serial number of a device, measurable physical characteristics provided by a device like a PUF (physical unclonable function), or biometrical information of a user.

{involving random numbers or seeds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for cryptographic keys generation involving random numbers or seeds.

{using geo-location information, e.g. location data, time, relative position or proximity to other entities}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic key derivation/generation using data regarding geographical position, time, relative or proximity position to other entities.

{based on channel impulse response [CIR]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to mechanisms for cryptographic key generation / derivation using channel characteristics.

{using additional device, e.g. trusted platform module [TPM], smartcard, USB or hardware security module [HSM]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic keys generation using secure crypto-processors as trusted platform modules, smartcards or hardware security modules.

{Usage controlling of secret information, e.g. techniques for restricting cryptographic keys to pre-authorized uses, different access levels, validity of crypto-period, different key- or password length, or different strong and weak cryptographic algorithms (network architectures or network communication protocols for using time-dependent keys in a packet data network H04L 63/068)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter relating to cryptographic techniques (as control vectors, key notarization) for restricting cryptographic keys to pre-authorized uses, to crypto-periods of keys (long-term, short-term, ephemeral keys), or to controlling encryption strength (export regulation for cryptographic algorithms).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for using time-dependent keys in a packet data network

{Revocation or update of secret information, e.g. encryption key update or rekeying}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter relating to cryptographic keys revocation (compromised keys have to be revoked) or updating (old key is replaced by new key).

{Escrow, recovery or storing of secret information, e.g. secret key escrow or cryptographic key storage}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for secret key escrow (user traffic is encrypted such that the session keys used for the encryption are available to properly authorized third parties under special circumstances), for secret key recovery (encrypted data have to be recovered following loss or destruction of keying material due to equipment failure or malicious activities), or for storing/restoring of secret keys (as backups).

{involving additional devices, e.g. trusted platform module [TPM], smartcard or USB}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to involving additional (portable) units (as TPM, smartcards) in the cryptographic mechanisms for escrow, recovery or storing of secret information.

using a plurality of keys or algorithms {(network architectures or network communication protocols wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply hybrid encryption, i.e. combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption H04L 63/045)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms using a plurality of keys or algorithms (as hybrid encryption, i.e. combination of symmetric and public-key encryption) for providing information security.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply hybrid encryption, i.e. combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption

the keys or algorithms being changed during operation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms using a plurality of keys or algorithms changing dynamically or during operation.

Public key, i.e. encryption algorithm being computationally infeasible to invert or user's encryption keys not requiring secrecy
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to asymmetric-key or public key cryptography.

{underlying computational problems or public-key parameters}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to the interaction between the intractability of several computational problems (as the quadratic residuosity problem) and the security of public-key cryptosystems, or to details relating to public-key parameters (as generators and elements of high order).

{involving the discrete logarithm problem, e.g. ElGamal or Diffie-Hellman systems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to public-key schemes based on the discrete logarithm problem.

{involving the integer factorization problem, e.g. RSA or quadratic sieve [QS] schemes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to public-key schemes based on the integer factorization problem.

{details relating to polynomials generation, e.g. generation of irreducible polynomials}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to polynomials generation in public-key schemes.

{details relating to pseudo-prime or prime number generation, e.g. primality test}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to pseudo-prime or prime number generation in public-key schemes.

{based on error correction codes, e.g. McEliece}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to public-key schemes involving error correction codes.

{involving algebraic varieties, e.g. elliptic or hyper-elliptic curves}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to details of the algebraic or abelian varieties used in the public-key cryptographic schemes, as algebraic groups, rings, fields or elliptic curves.

{involving pairings, e.g. identity based encryption [IBE], bilinear mappings or bilinear pairings, e.g. Weil or Tate pairing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to public-key schemes involving pairings or mappings, as identity based encryption (IBE) schemes.

{involving Lattices or polynomial equations, e.g. NTRU scheme}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to public-key schemes involving Lattices (e.g. vector spaces) or polynomial equations.

including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system {or for message authentication, e.g. authorization, entity authentication, data integrity or data verification, non-repudiation, key authentication or verification of credentials}({network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting entities authentication in a packet data network H04L 63/08 ; applying verification of the received information H04L 63/12 ; } computer systems G06F; coin-freed or like apparatus with coded identity card or credit card G07F 7/08)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for authentication or identification, including mechanisms (involving cryptographic primitives or data structures as signatures, certificates, credentials) for authorization, entity authentication, message authentication, data integrity, key authentication, non-repudiation, verification or proof of knowledge.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting entities authentication in a packet data network

Network architectures or network communication protocols applying verification of the received information

Electrical digital data processing

by coded identity card or credit card

{involving a third party or a trusted authority}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for authentication between two devices involving a third device.

{using tickets or tokens, e.g. Kerberos (network architectures or network communication protocols for entities authentication using tickets in a packet data network H04L 63/0807)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for authentication using tickets or tokens (as Kerberos authentication protocols).

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 501-502.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for entities authentication using tickets in a packet data network

{using a plurality of channels (network architectures or network communication protocols using different networks H04L 63/18)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication involving the use of a plurality of channels, as for example the use of a wire channel and a wireless channel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols using different networks

{using proof of knowledge, e.g. Fiat-Shamir, GQ, Schnorr, ornon-interactive zero-knowledge proofs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to identification mechanisms using knowledge proofs, as (NIZKP) non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (Fiat-Shamir, Schnorr protocols).

{interactive zero-knowledge proofs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to identification mechanisms using interactive zero-knowledge proofs.

{using a predetermined code, e.g. password, passphrase or PIN (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using passwords in a packet data network H04L 63/083)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for authentication or authorization using predetermined codes as passwords, passphrases, personal identification numbers (PIN).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using passwords in a packet data network

{One-time or temporary data, i.e. information which is sent for every authentication or authorization, e.g. one-time-password, one-time-token or one-time-key}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication or authorization using predetermined codes, said predetermined codes comprising information which is sent for every authentication or authorization, as one-time-password, one-time-token or one-time-key.

{Biological data, e.g. fingerprint, voice or retina (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using biometrical features in a packet data network H04L 63/0861)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for identification or verification of an individual using biometrical data as fingerprint, voice or retina.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using biometrical features in a packet data network

{involving additional secure or trusted devices, e.g. TPM, smartcard, USB or software token (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using an additional device in a packet data network H04L 63/0853)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for authentication or authorization involving hardware tokens like trusted platform module (TPM), smartcard, USB or software tokens.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using an additional device in a packet data network

{using cryptographic hash functions}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms using cryptographic hash functions.

{involving non-keyed hash functions, e.g. modification detection codes [MDCs], MD5, SHA or RIPEMD}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms involving modification detection codes (MDC's) as MD5, SHA or RIPEMD, also called non-keyed hash functions.

{involving keyed hash functions, e.g. message authentication codes [MACs], CBC-MAC or HMAC}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms involving message authentication codes (MAC's) as CBC-MAC or HMAC, also called keyed hash functions.

{involving digital signatures}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms involving digital signatures.

{using RSA or related signature schemes, e.g. Rabin scheme}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms involving RSA or related signature schemes, as the Rabin signature scheme.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 433-447.

{using DSA or related signature schemes, e.g. elliptic based signatures, ElGamal or Schnorr schemes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms involving DSA or related signature schemes, as elliptic curve digital signature algorithm ECDSA or ElGamal signature scheme.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 452-462.

{using group based signatures, e.g. ring or threshold signatures}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms using digital signatures where signers can establish groups such that each member of the group can produce signatures anonymously on behalf of the group.

{using blind signatures}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms using signatures schemes in which the content of a message is disguised before it is signed.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Page 475.

{involving certificates, e.g. public key certificate [PKC] or attribute certificate [AC]; Public key infrastructure [PKI] arrangements (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using certificates in a packet data network H04L 63/0823)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms involving digital certificates as public key certificates or attribute certificates, or to public key infrastructure (PKI) based authentication/verification using certificates.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 559-561.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using certificates in a packet data network

{using certificate chains, trees or paths; Hierarchical trust model}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication mechanisms involving multiple certification authorities (CA) in public-key systems. Trust relationships between the CA's determine how certificates issued by one CA may be utilized or verified by entities certified by distinct CA's. Hierarchical trust models for certification and cross-certificates are also covered by this subgroup.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 572-575.

{using certificate validation, registration, distribution or revocation, e.g. certificate revocation list [CRL]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms involving certificate generation, validation, registration, distribution (pull, push model) or revocation (certificate revocation list CRL).

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 576-577.

{using challenge-response}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms comprising protocols where a verifier sends a claimant a challenge (usually a random value or a nonce) that the claimant combines with a shared secret (often by hashing the challenge and secret together) to generate a response that is sent to the verifier. The verifier knows the shared secret and can independently compute the response and compare it with the response generated by the claimant.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 397-405.

{for mutual authentication (network architectures or network communication protocols for achieving mutual authentication in a packet data network H04L 63/0869)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication between parties that may corroborate their identities to the other.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network architectures or network communication protocols for achieving mutual authentication in a packet data network

{using physically unclonable functions [PUF]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to authentication using PUF.

{involving time stamps, e.g. generation of time stamps}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms for authentication involving time stamps or generation of timestamps.

Examples: "Handbook of Applied Cryptography" by A.J. Menezes, P.C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, 5th Edition, June 2001, Pages 581-583.

Bits, or blocks of bits, of the telegraphic message being interchanged in time {(for speech signals H04K 1/06)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms involving interchanging in time bits or block of bits of the message.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

by transmitting the information of elements thereof at unnatural speeds or in jumbled order or backwards

with means for detecting characters not meant for transmission
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms involving means for detecting characters not meant for transmission.

Encryption being effected by mechanical apparatus, e.g. rotating cams, switches, keytape punchers
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Subject-matter directed to cryptographic mechanisms involving encryption effected by mechanical apparatus, as rotating cams, switches or key-tape punchers.

Data switching networks (interconnection of, or transfer of information or other signals between, memories, input/output devices or central processing units G06F 13/00)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Transfer of information having been supplied in digital form in data switching networks, e.g.

Systems characterised by network topology;

Systems in which paths are physically permanent during the communication, e.g. connection oriented communication, virtual circuits;

Systems in which the path identification data is included in each information unit, e.g. connectionless communication, datagram;

Hybrid switching systems;

Arrangements for connecting networks having different types of switching systems;

Topology management and discovery;

Local area networks and interworking arrangements there between;

Flow control and congestion control. Traffic scheduling and balancing;

Routing, pathfinding;

Access control and network resource allocation;

Asynchronous transfer mode networks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Interconnection of, or transfer of information or other signals between, memories, input/output devices or central processing units

Interprocessor communication using networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Communication control

Data transfer characterised by protocol

Multiplexing systems in general

Selecting equipment

Conferences, e.g. video conferences

Automatic or semi-automatic exchanges

Manual exchanges

Telephony conferences arrangements

Computer-aided management of electronic mail

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Circuit switching

A system in which a communication path is physically permanent during the communication

Packet switching

A system in which information is divided into discrete data units, characterised by a data payload and an address part known as a header part. The data units are able to travel over different communication paths to the destination

Message switching systems

A system in which a message is sent into a network with the address of its destination added and it is routed to its destination through the network, e.g. electronic mail network systems

Hybrid switching

Combinations of different switching systems (e.g. packet switching systems and circuit switching systems)

Gateway

Arrangements for connecting between networks having different types of switching systems

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "packet", "cell" and "frame" are often used as synonyms.

Current supply arrangements
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Usage of an independent power supply network
  • Extracting power from the data signal in the line
  • Power-over-Ethernet technologies (PoE, PoE+, PoE plus, IEEE 802.2af, IEEE 802.3at)

This groups contains documents dealing with different ways to supply power to terminals connected to a network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Transmission of data over power lines

Current supply to telephones

Internal power supply in a computer

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details regarding the feeding of energy to the node from the bus

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

PoE

Power-over-Ethernet

PSE

Power Sourcing Equipment

PD

Powered Device

Arrangements for remote connection or disconnection of substations or of equipment thereof
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Transition between different power-saving modes
  • Conditions of entry into a sleep mode
  • Wake-on LANs
  • Energy Efficient Ethernet (IEEE 802.3az)

It covers activation or deactivation of terminals or nodes connected to a network. Sometimes, a power on/off is involved, while other documents deal more with logical (de-)activations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Power modes management in wireless networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details regarding the setting of the power status of a node according to activity on a bus

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

WoL

Wake-on-LAN

{Metering,} charging {or billing} arrangements {specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications (payment schemes, architectures or protocols per se G06Q 20/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects of billing, charging, accounting, tariffing for the transport of data packets in wireless or wireline data networks, including data sub networks of voice networks.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G06Q: data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for administrative, commercial, financial, managerial, supervisory or forecasting purposes.

H04M: telephonic communication.

H04W: wireless communications networks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Payment schemes, architectures or protocols "as such".

Billing for commerce in data processing systems or methods specially adapted for administrative, commercial, financial, managerial, supervisory or forecasting purposes. This includes the non technical aspects which relate to billing and charging in data networks.

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Metering arrangements in telephonic communication, such as billing and charging of telephone calls or the billing architecture of telephonic networks.

Prepayment voice telephony systems

Accounting or billing for services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication

Arrangements for maintenance or administration with service quality level based billing

Special rules of classification within this group

Features for which there is no matching subgroup under H04L 12/14 should be classified under H04M 15/00 or H04M 17/00 if appropriate subgroups are provided there.

{Architecture for metering, charging or billing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group is used for features related to the interrelation between network nodes, addition of new network nodes, software downloaded to user, self-billing, sampling, backup of billing data, etc. for charging purposes.

{Policy-and-charging control [PCC] architecture}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Charging aspects of the Policy and Charging Rules Function / Policy Charging Rules Node, or Policy and Charging Control architectures.

Special rules of classification within this group

If flow control or admission control aspects are relevant, this is classified in H04L 47/20 , H04L 12/5695 or H04W 28/10.

If network maintenance or administration aspects are relevant, this is classified in H04L 12/244.

{in real-time}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Advice of charge (AoC) during a communication.

{Advice of charge with threshold, e.g. user indicating maximum cost}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Advice of charge (AoC) with a threshold, e.g. user indicating maximum cost.

{Indication of expected costs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes e.g. providing the user a preview of estimated costs before he/she starts a communication, for example before start of a file transfer.

{involving dedicated fields in the data packet for billing purposes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Special fields, for example in IP-headers of SIP-headers, used for charging or billing.

{Invoice generation, e.g. customization, lay-out, database processing, algorithms for calculating the bill or formatting invoices as WWW pages (invoicing in general G06Q 30/04)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Invoicing in general

{Metric aspects}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group is used for metric aspects whereby the charging is based neither on volume nor on time, for instance based on distance / number of hops, or the use of more complicated formulas for determining the charging.

{volume-based}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group is used for exceptional volume based charging, for instance only charging for volume of useful data, not overhead data (overhead data being for example: session set-up / tear down, retransmission of erroneous packets).

{time-based}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group is used for exceptional time based charging, for example only charging for actual transmission time, or time based charging where this would otherwise be uncommon.

{inter-operator billing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes for example: clearing of revenue, format conversion, meta format for billing.

{trading network capacity or selecting route based on tariff}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes for example the exchanges for trading the capacity, or selecting operators / routes based on tariff.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for maintenance or administration with service quality level based billing,

{Methods or systems for payment or settlement of the charges for data transmission involving significant interaction with the data transmission network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects of payment or settlement of charges involving interaction with the data transmission network, see the subgroups below.

{using digital cash}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Payment using e-cash, credit units, tokens, points.

{involving prepayment}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Features related to prepayment accounts are classified here.

Special rules of classification within this group

The on-line / real-time metering / charging aspects are additionally classified under "Architecture" by tagging with the subgroup code H04L 12/1403.

More detailed features are classified under H04M 17/00.

{the splitting involving a third party}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Cost splitting involving a third party, such as an advertiser, a sponsor.

This could include a discount to the user based on the acceptance of an advertisement where e.g. the advertiser pays the remaining amount.

Even when the third party bears the full cost, this is still classified here.

{the splitting involving only the communication parties}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Cost splitting involving only the communication parties, e.g. the "A" party and the "B" party in a standard two-party communication, or additional parties in case of teleconferencing.

{involving use of telephony infrastructure for billing for the transport of data, e.g. call detail record [CDR] or intelligent network infrastructure}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes e.g. the use of call detail record CDR, or the Intelligent Network infrastructure.

{Tariff-related aspects}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes variable tariff dependent on subscription-contract, time-of day, flow, QoS/diffserv, bandwidth usage.

Aspects related to network maintenance or administration with service quality level based billing are also classified under H04L 12/2475.

{dependent on congestion}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes variable tariffs dependent on congestion, i.e. congestion pricing.

{negotiation of tariff}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This includes negotiation of the tariff, between the user and the provider, or between providers. Also automatic negotiation by algorithms, i.e. without user involvement, is classified here.

{involving discounts}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Discounts on the overall charge where only one communication party, typically the "A" party, pays the cost.

Special rules of classification within this group

If another communication party is involved, this is classified under H04L 12/1475 .

for broadcast or conference {, e.g. multicast (multicast or broadcast switches H04L 49/201)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Computer conferences, e.g. whiteboard applications or multimedia conferences, which take place (at least partially) over a data switching network.
  • Multicast transmission, since it is considered as a kind of restricted broadcast.

It is a subgroup of H04L 12/00 and hence contains only documents with broadcast, multicast or conference arrangements in data switching networks, and where there is a disclosure of subject-matter relevant for the broadcast, multicast or conference per se.

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup is not active and contains networks adapted for stock quotations. Computer supported buying and selling of stocks without network aspects is classified in G06Q 40/04 .

This subgroup is not active and contains networks specifically adapted for auctions. Computer supported auctioneering such as Internet auctions without network aspects is classified in G06Q 30/08 .

This subgroup includes documents regarding data exchange in real-time between a group of user equipment connected to a data-switching network. The documents provide solutions suitable for groups of more than two pieces of user equipment but do not exclude two users in a degenerate situation.

Instant messaging is classified in H04L 12/581.

This subgroup contains documents related to conference administration arrangements for setting up and starting a conference. It covers aspects related to events before the actual conference takes place.

This subgroup contains documents related to conference administration arrangements during the conference itself.

Examples of documents classified here: US2007274460, US7408890, US7426540.

This subgroup contains documents directed to solving problems such as transmission errors and/or delays, and terminals with limited capabilities.

Examples of documents classified here: EP1876755, WO2004008336

This subgroup contains documents directed to the recording of conference content, participant activities and/or behaviour, etc. for later retrieval.

This subgroup contains documents where not all the receivers of the broadcast or multicast data are connected through the same kind of networks, which influences the broadcast/multicast service.

This subgroup contains documents where not all the receivers have the same capabilities, which influences the broadcast/multicast service.

Layered encoding of data as such is classified in H04N 19/00.

The size of the location is not relevant; the data transmission can take place within a room, a building, a city, or a nation etc. (protocols for adapting network applications to user terminal location H04L 29/08657; services specially adapted for wireless communication networks making use of the location of users or terminals H04W 4/02)

This subgroup contains inter alia documents related to the IGMP or MLD protocols for joining and leaving a multicast group.

It also contains documents dealing with changes to the multicast service as the result of a node failure or a member joining or leaving the group.

Routing tree calculation is classified in H04L 45/48 .

This subgroup contains documents dealing with systems where the data forwarding to every receiver is also the responsibility of the receivers themselves, e.g. application layer multicast.

This subgroup covers documents where the multicast or broadcast aspect is relevant for the push service, such as pushing common data to a group of users. Arrangements for push based network services in general, such as pushing personal data to (a) user(s), are classified in H04L 29/08693.

Push systems in relation to Internet retrieval, see G06F 17/30864.

This subgroup contains documents dealing with the problem of how to make sure that each receiver has received the data and what to do when this is not the case.

This subgroup contains documents dealing with any action (e.g. verifications, increased resources, alternative paths, etc.) taken prior to transmission in order to ensure network reliability. Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in received information in general, see H04L 1/00.

This subgroup contains documents concerning the transmission order of multicast and/or broadcast data packets onto the network, e.g. vis-à-vis unicast data.

The restrictions are for instance applied to avoid flooding of data by dividing the recipients into multicast groups or using subnets or subdomains.

This subgroup only contains documents dealing with multicast or broadcast problems that are a result of (at least some) network links being wireless, e.g. intermittent connectivity or bandwidth constraints.

Documents concerned with the wireless part of the network for broadcast or multicast services such as MBMS are classified in H04W 4/06, e.g. radio channel allocation.

This subgroup contains documents where real-time information is unidirectionally communicated to a group of recipients.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04H: Broadcast communication in broadcast networks, e.g. radio or television networks.

H04N: Pictorial communication, e.g. television.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Routing aspects for multicast

Flow control for multicast

Packet switches for multicast or broadcast

One-way streaming of real-time multimedia data

Telephone conferences

Video conferences

Arrangements for the radio link of a wireless network for broadcast or multicast services such as MBMS, e.g. radio channel allocation

Push-to-talk systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Signalling and protocols for real-time multimedia conferences

Special rules of classification within this group

The rule for classification in this group is "multiple places, no priority". This means that a document should be classified in all the subgroups that are appropriate for the document.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Chat room

A chat room is a special type of computer conference where the users normally are not aware of the (true) identities of other participants' before joining the chat. The chat room application executes mainly on a server which is often accessed through a web browser. No participant has control over the admission of other participants.

Instant messaging, IM

Instant messaging is data exchange in real-time between at least two end users connected to a packet-switching network where the users are aware of the identity and the presence of the other party or parties before starting the data exchange.

Arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation (means for verifying the identity or the authority of a user of a secure or secret communication system H04L 9/32)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This subgroup is not used.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subgroup was initially used to classify network security aspects, which are now classified in:

  • H04L 63/00: Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security and/or
  • H04W 12/00: Network architectures or network communication protocols for wireless network security
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system

Arrangements for maintenance or administration
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of heterogeneous packet-switched data networks (e.g. IP, Ethernet, ...) both using proprietary and standardised network management architecture and protocols (e.g. TMN, SNMP) irrespective of the physical transport medium and the type of service carried.

Although typical Network Management functions, aspects related to accounting/billing and security are in general not classified here. The only exceptions are Service quality based billing and security of the network management system (e.g. authorised access to the manager, security of management messages).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Aspects related to the management of the fulfilment of an agreement between two different parties (usually not within the same network/domain), typically known as Service Level Agreement (SLA), are classified under the H04L 12/2464 subgroups.

Aspects related to the monitoring of the performance of a network communications are classified under the H04L 12/2602 subgroups (e.g. monitoring of QoS parameters).

Aspects related to the testing of a network or a network element are classified under H04L 12/2697.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Detection or prevention of error at physical layer

Account or billing for the transport of the data-packets

Arrangement for network security

Controlling or operating of remote end-user devices' applications

Network management of traditional telephonic (circuit-switched) networks

Operation and Maintenance of homogeneous ATM networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interconnection arrangements between voice switching centres. Network operation, administration, maintenance or provisioning

Arrangements providing connection between exchanges

Wireless communication networks. Supervisory, monitoring or testing arrangements

Wireless communication networks. Network traffic or resource management

Selecting arrangements for multiplex systems using optical techniques

Special rules of classification within this group

In these subgroups, at each hierarchical level, unless otherwise indicated, classification is made in the first appropriate place (first place priority Rule). When several particular technical subjects are disclosed, this rule is separately applied to each of them.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Network Management, NM

Refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems.

Network Management functions

Functions that are performed as part of network management include Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance Security management (FCAPS).

Operation

Deals with keeping the network up and running smoothly.

Administration

Deals with keeping track of resources in the network and how they are assigned. It includes all the "housekeeping" that is necessary to keep the network under control.

Maintenance

Is concerned with performing repairs and upgrades—for example, when equipment must be replaced, when a router needs a patch for an operating system image, when a new switch is added to a network. Maintenance also involves corrective and preventive measures to make the managed network run "better", such as adjusting device configuration parameters.

Provisioning

Is concerned with configuring resources in the network to support a given service. For example, this might include setting up the network so that a new customer can receive the requested service.

Network Manager

An entity that acts in a manager role for performing the network management functions.

Agent

A software module that performs management functions requested by a Manager.

Network element, NE, managed device, managed node

Means manageable logical entity uniting one or more physical devices which are networked. Network elements usually have management agents responsible for performing the network management functions. They can be any type of device, including, but not limited to: hosts, gateways, terminal servers, routers, switches, bridges, hubs, modem, IP telephones, IP video cameras, computer hosts, and printers.

Managed object

An abstract representation of network resources of the network element that is managed.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

IETF

International Engineering Task Force

OMA-DM

Open Mobile Alliance - Device Management

3GPP

3rd Generation Partnership Project

NM

Network Management

NMS

Network Management System

TMN

Telecommunications Management Network

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

MIB

Management Information Base

TR-069

Technical Report 69 (Broadband forum standard)

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol

In patent documents the word "management" is often used with the meaning of "controlling", "commanding" , "operating".

In patent documents the expression "configured to" is often used with the meaning "adapted to", "suitable for" defining functional features of structural elements.

{involving integration or standardization}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of standards NM protocols, standards architecture, arrangement and representation instrumental for an integrated management.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers a hierarchy of different miscellaneous aspects focusing on integration and standardisation. Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

{using standardized network management architectures, e.g. TMN [Telecommunication Management network], UNMA [Unified Network Management Architecture]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to the specific type of standards NM architecture used.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the type of standardized architecture is merely cited as general information the group is not to be allocated.

{using standardized network management protocols, e.g. SNMP [Simple Network Management Protocol], CMIP [Common Management Interface Protocol]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to modification or specific use of standards NM protocols. Additional examples are TR-069, OMA-DM.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the type of standardized protocol is merely cited as general information the group is not to be allocated.

{Multivendor or multistandard integration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Managing network equipments from different vendors following different communication protocols and standards technologies;
  • Integration products capable of communicating with different managed nodes in their own protocol and capable of representing a unified network view to the network managers.

media0.png

Examples: EP1162784

{Mapping or translation of multiple network management protocols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using different NM protocols, conversion of NM commands and reports from one protocol (e.g. CMIP) into another protocol (e.g. SNMP), mapping between different version of the same NM protocols (SNMP v2 and v3).

media1.png

Examples: EP1720286

{using object oriented techniques, e.g. CORBA [Common Object Request Broker Architecture] for representation of network management data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using object oriented techniques (e.g. CORBA) for representation of NM data. Processing managed entities as Objects.

Special rules of classification within this group

This class is to be allocated for OO-Techniques other than the typical use of objects in, e.g., SNMP (e.g. MIB’s objects or OMA) which can be considered in the class H04L 12/2403.

{using relational databases for representation of network management data, e.g. managing via SQL [Structured Query Language]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of networks being modelled by a (1:1) image in a relational database, e.g., management is done by issuing respective (SQL) commands.

{using Internet technology, e.g. a standard Web Browser at the management workstation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • NM from a Workstation connected to the Internet, e.g. using a standard Internet Browser;
  • Transfer of NM information via internet messages (email, html, xml);
  • Web-service NM, OMA, SOAP.
{Architectural aspects of network management arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Aspects on how the NMS is structurally organised;
  • Aspects on how the NMS is connected for retrieving the management information.
{Arrangements involving multiple distributed management centers cooperatively managing the network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Multiple NM centres or NM units communicating with each other and managing the network together - often each manager being responsible for his own NM domain and all managers being on the same hierarchical level - peer to peer relation;
  • Replacement of failed NM node by a peer one.
Special rules of classification within this group

In group H04L 12/2404, the different multivendor network managers, do not necessarily cooperates with each other but they operate independently.

{Arrangements involving a hierarchical management structure}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hierarchical structures like main manager > medium (mid - level -) managers > sub-managers.

media2.png

Examples: EP0838919, US2002174207

{Aspects of network management Agents}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Usage of NM (mobile) agents.

Management agents are usually implemented in the managed network nodes themselves or reside "close" to the managed nodes in the network. They usually support the standard NM protocols or provide a mapping functionality between the nodes' proprietary and the managers standardized protocol (e.g. proxy). Mobile management agents can be often programmed in JAVA.

media3.png

Examples: EP0831617

Special rules of classification within this group

This class is to be allocated for use and features of Agents other than the typical use already done in, e.g., SNMP standardised protocols, which can be considered in the class H04L 12/2403.

{Arrangements involving CNM [Customer Network Management]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Giving the customer (limited) access to NM functions.

{involving network analysis}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to the (on-line) analysis of the operating network.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers miscellaneous aspects focusing on the analysis of the network.

Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

{using statistical methods, e.g. distribution tests, or establishing statistical profiles, or calculating probabilities}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Evaluation of monitored data applying advanced statistical methods and tests going beyond basic counting and averaging of frames, errors. The analysis is based on-line while the network is fully operative.

{for automatically determining the actual topology of a network (Topology discovery in routers H04L 45/02)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Determination, retrieval or use of network topology (also based on routing table information) for network management purposes (e.g. fault localisation, network analysis, configuration, graphical representation...).
  • Discovery of links, network elements and adjacencies;
  • Aspects relating to topology change after migration;
  • Planning of the appropriate topology.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Topology discovery for routing purposes

Topology discovery in wireless networks

{involving management of faults or events or alarms}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Fault detection, localization, issuing alarms, handling of special events.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Alarm or messages triggered by the user, customer (trouble ticket)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fault management in exchanges' connections

{Alarm or event filtering, e.g. for reduction of information}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reduction of the "alarm stream" to filter out the relevant alarms, events, etc. Often the network manager is overwhelmed with floods of alarms in complex networks. Filters can be set to only show these events the network managers considers "relevant" at a given time.

{Alarm and event correlation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Correlating events (alarms) usually for determining the common cause of these alarms as being the "real" problem causing a flood of alarms;
  • Determination of the root of a problem in general.
{Automatic restoration of network faults}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Automatically "repairing" broken links, nodes, routes by a NMS;
  • Network disaster recovery.
{involving Artificial Intelligence algorithms, e.g. expert systems, rule based systems, genetic algorithms}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Applying artificial intelligence methods (expert systems, rule based systems, genetic algorithms) in NM usually for finding the cause of problems or for predicting network behaviour and proactive error prevention.

{Configuration management of network or network elements (management of devices network applications for proprietary or special purpose network environments H04L 29/08567 ; automatic configuration in wireless networks H04W 24/02)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

(Automatic) Configuration of network components, nodes, network elements.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Management of device's network applications for proprietary or special purpose network environments

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic Configuration of system equipment in wireless networks

{Bandwidth or capacity management, i.e. automatically increasing or decreasing capacities, e.g. bandwidth on demand}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Traffic shaping and scheduling, protocols for congestion control, protocols for resource reservation

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandwidth allocation and management in exchanges' connections

{Assignment of logical groupings to network elements; Policy based network management or configuration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Assignment of logical grouping to network elements;
  • Policies for Group Memberships;
  • Management using a pre-defined policy.
{Hardware and software tools for network management}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Simulation tools, software tools, graphical interface aspects, specific hardware devices.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers miscellaneous aspects relating to software or hardware tools.

Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

{for network design, e.g. with integrated simulation and design testing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Network design tools (e.g. with integrated simulation and design testing) which operates off-line;
  • Modelling or abstraction of the network for behaviour simulation.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Network design in exchanges connections

{Network management software packages}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

NM software tools like HP Openview, Netview 6000, with GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces) capable of managing large and complex data networks.

{using GUI [Graphical User Interface]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Using a GUI to represent the architecture of the network, monitoring results for NM purposes;
  • which/how the management information are displayed.
{using dedicated network management hardware}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • (portable) hardware equipment for managing (e.g. configuring, logging management data, etc.) a device at a time;
  • Craft terminals used by fields technicians;
  • Built-in NM hardware.
{using dedicated tools for LAN [Local Area Network] management}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Usually NM tools operating at MAC level.

{Security in network management, e.g. restricting network management access (protocols or architecture for network security H04L 29/06551)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Only security related to the NM system;
  • Aspects relating to keeping the manager and the management data secure;
  • Restricting access control to the NMS, encryption of management data.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protocols or architecture for network security

{Decision processes by autonomous network management units using voting and bidding}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Process for electing a unit as a master;
  • Bidding and electing units based on best QoS level.
{Specific management aspects for broadband networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

NM for traditional broadband digital cross-connect switches supporting user's communication, now being replaced by ATM or DSL-based infrastructure.

{Network service management, ensuring proper service fulfilment according to an agreement or contract between two parties, e.g. between an IT-provider and a customer}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to Service level management between parties for service deployment, assurance and review over heterogeneous packet-switched data networks (e.g. IP, Ethernet, etc.) irrespective of the physical transport medium and the type of service carried.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Service Level Management

Provides for continual identification, monitoring and review of the levels of IT services specified in the Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Service Level Management ensures that arrangements are in place with internal IT Support-Providers and external suppliers in the form of Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) and Underpinning Contracts (UCs), respectively.

Service Level Management functions

Ensuring that the agreed IT services are delivered when and where they are supposed to be; Liaising with Availability Management, Capacity Management, Incident Management and Problem Management To ensure that the required levels and quality of service are achieved within the resources agreed producing and maintaining a Service Catalogue (a list of standard IT service options and agreements made available to customers) Ensuring that appropriate IT Service Continuity plans exist to support the business and its continuity requirements.

Service Level Agreement, SLA

Service level agreement is a part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined.

Quality of Service, QoS

Quality measure relating to specific network parameters of traffic packets (bit rate, delays, packet loss...) which describe the treatment experienced by the packets while passing through the network .

SLA vs QoS

In order to meet the SLA requirements specific internal QoS management processes are to be implemented. SLA is namely directed to an 'aggregation' of (end-to-end) QoS parameters rather than to specific internal network metrics or is directed to QoS related to a customer (QoE).

Quality of Experience, QoE

A subjective measure of a customer's experiences with a service.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "QoS" is often used with the meaning "Service Level performance".

{Managing SLA [Service Level Agreement] or interaction between SLA and QoS [Quality of Service]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • General aspects relating to the description of the terms or properties of the SLA;
  • Aspects relating to mapping/converting SLA requirements into QoS parameters.

media4.png

ITU-T Rec. E.860 (Figure)

{Defining or negotiating SLA contracts, guarantees or penalties (SLA negotiation in wireless networks H04W 28/24)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

SLA negotiation in wireless networks

{Measuring SLA quality parameters, e.g. against possible contract or guarantee violations (Monitoring performance metrics on a simple network level H04L 12/2634)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring performance metrics on a simple network level

{determining service performance, i.e. performance on service level, e.g. response time or MTBF [Mean Time Between Failure]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Aspects relating to the benchmarking for specific services;
  • Aspects relating to mean time to failure (MTTF), mean time to recover (MTTR);
  • Aspects relating to the overall performance of a network, e.g. delay, reliability.
{Ensuring SLA (flow or congestion control at network level H04L 12/569)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flow or congestion control at network level

{by proactively reacting to service quality change (e.g. degradation or upgrade) by reconfiguration (mere restoration of network faults H04L 12/2422)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Restoration of network faults

{Service quality level based billing, e.g. dependent on measured service level customer is charged more or less (general charging or billing for transport of data packets H04L 12/14)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

General charging or billing for transport of data packets

{Generating service level reports}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Generating a report based on data showing the performance levels for individual customers or individual services.

{Measuring contribution of individual network components to actual service level (alarm or event correlation H04L 12/2421)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Identifying network entities, such as nodes, links, applications, that affect or are responsible for actual quality of service, such as service failure or service quality degradation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alarm or event correlation

{Testing of service level quality}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Simulating service usage by active agents to automatically measure service level compliance.
  • Testing based on artificial traffic, artificial customer's behaviour.
{Automatic provisioning of the service triggered by the service manager, e.g. concrete service implementation by automatic configuration of network components (for initializing configuration, i.e. provisioning of network or devices H04L 12/2425)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Initializing Configuration, i.e. provisioning of network or devices

{Service discovery by the Service Manager (automatically determining the actual topology of a network H04L 12/2416 ; topology discovery in routers H04L 45/02 ; arrangements for service discovery, e.g. Service Location Protocol [SLP] H04L 29/08648)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Identifying service elements or services and dependencies among the elements and services of a network

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatically determining the actual topology of a network

Topology discovery in routers

Arrangements for service discovery, e.g. Service Location Protocol (SLP)

{Customer care}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Order and problem handling, Informing end-user of service situation.

{Customer Relationship Management (for arrangements involving Customer Network Management, i.e. giving the customer access to network management functions H04L 12/2413)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Handling of customer data, contracts, customer history
  • Monitoring and recording customer interactions with the provider
  • Data mining techniques for customer's data processing
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Arrangements involving Customer Network Management, i.e. giving the customer access to network management functions

Arrangements involving CNM

{Customer-centric QoS [Quality of Service Measurement]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Aspects relating to the quality or satisfaction as perceived by the customer/user, Quality of Experience (QoE)
  • Aspects relating to reports provided by the customer about the service quality
{Filtering out customers affected by service problems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Identifying customers affected by service problems as network element failures, network congestion or service degradation

{Handling of Trouble Tickets}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the generation of error messages or notifications originated by a customer or a customer's terminal to be treated by the Service Provider.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Alarm messages (automatically) triggered by faulty network elements

{Managing simple transport services, i.e. providing only network infrastructure}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects wherein access to the network itself is the service.

{based on type of value added network service under agreement}
Special rules of classification within this group

The subgroups should be allocated only in combination with at least one of the groups from H04L 12/2464 to H04L 12/249 and only if essential for the characterisation of the service management aspects.

{wherein the managed service relates to web hosting (web hosting as such H04L 29/0809 , web-browsers G06F 17/30861 , video-hosting H04N 21/2743)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Web-browsers

Web hosting

Video-hosting

{wherein the managed service relates to voice services (protocols for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06176 ; management of telephonic communication services H04M 3/22 ; management of VoIP services H04M 7/0081)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protocols for real-time multimedia communications

Management of telephonic communication services

Management of VoIP services

{wherein the managed service relates to audio / video / TV (protocols for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06176 ; interactive television or VoD H04N 21/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protocols for real-time multimedia communications

Interactive television or VoD

{wherein the managed service relates to messaging (messaging, such as e-mail in packet-switching networks H04L 12/58)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Messaging, such as e-mail in packet-switching networks

{wherein the managed service relates to chat services (conducting a computer conference H04L 12/1822 ; instant messaging H04L 12/581)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Conducting a computer conference

Instant messaging

Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Aspects related to monitoring and testing of service level agreed between two different parties (usually not within the same network/domain), typically known as Service Level Agreement (SLA) compliance

Special rules of classification within this group

In these subgroups, at each hierarchical level, unless otherwise indicated, classification is made in the first appropriate place (first place priority Rule). When several particular technical subjects are disclosed, this rule is separately applied to each of them.

{Monitoring arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Monitoring aspects, that means basically observing the network by measuring passing traffic or setting counters here and there at different points in the network;
  • Aspects of testing in the sense of "active monitoring", by introducing new packets or modifying data packets;
  • Monitoring QoS parameters of packets irrespective of the use and application;
  • Monitoring of metrics of network element;
  • Measuring performance at network/link level (availability, status)
  • Report of monitored parameters.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Monitoring at physical layer

Monitoring for security reasons

Monitoring of networked distributed applications

Special rules of classification within this group

Aspects related to testing, with the meaning that something is done upon the network to see its reaction, e.g. by means of test packets or dummy traffic are classified under H04L 12/2697 only if a corresponding entry is not available under H04L 12/2602 or in case network elements are tested off-line while the network is not yet operative.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the word "testing" is often used with the meaning of "monitoring".

{involving a reduction of monitoring data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the selection of specific type/group of packets .

{using sampling of monitoring data, i.e. storing only a selection of packets}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the storing of selection of packets.

{using adaptive sampling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Dynamically adjusting the sampling rate according to specific criteria, e.g. traffic burstiness, packet rate, statistics.

{using flow Flow generation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Aggregating captured packet data into flows, a flow being defined as a unidirectional sequence of packets all sharing same network parameters;
  • Monitoring flow, wherein the flow is usually characterised by a n-tuple of network parameters, e.g. Source/Destination address, Port number, protocol number (e.g. IETF IPFIX, NetFlow);
  • Monitoring of flow on different OSI-layers.
{using filtering (alarm or event filtering H04L 12/242)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Reduction of monitored data by applying filters to extract specific type of packets or part of packets;
  • Deep packet inspection (e.g. BPF, libpcap);
  • Using hashing, masking for extracting and storing packets or part of packets.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Alarm or event filtering

{processing of captured monitoring data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Aspects focusing on aggregation and post-processing of the monitored data;
  • Storing of (part of) monitored packets.
{for graphical visualization of monitoring data (graphical user interfaces H04L 12/2458)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Displaying, showing of the monitoring data/result in graphs, x-y axis, drawings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Use of a GUI as a tool for monitoring or managing a network

{for traffic related reporting}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reporting the overall traffic on a Tap-Point in the network

{for device related reporting (reporting of sensed information of home appliances H04L 12/2803)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reporting traffic characteristics for a specific device or network node

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Reporting of sensed information of home appliances managing a network

{for time frame related reporting}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Formatting traffic reports with respect to certain time intervals, e.g. per second, minute, hour, day or week, or configurable timeframes

{Monitoring using or based on specific metrics}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Aspect of monitoring of packets on a network (link/node) level including QoS parameters;
  • Aspect of monitoring of network elements' parameters (temperature, power consumption, etc.) via network protocols.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring performance on a service level

{based on connectivity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Monitoring whether a link is active or a device is connected
  • Checking or verifying both physical and logical connectivity, e.g., by using connectivity check messages
  • Use of techniques at layer 2 or 3 of the OSI-stack.
{based on functioning (monitoring the activity of the application user H04L 29/08675 ; monitoring appliance functionality of home appliances H04L 12/2803)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring the status of the connected device, e.g. whether the device is or working properly, monitoring network element resource metrics like CPU or memory utilization or printer utilization.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Monitoring the activity of the application user

Monitoring appliance functionality of home appliances

{using errors (management of events, faults or alarms H04L 12/2419)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Management of events, faults or alarms

{using packet loss}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring of transmission data loss for all upper layers (Layers 2, 3 and above), as e.g. packet/frame/PDU loss, is classified in subgroups H04L 12/2649, H04L 12/2652.

A loss is often recognized via expiration of a timer (timeout) and can be caused by full buffer, overloading, discarding.

{based on transmission error}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring of transmission errors include all layer independent errors which can be recognized after reception of any transmitted data as bit errors (as e.g. CRC/checksum errors), packet errors (as e.g. duplicate packet errors, packets received after close errors), framing errors (frames too long/short), alignment errors, framing checksum (FCS) errors, bad header errors, carrier sense errors, packet collisions, late collision errors, excessive collision errors, backward errors, duplicate message acknowledgements (ACKs), out of order packet errors.

{based on delays}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Different type of packet delays (transition time), also due to node or stack processing, buffering.

Special rules of classification within this group

This class and the subgroups refer to delays irrespective of the use that is done of the delay information. For example the use of delay information for synchronizing time/clock is to be classified in H04J 3/0635.

{based on utilization of link capacity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Level of congestion, i.e. percentage or absolute value of link capacity available or used.

{based on throughput}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Observing the time required to get a certain amount of bits across a link or path, thus the ratio of bits per time unit.

{based on packet rate}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring bandwidth or packet data rate used by a traffic stream.

{using threshold monitoring}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring if observed parameters or metrics are within upper or lower thresholds.

{using protocol analyzers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use and protocols of protocol/packet analyzer for network monitoring purposes.

{Testing equipment; Routine testing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Testing, with the meaning that something is done upon the network to see its reaction, e.g. by means of test packets or dummy traffic.
  • Aspects relating to use of test traffic for interoperability measurement;
  • Generation of specific type of testing traffic and routine;
  • Characterisation of the type of test traffic to be used;
  • Aspects relating to testing network or network elements, when the network or network element are not yet operative by simulating with quasi-real traffic.
  • Hardware test elements, e.g. test-on-chip
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Testing of service level quality under SLA

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing in Wired Telephony

Testing in Wireless Networks

Testing in ATM

Special rules of classification within this group

This subgroup is used for classification of aspects related to testing in the sense of "active monitoring", e.g. by introducing new packets or modifying data packets, only if a corresponding entry is not available under H04L 12/2602.

characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Header group accommodating those networks whose topology respond to regular LAN topologies (bus, ring or star). His head group contains also WAN and MAN topologies. Documents dealing with very generic network topologies on Layer 2 should be classified here.

{Broadband local area networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • DOCSIS-related technologies (cable modems, cable modem termination systems);
  • MoCA networks;
  • HFC networks.

This group concerns mostly cable modems and developments of data services on existing cable infrastructures. One can find in this group variations on the basic IEEE 802.14 standard for accessing an optical cable using mostly TDMA. Some architectures for access to video on demand networks using HFC (Hybrid Fibre Coax) physical media. Of course some LANs using ATM as transport technology are also to be fund in the group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Multimedia protocols

Video on demand and video coding

Telephony over cable networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Point-to-multipoint connection of the data network to end users in an access network

Arrangements for combining access network resources elements, e.g. channel bonding

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

DOCSIS

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification

CMTS

Cable Modem Termination System

CM

Cable Modem

MoCA

Multimedia over COAX Alliance

{Home automation networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network of appliances in a same home exchanging within said network messages which are generic with regard to the type of appliance.

This group covers all network aspects of domotics.

It covers:

  • Transmission media such as power transmission lines or dedicated wiring for controlling home appliances;
  • Using the home telephone wiring for building a LAN. HomePNA(Phone-line Networking Alliance).
  • Addressing issues concerning the identification of devices in different
  • areas of a dwelling
  • Network control. Using e.g. a regular TV receiver or dedicated terminal Tapping devices used to connect appliances to the selected wiring (Echelon's LON network).
  • Some standard architectures for home control use: CEBUS or FieldBus, PNA.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Factory automation

Transmission of data over power lines

Remote control of lights using a control bus

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Retrieval from the Internet

Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link

Device-related reporting

Monitoring functionality

Access arrangements

High-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus

Single bridge functionality

Protocol conversion

Arrangements for network security

Protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology

Arrangements for service discovery

Protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology for remote control or remote monitoring

Telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with telemetering systems

Telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with remote control systems

Receiver circuitry for displaying additional information being controlled by a remote control apparatus

Adaptations of television systems for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution

Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems for selectively calling a substation from a main station, in which substation desired apparatus is selected for applying a control signal thereto or for obtaining measured values therefrom

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers all network aspects of domotics.

The following topics are well represented in the group:

Use of networks (involving wireless links, power transmission lines, home telephone wiring) for controlling or monitoring home appliances or for exchanging control messages between audio video appliances.

In the definition above, the following criteria are emphasized:

  • There should be at least one network of appliances; this condition is not fulfilled for a simple application of remote control of a heating system by telephone or Internet;
  • The devices connected to the network are appliances, i.e. devices having a sensor or actor role in the home automation; a network involving printers and computers (these computers having no appliance function) only does not fulfill this condition;
  • There should be general aspects of the network, i.e. aspects which are not specific to a single type of application; this is the case for instance when the invention relates to a message data field used for controlling appliances, but not if the invention concerns specifically the use of a few commands to accomplish a certain operation; this difference can be understood as a difference of layer;

The subgroup relates to control or monitoring with several appliances in a same home; this condition is not fulfilled when the appliances are communicating only via the Internet or the mobile cellular network; this condition is also not fulfilled by the interconnection of audio-video devices with their broadcast network; hotels can be considered as home if the privacy concept coincides with the hotel; building automation of purely mechanical and lighting devices can be considered as a home if it is separate from the city infrastructure.

{Home Audio Video Interoperability [HAVI] networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

HAVi networks encompasses connections to control Audio and Video hardware using FireWire.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

HAVi

Home Audio Video Interoperability

{Exchanging configuration information on appliance services in a home automation network (adress allocation H04L 29/12207 ; arrangements for maintenance or administration involving network analysis for automatically determining the actual topology of a network H04L 12/2416 ; hardware or software tools for network management using graphical user interfaces H04L 12/2458)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Exchange and retrieval of information regarding which element having which attributes are present in the network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network management of home networks, for instance by initialisation of the network, configuration and self-configuration of the network

Configuration of devices by assignment of identifiers and addresses

Address allocation

for automatically determining the actual topology of a network

using GUI (Graphical User Interface)

{indicating that an appliance service is present in a home automation network (monitoring functionality H04L 12/2642 ; arrangements for service discovery H04L 29/08648)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Exchange of information indicating which services or operations are available on the home network appliances.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Discovering of devices as part of configuration

Arrangements for service discovery, e.g. Service Location Protocol

Address allocation to terminals or nodes connected to a network

based on functioning

{indicating a format for calling an appliance service function in a home automation network (protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology H04L 29/08099)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Description of capabilities of devices and services in a home network.

Exchange of information describing access methods and parameters of devices or services available on the home network appliances.

Emphasis is on "description", i.e. the data structure indicating the commands and parameters with which control of the operation of a device's appliance can be triggered.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

for remote control or remote monitoring

{describing content present in a home automation network, e.g. audio video content (retrieval from the Internet G06F 17/30861)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Description of contents available in a home network. Exchange of information describing contents available on the home network appliances. Emphasis is on "contents".

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Information retrieval from the Internet

Protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology, e.g. Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

{Exchanging control software or macros for controlling appliance services in a home automation network (arrangements for maintenance or administration involving configuration of the network and network elements H04L 12/2424)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self explanatory, pieces of software, firmware used to control home appliances.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Programme loading or initiating

Protocols for network applications

Configuration management of network or network elements

{Controlling appliance services of a home automation network by calling their functionalities (arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems for selectively calling a substation from a main station; in which substation desired apparatus is selected for applying a control signal thereto or for obtaining measured values therefrom H04Q 9/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Exchange of information that triggers action of at least one device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems for selectively calling a substation from a main station, in which substation desired apparatus is selected for applying a control signal thereto or for obtaining measured values therefrom

{from a device located outside both the home and the home network (access arrangements H04L 12/2856 ; protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology for remote control or remote monitoring H04L 29/08099 ; telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with remote control systems H04M 11/007; arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless eletrical link G08C 17/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Complex home network provisions for being remotely accessed. Access to a home network (with at least two appliances) from a device outside the home network.

media5.png

In that example, a device control processor which communicates with a remote access service unit and operating a home network device using universal plug and play (UPnP) message, stores list of controlled devices, each device state, event list and service request list.

The processor converts request/message received from service unit/UPnP device into message/request for transmission to respective units.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Remote control by local wireless signals

Remote control by Internet

Remote control via a telephone connection

Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link

{based on user interaction within the home (receiver circuitry for displaying additional information being controlled by a remote control apparatus H04N 5/44582)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

User interaction from within network for the control of appliances, e.g. through remote controller, PDA, cell phone, RF ID etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Receiver circuitry for displaying additional information being controlled by a remote control apparatus

User interface for managing and configuring a home network

{Avoiding conflicts related to the use of home appliances (arrangements for network security H04L 29/06551)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The home appliance or another device prevents the home appliance from having to execute commands which disturb ongoing operations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Access control according to access rights are classified only in network security

Arrangements for network security

{Reporting information sensed by appliance or service execution status of appliance services in a home automation network (device-related reporting H04L 43/065 ; arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems for selectively calling a substation from a main station, in which substation desired apparatus is selected for applying a control signal thereto or for obtaining measured values therefrom H04Q 9/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Exchange of information for reporting or monitoring the operation of home appliances so as to trigger operation of other home appliance functions. The status of a service or the sensed situation of an appliance is advertised on a home network for reaction by other home devices to create an environment conforming to specific rules or profiles.

media6.png

media7.png

In that document, the rules of device interaction may include instructions that are to be transmitted from the aggregator in response to the aggregator receiving change of state messages from devices of the environment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Alarm systems in general

Advertising the status of network devices

Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems for selectively calling a substation from a main station, in which substation desired apparatus is selected for applying a control signal thereto or for obtaining measured values therefrom

{Reporting to a device located outside the home and the home network (access arrangements H04L 12/2856 ; protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology for remote control or remote monitoring H04L 29/08099 ; telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with telemetering systems H04M 11/002)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self-explanatory : reporting the operation of home appliances or a particular network event affecting a home appliance to one or more external devices, i.e. to devices outside the home network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Access arrangements

Protocols for network applications involving the use of web-based technology for remote control or remote monitoring

Telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with telemetering systems

{Reporting to a device within the home network; wherein the reception of the information reported automatically triggers the execution of a home appliance functionality}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self explanatory: in contrast to the preceding class, the exchange of messages only occurs among home appliances within the same home automation network.

{involving user profiles according to which the execution of a home appliance functionality is automatically triggered}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self explanatory: a user profile defines rules or a policy for triggering specific actions or the emission of a command to a device in response to the occurrence of an event at a given home appliance.

{Processing of data at an internetworking point of a home automation network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Device adapted to communicate with different types of networks.

{Interconnection of the control functionalities between home networks (single bridge functionality H04L 12/4625)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Bridges between home networks (e.g. HAVi/UPNP).

Home gateway performing interface adaptation (also lower layer adaptation, kind of bridge).

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Bridging devices

Protocol conversion

Devices adapted for communicating using different protocols

Single bridge functionality

{Switching of information between an external network and a home network (access arrangements H04L 12/2856)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Switching (or forwarding, routing) at a gateway between external network(s) and home network(s). Contains operational details on residential/home gateways.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Bridging devices

Multiplexing of signals from an external network for distribution to the home network

Access arrangements

{Protocol conversion between an external network and a home network (protocol conversion H04L 29/06068; adaptation of digital video signals for transport over a specific home network H04N 7/24 ; controlling appliance services of a home automation network from a device located outside the home and the home network H04L 12/2818)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Protocol conversion between home network(s) and external network(s). If the conversion is only from one controlling protocol to another, the corresponding Indexing Code entry should be used.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protocol conversion

Devices adapted for communicating using different protocols

from a device located outside both the home and the home network

{Distribution of signals within a home automation network, e.g. involving splitting/multiplexing signals to/from different paths (adaptations of television systems for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution H04N 7/106; hybrid transport H04L 12/6418; home network arrangements specially adapted for distribution of digital video signals H04N 7/24)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Distribution of signals within a home network. Data signal distribution from/to appliances within the home network. The mere transmission of signals in a home network without a particular way to convey said signal in the home network should not be classified here.

Example: WO2006100515.

media9.png

The main aspect of the document is that the signals are all distributed in the home through one Ethernet cable on which all packets are transmitted according to TCP/IP. There are no improvements to the TCP/IP no details on the head end and the switching within the head end. No details about control of devices, that's why signal distribution appears to be the only main aspect within home network.

Second example: US6751441

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Signals from cable network are split into TV and data signals; the data signals are modulated at the WLAN frequency but distributed to the rooms along the cables. Within the rooms the signals are radiated through an antenna.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Domestic distribution of TV signals

Hybrid transport

{Metropolitan area networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A MAN, Metropolitan Area Network, refers to the access technology as well as to the size. The reference book "Computer Networks" written by Tanenbaum gives a definition of it: "A MAN is a network that covers an entire city, but uses LAN technology".

{Wide area networks, e.g. public data networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group is very general about WANs. It contains public data networks such as Frame Relay and X.25 packet networks.

{Access arrangements, e.g. Internet access (asynchronous transfer mode networks H04L 12/5601 ; broadband local area networks H04L 12/2801 ; optical access or distribution networks H04Q 11/0067 ; access to open networks H04L 12/5691 ; digital subscriber line end-user equipment and bit-level processing of data on a PSTN-based network H04M 11/00 ; home network gateways H04L 12/2834 ; wireless access networks H04W)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

An access network is a part of a global wired communication network that connects subscribers to their service providers in the public data network.

It consists generally of end-user equipments connected to an access multiplexer. The access multiplexer is connected to an access server through an aggregation network, wherein the access server is the interface between the access network and the public data network.

media11.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Management of WDM parameters in optical multiplex systems

Access arrangements for providing telephone service in networks other than PSTN/ISDN

Circuit-switched access networks

Transfer of video data (multimedia streaming) from a video content server to a subscriber

Telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with other electrical systems

Switching of information between an external network and a home network

Wireless communications networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Access to a packet-switched data network over a hybrid coaxial infrastructure

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks

Admission & flow control, QoS management

Access to open networks

Establishment of secure connections and subscriber authentication

Addressing and naming aspects

Digital subscriber line end-user equipment, DSL modems, xDSL splitters, and bit-level processing of data on PSTN-based network

Provision of optical access or distribution networks

Wireless access networks

{Access network architectures}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

There are various ways to deploy an access network, but most of them rely on an existing wired infrastructure. Originally, access to the Internet was mostly provided by DSL access technologies, where a point-to point connection between a subscriber and a service provider is provisioned via a PPP over ATM connection, thereby re-using the existing wired network and their functionalities (ATM PVCs). Nowadays, the trend is clearly to integrate Ethernet as carrier technology for access network segments while remaining the main carrier for the backbone networks, thereby coping with the increasing demand for value-added services such as VoIP, HDTV, IPTV and Triple-Play. In parallel to the development of DSL access technologies, broadcast networks such as cable and optical networks are more and more employed to convey data packets in addition to other signal types, such as video or audio streaming.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Access to open networks, incl. selection between different service providers

{Point-to-point connection between the data network and the subscribers (encapsulation H04L 12/4633 ; virtual LANs H04L 12/4641 ; routing of packets H04L 12/5689)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group covers essentially the original access technologies wherein a connection between an end-user and the service provider is established by means of a point-to-point protocol, over various types of aggregation networks, such as ATM or Ethernet (PPPoX sessions). This group also includes pseudo-wire techniques, i.e. encapsulation over an IP-based access network.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packet Encapsulation

Virtual Local Area Networks

ATM networks

Routing of packets

Special rules of classification within this group

This group has a quite broad definition and ideally should not be the only symbol allocated to a document dealing with access networks. Only documents focusing on the access network infrastructure taken as a whole, i.e. from the public data network to the end-user device, implementing a form of point-to-point technology shall be allocated this subclass as unique symbol.

{Point-to-multipoint connection from the data network to the subscribers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In this entry, new access technologies relying on the existing cable infrastructure (e.g. DOCSIS, MoCA) or optical networks (PONs) are addressed. Data is transmitted over a shared communication medium on the downlink and the uplink. On the downlink, data is broadcast by the service provider to all subscribers, and each subscriber extracts the data which is aimed to him, out of the stream of multiplexed data.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Broadband Local Area Networks

Provision for optical access or packet networks

Special rules of classification within this group

See the reasoning for the symbol H04L 12/2859.

{Arrangements for combining access network resources elements, e.g. channel bonding (multichannel protocols H04L 29/06088 ; routing of packets H04L 12/5689 ; modem pooling H04L 25/14)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to an optimized usage of the available access network resources in order to enable provision of greedy multimedia services over bandwidth-limited access networks. This could consist of bundling subscriber lines, arranging a logical combination of network resources, such as frequency bands on a HFC network or the simultaneous usage of multiple PPPoX connections for transporting the same data service.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Routing of packets

Modem pooling

Multichannel protocols

Virtual concatenation in SDH/OTN networks

{Logical combinations}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Essentially, comprises arrangements for multiplexing individual subscriber connections or grouping of frequency slots on a cable network. The emphasis is on the combination of logical or abstract entities, i.e. frequency or bandwidth resources combinations, not physical entities such as cables or hardware elements.

{Physical combinations}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Refers to the concept of grouping or combining physical access network resources such as devices, interfaces, wires, cables, in order to enhance the total throughput provided to a given subscriber.

{Operational details of access network equipments (admission control or resource allocation in access networks H04L 12/5692)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Functional characteristics of various devices commonly present in an access network.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Admission control & resource allocation in access networks

{Remote access server, e.g. BRAS}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A remote access server is a device that routes traffic to and from an access multiplexer (e.g. DSLAM) on a public data network.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

BRAS

Broadband Remote Access Server

BAS

Broadband access server

{Termination of subscriber connections}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covers essentially the handling of PPPoX sessions : how the Point-to-Point sessions are initiated, maintained, or terminated. Only PPPoX-related operations at the remote access server are covered by this subclass.

{Processing of data for distribution to the subscribers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details about specific data processing operations for distributing various multimedia flows, originally formatted to optimize their transport through an IP network, over the access network to the subscribers.

The emphasis is on a particular way to re-arrange or adapt a flow received at a remote access server from the public data network before distributing the flow to subscriber(s) over the access network, wherein this particular way reflects the characteristics of the access networks.

Example: a remote access server adds MAC address tag information to a packet received from an ISP.

{Handling of subscriber policies (group policies management H04L 12/244)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Differentiated policies for distributing data to subscribers, based for instance on user profiles, time of the day, traffic volume etc.

media12.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Group management policies

{Access multiplexer, e.g. DSLAM (generic distributed time multiplexers, e.g. TDM/TDMA H04J 3/1694)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Operational details of an access multiplexer is a device, located normally in a telephone exchange or in multi-dwelling units of a service provider, that connects multiple end-user terminals to a public data network access node (e.g. a BRAS) through an aggregation network. Examples : DSLAM, fiber distribution hubs or active splitters, etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generic distributed time multiplexers, e.g. TDM/TDMA

DSL modem with DSLAM functionalities

{characterised by the network type on the uplink side, i.e. towards the service provider network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self-explanatory : this group characterizes the access multiplexer by the type of aggregation network used on the uplink (not to the end-user equipment).

{Arrangements interfacing with optical systems (optical network equipment H04B 10/00 ; optical multiplexers H04J 14/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Optical Line Terminals
  • Cable modem Termination System.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Determination of optical signal parameters (e.g. wavelength) as a function of data characteristics from Layer-2 or above, like VLAN number, IP address, subscriber profile

Optical multiplexers

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

OLT

Optical Line Terminals

CMTS

Cable Modem Termination System

{characterised by the offered subscriber services}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self-explanatory: in contrast to the group H04L 12/2879, this group covers the type of connection linking the access multiplexer to subscriber devices.

Special rules of classification within this group

Normally, a document shall be allocated one of the symbols from this group only when the document focuses on the communication services offered between the access multiplexer and the subscriber devices.

{Multiservice, e.g. MSAN}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A Multi-service access Node, also known as a Multi-service access gateway is a device typically installed in a telephone exchange (although sometimes in a roadside serving area interface cabinet) which connects customers' telephone lines to the core network, to provide telephone, ISDN, and broadband such as DSL all from a single platform.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

MSAN

Multi-service Access Node

MSAG

Multi-service Access Gateway

{Single service}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self-explanatory. Essentially one DSL type is supported by the access multiplexer.

{characterised by the access multiplexer architecture}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group covers specific implementation designs of an access multiplexer, e.g. specific hardware resources or line cards arrangements.

media13.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

DSLAM modems

{Centralized processing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All complex traffic processing (e.g. classification, filtering, QoS, etc.) is performed on a single central chip, e.g. on the uplink card.

{Distributed processing, e.g. on line cards}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Some or all complex traffic processing is off-loaded to the line cards, which may include dedicated processors.

Examples : US6587476, US2002159462, US2008101401.

media14.jpg

{Subscriber equipments (DSL modems H04M 11/062 ; cable modems H04L 12/2801)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Optical Network Units, Optical Line Terminals
  • Set-top boxes
  • Home network access point
  • Cable modems in cable networks, e.g. DOCSIS

Entry concerning the design of devices carrying out generic L2 or L3 data processing operations, located at the interface between a private or home environment and the access network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

DSL modems and xDSL splitters

Home network gateways, residential gateways

Broadband local area networks

Special rules of classification within this group

This subclass shall only be allocated to documents giving operational details of subscriber equipments which interact with other access network devices, e.g. via the exchange of messages. The sole description of a stand-alone end-user device without any active connection to an access network shall not be classified in H04L 12/2898.

Bus networks
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A bus network includes one or a plurality of shared communication lines interconnecting at least 3 distant stations, wherein data is transferred serially in the form of frames or bitstrings along the bus.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Bus networks employed restrictively for a specific automotive application (e.g. power steering, brake-by-wire)

Bus to control actuators/sensors or any other industrial appliance in an automation system

Parallel bus systems

Data transfer in the environment of a computer (ISA, PCI, USB, I2C, PCMCIA, DMA, PCI bridges...)

Point-to-point communication between 2 stations over a bus

Transmission of data and power over a link, and not over a bus network as defined above

Serial data transmission over a shared medium having a ring or star topology

Fibre-channel aspects related to topology, i.e. ring, or switch architecture

Bus networks including at least one bridging device

Wireless networks comprising several communication nodes using contention resolution mechanisms

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bus systems being deployed on an airplane specifically for controlling parts of an aircraft

Daisy chain buses using an embedded synchronisation

{Architecture of a communication node (intermediate storage or scheduling H04L 12/5694 ; current supply arrangements H04L 12/10)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details on the hardware elements comprised in a bus communication node. In particular, this class covers the inter-working of the various hardware components and implementation details of specific hardware components. A document shall get an EC code from this group only if the document deals with a particular inventive hardware or software realization. If the document includes the mere illustration of a hardware or software design for implementing a protocol, this document shall only get an Indexing Code in this group.

Example : A FlexRay communication node:

media15.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hardware architecture of a processing unit in general

Current supply arrangements for the communication nodes

Intermediate storage or scheduling

{Details regarding a bus controller}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A bus controller refers to a microprocessor that is dedicated to input and output of data by a node on a bus. Structure of a carrier sense functionality is also classified here.

{Details regarding a bus master}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A bus master is a device controlling which node accesses the bus at particular time. See also H04L 12/403 for access control aspects

{Details regarding a bus guardian}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A bus guardian is a device monitoring the timing of node accesses on the bus, used for instance in FlexRay systems to avoid babbling idiots (faulty, continuously sending nodes).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Passive fault-masking in a computer environment

{Details regarding a bus interface enhancer}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Interface between the communication line and the other elements of the communication node, having some autonomous functionalities such as message pre-filtering, bus monitoring...

{Details regarding the setting of the power status of a node according to activity on the bus}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Power management aspects, such as management of the transition between various power states (sleep, active or stand-by). These documents shall also be classified in H04L 12/12

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for remote connection or disconnection of substations or of equipment thereof

{Details regarding the feeding of energy to the node from the bus}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Refers to field devices for instance, which use the voltage and/or current level present on the bus to draw energy from the bus. Note that H04L 12/10 contains documents classified before 2008 having this functionality.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Current supply arrangements

{High-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus (bus transfer protocol on a daisy chain bus using an embedded synchronisation G06F 13/426)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All documents dealing primarily with transmission on a Firewire bus.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bus transfer protocol on a daisy chain bus using an embedded synchronisation

{Isochronous transmission}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Documents referring generally to synchronization aspects of Firewire communication, incl. jitter compensation and clock synchronizations.

{Bandwidth and channel allocation (home automation networks H04L 12/2803; flow control H04L 12/569)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects of resource allocation for Firewire networks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Home automation networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flow control aspects

{Packet processing; Packet format (packet switches H04L 12/5696; intermediate storage or scheduling H04L 12/5694; Adaptation of digital video signals for transport over a specific network H04N 21/2381, H04N 21/4363, H04N 21/4381)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self-explanatory, deals with operations on packets in a Firewire bus system.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packet switches

Intermediate storage or scheduling

{Bus configuration (home automation networks H04L 12/2803; Arrangements for maintenance or administration H04L 12/24)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Typically bus reset operations on Firewire.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Home automation networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for maintenance or administration

{Bus arbitration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Control to the access to the communication medium on Firewire.

{Bus bridging (LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone H04L 12/462 ; single bridge functionality H04L 12/462)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Interconnection aspects in Firewire bus systems.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone

Single bridge functionality

{Interconnection with other networks (LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone H04L 12/462 ; single bridge functionality H04L 12/462)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Gateway to other network sections, to other Firewire networks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bridging devices in local area networks

{Security; Encryption; Content protection (arrangements for network security H04L 29/06551)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Security aspects in Firewire networks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for network security

{Wireless (wireless communication networks H04W)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Should not be used anymore for classification. Wireless communication networks are now classified in H04W.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wireless communication systems

{Interconnection of audio or video/imaging devices (home automation networks H04L 12/2803; bitstream network arrangements specially adapted for distribution of digital video signals H04N 7/24)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Interconnection with multimedia devices over a FireWire bus.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Home automation networks

{Interconnection of computers and peripherals (printer information exchange with computer G06F 3/1293)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Interconnection of computers with specific extension elements such as peripherals over a Firewire bus.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Printer information exchange with computer

{Management of data rate on the bus (systems modifying transmission characteristics according to link quality H04L 1/0001 ; negotiation of transmission parameters of transmission speed prior to communication H04L 5/1446 ; adaptive data allocation for multicarrier modulation H04L 27/2608)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Documents referring generally to the selection of a particular data rate on a bus network, based on different factors, i.e. instantaneous network load. Rate adaptation on a bus maybe be necessary for achieving optimal transmission performance, by finding a good trade-off between packet loss and transmission speed. A LIN bus supports for instance various bitrates.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems modifying transmission characteristics according to link quality

Negotiation of transmission parameters of transmission speed prior to communication

Adaptive data allocation for multicarrier modulation

{Nodes adapting their rate to the physical link properties (LAN switches H04L 49/351)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Physical link properties include bus capacity such as 10Mbit/s or 100Mbit/s Ethernet network.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rate adaptation according to physical link properties such as the detection of the bus capacity being 10Mbit/s or 100Mbit/s Ethernet network at a LAN switch

{involving priority mechanisms (intermediate storage or scheduling H04L 12/5694 ; hybrid switching fabrics H04L 12/6402 ; time-division multiplex systems H04J 3/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Documents related to the introduction of certain criteria to prioritize the transmission of data on the bus. On a vehicle bus for instance, information about car safety shall have priority over messages carrying monitoring data.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-division multiplexing

Intermediate storage or scheduling

Hybrid switching fabrics

{by scheduling the transmission of messages at the communication node}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Queue management at the transmitting node.

{by using dedicated slots associated with a priority level}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In a TDMA bus communication system, certain time slots might be reserved for transmission of data having a high level of priority.

{by assigning priority to messages according to a message field}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Typically a message field or tag indicates a priority level, which can be read by any node connected to the bus.

{Flexible bus arrangements (arrangements for maintenance or administration involving management of faults; events, alarms H04L 12/2419 ; automatic restoration of network faults H04L 12/2422)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Documents covering various flexibility aspects, such as fast network re-configuration, flexible topology change, seamless connection or disconnection of a new node to/from the bus. In general, this class covers scalability of bus networks and reconfiguration aspect.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Arrangements for maintenance or administration involving management of faults; events, alarms

Automatic restoration of network faults

{involving redundancy (error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware using active fault-masking in interconnections G06F 11/2002 ; error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware using active fault-masking in storage systems using spares or by reconfiguring G06F 11/2053)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Different forms of redundancy which do not correspond to the following related fields.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware using active fault

where persistent mass storage functionality or persistent mass storage control functionality is redundant

{by using a plurality of communication lines}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A single bus system may comprise at least one back-up communication line, in case of failure of the main communication line. Each station has then typically two or more bus drivers, one for each communication line.

{by using a plurality of bus systems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Two bus systems running independently of each other may provide protection against problems affecting the whole active bus system.

{by using a plurality of nodes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Duplication of a part or of an entire communication node in order to ensure fast recovery from a node defect without affecting the bus operations.

{by using a plurality of master stations}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Switching from an active master station to a back-up master station is needed for safety-critical bus systems with centralized access control. See also H04L 12/403.

with centralised control, e.g. polling
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Contains documents with a central control node controlling the transmissions on the bus. Polling is known for a long time so a "new" polling scheme could be found in rather old documents (<1970).

{in which slots of a TDMA packet structure are assigned based on a contention resolution carried out at a master unit (TDM/TDMA multiplex systems per se H04J 3/1694; hybrid switching systems H04L 12/64)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Self-explanatory. Shall not be used for documents dealing with FlexRay in general.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Allocation of channels in TDM/TDMA networks

Hybrid switching systems

with decentralised control
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This is a subgroup with general aspects of decentralized control. It contains documents about implicit token passing and some slotted buses.

with random access, e.g. carrier-sense multiple-access with collision detection (CSMA-CD)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Deals with access schemes in which access to the medium is granted at random after an arbitration process in case several nodes send requests simultaneously (collision). CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection) also called Ethernet (basic document by Xerox US4063220) is one of these schemes. Ethernet aspects not linked with CSMA/CD shall not be classified in this class, but documents concerning some specific Ethernet functionalities such as contention resolution, back-off or interframe gap shall be classified in this group.

{using bit-wise arbitration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This is a special case for relatively low transmission speeds and/or short buses. Nodes competing for bus access read the superposed signals back from the bus and stop transmission when the bus signal is not identical with the transmitted signal. Many bus systems used e.g. in vehicles can be found in this subgroup.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Computer buses with bit-wise arbitration

Special rules of classification within this group

CAN bus aspects not linked with bit-wise arbitration shall not be classified in this class.

with deterministic access, e.g. token passing
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Contains documents with access schemes granting access to requests within a predetermined time limit. On token buses nodes are arranged in a logical ring passing the access right (token) from node to node. Bus networks having a master are not classified here. Aspects of FlexRay related to the deterministic access to static time slots are also classified here.

Loop networks
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Deals with networks in which nodes are connected in a physical ring.

{Synchronisation for ring networks (Time Division Multiplex ring networks, e.g. SDH/SONET H04J 3/085)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Deals with link by link synchronization between nodes and network

synchronization.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Synchronization in general

for ring networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time division multiplex systems

Special rules of classification within this group

Double classification with H04J 3/00 is allowed.

with centralised control, e.g. polling
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Same as for bus networks but in a physical ring network.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bus networks with centralized control

with decentralised control
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Analog to bus networks, see H04L 12/417.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Bus networks with decentralized control

with synchronous transmission, e.g. time division multiplex [TDM], slotted rings
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Slotted rings; can be with fixed time slot allocation to the nodes or with access schemes for transmission access to a part of the bandwidth (slot).

with asynchronous transmission, e.g. token ring, register insertion
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Nodes having the access right (token) can transmit. When finished, the token is other nodes is buffered in a register until a node has finished its own transmission. This is the main group for FDDI and Fiber Channel rings when the access method is the issue.

Ring fault isolation or reconfiguration {(for SDH/SONET ring networks H04J 3/085)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Rings are vulnerable to faults. This subgroup contains documents dealing with recovery from faults like loop-backs or subrings when a ring systems is cut.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Fault recovery systems for SDH/SONET(Protection Switching) ring networks

Fault recovery in general

Star or tree networks
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Deals with networks in a physical star or tree configuration.

In case of Ethernet repeaters or hubs, transmission is broadcast and the bus access schemes are applied (e.g. Ethernet in 10baseT).

Interconnection of networks
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Interconnection of network segments of different types. e.g. between Fire Wire and Ethernet segments;
  • Internetworking in CEBUS, MAP/TOP, CAN and other application oriented topologies;
  • Repeaters (LAN segmentation).

This group contains general documents on internetworking in packet-switched networks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Coupling between buses internal to a computer

{LAN interconnection over a backbone network, e.g. Internet, Frame Relay}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Header group for network backbone functionality
  • SONET, SMDS, DQDB
  • XNS, SNA, CATV
  • Internet
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

TCP/IP and the Internet protocol itself

{LAN interconnection over ATM networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • LAN emulation
  • IP or other proprietary protocols (e.g. IPX, SNA, netBIOS, Appletalk...) over ATM. MPOA.
  • VP switching for multiplexing connections in VLAN/BVPN Connectionless support in ATM for LAN interconnection (type D service. I.364 rec., ATM Forum's scheme).
  • Some documents about remote address resolution (ARP,NHRP).
{LAN interconnection over narrowband networks, e.g. N-ISDN, PSTN, X.25}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Internetworking over the PSTB
  • Narrowband ISDN both using BA or PR access, Channel B or D
  • X.25 based internetworks
{LAN interconnection over a LAN backbone}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Contains mainly documents about LAN interconnection using a FDDI backbone. Do not forget that some SNA implementations use a Token Ring backbone, so if you do not find your document here have a look to the H04L 12/4604 just in case.

{LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Topology aspects: where the bridges are placed. Bridging different type 802.X LAN's. General documents on Source Routing, Spanning Tree or DLS (no much detail on how the actual routing is carried out.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Routing of packets

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layer 2 routing, e.g. Ethernet-based MAN's

Routing tree calculation

Special rules of classification within this group

Spanning tree protocol shall be classified in this group, but also possibly H04L 12/5689 and subgroups when applied on a generic routing protocol that can be applied on Layer 2 as well as Layer 3 networks.

{Single bridge functionality, e.g. connection of two networks over a single bridge}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Bridge functionalities.

It covers:

  • Multistandard for heterogeneous 802.X LAN environment
  • Address learning and filtering with the suitable table lookup or CAM techniques. Address caching.
  • Internal buffer and memory management.
  • Bridges doing repeater functions or routing (Brouters)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Router functionalities or routing protocols

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fast packet switching

Special rules of classification within this group

It is difficult to determine whether to begin the search in H04L 12/462 or in H04L 12/4625. As a rule of thumb you could say that bridge/router functionality that does not require cooperation among bridges/routers, should be classified in H04L 12/4625. Therefore, network aspects that involve exchange among bridges/routers are meant to be in H04L 12/462.

{Interconnection of networks using encapsulation techniques, e.g. tunneling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Encapsulation is the embedding of a protocol in another protocol at the same or different OSI layer. This technique is often used in a backbone to be able to deal with a plurality of end user protocols using a common transport entity.

Tunneling is a very important part of this group (e.g. L2TP).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Pseudo-wire emulation, e.g. IETF WG PWE3

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protocol conversion

Point-to-point connection between the data network and the subscriber in access networks (e.g. PPPoX protocols)

Virtual LANs

VPN tunnels for security

{Interconnected ring systems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Complex meshes of rings; Topological aspects
  • MAN, WAN ring based architectures
  • Hierarchical ring topologies
  • Streets of Manhattan, interlaced rings and similar architectures
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

FDDI WANs

{Virtual LANs, VLANs, e.g. virtual private networks [VPN] (virtual private networks for security H04L 29/06612 ; routing of packets H04L 12/5689 ; encapsulation techniques H04L 12/4633 ; LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone H04L 12/462 ; packet switches H04L 12/5696)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Virtual local area network, virtual LAN or VLAN. A group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain, regardless of their physical location. Networks with the same attributes as a physical local area network (LAN), but that allow for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same network switch.

media16.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone

Encapsulation techniques

Routing of packets

Packet switches

Virtual private networks for security

{Details on frame tagging (routing of packets H04L 12/5689 ; support for virtual LAN H04L 49/354)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details on tagging of a frame with VLAN information, involving mainly the use of a dedicated field for tagging a frame. When a packet enters a VLAN, a switch adds a VLAN field to the packet including a VLAN ID, the tag. Covers converting untagged frames to tagged frames. A typical VLAN tagged frame:

media17.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Routing of packets using label swapping, e.g. MPLS

Switching devices with support for virtual LAN

Routing of packets

Special rules of classification within this group

Multi-tagging of frames shall not be classified in H04L 12/4645, only in H04L 12/465 or the subgroups of it.

{wherein a single frame includes a plurality of VLAN tags}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Description and creation of single frames including a plurality of VLAN tags.

Frequently refers to QinQ (see IEEE standard 802.1ad) and the derivatives of this protocol. Covers tagging an already tagged packet, thereby producing a "multiple-tagged" frame, or a VLAN stack. A typical QinQ frame:

media18.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Encapsulation of packets

Special rules of classification within this group

A document shall only be allocated this class if no relevant subgroup of this class can be found. On the other hand, different classes from this group (i.e. H04L 12/4654, H04L 12/4658, H04L 12/4662) might be assigned to a single document.

{wherein a VLAN tag represents a customer VLAN, e.g. C-Tag}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In multi-tagged frames, a VLAN tag representing a customer VLAN is a VLAN tag uniquely associated to a particular end user, subscriber or

local network entity (computer, user station).

{wherein a VLAN tag represents a service provider backbone VLAN, e.g. B-Tag, S-Tag}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covers the outer tagging of Ethernet packets in PBB (Provider Backbone Bridge) networks, see IEEE Standard 802.1ah. A service provider backbone VLAN spans over a carrier network, not over a single LAN

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Encapsulation techniques

{wherein a VLAN tag represents a service instance, e.g. I-SID in PBB}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covers documents associating a VPN with a PBB and assigning an I-SID. FIG. 3 below (US2008170573) is a simplified representation of a frame format 150 for VPN data packets transmitted through a PBB tunnel. The frame format 150 includes a PBB header 152 comprised of a backbone destination address (B-DA) 154, a backbone source address (B-SA) 156, a backbone VLAN ID (B-VID) 158, and a backbone I-component service ID (I-SID) 160.

media19.jpg

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

PBB

Provider Backbone Bridge

{Operational details on the addition or the stripping of a tag in a frame, e.g. at a provider edge node}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covers operations carried out on a packet header, such as adding and/or removing tags, usually according to a particular algorithm or specific structure. An emphasis is put on the operational details of adding or stripping VIDs, at a particular node, e.g. US2010226368:

media20.jpg

Special rules of classification within this group

The mere tagging of packets or removal of tags without particular operational details shall only be classified in H04L 12/4645 or in the subgroups of H04L 12/465

{Arrangements for supporting untagged frames, e.g. port-based VLANs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The port is assigned to a specific VLAN independent of the user or system attached to the port. All users attached to the port should be members in the same VLAN. Usually the port configuration is static. A port based VLAN switch determines the membership of a data frame by examining the configuration of the port that received the transmission.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classes from the H04L 12/4645 subgroups and the class H04L 12/467 might be allocated to a single document only if two VLAN operational modes (i.e. tag-based VLANs and port-based VLANs) are presented in the document as part of the invention

{Dynamic sharing of VLAN information amongst network nodes (configuration of the network or of network elements H04L 12/2424)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Sharing of information between networks elements: information about the identifier, about the member status, about the port based VLAN distribution. Sometimes this layer 2 information is intended to be displayed or monitored. Even though failure recovery is not covered in this class, Layer-2 information might be dynamically shared between the elements on the network after detection of a network failure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Failure recovery

Configuration of the network, or of network elements

{Arrangements for the registration or de-registration of VLAN attribute values, e.g. VLAN identifiers, port VLAN membership}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Registration or de-registration of VLAN memberships. Also includes removing, discovering and identifying VLAN members. Covers also the exchange of messages for modifying an entry in a mapping table for switches supporting port-based VLANs.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Configuration of switching devices

{characterized by the protocol used}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details on a specific standardized or proprietary protocol for maintaining a VLAN, for registering, de-registering VLAN members

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Group membership management

Special rules of classification within this group

Only for defining particular routines, packets types or format when maintaining VLANs. Can include extensions or modifications of an existing protocol

{MVRP [multiple VLAN registration protocol]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A commonly-used VLAN registration protocol generic framework defined by the IEEE 802.1ak revision to the IEEE 802.1Q standard.

{GVRP [GARP VLAN registration protocol]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This is a standards-based Layer 2 network protocol, for automatic configuration of VLAN information on switches. It was defined in the 802.1ak amendment to 802.1Q-2005.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

GARP

Generic Attribute Registration Protocol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

MVRP

Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol

{VTP [VLAN trunking protocol]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

VTP is a proprietary protocol that propagates the definitions of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on a whole local area network.

{Packet switching systems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Basic functionality of packet switching networks. Namely: routing, flow control, admission control, switching architectures and other general issues on packetized data handling.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system: Arrangements for packet switching specially adapted for wireless networks H04W

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Interprocessor communication

Packet based communication in satellite networks

Networks specially adapted for the exchange of pictorial information

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error detection or correction

Packet multiplexing

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

{Transfer mode dependent, e.g. ATM}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) technical aspects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Routing in wireless networks

Message switching systems, {e.g. electronic mail systems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This is a subgroup of H04L 12/00 and therefore covers message switching systems in data switching networks. A message switching system is a system that switches messages on the application layer in the user plane. The messages have one or more individually identified recipients, although a user may have defined them to be part of a distribution list. Typical examples are electronic mail systems and instant messaging systems.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Message passing systems for program control, e.g. messaging middleware

Computer aided management of electronic mail, such as the handling of e-mail on a local workstation

Message management on portable communication terminals, e.g. mobile telephones

Voice mail systems for telephonic communication

Client devices for e-mailing in television systems

Messaging specially adapted for wireless communication networks, e.g. SMS

{Real time or near real time messaging, e.g. instant messaging [IM]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup contains documents relating to messaging systems in which the message is sent to a recipient who is reachable at the time the message is sent. Messages for recipients that are not reachable are lost.

  • Chat rooms are classified in H04L 12/1813.
  • H04L 12/5815: Use or manipulation of presence information in messaging
  • Documents relating to presence management as such are classified in H04L 29/08684.
  • H04L 12/583: This subgroup contains documents where there is an intentional adaptation of the content. This can include the deletion of graphics or attachments or removing unwanted parts of the message, e.g. parental guidance.
  • H04L 12/5835: This subgroup contains documents where the format of the message is adapted, e.g. changing a picture from BITMAP to JPEG format or text-to-speech conversion. Although this may lead to loss of information due to different compression techniques or content that cannot be converted, the content is not intentionally adapted. This subgroup also contains documents where the message as a whole is converted, e.g. SMS to e-mail.
  • H04L 12/584: This subgroup contains documents where the transmission or handling of the message in the network is influenced by the fact that it includes annexed information.
  • H04L 12/5845: This subgroup contains documents where the transmission or handling of the message in the network is influenced by the fact that it includes multimedia information.
  • H04L 12/585: This subgroup contains documents dealing with filtering in general and spam in particular. If malicious content is involved, such as computer viruses, see also H04L 29/06877. Messages are either blocked or sent onwards; adaptation of the message in order to remove unwanted content is classified in H04L 12/583.
  • H04L 12/5855: Documents classified in this subgroup typically relate to systems where an intermediate node between the node sending the message and the node ultimately receiving the message forwards messages depending on preferences indicated in a profile. For profiles in general, see H04L 29/08918.
  • H04L 12/5865:This subgroup contains documents where the transmission or handling of the message in the network is influenced by the location of the sender's and/or recipient's terminal.
  • H04L 12/587: This subgroup contains documents related to ways of notifying a user that a message has been received, for example if the user is not online when an e-mail is received at the server. User interface notifications created locally on the client device, such as pop-ups, are classified elsewhere (see G06Q 10/107 , H04M 1/72547 and G06F 9/4443).
  • H04L 12/5875: This subgroup contains documents where the sender receives a return message when the recipient has received or read the message, or when a fault occurs such that the recipient does not receive the message.
  • H04L 12/588: This subgroup contains documents where the structure or characteristics of a social network is used for transmitting or handling a message in the network.
  • H04L 12/5885: This subgroup contains documents where the progress of a message through the network is recorded, for example in a log file. A common usage case is that proof must be provided that a user has received a specific message, e.g. due to legal requirements.
  • H04L 12/589 :This subgroup contains documents where the user can access his messages in different, user selected ways. For example, the user can access his e-mail using his telephone thanks to text-to-speech conversion. The message is very often retained in its original form on the server or converted into a common format. Documents that also disclose details about format conversion of messages should additionally be classified in H04L 12/5835.
  • H04L 12/5895: This subgroup contains documents where the wireless nature of the system has an impact on the messaging system itself, for example unreliable or intermittent network connections, or bandwidth constraints. Documents concerning multimedia messaging, MMS, are also classified here. Documents concerning the service centre of the short message service, SMS, or the signalling between and transmission of the message to or from the service centre and the mobile telephone are classified in H04W 4/14 or H04W 88/184. Other aspects of the SMS service are classified here.
Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Instant messaging, IM

Instant messaging is data exchange in real-time between at least two end users connected to a packet-switching network where the users are aware of the identity and the presence of the other party or parties before starting the data exchange.

Chat room

A chat room is a special type of computer conference where the users normally are not aware of the (true) identities of other participants' before joining the chat. The chat room application executes mainly on a server which is often accessed through a web browser. No participant has control over the admission of other participants.

media21.jpg

Details of the apparatus or circuits covered by groups H04L 15/00 or H04L 17/00
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving dot-and-dash codes

Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving codes wherein each character is represented by the same number of equal-length code elements

Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving dot-and-dash codes, e.g. Morse code (teaching apparatus therefor G09B ; keyboard switches in general H01H 13/70 , H03K 17/94 ; telegraph tapping keys H01H 21/86 ; coding in connection with keyboards or like devices, in general H03M 11/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Educational or demonstration appliances; appliances for teaching or communicating with, the blind, deaf or mute; models; planetaria; globes; maps; diagrams

having a plurality of operating members associated with different sets of contacts

characterised by the way in which the control signal is generated

Switches with abutting contact carried by operating part

coding in connection with keyboards or like devices

Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving codes wherein each character is represented by the same number of equal-length code elements, e.g. Baudot code (keyboard switches in general H01H 13/70 , H03K 17/94 ; coding in connection with keyboards or like devices, in general H03M 11/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

having a plurality of operating members associated with different sets of contacts

characterised by the way in which the control signal is generated

coding in connection with keyboards or like devices

Apparatus or local circuits for systems other than those covered by groups H04L 15/00 to H04L 21/00
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving dot-and-dash codes

adapted for orthogonal signalling
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Code Shift Keying and CCK (Complementary Code Keying).

The generation of sequences, like orthogonal CAZAC, Zadoff-Chu or Generalized Chirp sequences that are used for signalling purposes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Codes types for Code Division Multiplex systems (CDMA)

Generation of orthogonal codes for CDMA

Baseband systems
Definition statement
This group covers:

Baseband aspects of digital data transmission.

Arrangements for supplying electrical power along data transmission lines.

Channel estimation techniques.

Arrangements for detecting the data rate of an incoming signal.

Arrangements for coupling to transmission lines.

Line equalizers (digital).

Shaping networks in transmitter or receiver.

Digital equalizers: structure and adaptation algorithms.

Arrangements involving sequence estimation techniques.

Electric or magnetic storage of signals before transmitting or retransmitting for changing the transmission rate.

Decision circuits providing symbol by symbol detection; DC level restoring means; Bias distortion correction.

Modifications for reducing interference in line transmission.

Digital repeater/relay circuits.

Line codes.

Pulse width modulation; pulse position modulation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Joint detection techniques in CDMA

H04B1/70105

Interference related aspects of DSSS

Details on optical domain processing

Systems for transmitting signals via power distribution lines

Error correction coding

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital adaptive filters

Matched filters

Kalman filters

Circuits in general for handling pulses

Coupling arrangements in general

Coding in general

Conversion to or from representation by pulses

Details in line transmission systems in general

Echo cancellation

Reducing cross-talking

MIMO diversity systems

Feedback content

Wireless repeaters in general

Interference aspects in orthogonal multiplex systems (i.e. using Walsh codes)

Bus networks

Modelling the propagation channel

Special rules of classification within this group

The groups under H04L 2025/0335 classify the type of signal the equalizer is intended for.

The groups under H04L 2025/03433 provide further details on the equalizer structure implementation.

The groups under H04L 2025/03592 deal with details of the adaptation algorithms for equalisation.

The groups under H04L 2025/03777 provide details on signalling.

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

DFE

Decision Feedback Equaliser

SVD

Singular Value Decomposition

FIR

Finite Impulse Response

FDE

Frequency Domain Equalizer

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

ICI

Inter-Carrier Interference

ISI

Inter-Symbol Interference

LLR

Log-Likelihood Ratio

LMMSE

Linear Minimum Mean Squared Error

LMS

Least Mean Square

LS

Least Squares

MAP

Maximum A-posteriori Probability

MLD

Maximum Likelihood Detector

MMSE

Minimum Mean Squared Error

RLS

Recursive Least Square

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents "pilot signals" can be called sometimes "Reference signals", "Sounding signals" or "Training signals".

{of each channel individually}
Special rules of classification within this group

This subgroup should not be used for classifying. Instead H04L 25/0204 should be given.

{of the composite channel}
Special rules of classification within this group

This subgroup should not be used for classifying. Instead H04L 25/0204 should be given.

{of impulse response}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The delay spread estimation.

{sounding signals per se}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The structure of the sounding signals or the pilot pattern. For details of the allocation of the sounding signals: H04L 5/0048.

{with direct estimation from sounding signals}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group answer the question of how the sounding signals are used to derive an estimation. For example, by averaging.

{with extension to other symbols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of data (in addition to the sounding signals) for channel estimation

{using estimation of the other symbols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Iterative channel estimation for the same symbol, for example the EM (maximum expectation).

{using blind estimation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using only data per se.

{with factorisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example: Cholesky, LU.

{Eigen-space methods}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Singular value decomposition, SVD.

{using least-mean-square [LMS] method}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All iterative algorithm (not for the same symbol), for example: RLS.

{Arrangements for coupling transmitters, receivers or transceivers to transmission lines; Line drivers (duplexing arrangements H04L 5/14)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Line drivers (duplexing arrangements

Special rules of classification within this group

This group should not be used. Subject-matter is classified under H04L 25/0264.

{Arrangements for detecting the data rate of an incoming signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This involves frequency estimation or detection, but not synchronisation.

{Arrangements for impedance matching}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The arrangements are at either end.

{Arrangements specific to the transmitter end}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

How to couple the driver to the transmission line or how to configure the driver.

{the shape being matched to the transmission line (pre-equalisation per se H04L 25/03343)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Implies some knowledge of the actual line, although it might be rather vague, such as "this is 100 m long". Thus, the coupling provides the pre-emphasis, otherwise, if it is not in the coupling, H04L 25/03885 is the proper place to classify.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

the shape being matched to the transmission line (pre-equalisation per se

{Arrangements for removing intersymbol interference}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The subgroups under H04L 25/03006 cover digital equalisation and detection techniques. Digital equalisers not only try to make the channel flat and remove ISI, but they also implement detection and decision.

{with a recursive structure (H04L 25/03031 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example, DFE equalisers.

{Arrangements involving sequence estimation techniques}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

MLSE techniques, and in general the estimation of a sequence of symbols (not just one symbol).

In the case of multiuser environment, it covers the estimation of the different users.

{Joint sequence estimation and interference removal (joint detection of several desired signals H04L 25/03331)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The cases where desired user is estimated and the other users are seen as interferences, such that their estimation is removed (for example, by subtraction).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Joint sequence estimation and interference removal (joint detection of several desired signals

{Arrangements at the transmitter end}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Pre-equalisation.

Pre-coding for MIMO channels can be seen as a pre-equaliser or as a beam-former.

The selection of codebook or precoding matrix for MIMO diversity systems is classified under H04B 7/0456, while the design of the codebook matrices is classified under H04L 25/03898.

{transmission using multiple-input and multiple-output channels}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Not limited to radio systems but also covers the case of cross-talk between cables as a MIMO system.

{not time-recursive}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example: FFF (feed forward filter).

{Transmission of equaliser coefficients}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The cases of the feedback of codebook index to be able to choose a precoding matrix at the transmitter.

{providing soft decisions, i.e. decisions together with an estimate of reliability (H04L 25/068 and H04L 25/069 take precedence; sequence estimation techniques H04L 25/03178)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

When the soft decisions are part of a sequence estimation, then the place to classify is H04L 25/03318, otherwise, when the soft decisions are symbol by symbol is classified in H04L 25/067.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Sequence estimation techniques

By sampling faster than the nominal bit rate

By detecting edges or zero crossings

Channel dividing arrangements {in which a single bit stream is divided between several baseband channels and reassembled at the receiver}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The parallel transmission of a single bit stream and the reassembling (skew compensation) of all the content of the parallel channels at the receiver in order to retrieve the single bit stream.

Repeaters for converting two wires to four wires (in general H04B); Repeaters for converting single current to double current
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Wired digital repeaters. For wireless repeaters see classes under H04B 7/15.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Repeaters for converting two wires to four wires

{using self-synchronising codes, e.g. split-phase codes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example: Manchester code; Biphase space or mark code (e.g. double frequency code).

{using multilevel codes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example: PAM with more than 2 levels.

{using levels matched to the quantisation levels of the channel}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

PCM modems V.90.

by correlative coding, e.g. partial response coding or echo modulation coding {transmitters and receivers for partial response systems (transversal equalizers H04L 25/03 ; partial response continuous phase modulation systems H04L 27/18)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example: Tolimson-Harashima precoding, Trellis precoding, GPRS.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

response systems (transversal equalizers

partial response continuous phase modulation systems

Modulated-carrier systems {(code shift keying in combination with frequency multiplexing H04L 5/06 ; simultaneous bidirectional transmission of ac signals H04L 5/143 ; code shift keying H04L 23/02 ; polarisation shift keying H04B 14/008 ; transmission of data during the active part of a television frame H04N 7/025)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Modulated-carrier systems.

Passband aspects of data transmission, e.g. modulating and demodulating, arrangements for provision and recovery of carriers.

The most fundamental digital modulation techniques: ASK, FSK, PSK and QAM.

Multicarrier modulation systems.

The modulated carrier systems covered in this groups are independent on the type of physical signal, i.e. the signal can be audio, RF, optical,..., but the signals must be digital.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When the multiple access scheme relies on the use of multicarrier signals,

and if what is important is how the signal is modulated/demodulated, or "hardware" aspects in the transmitter or the receiver to produce or recover (like synchronisation) such signal or aspects related to the peak power reduction, then the classes under H04L 27/2601 are relevant. Otherwise, to indicate that the signal involved is, for example, an OFDM signal, then the class under H04L 5/0007 is used instead.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Delta modulation

Details on optical domain processing

Analogue modulations

Block-coded modulation

Code Shift Keying; CCK (complementary code keying)

Pulse width modulation

Pulse position modulation

Pulse amplitude modulation

Modulated-carrier systems [N: (code shift keying in combination with frequency multiplexing

simultaneous bidirectional transmission of ac signals

polarisation shift keying

transmission of data during the active part of a television frame

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Modulator circuits in general (analogue modulators)

Demodulator circuits in general (analogue demodulators)

Modifications in amplifiers to reduce non-linear distortions, by pre-distortion

CORDIC

Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path

Trellis-coded modulation

Special rules of classification within this group

The scheme under H04L 27/0014 is intended for classifying in more detail the carrier recovery aspects.

For multicarrier signals, the carrier recovery should be classified only in H04L 27/2657, and not in the scheme of H04L 27/0014.

H04L 27/0006: this class is related to spectrum sensing or spectrum pooling techniques to determine unused spectrum which may opportunistically use while avoiding interference with primary users (in case of cognitive radio, for example). The allocation per se of frequency carriers, subcarriers, tones or bands is in H04L 5/00. This class is for How it is assessed that there is "a gap", for example: by energy detection or signal strength level detection and threshold comparison; by match filtering; by detection based on cyclostationarity properties, etc.

H04L 2027/0026: the correction of carrier offset implies correction of frequency offset and/or phase offset.

H04L 27/186: PSK signal shaping, e.g. Trellis shaping, coset coding.

H04L 27/2078: this group covers, for example, π/4-DPSK.

H04L 27/2271, H04L 27/2272, H04L 27/2273, H04L 27/2275, H04L 27/2276, H04L 27/2277: these groups should not be used for classifying (only for searching).

To classify the aspects covered by these groups, the main group H04L 27/227 is given in combination with:

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

ASK

Amplitude Shift Keying

CPM

Continuous Phase Modulation

FSK

Frequency Shift Keying

OOK

On-Off Keying

PSK

Phase Shift Keying

DPSK

Differential Phase Shift Keying

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression "multiresolution systems" is often used as synonym of non-uniform or asymmetric or layered modulation or hierarchical modulation or superposed modulation.

Systems using multi-frequency codes (H04L 27/32 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All techniques related to the multiple carriers processing of electrical signals (at the transmitter and receiver), to the structure of such signals (pilot signals, guard interval), and problems related to the frequency domain processing of such signals (Peak to Average Power Ratio PAPR).

Example of systems covered: OFDM, OFDMA, SC-FDMA, IFDMA, LTE, DVB, DSL, Optical OFDM ...

Practically the coverage of this subgroup in term of features is:

  • within a transmitter, it starts at the serial to parallel transformation of the data and ends after the IFFT (or any other frequency domain to time domain converter) or post-PAPR processing, and includes the PAPR processing, the pilot insertion, and if present the DFT precoding of the data (for SC-FDMA systems).
  • within a receiver, it starts at the FFT (or any other time domain to frequency domain converter) and includes the synchronisation arrangements (time, frequency).
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Details of Fourier transforms

Optical transmitters.

Channel estimation techniques

Interference cancellation techniques (Inter Carrier Interference, multiusers)

Pulse shaping

Resource allocation techniques

Bit loading of the subcarriers for OFDM(A) systems

Pilot allocation for OFDM(A) systems

Techniques like MC-CDMA involving code and frequency multiplexing

Higher Layer (network, routing) techniques

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification as secondary class for additional information:

When the main invention does not lie within this subgroup but interacts with the OFDM multiplexing in a particular way, a secondary class can be given in one of the main groups (H04L 27/2601, H04L 27/2626 for transmitter related aspects or H04L 27/2647 for receivers related aspects).

However only cases where the choice of OFDM as multiplexing is clearly linked with the invention should be classified there.

This is the first class in the hierarchy mentioning the use of multiple frequencies. However this class is almost never used for classification of multicarrier aspects. Instead the next class H04L 27/2601 is used as top class for multicarrier aspects.

{Multicarrier modulation systems}
Special rules of classification within this group

Although mentioned as modulation, it can of course be interpreted as multiplexing depending on the way the processing is interpreted. In a way it is a modulation since the main carrier signal is mixed with a modulating signal being the output of the IFFT after cyclic prefix addition. However it is also multiplexing since data being either from one user or from multiple users are orthogonally mapped to the subcarriers.

This group is generally given to aspects not covered by any of the following lower subgroups, or to documents where OFDM is a secondary technical aspect.

{Signal structure}
Special rules of classification within this group

The two main aspects under this group are the cyclic prefix classified under H04L 27/2605 and the pilot structure under H04L 27/261.

Basically documents classified here have their main feature in the mapping of particular data to the subcarriers or properties of the resultant OFDM time domain signal after IFFT, rather than particular means for processing the signal.

{Multiresolution systems (by means of multiresolution subcarriers H04L 27/183 , H04L 27/3488)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Different constellations (modulations) used on the subcarrier. For the allocation aspect (i.e. waterfilling for instance), see H04L 5/0044.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Multiresolution modulation methods

{Symbol extensions}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Delay profiles

Symbol synchronization (locating the FFT window within a useful data portion + guard period)

Special rules of classification within this group

Most of the OFDM systems (except OQAM OFDM) use a cyclic extension added in time domain after each symbol in order to capture all multipath components that would result otherwise in Inter Symbol Interference (H04L 25/03006). Documents classified here either use a particular extension (adaptive or with a specific pattern) or provide for a specific processing of this extension.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following expressions "Symbol Extension", "Cyclic Prefix/Postfix/Suffix/Extension" and "Guard Period/Interval" are often used as synonyms.

{Cyclic extensions}
Special rules of classification within this group

The Guard Period is a repetition of a portion of the useful data segment of the symbol transmitted.

{Allocation of payload}
Special rules of classification within this group

This class although still officially present is no longer active and documents dealing with allocation of subcarriers or allocation of bits to the subcarriers are now classified under H04L 5/003.

{Details of reference signals (H04L 27/262 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Reduction thereof by selection of pilot symbols

Special rules of classification within this group

Since the allocation of pilot tones has now been moved to H04L 5/0048, only the subgroup H04L 27/2613 remains active.

{Distribution thereof}
Special rules of classification within this group

Allocation of pilot tones is now classified under H04L 5/0048

{Structure of the reference signals per se}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Properties of the reference sequences used as preamble or pilot sequence.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Linked to code properties

CAZAC sequences

{Peak power aspects}
Special rules of classification within this group

The Inverse Fourier transform at the transmitter transforms modulated symbols on each subcarrier, modulated by usual constellation patterns (QPSK, QAM), to time domain symbols presenting high peak to average power ratio. This problem is a recurrent problem in OFDM systems.

This high PAPR creates linearity problems at the following power amplifiers and must be remedied for in the time domain (i.e. after the IFFT, for instance by clipping) or in the frequency domain (i.e. before the IFFT) using iteration and feedback loop (using empty subcarrier, constellation extension ...).

When none of the following subclasses matches the technique used in the document, this class H04L 27/2614 has to be given.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "peak to average power ratio", "PAPR " and "Crest factor" are often used as synonyms.

{Reduction thereof using coding}
Special rules of classification within this group

Through coding the series of bits before the modulation and the serial to parallel transformation, the situation where all modulated symbols on each subcarrier have the same phase thus generating the highest power is avoided. (See Jones and Wilkinson: "Block coding scheme for reduction of peak-to-average envelope power ratio of multicarrier transmission systems", 1994).

{Reduction thereof using auxiliary subcarriers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For instance: Tone Injection or Tone Reservation. A subset of subcarriers is used for generating a PAPR reduction signal c added to the remaining signal transmitted.

{Reduction thereof by selection of pilot symbols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Selection between multiple possible training sequences.

{Reduction thereof using phase offsets between subcarriers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

One of the most active subfields of PAPR reduction: Encompasses techniques like Selective Mapping (SLM) or Partial Transmission Sequence (PTS). Considering N subcarriers, SLM performs M multiple parallel N point IFFTs, each using a different N-phase vector (one phase value applied to each subcarrier) and selects out of the M outputs the resulting time domain OFDM with the lowest PAPR value. PTS divides the N subcarriers in V disjoint subcarriers subsets, multiplies each by a phase value and performs V partial IFFT before adding the resulting V outputs producing the OFDM symbol to be sent.

media22.png

From Tao Jiang & al. "An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals"

{Reduction thereof by clipping}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Large field: Can happen in time domain (usual understanding where the parts outside the allowed power region are filtered or clipped out) but also in frequency domain (modulated symbols on each subcarrier are moved, see Active Constellation Extension). Can consist in decreasing higher power samples (by filtering or clipping) or enhancing low power samples (see nonlinear companding transforms using for instance μ-law companding from speech processing). Modify the dynamics of the signal.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clipping in the frequency domain of the modulated symbols

{by soft clipping}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Based on Quantization aspects (linked to digital to analog conversion as well), see for instance the nonlinear companding method.

{Arrangements specific to the transmitter}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

As depicted below, the features covered under this class extend from the serial to parallel conversion to the Guard Interval insertion and/or PAPR reduction block.

media23.png

From US2007153673

{Modulators}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This part concerns the frequency domain to time domain conversion using either the classical Fourier transform, the filter bank approach or direct modulation of individual subcarriers.

{Inverse Fourier transform modulators, e.g. IFFT/IDFT (DFT or FFT computation methods or devices in general G06F 17/141)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

General DFT and FFT computation methods and devices

{modification of IFFT/IDFT modulator for performance improvement}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

This class does not deal with the details of the IFFT/IDFT which are found under G06F 17/141, but rather with the parameterisation, configuration of the IFFT/IDFT or unobvious interaction between the IDFT and other circuits.

{with polyphase implementation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Filter bank applications.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FMT

Filtered Multitone

{using partial FFTs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Less subcarriers processed than the actual number of subcarriers to be transmitted.

{IFFT/IDFT in combination with other circuits for modulation (DFT or FFT computation methods or devices in general G06F 17/141)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

DFT or FFT computation methods or devices in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Modulation circuits in general (Amplitude modulation)

Frequency modulation

Phase modulation

Combined modulation, like QAM

{with FFT/DFT, e.g. standard SC-FDMA transmitter or DFT-SOFDM}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A DFT precoding of the symbols to be transmitted is performed prior to the IDFT. This gives good PAPR properties to the resulting signal.

media24.png

Conventional SC-FDMA Transmitter

{with direct modulation of individual subcarriers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The frequency domain to time domain conversion is not performed using any inverse Fourier transform.

{Discrete cosine transform modulators}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details on Discrete Cosine Transform

{Filterbank multicarrier [FBMC]}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Loss of orthogonality between the carriers due to the use of synthesis and analysis filter banks instead of the rectangular pulse of OFDM. Advantages: More freedom for the choice of pulses which can be more confined in time and frequency. No guard interval needed. Often combined with the use of higher density of basis functions (twice if only orthogonality in real domain should be ensured) like OQAM scheme.

{Wavelet transform modulators (wavelets in general H04L 27/0004 ; wavelet-division H04L 5/0008)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Discrete Wavelet Multitone, Wavelet based multicarrier ...

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Wavelet transforms per se

Using Wavelet for dividing the transmission path

{using symbol repetition, e.g. time domain realization of distributed FDMA}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For the uplink of some standards.

{with oversampling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

More than one sample per subcarrier. Oversampling OFDM.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filtered Multitone

{using feedback from receiver for adjusting OFDM transmission parameters, e.g. transmission timing or guard interval length}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Timing Advance

{Arrangements specific to the receiver (equalisation H04L 25/03006 , H04L 27/01)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This is the mirror part to H04L 27/2626.

media25.png

From US2007153673

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Equalisation

{Synchronisation arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The synchronisation of multicarrier signals received implies a three-step synchronisation: a symbol synchronisation, a frequency synchronisation and a frame synchronisation.

Reference Article: "Robust Frequency and Timing Synchronization for OFDM"; Timothy M. Schmidl and Donald C. Cox, Fellow, 1997, IEEE

Also linked to Primary Synchronisation Signal (PSCH) and Secondary Synchronisation Signal (SSCH) in LTE.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Determination of the cell ID (cell search)

Carrier Synchronisation not specific to multicarrier systems

Synchronisation at the physical level not specific to multicarrier systems

Synchronisation protocols at higher layers

{Frame synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Frame synchronisation is generally achieved by time domain correlation using a repetition preamble. Technique is similar as that for achieving symbol synchronisation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preamble design

Symbol synchronisation

{Carrier synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Carrier Synchronisation in OFDM systems often consists in a first round for identifying an offset corresponding to an integer number of subcarrier spacings (coarse synchronisation), and a second round identifying the fractional subcarrier spacing offset (i.e. less than a subcarrier spacing).

Special rules of classification within this group

In H04L 27/2657, only the cases not decomposing the synchronisation in these coarse and fine steps should be classified. Otherwise the subgroups H04L 27/2659 and H04L 27/266 should be used.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "frequency offset", "frequency shift", "frequency drift", "frequency error", "frequency correction", "carrier recovery" are often used in relation with this subgroup.

{Coarse or integer frequency offset determination and synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

An integer subcarrier spacing frequency offset causes at the receiver a shift of the subcarriers in the frequency domain.

Coarse frequency offset determination is often performed in the frequency domain: It consists in identifying the amount of subcarrier shifts by correlating the received signal after FFT with a reference signal.

{Fine or fractional frequency offset determination and synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A fractional subcarrier spacing offset causes at the receiver an attenuation of each subcarrier symbol in the frequency domain.

Usually this fractional offset is identified by autocorrelating the received preamble in the time domain.

{Symbol synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The same distinction between coarse and fine synchronisation as for the frequency synchronisation applies.

The symbol boundaries replace the carrier spacing: While the coarse symbol synchronisation will align the received symbol stream with a reference time, the fine symbol synchronisation mainly consists of synchronisation within the symbol boundaries (i.e. including the Guard Interval) and the best positioning of the FFT window within these boundaries.

Special rules of classification within this group

As for frequency synchronisation, this class H04L 27/2662 should only be allocated to cases not decomposing the synchronisation in these coarse and fine steps. Otherwise the subgroups H04L 27/2663 and H04L 27/2665 should be used.

{Coarse synchronisation, e.g. by correlation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Generally coarse symbol synchronisation is achieved by autocorrelation in the time domain of the preamble sequence.

{Fine synchronisation, e.g. by positioning the FFT window}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A FFT window of length corresponding to the useful symbol part must be positioned within the wider part including the Guard Interval. The ideal FFT location minimizes Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and ensures the highest desired signal energy captured.

{Acquisition of further OFDM parameters, e.g. bandwidth, subcarrier spacing, or guard interval length}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In some systems using OFDM, transmission parameters like the Guard Interval length, the carrier spacing and/or bandwidth are variable or unknown to the receiver and thus have to be determined at the receiver (without any control channel). This class covers the different algorithms and methods to determine these parameters at the receiver.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Allocation of subcarriers

{Details of algorithms}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This class has been foreseen as a complementary class to the synchronisation classes above. It aims at further describing the synchronisation algorithm performed. Multiple classes may be allocated to describe the algorithm as precisely as possible.

{characterised by the domain of operation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This first subclass concerns the domain (time or frequency) in which the algorithm takes place. For mixed domain (files where parts of the algorithm takes place in time domain and other parts in frequency domain), this class H04L 27/2669 should be allocated.

{Time domain}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The main algorithm of the invention has its essential steps performed in time domain.

{Frequency domain}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The main algorithm of the invention has its essential steps performed in frequency domain.

{characterised by synchronisation parameters}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This subclass should be allocated to describe which part of the received signal is used for achieving synchronisation: This can be known symbols (a preamble or pilot symbols), or it can be blind by using only unknown symbols (the decision of these symbols or their cyclic extension, or the presence of a repetition pattern).

{Pilot or known symbols (structure of pilot symbols H04L 27/2613 ; cell search in orthogonal multiplex systems H04J 11/0069 ; allocation of pilot signals H04L 5/0048)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cell search in orthogonal multiplex systems

Allocation of pilot signals

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Structure of pilot symbols

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification here should take place when the synchronisation algorithm of the document uses known symbols and their location at the receiver to achieve synchronisation. The value of these symbols is known.

{Blind, i.e. without using known symbols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In this case, the algorithm does not use any known symbols (the value of these symbols and their location is not known in advance).

{using cyclostationarities, e.g. cyclic prefix or postfix}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The Guard Interval structure (when the Guard Interval consists of a cyclic repetition of the useful symbol part, see H04L 27/2607) or any other cyclostationarity of the received signal is used for achieving synchronisation.

The use of a repetition pattern (where instead of a preamble, a data symbol is sent twice, and the receiver uses only the location and the fact that repetition occurred) is considered as being blind and belongs to this class since it uses a kind of cyclostationarity in the received signal.

{Decision-aided}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The algorithm has a feedback loop where decision on received symbols are used to achieve synchronisation.

{characterised by constraints}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The constraints given to the algorithm or in other words, the advantage of the algorithm versus conventional algorithms.

{Precision}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The algorithm of the document achieves a better precision (in time or frequency) than conventional algorithms.

{Complexity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The algorithm of the document has a lesser complexity than conventional algorithms.

{Speed of convergence}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The algorithm of the document reaches synchronisation more quickly than conventional algorithms.

{Range of frequencies or delays tested}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The algorithm of the document has a wider range of frequencies or delays tested than conventional algorithms.

{Resistance to perturbation, e.g. noise, interference or fading}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The algorithm of the document is more resistant to such perturbations or errors than conventional algorithms.

{Link with other circuits, i.e. special connections between synchronisation arrangements and other circuits for achieving synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This particular subgroup applies when a synergistic effect is present between the synchronisation arrangement and any other circuit in the course of the synchronisation process (example: Locating the FFT window is often associated with particular peak tracking arrangements for channel estimation).

{involving interference determination or cancellation (interference mitigation or coordination in orthogonal multiplex systems in general H04J 11/0023)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For the cases where the synchronisation process interacts non-obviously with an interference estimation/cancellation circuit.

Interference aspects are covered in many other classes:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Interference in receivers

Further interference aspects at the receiver (EMI)

Interference due to the multiplexing of users (inter-users, inter-cell, adjacent channel)

Inter Symbol Interference removed in Equalizers

{with preamble design, i.e. with negotiation of the synchronisation sequence with transmitter or sequence linked to the algorithm used at the receiver}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The preamble sent by transmitter is constructed or negotiated in the light of the synchronisation process/algorithm used at the receiver.

{with channel estimation, e.g. determination of delay spread, derivative or peak tracking (channel estimation per se H04L 25/0202)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

As mentioned in the example above, the synchronisation process may interact with a particular channel estimation/tracking method.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Measuring or estimating channel quality parameters

Channel estimation per se

{in combination with other modulation techniques}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This subclass like H04L 27/2634 above covers interaction between the OFDM multiplexing and other circuit components.

{double density OFDM/OQAM system, e.g. OFDM/OQAM-IOTA system}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

OFDM/OQAM generally has a real value modulated on each subcarrier and does not necessitate any Guard Interval to be inserted between contiguous symbols. It generally necessitates well localized (in time as well as in frequency domain) pulse shaping function.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Pulse shaping

Special rules of classification within this group
Arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04L 1/00 to H04L 27/00(interconnection of, or transfer of information or other signals between, memories, input/output devices or central processing units G06F 13/00){contains provisionally no documents}
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

interconnection of, or transfer of information or other signals between, memories, input/output devices or central processing units

{Arrangements for maintenance or administration or management of packet switching networks}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Aspects relating to operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAMP) of heterogeneous data packet networks (e.g. IP, Ethernet, Next Generation Network ...) both using proprietary and standardised network management architectures and protocols (e.g. TMN, SNMP, OMA-DM) irrespective of the physical transport medium, the type of service carried and the type of virtualisation (e.g. cloud);

Although typical Network Management functions, aspects related to accounting/billing and security are in general not classified here. The only exceptions are Service quality based billing and security of the network management system (e.g. authorised access to the manager, security of management messages).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Aspects related to the management of the fulfilment of an agreement between two different parties (usually not within the same network/domain), typically known as Service Level Agreement (SLA), are classified under the H04L 41/50 subgroups.

aspects related to the monitoring of the performance of a network communications are classified under the H04L 43/00 subgroups (e.g. monitoring of QoS parameters).

Aspects related to the testing of a network or a network element are classified under H04L 43/50.

Aspects relating to specific functions of data storage and retrieval, e.g. in database, is covered under G06F 17/30

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This group does not cover:

Operation and Maintenance of homogeneous ATM networks

Detection or prevention of error at physical layer

Network management of traditional telephonic (circuit-switched) networks

Controlling or operating of remote end-user devices' applications

Accounting or billing for the transport of the data-packets

Arrangement for network security

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements providing connection between exchanges

Selecting arrangements for multiplex systems using optical techniques

Interconnection arrangements between voice switching centres. Network operation, administration, maintenance or provisioning

Wireless communication networks. Supervisory, monitoring or testing arrangements

Wireless communication networks. Network traffic or resource management

Special rules of classification within this group

In these subgroups, unless otherwise indicated, classification is made according to the best place which embraces the invention. When several particular technical subjects are disclosed, this rule is separately applied to each of them.

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Network Management, NM

refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems.

Network Management functions

Functions that are performed as part of network management include Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance Security management (FCAPS).

Operation

deals with keeping the network up and running smoothly.

Administration

deals with keeping track of resources in the network and how they are assigned. It includes all the "housekeeping" that is necessary to keep the network under control.

Maintenance

is concerned with performing repairs and upgrades—for example, when equipment must be replaced, when a router needs a patch for an operating system image, when a new switch is added to a network. Maintenance also involves corrective and preventive measures to make the managed network run "better", such as adjusting device configuration parameters.

Provisioning

is concerned with configuring resources in the network to support a given service. For example, this might include setting up the network so that a new customer can receive the requested service.

Network Manager

An entity that acts in a manager role for performing the network management functions.

Agent

A software module that performs management functions requested by a Manager.

Network element (NE), managed device, managed node

Manageable logical entity uniting one or more physical devices which are networked. Network elements usually have management agents responsible for interfacing with the network manager. They can be any type of device, including, but not limited to: nodes, routers, switches, bridges, hubs, Network Interface Controller (NIC) hosts, gateways, servers, modem, IP telephones, IP video cameras, data-centres, computer hosts, and printers.

Managed object

an abstract representation of network resources of the network element that is managed.

Synonyms and Keywords

OA&M, OAM

Operation, administration and management

OAM&O, OAMP

Operation, administration, management and provisioninig

OSS

Operations support systems

NM

Network Management

NMS

Network Management System

TMN

Telecommunications Management Network

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

MIB

Management Information Base

TR-069

Technical Report 69 (Broadband forum standard)

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

OMA-DM

Open Mobile Alliance - Device Management

3GPP

3rd Generation Partnership Project

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol

In patent documents the word "management" is often used with the meaning of "controlling", "commanding" , "operating".

In patent documents the expression "configured to" is often used with the meaning "adapted to", "suitable for" defining functional features of structural elements.

{involving integration or standardization}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of standards NM protocols, standards architecture, arrangement and representation instrumental for a integrated management

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers a hierarchy of different miscellaneous aspects focusing on integration and standardisation. Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

{using standardized network management architectures, e.g. telecommunication management network [TMN] or unified network management architecture [UNMA]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to the specific type of standards NM architecture used.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the type of standardized architecture is merely cited as general information the group is not to be allocated.

{using standardized network management protocols, e.g. simple network management protocol [SNMP] or common management interface protocol [CMIP]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to modification or specific use of standards NM protocols. Additional examples are TR-069, OMA-DM.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the type of standardized protocol is merely cited as general information the group is not to be allocated. Not conventional management protocol, like web-based, web service are classified under H04L 41/0246.

{Multivendor or multistandard integration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Managing network equipments from different vendors following different communication protocols and standards technologies;

Integration products capable of communicating with different managed nodes in their own protocol and capable of representing a unified network view to the network managers.

media0.png

Examples: EP1162784, US2006168117

{Mapping or translation of multiple network management protocols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using different NM protocols, conversion of NM commands and reports from one NM protocol (e.g. CMIP) into another protocol (e.g. SNMP), mapping between different version of the same NM protocols (SNMP v2 and v3);

media1.png

Examples: EP1720286

{using object oriented techniques, e.g. common object request broker architecture [CORBA] for representation of network management data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using object oriented techniques (e.g. CORBA) for representation of NM data. Processing managed entities as Objects.

Special rules of classification within this group

This class is to be allocated for OO-Techniques other than or beyond the typical use of objects in, e.g., SNMP (e.g. MIB´s objects or OMA) which can be considered in the class H04L 41/0213 .

{using relational databases for representation of network management data, e.g. managing via structured query language [SQL] (information retrieval in structured data stores G06F 17/30286)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of networks being modelled by a (1:1) image in a relational database, e.g, management is done by issuing respective (SQL) commands.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Information retrieval in structured data stores

{exchanging or transporting network management information using Internet , e.g. aspects relating to embedding network management web servers in network elements, web service for network management purposes, aspects related to Internet applications or services or web-based protocols, simple object access protocol [SOAP] (web-based network application protocols H04L 67/02 ; web-based network application protocols for remote control of end-devices or monitoring of remote application data H04L 67/025 ; proprietary application protocols for remote control of end-devices in special networking environments H04L 67/125 ; retrieval from the Internet G06F 17/30861)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

This class relates to aspects where the Internet or web applications and protocols are used for management, and it does not for conventional management protocol, like SNMP.

Aspects of Internet or web applications and protocols in general which are not instrumental to network management functions should be classified in H04L 67/00, in particular H04L 67/02.

The specific management functions should also be classified in the other appropriate H04L 41/00 subgroups, e.g. configuration in H04L 41/08, fault management in H04L 41/06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Web-based network application protocols in general

Web-based network application protocols for remote control of end-devices or monitoring of remote application data

Proprietary application protocols for remote control of end-devices in special networking environments

Conversion of network management protocols

Retrieval from the Internet

{involving a browser or web-pages for accessing management information (graphical user interface for network management H04L 41/22)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to accessing the management information by browsing web pages focusing on the communication capabilities.

Examples: EP1628221, US2007094380

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Generic visualisation aspects of Graphical User Interface (GUI) for management

{involving e-messaging for transporting management information, e.g. email, instant messaging or chat}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to embedding management objects or management commands or management data by using applications like email, chat.

Examples: US2010220350

{involving management internet meta-data, objects or commands, e.g. by using mark-up language}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to use of Internet language data, e.g. html, xml, for formatting management information, e.g. web services data.

Examples: EP2110991, EP2139161, EP2110991

{involving the use of web services for network management, e.g. SOAP}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to use of SOAP, or other protocols for enveloping/encapsulation of management data.

Examples: EP1715620, US7849472, WO2007084369

{for synchronization between service call and response}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to timing between the client and server communication (request, response) for monitoring or exchanging management data.

aspects related to push or pull or polling or event-based transmission of management data.

Examples: US2008189350, US2008184234

{for search or classification or discovery of web services providing management functionalities (network applications and protocols for service discovery H04L 67/16)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Finding a list of available services, e.g. by using UDDI;

aspects related to how the service is to be accessed, e.g. by using WSDL

Examples: EP2098012, US2010318370

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network applications and protocols for service discovery

{for accessing web services by means of a binding identification of the management service or element (aspects of naming and addressing in general H04L 61/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to address resolver (e.g. URL) or path identification for accessing web resources.

Aspects related to physical or logical identification of management client/server.

Examples: US2009177768, EP1898556

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Aspects of naming and addressing in general is covered by H04L 61/00

{Architectural aspects of network management arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects on how the NMS is structurally organised;

Aspects on how the NMS is connected for retrieving the management information.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Architecture of monitoring probes

{Arrangements involving multiple distributed management centers cooperatively managing the network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Multiple NM centers or NM units communicating with each other and managing the network together and all managers being on the same hierarchical level - peer to peer relation.

Synchronisation and coordination among different managers.

Examples: EP1624615, EP2053780

Special rules of classification within this group

The different multivendor network managers under the group H04L 41/022 do not necessarily cooperate with each other but they operate independently.

{Arrangements involving a hierarchical management structure}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hierarchical structures like main manager > medium (mid - level -) managers > sub-managers.

media2.png

Examples: EP0838919, US2002174207

{Aspects of network management agents}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Usage of NM agents. Management agents are usually implemented in the managed network nodes themselves or reside "close" to the managed nodes in the network. They usually support the standard NM protocols or provide a mapping functionality between the nodes' proprietary and the managers standardized protocol (e.g. proxy).

media3.png

Examples: EP0831617

Special rules of classification within this group

This class is to be allocated for use and features of Agents other than or beyond the typical use already done in, e.g., SNMP standardised protocols, which can be considered in the class H04L 41/0213.

{mobile agents}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Agent which are able to move from one place to another, e.g. from a NMS to a managed element.

{involving management of faults or events or alarms}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to the generation, processing of notifications, error messages, managements messages originated from the network instrumental to determine the network behaviour.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Aspects related to active monitoring of the status or availability of the network elements which are triggered by a NMS or a monitoring system are classified under the H04L 43/00 subgroups.

Fault tolerance in computer systems is classified under G06F 11/00. In general, if restoration of faults is performed without a NMS but rather with the involvement of the end nodes (CPUs in multiprocessor systems, Personal Computers in computer networks, or Operating System or applications running on the end nodes) then classification should be done in the G06F 11/00 groups, as indicated below:

Responding to the occurrence of a fault, e.g. fault tolerance

Error or fault processing without redundancy, i.e. by taking additional measures to deal with the error/fault

Error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in operation

Error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Active monitoring the status or the connection of network elements

alarm or failure messages notified by the user, customer (trouble ticket)

tracking events generated by the networked application user's

events generated by Applications or software which are not affecting the network behaviour

Business-related events

alarm or messages triggered by the user, handling of user's trouble tickets

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fault management in exchanges' connections

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this groups the following terms (expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Error

A deviation of a system from normal operation.

Fault or failure

Lasting error or warning condition.

Event

Something that happens which may be of interest. A fault, a change in status, crossing a threshold, or an external input to the system, for example.

Notification

Unsolicited transmission of management information from network managed entity to network manager.

Trap

Asynchronous notification from managed device (or agent thereof) to NMS

Alarm or alert

Indication of the occurrence of a fault.

faulty entity

a network element or a sub-part thereof in charge of communication functionalities, e.g. NIC.

{Alarm or event filtering, e.g. for reduction of information}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reduction of the notifications' number. Often the network manager is overwhelmed with floods of alarms in complex networks. Filters can be set to only show these events the network managers considers "relevant" at a given time representing a subset.

Aspects related to classification, suppression, grouping of notifications

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Filtering or reduction of monitored data packets

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error or fault reporting or logging, in computer systems

{based on severity or priority}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to discriminate among messages which are less or more relevant or urgent.

{based on the type or category of the network elements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to discriminate among messages which are originated by different kind of devices (e.g. routers instead of switches).

{based on the physical or logical position}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Filtering/reducing based on topological/geographical information of the network elements.

{based on time}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Filtering/reducing depending on the time the messages were generated.

{by acting on the notification or alarm source}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to interventions on the notifications source for stopping or limiting the sending of messages.

{Alarm or event or notifications correlation; Root cause analysis}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Correlating notifications or messages for identifying the relevant information pointing to the same problem.

Determination of the root of a problem in general;

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Identification of network element affecting the current service quality

Error or fault localisation, by collation, in computer systems

{by additionally acting on or stimulating the network after receiving notifications}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Use of additional signalling for locating the root of a problem.

{Network fault recovery (backup route selection H04L 45/22 ; route fault recovery H04L 45/28 ; techniques for recovering from a failure of a protocol instance or entity H04L 69/40)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Recovery from network faults with the involvement of a NMS.

Aspects relating to the management signalling for re-establishing the communication functionalities of elements.

Automatically "repairing" broken links, nodes, routes by a NMS when the network is up;

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Redundancy within network elements, for example routers with redundant CPUs or interconnections, is classified under G06F 11/00. Where the G06F 11/00 groups refer to "interconnections", they are meant to be physical media and are of point-to-point type or of bus type.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Route fault recovery

Selection of a alternate/backup route

Error or fault handling in computer systems

Techniques for recovering from a failure of a protocol instance or entity

{by isolating the faulty entity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Removing or switching off a faulty entity without replacement.

Command or instructions for dynamically by-passing the faulty entity toward other paths, possibly by informing the neighbouring nodes.

Examples: EP1202175 (e.g. Claim 37), WO2007022183

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Active fault-masking in computer systems, where interconnections are redundant

Reconfiguration of paths in computing systems

{involving offline failover planning}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Offline failover planning, command and instructions from the NMS to re-direct to a different path previously calculated.

{selecting new candidate element}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Replacement by the best or redundant element in terms of similar capabilities/functionalities, not just replacement of the path.

Examples: EP1975802, US2011141879, EP2161877.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Active fault-masking in computer systems, where processors are redundant

{by re-configuring the faulty entity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Re-booting/starting (possibly after a waiting time), re-initialise, re-setting or re-configuring (by changing parameters) in order to repair the faulty entity into the network.

Examples: EP2020776, EP2154827, EP1887759, EP1202175 (e.g. Claim 12).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Re-configuration in response to network events

Faults occurring during boot-up procedure in computer systems

Error or fault handling in computer systems

Bootstrapping procedure in computers

{localization of fault position}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Determining or detection of a fault with particularly emphasis on the physical or logical position of the problem with or without event correlation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Aspects related to the active monitoring of the status of network elements is under H04L 43/00, specifically H04L 43/0817. However, if the monitoring activity gives rise to a the determination of a failure's position then the group H04L 41/0677 is also to be allocated.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error or fault detection or monitoring in computer systems

{involving configuration of triggering conditions}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the setting of events, fault, alarm or trap conditions or threshold, metrics, which give arise to a error message,definition of a fault.

Aspects relating to when an alert is to be generated.

Examples: US2005076281

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

threshold monitoring

{involving notification enrichment}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Notification data-model.

Added-value aspects of the content of the notifications, like position, time, failure type, etc..

Adding information to the notifications, description of the notifications' attributes.

Examples: EP2154828

{involving storage or log of alarms or notifications or post-processing thereof}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using of libraries, database or data structure parameters for saving alarms, notifications or events.

Off-line extraction or post-processing for statistics purposes or graphical representation

Examples: WO2013023837

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error or fault reporting or logging in computer systems

{involving fault of the network management or monitoring system}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Actions when the manager itself fails;

{Configuration management of network or network elements (proprietary application protocols for remote control of end-devices in special networking environments H04L 67/125 ; automatic configuration specially adapted for wireless networks H04W 24/02)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to dynamic or off-line functionality to perform operations that will provide physical and logical parameters settings to/from network or network elements.

Determination and storing of configuration information.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

proprietary application protocols for remote control of end-devices in special networking environments

configuration management in the context of software development

configuration of software in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aspects of naming and addressing in general

Automatic configuration in wireless networks

{Configuration setting of network or network elements (communication protocols supporting networked applications involving the movement of software or networked applications configuration parameters H04L 67/34)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to assign configurations;

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Provisioning or reconfiguring application services over wireless networks

automatic configuration in wireless networks

{for initial configuration or provisioning}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Configuration of networked applications configuration parameters

configuration management in the context of software development

configuration of software in general

{Plug-and-play configuration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to configuration as soon as an element is being connected.

The network element having already configuration parameters ready.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Software configuration of peripheral devices

electrical coupling for live connection to bus

{due to updating or upgrading of network functionality, e.g. firmware (topology update or discovery for routing purposes H04L 45/02)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

topology update or discovery for routing purposes

{Keeping track of network configuration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to reading or auditing configuration information of network elements;

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers a hierarchy of different miscellaneous aspects focusing on retrieving configuration data. Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

{by archiving or backing up configuration information}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of backing up or restoring data

{by rolling back to previous configuration versions}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of restoration of backup data

{Checking configuration}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to validation, comparison of configuration's data.

{Aspects of the degree of configuration automation}
Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers a hierarchy of different miscellaneous aspects focusing on how automatic the configuration is carried out. Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

These groups are usually to be allocated in combination with the other groups of H04L 41/08.

{Bandwidth or capacity management, i.e. automatically increasing or decreasing capacities, e.g. bandwidth on demand (reallocation of resources, renegotiation of resources, e.g. in-call H04L 47/76)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Involvement of a manager for configuring elements in order to cope with the bandwidth request.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Reallocation or renegotiation of resources, e.g. in-call

{network topology discovery or management (topology discovery for routing H04L 45/02)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Determination, retrieval or use of network topology (also based on routing table information) for network management purposes (e.g. Fault localisation, network analysis, configuration, graphical representation, mapping...) Both a link or network layer.
  • Discovery of links, network elements and adjacencies within a network;
  • Aspects relating to topology change after migration;
  • Planning of the appropriate topology.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Topology update for routing purposes

Topology discovery in wireless networks for routing purposes

Monitor simple connectivity of an elemen

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of backing up or restoring data

{involving network analysis or design, e.g. simulation, network model or planning (network monitoring H04L 43/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to the analysis or the plan of a network.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers miscellaneous aspects focusing on the analysis of the network.

Classification is preferably made in the appropriate subdivision below.

The sub-groups do not simple relate to monitoring of packets H04L 43/00 but more advanced analysis, analysis of management messages, aggregation of information in different part of the network, analysis of the network as a whole.

If the analysis is only "punctual" (single link, single path, specific elements) monitoring H04L 43/00 is to be considered.

{using statistical or mathematical methods}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Evaluation of monitored data applying advanced statistical methods and tests going beyond basic counting and averaging of frames, errors. Detecting anomalies, The analysis can be based on input from real data, when the network is or was operative.

Aspects of traffic modelling, e.g. Poisson, Markov, self-similar.

Examples: US2011078302, EP12160397

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generation of artificial traffic for testing

{involving simulating, designing, planning or modelling of a network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network design tools (e.g. with integrated simulation and design testing)

modelling or abstraction of the network for behaviour simulation.

Examples: US8054757, US6735548

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Network topology's graph or modelling

Radio cell planning

modelling of isolated element's of the network, auditing

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Network design in exchanges connections

{for prediction of network behaviour}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The outcome of the network's analysis are instrumental for determining the future behaviour of the network, e.g. bandwidth forecast.

Examples: EP2642692, US2011078302

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

fault management

Radio cell planning

modelling of isolated element's of the network, auditing

{Network management using artificial intelligence}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Applying artificial intelligence methods (expert systems, rule based systems, genetic algorithms) in NM.

{Arrangements involving CNM [Customer Network Management]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Giving the customer (limited) access to NM functions.

{Network management software packages}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Particular aspects (e.g., customization, programmability or configuration) of NM software tools like HP Openview, Netview 6000, with GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces) capable of managing large and complex data networks.

Examples: US8065660

{using GUI [Graphical User Interface]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using a GUI to represent the architecture of the network.

Which/how the management information are displayed.

Examples: US7958450

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

graphical visualization of monitored data

using a browser for accessing management information

Special rules of classification within this group

In group H04L 41/22, the focus is on the graphical representation of the managed network, elements, objects, whereby H04L 41/0253 relates to the access to web-based management content via a browser. Graphical/visualization aspects of web browsers are therefore classified under H04L 41/22.

{using dedicated network management hardware}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

(Portable) hardware equipment for managing (e.g. Configuring, logging management data,...) A device at a time.

Craft terminals used by fields technicians.

Built-in nm hardware.

Examples: EP0854606

{using dedicated tools for LAN [Local Area Network] management}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Usually NM tools operating at MAC level.

Examples: US2010281106, US2009113046

{Security in network management, e.g. restricting network management access (network architectures or network communication protocols for network security H04L 63/00 ; cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 ; network architectures or network communication protocols for wireless network security H04W 12/00 ; security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity G06F 21/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Only security related to the NM system.

Aspects relating to keeping the manager and the management data secure.

Restricting access control to the NMS, encryption of management data.

Examples: EP11275030, WO2004047402, US8078707

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

protocols or architecture for network security

cryptography for secret or secure communication

wireless network security

protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity

{Decision processes by autonomous network management units using voting and bidding}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Process for electing a unit as a master.

Bidding and electing units based on best QoS level.

Examples: EP2071764, GB2343583,

{Specific management aspects for broadband networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

NM for traditional broadband digital cross-connect switches supporting user's communication, now being replaced by ATM or DSL-based infrastructure.

Examples: US6134238,

{Network service management, i.e. ensuring proper service fulfillment according to an agreement or contract between two parties, e.g. between an IT-provider and a customer}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

aspects relating to Service level management between parties for service deployment, assurance and review over heterogeneous packet-switched data networks (e.g. IP, Ethernet, ...) irrespective of the physical transport medium and the type of service carried and the type of virtualisation (e.g. cloud).

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Service Level Management

provides for continual identification, monitoring and review of the levels of IT services specified in the Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Service Level Management ensures that arrangements are in place with internal IT Support-Providers and external suppliers in the form of Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) and Underpinning Contracts (UCs), respectively.

Service Level Management functions

ensuring that the agreed IT services are delivered when and where they are supposed to be; liaising with Availability Management, Capacity Management, Incident Management and Problem Management to ensure that the required levels and quality of service are achieved within the resources agreed producing and maintaining a Service Catalogue (a list of standard IT service options and agreements made available to customers) ensuring that appropriate IT Service Continuity plans exist to support the business and its continuity requirements.

Service Level Agreement, SLA

service level agreement is a part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined.

Quality of Service, QoS

quality measure relating to specific network parameters of traffic packets (bit rate, delays, packet loss...) which describe the treatment experienced by the packets while passing through the network .

SLA vs QoS

In order to meet the SLA requirements specific internal QoS management processes are to be implemented. SLA is namely directed to an 'aggregation' of (end-to-end) QoS parameters rather than to specific internal network metrics or is directed to QoS related to a customer (QoE).

Quality of Experience, QoE

a subjective measure of a customer's experiences with a service.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "QoS" is often used with the meaning of "Service Level performance" (e.g. AU2008201028, paragraph 8)

{Managing service level agreement [SLA] or interaction between SLA and quality of service [QoS]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

General aspects relating to the description of the terms or properties of the SLA.

Aspects relating to mapping/converting SLA requirements into QoS parameters.

media4.png

ITU-T Rec. E.860 (Figure)

Examples: ITU-T Rec. E.860 (Figure), WO2004102896, US2012011517

{Defining or negotiating SLA contracts, guarantees or penalties (SLA negotiation in wireless networks H04W 28/24)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

SLA negotiation in wireless networks

{Determining service level performance, e.g. measuring SLA quality parameters, determining contract or guarantee violations, response time or mean time between failure [MTBF] (monitoring performance metrics on a simple network level H04L 43/08)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the benchmarking for specific services.

Aspects relating to mean time to failure (mttf), mean time to recover (mttr).

Aspects relating to the overall performance of a network, e.g. Delay, reliability based on aggregation of qos parameters.

Measuring specific key performance indicators (kpi).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring performance metrics on a simple network level

{Ensuring SLA (flow or congestion control at network level H04L 12/569)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

flow or congestion control at network level

{by proactively reacting to service quality change, e.g. degradation or upgrade, by reconfiguration (mere recovery after a network faults H04L 41/0654)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

changing configuration due to adaption

network faults recovery

{Service quality level based billing, e.g. dependent on measured service level customer is charged more or less (general charging or billing for transport of data packets H04L 12/14)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

General charging or billing for transport of data packets

{Generating service level reports}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Generating a report based on data showing the performance levels for individual customers or individual services

{Measuring contribution of individual network components to actual service level (alarm or event correlation H04L 41/0631)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Identifying network entities such as nodes, links, applications, that affect or are responsible for actual quality of service, such as service failure or service quality degradation.

Examples: US2011082926, US7970890, EP13154069

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alarm or event correlation

{Testing of service level quality, e.g. simulating service usage}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Simulating service usage by active agents to automatically measure service level compliance.

Testing based on artificial traffic, artificial customer's behaviour.

Examples: US2008181110, EP1786141.

{Automatic provisioning of the service triggered by the service manager, e.g. concrete service implementation by automatic configuration of network components (for initializing configuration, i.e. provisioning of network or devices H04L 41/0806)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Initializing Configuration, i.e. provisioning of network or devices

Examples: EP1892966, US2011158111

{Service discovery by the service manager (automatically determining the actual topology of a network H04L 41/12 ; topology discovery for routing H04L 45/02 ; arrangements for service discovery, e.g. service location protocol H04L 67/16)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Identifying service elements or services and dependencies among the elements and services of a network

Example: EP2330847

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Determining the actual topology of a network

Topology discovery in routers

Arrangements for service discovery, e.g. Service Location Protocol (SLP)

{Customer care}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Order and problem handling, informing end-user of service situation.

{Customer relationship management (arrangements involving customer network management, i.e. giving the customer access to network management functions H04L 41/18)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Handling of customer data, contracts, customer history
  • Monitoring and recording customer interactions with the provider
  • Data mining techniques for customer's data processing

Examples: EP1892966

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

arrangements involving Customer Network Management, i.e. giving the customer access to network management functions

{Customer-centric quality of service [QoS] measurement}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the quality or satisfaction as perceived by the customer/user, Quality of Experience (QoE).

Aspects relating to reports provided by the customer about the service quality.

Examples: EP2326044

{Filtering out customers affected by service problems}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Identifying customers affected by service problems as network element failures, network congestion or service degradation.

Examples: EP2237486

{Handling of trouble tickets}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the generation of error messages, notifications, issues, incident originated by a customer or a customer's terminal to be treated by the Service Provider.

Examples: WO2011003169, US2011082926.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

alarm messages (automatically) triggered by faulty network elements

{wherein the managed service relates to simple transport services, i.e. providing only network infrastructure}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects wherein access or connectivity to the network itself is the service, e.g. offering VLAN.

Examples: US2011060826, WO0215481

{based on type of value added network service under agreement}
Special rules of classification within this group

The H04L 41/508 groups should be allocated only in combination with at least one of the groups from H04L 41/50 to H04L 41/5074 and only if essential for the characterisation of the service management aspects.

{wherein the managed service relates to web hosting (web-based network application protocols H04L 67/02 ; web site content organization and management G06F 17/3089 ; video-hosting H04N 21/2743)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

web-based network application protocols

web site content organisation and management

video-hosting

{wherein the managed service relates to voice services (protocols for real-time multimedia communications H04L 65/00 ; management of telephonic communication services H04M 3/22 ; management of VoIP services H04M 7/0081)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

protocols for real-time multimedia communications

management of telephonic communication services

management of VoIP services

{wherein the managed service relates to media content delivery, e.g. audio / video / TV (protocols for real-time multimedia communications H04L 65/00 ; interactive television or VoD H04N 21/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

protocols for real-time multimedia communications

Interactive television or VoD

{wherein the managed service relates to messaging or chat services (messaging, such as e-mail in packet-switching networks H04L 12/58 ; conducting a computer conference H04L 12/1822 ; instant messaging H04L 12/581)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Messaging, e.g e-mail and instant Messaging in packet-switching networks

Conducting a computer conference

{wherein the managed service relates to distributed or central networked applications (management of file systems G06F 17/30067 ; management of structured data stores G06F 17/30286)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Management of file systems

Management of structured data stores

{Arrangements for monitoring or testing packet switching networks (networking arrangements or communications protocols for supporting networked applications for tracking the activity of the application user H04L 67/22 ; monitoring of computing systems G06F 11/30 ; monitoring of computer activity G06F 11/34)}
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • Aspects of 'passive' monitoring, e.g. Observing the network by measuring passing traffic or setting counters here and there at different points in the network
  • Aspects of 'active monitoring', by introducing specific packets or modifying real data packets (also called testing)
  • Monitoring qos parameters of traffic;
  • Monitoring of metrics of network elements;
  • Measuring performance at network/link level (availability, status)
  • Report of monitored parameters;
  • Testing environment and routine;
  • Test traffic characterization
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Traffic and packet monitoring techniques in H04L 43/00 are irrespective of the use which is done of the result and focuses on the monitoring techniques as such, not on the application which may be of different nature.

The group H04L 43/50 focuses on the testing platform, routine, apparatus and configuration.

Aspects related to the generation or insertion of specific type of packets (e.g. ICMP, ping, traceroute) are classified under H04L 43/10 whereas (test) traffic injection of data according to a pattern and characterization is under H04L 43/50

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Filtering policies for separating internal from external traffic for security

Tracking the activity of the application user

monitoring of computer activity

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring of computing systems

Supervisory, monitoring or testing arrangements specially adapted for wireless networks

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the word "testing" is often used with the meaning of "monitoring" or "active monitoring".

{involving a reduction of monitoring data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the selection of specific type/group of packets

{using sampling of monitoring data, i.e. storing only a selection of packets}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the storing of selection of packets being which is a representative subset of packets.

{using adaptive sampling}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Dynamically adjusting the sampling rate according to specific criteria, e.g. traffic burstiness, packet rate, statistics.

Examples: US2009257352

{using flow generation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aggregating captured packet data into flows, a flow being defined as a unidirectional sequence of packets all sharing same network parameters mainly based on header information.

Monitoring flow, wherein the flow is usually characterised by a n-tuple of network parameters, e.g. Source/destination address, port number, protocol number (e.g. Ietf ipfix, netflow)

Monitoring, identify or classify the flow on different osi-layers.

{using filtering (alarm or event filtering H04L 41/0604)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reduction of monitored data by applying filters to extract specific type of packets or part of packets;

Deep packet inspection (e.g. Bpf, libpcap) including payload analysis.

Using hashing, masking for extracting and storing packets or part of packets.

Examples: wo2011134739

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

alarm or event filtering

filtering policy for separating internal from external traffic for security

{Processing of captured monitoring data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects focusing on aggregation and post-processing (including exporting, transmitting) of the monitored data, post-correlation.

Storing or logging of (part of) monitored packets.

Creation of specific data structure of the monitored packets.

Examples: ep2317698 (fig.3), us2011292818, ep11168715

{for graphical visualization of monitoring data (graphical user interfaces H04L 41/22 ; display of network or application conditions affecting the network application to the application user H04L 67/36 ; visual indication of the functioning of a computing machine G06F 11/32)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Displaying, showing of the monitoring data/result in graphs, x-y axis, drawings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Use of a GUI as a tool for monitoring or managing a network

display of network or application conditions affecting the applications

visual indication of the functioning of a computing machine

{Report generation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects focusing on accumulation of data extracted from packet flows for reporting or for simple statistics purposes.

{for traffic related reporting}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reporting the overall traffic on a Tap-Point in the network.

{for device related reporting (reporting of sensed information of home appliances H04L 12/2803)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reporting traffic characteristics for a specific device or network node.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Reporting of sensed information of home appliances managing a network

{for time frame related reporting}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Formatting traffic reports with respect to certain time intervals, e.g. per second, minute, hour, day or week, or configurable timeframes

{Monitoring based on specific metrics}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

aspect of monitoring of packets on a network (link/node) level including QoS parameters;

aspect of monitoring of network elements' parameters (temperature, power consumption, etc.) via network protocols.

Examples: US2010229016

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring performance on a service level

{Connectivity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring whether a link is active or a device is connected

Checking or verifying both physical and logical connectivity, e.g., by using connectivity/continuity check messages;

Use of techniques at layer 2 or 3 of the OSI-stack.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Topology's determination

{functioning (networked applications tracking the activity of users H04L 67/22 ; monitoring appliance functionality of home appliances H04L 12/2803)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring the status of the connected device, e.g. Whether the device is working properly, monitoring network element resource metrics like cpu or memory utilization or printer utilization

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

monitoring the activity of the application user

monitoring appliance functionality of home appliances

{Errors (management of events, faults or alarms in networks or network elements H04L 41/06)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Management of events, faults or alarms

{Packet loss}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring of transmission data loss for all upper layers (Layers 2, 3 and above), as e.g. packet/frame/PDU loss, is classified in groups H04L 43/0829/low. A loss is often recognized via expiration of a timer (timeout) and can be caused by full buffer, overloading, discarding.

{Transmission error}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring of transmission errors include all layer independent errors which can be recognized after reception of any transmitted data as bit errors (as e.g. CRC/checksum errors), packet errors (as e.g. duplicate packet errors, packets received after close errors), framing errors (frames too long/short), alignment errors, framing checksum (FCS) errors, bad header errors, carrier sense errors, packet collisions, late collision errors, excessive collision errors, backward errors, duplicate message acknowledgements (ACKs), out of order packet errors.

{Delays}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Different type of packet delays (transition time), also due to node or stack processing, buffering.

Special rules of classification within this group

This class and the groups refer to delays irrespective of the use that is done of the delay information. For example the use of delay information for synchronizing time/clock is to be classified in H04J 3/0635.

{Network utilization}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects relating to the number of packets.

{Utilization of link capacity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Level of congestion, i.e. percentage or absolute value of link capacity available or used.

{Throughput}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Observing the time required to get a certain amount of bits across a link or path, thus the ratio of bits per time unit.

{Packet rate}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring bandwidth or packet data rate used by a traffic stream.

{using active monitoring, e.g. heartbeat protocols, polling, ping, trace-route}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to the use of specific (standardised / well-known) 'smart' packets (ICMP, ping, probe packets, etc.) in the monitored network which stimulates a certain reaction from the monitored network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

injection or characterization of test traffic

{by adding timestamps to packets}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Inserting time-related information to the exchanged packets.

{using dedicated network monitoring probes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects specifically related to passive devices, e.g meters, capturing data units (packets, cells, frames) transiting the monitored communications network;

Distribution, architecture, topology of the monitoring devices like sniffers, taps;

Internal architecture of a probe (buffer, processor)

Examples: ep1487152, us2011286348

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

protocol analyzer

{using software, i.e. software packages (network security related monitoring H04L 63/1408)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

monitoring for network security

{using threshold monitoring}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Monitoring if observed parameters or metrics are within upper or lower thresholds.

{using protocol analyzers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Devices able to capture data (i.e. cells, packets or frames) and "understand / parse /decode" the field structure of different networking protocols in a promiscuous mode (i.e. all the data they receive) and able to process the captured data for representing the parsed / decoded data fields along with their meanings of different packets specified by different networking protocols (e.g Wireshark) in order to facilitate the analysis for a user.

media27.png

Examples: US6850852 (fig.7, above), EP1722509, US2002114273 (fig. 2, 3), WO2005018153 (fig.4, 5),

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

protocol compliance testing

simple packet capture with probes

{Testing arrangements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Testing of data networks, with specific focus on the following aspects:

Architectural aspects of testing: layout of the testing environment, design of the testing system, distribution of the testing nodes in the network at specific locations, devices dedicated for testing, or networking devices that have dedicated test modes. Examples: US2006045021, WO2008137614

Functional aspects of testing: benchmark testing, design of test scripts, test sequences, traffic patterns to be injected in the network system or device to be tested.

Examples: US2009158094, EP1480379, WO2009118602, EP0522211

Testing groups of devices: testing groups of devices at once, for speeding-up the testing.

Examples: US2006179919, US2003110243

Compliance testing: testing whether a device complies to the specific protocol that it is supposed to adhere to.

Examples: WO2007103849 (fig.2B), EP1890507

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Telephonic communication; Supervisory, monitoring, or testing arrangements in automatic or semi-automatic exchanges

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received; testing correct operation

Line transmission systems; Monitoring; Testing

Transmission of information-carrying signals; Monitoring; Testing

Arrangements for testing electric properties

Selective content distribution; detecting features or characteristics in audio or video streams

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details

Testing presence of Network Address Translation "NAT", e.g. STUN, TURN, MMUSIC/ICE

Software testing in computer systems

Selecting arrangements for multiplex systems; Using optical techniques; Testing; Monitoring

Time-division multiplex systems; Provisions for broadband connections in integrated services digital network using frames of the Optical Transport Network (OTN) or using synchronous transfer mode (STM), e.g. SONET, SDH; Testing

Alarm or event or notifications correlation; root cause analysis; by additionally acting on or stimulating the network after receiving notifications

Testing of service level quality

Active monitoring (, e.g. heartbeat protocols or polling or ping or trace-route )

Protocol analyzers

{Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks (specially adapted for wireless routing H04W 40/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks (specially adapted for wireless routing

{Traffic regulation in packet switching networks (arrangements for detecting or correcting errors in the information received H04L 1/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Traffic regulation in packet switching networks (arrangements for detecting or correcting errors in the information received

{Packet switching elements (selecting arrangements for multiplex arrangements using optical switching H04Q 11/0001)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Packet switching elements (selecting arrangements for multiplex arrangements using optical switching

{Network arrangements or network protocols for addressing or naming}
Definition statement
This group covers:

The following aspects of addressing and naming in data networks:

  • Conversion and mapping of addresses, which includes mapping between different types of addresses, e.g. ARP or mapping between telephone numbers and IP addresses and mapping between the same type of addresses, e.g. NAT;
  • Directories and name-to-address resolution, e.g. DNS, LDAP, X.500, address books;
  • Allocation of addresses, e.g. DHCP;
  • Logical names, in particular aspects relating to the registration, conversion and structure of e.g. domain names, e-mail addresses, SIP-URIs etc.;
  • Non-standard use of addresses implementing a special functionality, e.g. QoS, billing etc.
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Accessing, addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures

Bus transfer protocol, e.g. handshake; Synchronisation

Information retrieval from the Internet by using information identifiers, e.g. URLs

Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks

Interconnection arrangements between switching centres

Network addressing or numbering for mobility support

Network layer protocols in wireless communication networks, e.g. mobile IP

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protocols for interworking or protocol conversion

Directory assistance systems

Details of addressing, directories or routing tables of networks other than PSTN/ISDN providing telephone service, e.g. Voice over Internet Protocol

Details of addressing, directories or routing tables for working between exchanges having different types of switching equipment, where the types of switching equipment comprises PSTN/ISDN equipment and switching equipment of networks other than PSTN/ISDN,

Information retrieval using distributed data base systems

Network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications; Signalling, control or architecture; Session control; Registration

Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications; Service discovery or service management

Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications; Presence management

Message switching systems, e.g. electronic mail systems

Exchanging configuration information on appliance services in a home automation network

Processing of mobility data,Registration at HLR or HSS

Telephone directories in user terminals

Arrangements for maintenance or administration or management of packet switchingnetworks; Configuration management of network or network elements

Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications involving the movement of software and/or configuration parameters

Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network

Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications adapted for proprietary or special purpose networking environments

Data switching networks characterised by a path configuration; Bus networks

Network topologies; Self-organizing networks, e.g. ad-hoc networks or sensor networks

Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles for supply of electrical power to vehicle subsystemsusing multiplexing techniques

Data switching networks; Arrangements for providing special services to substations for broadcast or conference

Network layer protocols in wireless communication networks, e.g. mobile IP

Network data management; Mobility data transfer

Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network for accessing one among a plurality of replicated servers, e.g. load balancing

Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for the provision of proxy services, e.g. intermediate processing or storage in the network

Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for separating internal from external traffic, e.g. firewalls

Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating throughdata packet networks

Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for separating internal from external traffic; Firewall traversal, e.g. tunneling or creating pinholes

Network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications

Arrangements for maintenance or administration or management of packet switchingnetworks using standardized network management protocols

Data switching networks characterised by a path configuration; Home automation networks

Data switching networks characterised by a path configuration; Interconnection of networks using encapsulation techniques, e.g. tunneling

Administration, e.g. office automation or reservations

Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce

Devices specially adapted for wireless communication networks

High-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus

Network addressing or numbering for mobility support

Devices specially adapted for wireless communication networks adapted for operation in multiple networks

Registration; Multiple registrations, e.g. multihoming

Special rules of classification within this group
Synonyms and Keywords

ARP

Address Resolution Protocol

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DNS

Domain Name System

GRUU

Globally Routable UA URI

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

NAT

Network Address Translation

RARP

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

STUN

Session Traversal Utilities for NAT

TURN

Traversal Using Relay NAT

URI

Uniform Resource Identifier

{Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00 ; network architectures or network communication protocols for wireless network security H04W 12/00 ; security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity G06F 21/00)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Networking architectures and network communication protocols for securing the traffic flowing through data packet networks and providing secure exchanges among applications communicating through data packet networks. The group covers specifically network architectures and network communication protocols for supporting:

  • filtering (e.g. transferring, blocking, dropping) traffic according to security rules;
  • authenticating and authorizing the entities sending and/or receiving the traffic;
  • protecting the data packets against unauthorized reading or modification;
  • detecting intruders and preventing the transmission of unauthorized, malicious or forged packets;
  • lawful interception for legally authorised parties to access protected information.

H04L 63/00 focuses on network architectures (i.e. network entities involved, roles played by these entities) and network communication protocols (i.e. how these network entities communicate) regardless of the specifics of the cryptographic mechanism used.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04W 12/00 Wireless networking architectures and wireless network communication protocols for securing the traffic flowing through wireless data packet networks and providing secure exchanges among applications communicating through wireless data packet networks. The group covers

specifically wireless network architectures and wireless network

communication protocols for supporting:

  • Authenticating and authorizing the entities sending and/or receiving the traffic;
  • Protecting the data packets against unauthorized reading or modification;
  • Detecting intruders, rogue entities and preventing the transmission of unauthorized, malicious or forged packets;
  • Lawful interception for legally authorised parties to access protected information.

H04W 12/00 focuses on wireless network architectures (i.e. wireless network entities involved, roles played by these entities) and wireless network communication protocols (i.e. how these network entities communicate) regardless of the specifics of the cryptographic mechanism used.

Details for wireless network security are classified where appropriate by the combination of H04W 12/00 subgroup and H04L 63/00 detailed subgroup.

H04L 12/22 subject-matter is always classified in the corresponding subclasses of H04L 63/00 and or H04W 12/00.

H04L 9/00 Cryptographic mechanisms including cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms, whereby a cryptographic protocol is a distributed cryptographic algorithm defined by a sequence of steps precisely specifying the actions required of two or more entities to achieve specific security objectives (e.g. cryptographic protocol for key agreement), and whereby a cryptographic algorithm is specifying the steps followed by a single entity to achieve specific security objectives (e.g. cryptographic algorithm for symmetric key encryption).

H04L 9/00 focuses on cryptographic mechanisms such as encryption schemes, digital signatures, hash functions, random number generation, key management, said cryptographic mechanisms providing information security such as privacy or confidentiality, data integrity, message authentication, entity authentication, authorization, validation, certification, time-stamping, anonymity, revocation, non-repudiation.

H04L 9/00 covers also countermeasures against attacks on cryptographic mechanisms.

G06F 21/00 Security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity, where the network communication aspect is not important.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Registering, indicating or recording the time of events or elapsed time, e.g. time-recorders for work people

Security in Network Management, e.g. restricting network management access

Non security aspects of network monitoring arrangements, in particular data switching networks monitoring arrangements involving a reduction of monitoring data using filtering

Non security aspects of VPN are classified in

Protection against unsolicited messages, e.g. Spam

Non security aspects of communications control adapted for proprietary and special purpose networking

Unsolicited communication attempts in real-rime communications, e.g. SPIT = Spam in IP Telephony

Lawful interception of POTS calls

Secrecy in the context of scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like

Security in selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD

Secrecy and Subscription systems in television systems

cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication

network architectures or network communication protocols for wireless network security

security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity

Systems for paying without using coins or banknotes, e.g. smart cards.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Documents related to vehicle alarm

Documents related to electronic door lock

Payment schemes, architectures or protocols

Documents related to burglar, theft and intruder alarm

Documents related to combined burglar and fire alarm

Documents related to alarm, in which the location of the alarm is signalled to a central station

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification of the additional aspects of an application in H04L 63/00 is mandatory.

In some cases specific protocols (e.g. IPsec, EAP, TLS) and/or architectures (firewalls, AAA) are used. In other cases existing network protocols, architectures and services are modified to achieve the security goals. In such cases, the documents are classified both in the corresponding security subgroups and in the respective application subgroups of e.g. addressing H04L 61/00, mobile services H04W 4/00, routing H04L 47/00 or cryptographic mechanisms H04L 9/00).

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

RFC 4949

Internet Security Glossary, Version 2; definition of Internet Security Terms

{for separating internal from external traffic, e.g. firewalls}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Here are classified the documents related to the (logical) separation of traffic/(sub-) networks to achieve protection.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

ALG

Application Level Gateway

{Architectural arrangements, e.g. perimeter networks or demilitarized zones}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Here are classified devices and arrangements like firewalls, perimeter networks, bastion hosts, demilitarized zones, etc that are placed at the interface between two or more (sub-)networks, usually a private network (e.g. Intranet) and the public network.

{Distributed architectures, e.g. distributed firewalls}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Systems where every host, e.g. network interface card or dedicated security box, includes firewall capabilities or systems where firewalls communicate to share attack information and improve their efficiency.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple firewall nodes (cluster) for high-availability or load-distribution

{Filtering policies (mail message filtering H04L 12/585)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to how traffic is filtered.

{Filtering by address, protocol, port number or service, e.g. IP-address or URL}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Filtering of traffic based on address information, e.g. IP-address or URL or packet header information, e.g. protocol number or port number.

{Filtering by information in the payload}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Filtering of information is performed based on the contents of the application payload.

Documents referring to content filtering in general and just mentioning virus scanning as a possible application are also classified here

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When the application payload is inspected specifically to detect viruses, worms, exploits etc, the documents are classified in

Parental control, rating systems etc where the filtering depends on user or machine profile are also classified in

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Specialized CPUs or hardware for application information filtering/parsing

{Stateful filtering}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stateful firewall keeping track of the state of network connections, e.g. TCP streams, travelling across it being able to filter packets according rules and/or taking appropriate action (e.g. cleaning, discarding, forwarding).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Monitoring of connection state to detect and mitigate attacks (e.g. SYN attacks)

{Rule management}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aspects related to how the filtering rules are organized, defined, evaluated or added in a firewall are classified here.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Rule management in the sense of access control rules to access to network resources (authorisation)

Security policies in general

{Virtual private networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Restricted-use, logical networks constructed from the system resources of a relatively public, physical network, e.g.Internet, realised e.g. using encryption or tunnelling links of the virtual network across the real network, e.g. using IPsec ESP between security gateways.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non security aspects of VPN

{Proxies}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Relaying protocol(s) between e.g. client and server systems, by appearing to the client to be the server and appearing to the server to be the client.

Instead of a client in the protected enclave connecting directly to an external server, the internal client connects to the proxy server which in turn connects to the external server. The proxy may be transparent to the clients, or they may need to connect first to the proxy server, and then use that association to also initiate a connection to the real server. Proxies may provide protocol/application specific functionality (e.g. HTTP Proxy) or may provide generic connection services (e.g. SOCKS). Proxies can provide security service beyond that which is normally part of the relayed protocol, such as access control based on peer entity authentication of clients, or peer entity authentication of servers when clients do not have that capability. These aspects should be classified in the appropriate sub-groups.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non security aspects of proxies where processing is performed in an intermediate network node

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Using a proxy for authentication is classified here in combination with H04L 63/08 (and subgroups).

{Firewall traversal, e.g. tunnelling or, creating pinholes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The mechanisms for achieving connections through firewalls are classified here, e.g. tunnelling the application protocol in a protocol that is allowed through the firewall (e.g. HTTP, SMTP) or using of an application layer gateway which understands the application message and opens the appropriate pinholes in the firewall.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non secure NAT traversal

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

For some documents H04L 63/0281 is also to assign.

{for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network architectures and communication protocols for implementing confidentiality of information transmitted over a data packet network, most often by applying cryptographic mechanisms. Also classified here are networking architectures and protocols for anonymous communications.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Confidential data exchange adapted to wireless networks

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or algorithms per se

{wherein the identity of one or more communicating identities is hidden (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for anonymous credentials or for identity based cryptographic systems H04L 9/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Protecting the identity of a party (origin or destination) against disclosure to a third party (eavesdropper) or the other party.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protecting personal data on a computer, e.g. for financial or medical purposes

{during transmission, i.e. party's identity is protected against eavesdropping, e.g. by using temporary identifiers, but is known to the other party or parties involved in the communication}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The identity is only known to the other party or parties involved in the communication. Protecting the party's identity usually involves specific techniques which are different from message confidentiality, since the identity is used for routing and authentication purposes.

{Anonymous communication, i.e. the party's identifiers are hidden from the other party or parties, e.g. using an anonymizer}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The identity of one of the parties is not disclosed to the other party. Some techniques involve the use of aliases, anonymizer proxies, onion routing, etc.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic techniques for anonymity, e.g. electronic voting, cryptographic pseudonyms

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protecting personal data on a computer by anonymising

{wherein the data content is protected e.g. by encrypting or encapsulating the payload}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Communication protocols used to protect the information exchanged through networks. Also are classified here architectural arrangements to achieve the protection, e.g. encryption proxies. The subgroups identify specific techniques therefore.

{wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply hybrid encryption, i.e. combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements using a plurality of keys or algorithms H04L 9/14)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Symmetric and asymmetric encryption is combined. Usually symmetric encryption is used to protect the message and the symmetric (session) key is encrypted using asymmetric encryption, so no one other than the intended recipient can "open" the message.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms using a plurality of keys or algorithms

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

digital envelope

the combination of the encrypted data and the encrypted key

{wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply dynamic encryption, e.g. stream encryption (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for stream encryption H04L 9/065)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stream encryption, i.e. serially and continuously modifying data streams.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms for stream encryption

{Networking architectures for enhanced packet encryption processing, e.g. offloading of IPsec packet processing or efficient security association look-up}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hardware and software architectures, e.g. IPsec offloading, specifically adapted for improving the process of encrypting and decrypting packets and handling the security association tables.

{for supporting key management in a packet data network (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key management H04L 9/08)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network architectures and communication protocols for negotiation, transport, validation, or update of security keys or credentials (i.e. specific network entities involved and the network protocols used) regardless of whether they are used for confidentiality (privacy), authentication, access control or for integrity validations in order to strictly differentiate between the initialisation phase (i.e., key distribution/exchange phase) of any secure communication and the secure communication itself.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Key management specially adapted for wireless networks

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms for key management

{for key exchange, e.g. in peer-to-peer networks (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key agreement H04L 9/0838)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Exchanging the respective security keys directly between two communicating parties such as e.g. in peer-to-peer networks.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

The cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key agreement

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Typical standardised protocols for key exchange are IKE (Internet Key Exchange) or ISAKMP (Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol).

{for key distribution, e.g. centrally by trusted party (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key distribution involving a central third party H04L 9/0819)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Distributing the respective security keys from a central trusted party such as a Key Distribution Centre (KDC) to the attached network nodes. A typical (hierarchical) architecture for key distribution is represented by PKI (Public Key Infrastructure).

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

The cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key distribution involving a central third party

{for group communications (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key management involving conference or group key H04L 9/0833)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Key exchange or distribution within multicast/broadcast networks typically by using a group key for confidentiality and/or authentication purposes (typical protocol standard: Group Key Management Protocol GKMP).

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key management involving conference or group key

{using one-time keys (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for generation of one-time passwords H04L 9/0863)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Keys are only used once.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for generation of one-time passwords

{using time-dependent keys, e.g. periodically changing keys (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for controlling usage of secret information H04L 9/088)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Periodically changing keys, e.g., based on time stamps.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The aspects related to password renewal

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for controlling usage of secret information

{for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication H04L 9/32)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Verifying the identity of a user, device or application trying to gain access to (resources of) a network or documents describing authentication protocols and specific network architectures therefore.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Authentication specially adapted for wireless networks

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms for entity authentication

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Those documents where the network aspects are not relevant

Active credit-cards provided with means to personalise their use

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

The selection of an authentication mechanism is classified in H04L 63/08 in combination with H04L 63/205 or H04L 69/24.

Using a proxy for authentication is classified here in combination with H04L 63/0281.

Authentication using multiple network paths is classified in appropriate H04L 63/08 subgroup in combination with H04L 63/18.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Authentication

Identify if the entity is the one he/she claims to be. Remark: authentication and authorisation are sometimes used with the other meaning in patent literature as well as in non patent literature

{using tickets, e.g. Kerberos (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication using tickets or tokens H04L 9/3213)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ticket-based authentication mechanisms, e.g. Kerberos, SESAME. Tickets may be transmitted in different ways, e.g. in a cookie.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When the same ticket enables the authentication to a plurality of network resources, e.g. Single-Sign-On

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication using tickets or tokens

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital data processing restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users, devices or programs using a predetermined code using a certificate from a trusted centre or via a trusted hierarchical route

{providing single-sign-on or federations}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mechanisms where a user/device supplies a single authentication credential and gets access to a plurality of resources in a network.

{using certificates (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication involving certificates H04L 9/3263)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Authentication is based on certificates; also issuing or retrieval of certificates.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication involving certificates

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer user authentication using certificates

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Documents related to the use of certificates for authorization (e.g. attribute certificates) are classified in combination with H04L 63/10.

{using passwords (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication using a predetermined code H04L 9/3226)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

If string of characters, not only actual words, but also passcodes (like PIN), software tokens or keys, is used for authentication.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication using a predetermined code

{using time-dependent-passwords, e.g. periodically changing passwords}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Time synchronisation exists between e.g. the supplicant and the authenticator or periodically changing passwords or password expiration or password ageing aspects.

{using an additional device, e.g. smartcard, SIM or a different communication terminal (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication involving additional secure or trusted devices H04L 9/3234)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The authentication is performed using additional devices, e.g. smartcards, SIM or similar devices for authentication, an additional communication device (e.g. using a mobile telephone for authenticating a session established through a computer connected to a data network)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital data processing restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users, devices or programs using a predetermined code in combination with an additional device

Payment schemes, architectures or protocol characterised by the use of a wireless device

Active credit cards provided with means to personalise their use, e.g. with PIN-introduction/comparison system

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

When the additional device establishes an additional channel for performing the authentication, the document is also classified in H04L 63/18

{using biometrical features, e.g. fingerprint, retina-scan (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for entity authentication using biological data H04L 9/3231)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Authentication in network or networks based on biometric features e.g. fingerprint, retina-scan

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements entity authentication using biological data

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

User authentication on a computer using biometric features

{for achieving mutual authentication (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for mutual authentication H04L 9/3273)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Authentication of both parties communicating over network.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for mutual authentication

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mutual authentication between programs

{based on the identity of the terminal or configuration, e.g. MAC address, hardware or software configuration or device fingerprint}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The authentication is performed based on the identity of the terminal e.g. MAC address or other address or configuration of hardware or software or device fingerprint.

{by delegation of authentication, e.g. a proxy authenticates an entity to be authenticated on behalf of this entity vis-?-vis an authentication entity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The authentication is delegated to another entity which acts on behalf of the entity to be authenticated.

{by using authentication-authorization-accounting [AAA] servers or protocols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

AAA servers or protocols are used to authenticate entities.

{for controlling access to network resources (restricting network management access H04L 12/2461)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mechanisms to allow or restrict the access to a network or to some network elements or resources, for example by restricting access to a particular group of computers or contents based on their address or based on the identity of the network user (e.g. list of forbidden websites, parental control).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Access control in wireless networks

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Restricting network management access

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection of software on a computer against unauthorized usage (e.g. DRM)

Protection of data on a computer against unauthorized access or modification

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Authorisation

Identify which rights are assigned to an entity. Remark: authentication and authorisation are sometimes used with the other meaning in patent literature as well as in non patent literature

{Access control lists [ACL]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Authorization is implemented via access control lists.

{Entity profiles}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Documents are classified here when they focus on the use of entity profiles, e.g. device profiles or user profiles to manage access decisions. Also documents related to identity management are classified here.

{Grouping of entities}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mechanisms for implementing access control to group or groups of entities.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Role based access control (each entity is associated to a group/role, and each role has a different privilege level)

{Multiple levels of security}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mechanisms for implementing multiple levels of security or different access rights according to entities (e.g. device or user) security clearance, to security profiles, roles or to security perimeters (i.e. different zones of a network need different security clearance/levels; data pump i.e. low level security is able to communicate with higher level and not vice versa)

{wherein the security policies are location-dependent, e.g. entities privileges depend on current location or allowing specific operations only from locally connected terminals}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Security policies being different for a user or an entity dependent on the current location

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mobile application services making use of the location of users or terminals

{Applying verification of the received information (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for data integrity or data verification H04L 9/32)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network architectures and communication protocols mechanisms, e.g. signatures, MIC/MAC codes and others more, for guarantying the integrity of the information exchanged through a packet data network are classified here. Both the aspect of verifying the content and the identity of the source are classified here. Documents emphasizing one of the sub-aspects are classified in the corresponding subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When specially adapted to wireless networks

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for data integrity and verification

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protecting data on a computer against unauthorised access or modification, protecting integrity

{received data contents, e.g. message integrity}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network ensures that the content has not been tampered with during transmission through the network.

{the source of the received data}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Verification of the identity of the original source of received data is applied (non-repudiation with proof of origin, non-repudiation with proof of receipt, trust level of identity and/or source).

{for detecting or protecting against malicious traffic}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection and protection against network attacks.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Detection and protection aspects specific of wireless networks (e.g. detection of rogue entities, access points); if appropriate, the corresponding H04L 63/14 subgroup is also to assign.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Intrusion is detected based on the activity within a computer (e.g. controlling the memory access, watching the execution of the programs, watching traces of failed login attempts, etc.), this is what usually is referred to in the bibliography as Host-based IDS

Virus detection algorithms within a computer

{by monitoring network traffic (monitoring network traffic per se H04L 12/2602)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection of attacks involves monitoring the traffic on the network. Detection can be performed by different means; anomaly detection (comparing monitored traffic against normal traffic); misuse detection (detecting specific traces which imply an attack).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General traffic monitoring aspects

{Event detection, e.g. attack signature detection}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Real time detection of attacks or intrusion attempts (e.g. "misuse detection").

{Traffic logging, e.g. anomaly detection}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Traffic logging for security purposes (e.g. detecting normal or anomalous behaviour; comparing behaviour; offline analysis using data mining, network security audit); non-real detection for deferred analysis.

{Vulnerability analysis}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Active probing of the network looking for vulnerable points, e.g. performing port scans, sending malformed packets and checking if they are detected.

{Countermeasures against malicious traffic (countermeasures against attacks on cryptographic mechanisms H04L 9/002)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection and mitigation of particular types of attacks.

{Denial of Service}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mitigation of denial of service attacks (also referred to as flooding, overload or congestion attacks) are classified here. Some techniques involve identification of the path followed by the attack. Some other techniques include rate limitation (throttling) or QoS (separation in different class of service). Some documents relate to black-hole attacks, wherein a malicious node discards all or part of the traffic (black-hole, gray-hole, worm-hole).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For QoS may be also relevant

Ad-hoc environments

{Active attacks involving interception, injection, modification, spoofing of data unit addresses, e.g. hijacking, packet injection or TCP sequence number attacks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Protection against active wire tapping in which the attacker attempts to seize control of a communication association, e.g. packet injection or modifying, hijacking sessions, TCP sequence number attacks, piggyback attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, spoofing etc.

{Passive attacks, e.g. eavesdropping or listening without modification of the traffic monitored}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Passively monitoring an existing session without the session participants noticing; e.g. eavesdropping or listening without modification of the traffic monitored.

{service impersonation, e.g. phishing, pharming or web spoofing (detection of rogue wireless access points H04W 12/12)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Detection of rogue access point

{Implementing security features at a particular protocol layer}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Security solution is specific to a certain layer.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Particular aspects of OSI layers in general

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This entries provides additional information. The documents classified here will also have a subgroup in further appropriate network security subgroup or subgroups.

{using different networks or paths for security, e.g. using out of band channels (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key distribution involving distinctive intermediate devices or communication paths H04L 9/0827 ; cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for authentication using a plurality of channels H04L 9/3215)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Network traffic is secured by transmitting information through different paths of networks are classified here.

Two examples are:

  • placing an order over the internet and using a telephone to communicate credit card information,
  • or using a password received via SMS to obtain access to a remote computer
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for authentication using a plurality of channels

{for managing network security; network security policies in general (filtering policies H04L 63/0227)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Management of network security or network security policies, e.g. managed services, deciding where to put firewalls, which data to encrypt, which authentication method to use, etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Security of network management functions, e.g. restricting network management access

Negotiation of communication capabilities in general

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Packet filtering policies H04L 63/0227 and subgroups.

The classification in combination with H04L 63/08, H04L 63/04, H04L 63/10 is given to documents involving the selection of a particular authentication or confidentiality methods or access privileges by negotiation, according to capabilities or policies.

{involving negotiation or determination of the one or more network security mechanisms to be used, e.g. by negotiation between the client and the server or between peers or by selection according to the capabilities of the entities involved (negotiation of communication capabilities H04L 69/24)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Negotiation or determination between networking entities of the one or more network security algorithms to be used.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Negotiation of communication capabilities in general

{for supporting lawful interception, monitoring or retaining of communications or communication related information (circuit switched telephony call monitoring H04M 3/2281)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Lawful interception; monitoring or retaining of communications or commnication related information

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lawful interception of Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS)

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Handover Interface

Lawful interception handover interface HI1, HI2, and HI3 to hand over warrant, intercept related information and communication content between service provider and lawful authorities

{gathering intelligence information for situation awareness or reconnaissance}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Gathering intelligence information for situation awareness or reconnaissance, tactical control or intelligence concepts.

{intercepting circuit switched data communications (lawful interception of wireless network communications H04W 12/02)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lawful interception of wireless communication

{Network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications (computer conference H04L 12/1813 ; real time or near real time messaging in message switching systems e.g. instant messaging H04L 12/581 ; television systems H04N 7/00 ; selective video distribution H04N 21/00; interconnection arrangements between switching centres for working between exchanges having different types of switching equipment where the types of switching equipment comprise PSTN/ISDN equipment and equipment of networks other than PSTN/ISDN H04M 7/1205 ; systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers H04M 3/42 ; network applications in general H04L 67/00)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Only communications which fulfill the following two conditions:

  • They are based on packet data;
  • There is real-time or pseudo-real-time temporal association between source and destination, or source and network, or destination and network.
  • Provided that the above two conditions are met, this group covers arrangements relating to:
  • The transmission of the multimedia data itself,
  • The user-to-user, user-to-network, inter-network or intra-network signalling supporting,
  • The establishment of a session for the subsequent transmission of the multimedia data, or
  • The maintenance of the session or
  • The application services available to the user during the session (unless explicitly excluded in certain cases).
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Generally H04L 65/00 has relationships with the following general areas: H04L 67/00, H04L 69/00, H04N 21/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 5/00, H04L 12/18, H04L 12/58, H04L 12/24, H04L 12/26, H04M, H04Q 11/00.

As already mentioned, Real Time Multimedia Communications within the context of H04L 65/00 cover communications which have the following two characteristics:

  • Data Packet based;
  • Real-time or pseudo-real-time temporal association between source and destination, or source and network or destination and network.

The above definition covers both the arrangements or protocols related to the transmission of the multimedia data itself, as well as the user-to-user or user-to-network signalling supporting the establishment of a session for the subsequent transmission of the multimedia data, the maintenance of the session and the application services available to the user during the session (unless explicitly excluded in certain cases). The above definition/limitation of the scope of H04L 65/00 must always be borne in mind in interpreting the relationship of H04L 65/00 with all other fields.

Excluded from the scope of H04L 65/00 are arrangements for multimodal data communications which do not have the above two characteristics.

Examples of what is excluded are (if not in combination with a communication arrangement covered by the above definition, as in e.g. combinational or collaboration systems):

  • Non-real-time multimedia file transfer (H04L 67/06);
  • Multimedia Store and Forward Messaging as in e-mail, MMS, etc. (H04L 12/58);
  • Analogue multimedia streaming, e.g., in analogue television (H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00));
  • Bit streaming (i.e. not packet) as in ISDN (H04Q11/40).

Relationship between H04L 65/00 and legacy telephony (H04M)

Specifically, the dividing line between legacy telephony covered by subclass H04M and packet-based multimedia telephony in its wider sense (i.e. both video and voice interactive communication between persons) covered by subgroup H04L 65/00 is defined as:

  • Systems and arrangements in which the legacy non-packet-based core telephony network (circuit switched PSTN or ISDN) represents a major part, are covered by the appropriate H04M subclass entries;
  • Systems and arrangements in which the legacy non-packet-based core telephony network (circuit switched PSTN or ISDN) represents a trivial or insignificant part or is totally absent, and the packet-based network (e.g. Internet, IMS) represents the only or the major and the most significant part are covered by the H04L 65/00;
  • Signalling adaptation-interworking between SIP and SS7 is covered by H04M 7/00.

Examples of H04M - H04L 65/00 interface are:

  • A CPE gateway or Terminal Adapter allowing a legacy user telephone device to connect to the packet-based network is covered by H04L 65/00;
  • A signalling gateway interfacing two core networks, one legacy and one packet-based (e.g. SIP-SS7 gateway) is covered by H04M;
  • A transparent IP pipe interconnecting two legacy circuit switched networks, with no details on the IP pipe itself, is normally covered by H04M;
  • A transparent dial-up or leased circuit-switched line interconnecting two packet-based networks, with no details on the dial-up circuit-switched line itself, is normally covered by H04L 65/00;
  • An IP-gateway allowing a call to be selectively branched off to either a legacy network or a packet-based network is normally covered by H04M. However, if no significant details of the legacy network aspects are discussed apart from it being mentioned as an alternative, the IP-gateway may be covered by H04L 65/00.

Further comments and explanations regarding the H04L 65/00 subgroup and its relations with other related classes:

In order to avoid confusion with classes of other neighbouring fields, whose definitions use wording similar to that used in this class, references to these fields will be mentioned with specific disclaimers if possible. In case a reference is unintentionally omitted, the above defined limitation in the scope of the H04L 65/00 subclass entries must always be borne in mind.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Multimedia store or forward messaging as in e-mail, MMS or the like

Instant messaging

Non-real-time multimedia file transfer

Analogue multimedia streaming, as in analogue television systems

Bit streaming, i.e. not packet-based, as in ISDN

computer conference

interconnection arrangements between switching centres for working between exchanges having different types of switching equipment where the types of switching equipment comprise PSTN/ISDN equipment and equipment of networks other than PSTN/ISDN

systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers

network applications in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for broadcast or distribution combined with broadcast

Arrangements for broadcast applications with a direct linkage of broadcast information

Data switching systems for broadcast or conference

Data network management

Data network testing or monitoring

Flow control

Message switching systems

Instant messaging

Arrangements for connecting between networks having differing types of switching systems

Arrangements for addressing or naming in data networks

Arrangements for network security

Network applications in general

WEB based applications

Adaptation for terminals and/or networks with limited resources or for terminal portability

Non-real-time multimedia file transfer

Terminal emulation

Arrangements to access one among a plurality of replicated servers, e.g. load balancing

Arrangements for peer-to-peer networking in network applications

Non-real-time session management in network applications

Network application being adapted for the location of the user terminal

Arrangements for push based network services

Intermediate processing in the network with arrangements for data reduction or adaptation

Terminal profiles

Arrangements for scheduling or organising the servicing of requests whereby quality of service or priority requirements are taken into account

Telewriting, virtual reality or network gaming

Protocols for data compression

Protocols for interworking or protocol conversion

Multichannel or multilink protocols

Header parsing or analysis

Negotiation of communication capabilities

Substation equipment for use by subscribers

Systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers

Circuit switched PBXs

Arrangements for screening incoming telephone calls

Information services comprising voice

Contact center services

Telephonic conference systems

Services and arrangements where telephone services are combined with data services

PBX networks

Interconnection arrangements between switching centres for working between exchanges having different types of switching equipment where the types of switching equipment comprise PSTN/ISDN equipment and equipment of networks other than PSTN/ISDN

Decomposed PSTN/ISDN-IP gateways

Television systems in general

Television conferencing systems

Television systems using two way working

Transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

Bit streaming, i.e. not packet-based, as in ISDN

Selecting or control in telephonic networks

Wireless communication networks in general

Wireless location based services

Push-to-Talk services in wireless networks

Special rules of classification within this group

The different entries and subentries of H04L 65/00 are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, a document has to be normally assigned more than one classes. For instance, a document describing the SIP call setup for a distributed control conference, the conference at first being audio only and later adding video as well, will be assigned the classes: H04L 65/1006 (SIP), H04L 65/1069 (session setup), H04L 65/4046 (Distributed controlled conference) and H04L 65/1089 (Adding or removing media).

When an entry is further subdivided in subentries, documents which are relevant to the subentries should be classified directly in these subentries. Documents relevant to the parent entry but not to any of its subentries, should be classified in the parent entry, unless a subentry called "other" exists.

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

H.323

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation no. 323, series H, entitled "Packet-based multimedia communications systems"

IP

Internet Protocol

IMS

IP Multimedia Subsystem

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

MGC

Media Gateway Control/Controller

MGCP

Media Gateway Control Protocol

MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service

PBX

Private Branch Exchange

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

QoS

QoS means Quality of Service

RTP

Real Time Protocol

RTCP

Real Time Control Protocol

RTSP

Real Time Streaming Protocol

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

SPAM

unsolicited electronic mail

SPIT

SPAM Prevention in IP Telephony

{Signalling, control or architecture (selecting or control in telephonic networks H04Q 3/00 ; data network management H04L 12/24 ; data network testing or monitoring H04L 12/26 ; admission control or resource reservation in packet switching networks H04L 12/5695 ; control signalling related to video distribution H04N 21/63)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

selecting or control in telephonic networks

data network management

data network testing or monitoring

admission control or resource reservation in packet switching networks

control signalling related to video distribution

Special rules of classification within this group

This parent class is not used unless the document cannot be classified in any of its dependent subclasses.

{Signalling or session protocols}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All packet-based signalling protocols for packet-based networks, current and future, although only SIP and H.323 families of protocols are explicitly identified at present. The SIP and H.323 families of protocols are classified in their specific dependent subclasses All non-SIP and non-H.323 protocols for signalling and session management are classified in this parent class. SIP and H.323 are classified in their dedicated dependent subclasses.

{SIP}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

IETF SIP family of protocols, including SDP, etc.

Also, for background information on the SIP standard, please check XP007915526. This is the annotated version of the standard that gives additional explanation.

{H.323}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

H.323 ITU family of protocols.

{Network architectures, gateways, control or user entities}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Architectures and all entities, whether in the network or near and at the customer premises, identified at present as being part of packet-based multimedia systems and networks. Functionalities and services provided by these entities may also be classified in H04L 65/40-H04L 65/4092 and H04L 65/60 - H04L 65/608.

This parent class is only used if the document cannot be classified in any of its dependent subclasses.

{IMS (wireless communication networks H04W)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Repository of all IMS documents. Depending on its content an IMS related document which also describes an important entity service or functionality may also be classified in one of the other classes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

wireless communication networks

{Gateways (arrangements for connecting between networks having differing types of switching systems, e.g. gateways H04L 12/66)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Gateway is an inter-working entity providing some degree of adaptation between otherwise incompatible entities or networks. An entity providing pure media manipulation (e.g. multiplexing of packets, media resolution optimisation, etc.) does not normally fall within this definition of a gateway. Such functionality is normally covered by H04L 65/60 - H04L 65/608. This parent class is only used if the document cannot be classified in any of its dependent subclasses.

{Media gateways}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Gateways specifically providing media adaptation (e.g. codec incompatibility, analogue to packet voice or video, etc. If the document specifically identifies the position of the gateway within the network, then one of the following dependent classes must be given.

{at the edge}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The media gateway is near or at the customer premises, e.g. a document describing the media adaptation functionalities of an ATA or a Residential Gateway.

{in the network}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The media gateway is within the core network.

{Signalling gateways}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Gateways specifically providing signalling adaptation (e.g. SIP to H.323). Note: any adaptation to and from SS7 is covered by H04M 7/00. If the document specifically identifies the position of the gateway within the network, then one of the following dependent classes must be given.

{at the edge}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The signalling gateway is near or at the customer premises, e.g. a document describing the signalling adaptation functionalities of an ATA or a Residential Gateway.

{at the edge}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The signalling gateway is within the core network.

{MGC, MGCP or Megaco (decomposed PSTN/ISDN-IP gateways H04M 7/1255)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

MGCs using MCGP, Megaco, H.248, etc. The full MGCP-H.248-MEGACO family of protocols is covered by this class.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

decomposed PSTN/ISDN-IP gateways

{Call controllers; Call servers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All different Call Controlling entities providing e.g. resource reservation. Note that MGCs in particular are covered by the previous class.

{Proxies, e.g. SIP proxies}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of entities acting on behalf of the user agent, e.g. SIP proxies, P-CSCF in IMS etc.

{Arrangements providing PBX functionality, e.g. IP PBX (circuit switched PBXs H04M 3/42314 ; PBX networks H04M 7/009)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Entities providing IP PBX- Soft PBX functionality. However, the particular cases of IP PBX arrangements which may be distributed and provide effective local PBX service to users dispersed over multiple remotely located sites are covered by the following class.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Arrangements providing PBX functionality, e.g. IP PBX (circuit switched PBXs

PBX networks

{for multi-site}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

IP PBX arrangements which may be distributed and provide effective local PBX service to users dispersed over multiple remotely located sites, e.g. corporate PBXs.

{End-user terminal functionality (substation equipment for use by subscribers H04M 1/00 ; terminal profiles H04L 67/303 ; terminal emulation H04L 67/08 ; adaptation for terminals with limited resources or for terminal portability H04L 67/04 ; management of video client characteristics H04N 21/258 , H04N 21/4516)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Functionalities of the user terminal associated with the signalling and control of the multimedia session and the handling of the media. Note: constructional details and general features of a user terminal are normally covered by the H04M 1/00 class or other classes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

substation equipment for use by subscribers

terminal profiles

terminal emulation

adaptation for terminals with limited resources or for terminal portability

management of video client characteristics

management of video client characteristics

{Application servers (systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers H04M 3/42)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Application server (AS) entities in the network, providing services to the end users. A document describing details of an application server as well as the services it provides, may also need to be classified in one of the subentries of H04L 65/40 - H04L 65/4092 or in the subentry for FEATURES H04L 65/1096.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers

{Session control (conducting a computer conference e.g. admission, detection, selection or grouping of participants, correlating users to one or more conference session or prioritising transmission H04L 12/1822 ; admission control/resource reservation in packet switching networks H04L 12/5695)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All the signalling and procedures required for a multimedia session of any type (VoIP call, video call, streaming session, conference, etc.) to be prepared, set up, maintained and serviced. Normally this parent class is not used unless none of the subclasses below is suitable.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

conducting a computer conference e.g. admission, detection, selection or grouping of participants, correlating users to one or more conference session or prioritising transmission

admission control/resource reservation in packet switching networks

{Setup (computer conference organisation arrangements, e.g. handling schedules, setting up parameters needed by nodes to attend a conference, booking network resources or notifying involved parties H04L 12/1818 ; session management in network applications H04L 67/14 ; arrangements for peer-to-peer networking in network applications H04L 67/104 ; negotiation of communication capabilities H04L 69/24 ; admission control or resource reservation in packet switching networks H04L 12/5695)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The function of setting up a multimedia session irrespective of the type of the session, i.e. two-party multimedia telephony call, N-way multimedia telephony call, Conference call, etc.; e.g. a document describing a multiparty session setup should be assigned this entry and also at least one of the entries under H04L 65/403 - H04L 65/4053.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

computer conference organisation arrangements, e.g. handling schedules, setting up parameters needed by nodes to attend a conference, booking network resources or notifying involved parties

session management in network applications

arrangements for peer-to-peer networking in network applications

negotiation of communication capabilities

admission control or resource reservation in packet switching networks

{Registration (arrangements for addressing or naming in data networks H04L 61/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The procedure of a user registering in a network. The registration includes all aspects of the end user i.e. addresses, aliases, capabilities, permissions, etc. Note: The details of the registrar directories and the procedures for consulting these directories are covered by H04L 61/00. A document describing both the registration procedure itself and the structure of the directory should be classified both in this entry and in the appropriate H04L 61/00 subentry. This class also covers, re-registration, de-registration, maintaining or refreshing registrations, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

arrangements for addressing or naming in data networks

{Screening (arrangements for screening incoming telephone calls H04M 3/436 ; arrangements for network security H04L 63/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The procedure of admitting or rejecting a call or session setup request, either by the network or the destination. Note: Security-related call admission control is normally covered by the H04L 63/00 class, with the exception of SPIT mentioned below. Also, billing-related call admission control is normally covered by the H04L 12/14 and H04M 9/00 classes. Specifically SPIT is covered by the dedicated subclass below.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

arrangements for screening incoming telephone calls

arrangements for network security

{of unsolicited session attempts, e.g. SPIT (message switching systems, e.g. electronic mail systems, with filtering and selective blocking capabilities H04L 12/585)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Call control specifically associated with the identification of SPAM VoIP calls.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

message switching systems, e.g. electronic mail systems, with filtering and selective blocking capabilities

{In-session procedures (computer conferences, network arrangements for conference optimisation or adaptation H04L 12/1827 ; reactions to resource unavailability in packet switching networks H04L 47/74 ; reallocation or renegotiation of resources in packet switching networks H04L 47/76)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Procedures that take place during the session either with in-band or out-of-band signalling. Procedures related to "Session scope modification" are covered by the explicit subentries that follow. All the other procedures are covered by this entry, including aspects of session (or voice or service) continuity (VCC) and session recording. Session continuity within this scope of this entry covers aspects associated with the signalling at session layer level (SIP, IMS). Lower level session continuity, handoff or handover (including mobile IP level) is covered by H04W 36/0011 .

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

computer conferences, network arrangements for conference optimisation or adaptation

reactions to resource unavailability in packet switching networks

reallocation or renegotiation of resources in packet switching networks

{session scope modification}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Procedures that expand or contract the scope or some aspect of the session. If the expansion or contraction is related to adding or removing media or participants, the following explicit subentries apply. Other aspects (e.g. expanding the BW of the call) are covered by this subentry.

{by adding or removing media}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Adding or removing a real time medium during the call; e.g. adding video to a voice only session.

{by adding or removing participants}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Adding or removing a participant during the call; e.g. adding a 3rd participant to a 2-way call by using the SIP REFER method.

{Features, e.g. call-forwarding or call hold (systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers H04M 3/42)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Features are certain session-related services provided by the network operator that can be (pre)programmed by a subscriber. Examples of legacy features offered by legacy telephony network operators are: Call forwarding, Call hold, Follow-me, etc. Depending on the scope of the features and the network over which they are provided, these features may be covered by this entry or the H04M 3/00 classes. The following table clarifies the distinction between the two classes:

Legacy features provided over legacy type circuit switched networks

Legacy features provided over packet-based networks, but the document describes mainly the "user experience" of the legacy features with insignificant to no details of the signalling involved in the packet-based network.

Legacy features provided over packet-based networks and the document describes details of the "user experience" of the legacy features as well as details of the signalling involved in the packet-based network

Legacy features provided over packet-based networks and the document only concentrates on the details of the signalling involved in the packet-based network without any details of the "user-experience"

New non-legacy features which could not be provided by legacy type networks and can only be offered by new packet-based networks

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers

{Services or applications (systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers H04M 3/42 ; contact center services H04M 3/51 ; information services comprising voice H04M 3/487 ; network service management for ensuring proper service fulfilment H04L 12/2464)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Telephony services provided over legacy circuit switched networks are covered by the H04M 3/00 classes. Documents relating to telephony services provided over VoIP networks, are only covered by this entry if they relate to the VoIP signalling and protocols required for the provision of the services. Documents relating mainly to the “user experience” provided by the services, with little to no information on the VoIP signalling and protocols, are only covered by the H04M 3/00 classes. The following table clarifies the distinction between the two classes:

Services provided over legacy type circuit switched networks

Services provided over VoIP packet-based networks, but the document describes mainly the "user experience" of the information services with insignificant to no details of the signalling involved in the VoIP packet-based network

Information services provided over VoIP packet-based networks and the document describes details of the "user experience" of the information services as well as details of the signalling involved in the VoIP packet-based network

Services provided over VoIP packet-based networks and the document only concentrates on the details of the signalling involved in the packet-based network without any details of the "user experience"

Note, aspects of WEB related information services are also covered by H04L 67/02 (e.g. click-to-dial from within a WEB a page).

This parent class is only used if none of the explicit dependent subclasses below is suitable.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

systems providing special services to telephonic subscribers

contact center services

information services comprising voice

network service management for ensuring proper service fulfilment

{Services involving a main real-time session and one or more additional parallel sessions (real time messaging, e.g. instant messaging, interacting with other applications or services H04L 12/582 ; multichannel or multilink protocols H04L 69/14 ; services and arrangements where telephone services are combined with data services H04M 7/0024)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

During an existing interactive real-time session, another parallel session is initiated and/or maintained. This entry covers the signalling for the initiation and the maintenance for this additional session. Note: adding a medium in an existing session is not considered a parallel session. Note that this subclass is used only if none of the following two explicit children subclasses is suitable.

{where at least one of the additional parallel sessions is real time or time sensitive, e.g. white board sharing, collaboration or spawning of a subconference (telewriting, virtual reality or network gaming H04L 67/38)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This entry involves an additional parallel session which is time sensitive, e.g. the initiation of a parallel session for the streaming of a video clip or for a shared white board for distant learning, etc. Also the spawning of a sub-conference by a participant is also covered by this entry.

Note: the addition of a participant in an existing session is not considered a parallel session, if this new participant becomes a full member of the existing session. Note: Aspects of Tele-writing, Virtual Reality and Network Gaming are also covered by H04L 67/38.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

telewriting, virtual reality or network gaming

{where none of the additional parallel sessions is real time or time sensitive, e.g. downloading a file in a parallel FTP session, initiating an email or combinational services (file transfer H04L 67/06 ; WEB based applications H04L 67/02 ; message switching systems H04L 12/58 ; instant messaging H04L 12/581)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This entry involves an additional parallel session which is not time sensitive, e.g. the initiation of a parallel session for a file transfer using FTP, the sending of an e-mail message, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

file transfer

WEB based applications

message switching systems

instant messaging

{Arrangements for multiparty communication, e.g. conference (television conferencing systems H04N 7/15 ; telephonic conference systems H04M 3/56 ; data switching systems for computer conference H04L 12/1813)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The control and the signalling of a multi-party session. Multi-party sessions, in the context of this entry can be Conferences and N-way calls. The subentries of this class distinguish multiparty communication by the type of floor control used in the session.

It is noted that floor control is defined as the ability of an entity to control when participants are allowed to transmit and receive multimedia data. The ability of a participant to simply mute its own output or input does not by itself constitute floor control.

The following table clarifies the definitions of the different types of floor control in the context of this group:

Floor control

Type of multiparty session

None e.g. everyone can talk to everyone simultaneously or at will

Without floor control

By central entity e.g. Conference bridge or MCU

With central floor control

Always by the same end user terminal

With central floor control

Exchanged between end user terminals e.g. using a token

With distributed floor control

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

television conferencing systems

telephonic conference systems

data switching systems for computer conference

Special rules of classification within this group

A document describing both a multiparty session as well as details of services and applications covered by other entries, should be classified in the other entries also. For example, a document describing setting up a multi party call using SIP, originally between 3 parties, the floor control being exercised by the originating participant with a 4th participant being added during the session, should be assigned the following groups: H04L 65/1006 (SIP), H04L 65/1069 (setup), H04L 65/4038 (conference centrally controlled) and H04L 65/1093 (adding a participant).

Note: The Conference entries of H04L 65/403 relate mainly to the signalling for the setting up, maintenance and the floor control of the Conference session. Other general aspects of the Conference, e.g. handling group membership, etc. are normally covered by the H04L 12/18 group.

Note that this parent group is used only if none of the following three explicit children subgroup is suitable.

{with central floor control (data switching systems for conducting a computer conference, e.g. admission, detection, selection or grouping of participants H04L 12/1822)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

When the document explicitly describes a system/method with central floor control as defined above.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

data switching systems for conducting a computer conference, e.g. admission, detection, selection or grouping of participants

{with distributed floor control}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

When the document explicitly describes a system/method with distributed floor control as defined above.

{without floor control}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

When the document explicitly describes a system/method which has no floor control as defined above.

{"Push-to-X" services (push-to-talk services in wireless networks H04W 4/10 ; connection management, e.g. connection set-up, manipulation or release for push-to-talk or push-on-call services in wireless communication networks H04W 76/005)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Signalling involved to prepare and setup a "Push-To" half duplex one-to-one or one-to-many call. It covers all "Push-to" services like Push-to-Talk (PtT), Push-to-Video (PtV) etc. A document describing a PtT over IMS service should normally be assigned this entry and the H04L 65/1016 entry.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

push-to-talk services in wireless networks

connection management, e.g. connection set-up, manipulation or release for push-to-talk or push-on-call services in wireless communication networks

{Services related to one way streaming}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This entry covers services involving streaming of data from a source to a destination (downstream) and not vice-versa (upstream). It is noted that the notion of one-way streaming is not related to the actual ability of a terminal to also stream in the other direction, but only to the nature of the particular service. A document describing the broadcast streaming of media to terminals is normally covered by a H04L 65/4069 - H04L 65/4092 entry, even though the terminals may be capable to also stream media themselves to other destinations.

This parent class is only used if none of the following two children subclasses is suitable.

{Multicast or broadcast (data switching systems for broadcast or conference H04L 12/18 ; analog television systems in general H04N 7/00 ; creating video channels for a dedicated end-user group H04N 21/2668 ; arrangements for broadcast or distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/00 ; arrangements for broadcast applications with a direct linkage of broadcast information H04H 60/00 ; arrangements for push based network services H04L 67/26)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Media is streamed in the downstream direction from a source to multiple destinations (e.g. from a head-end server to subscriber terminals). Applications that may be covered include DVB-IP, some aspects of WEBcasting, etc. Aspects that are covered by this entry involve the packet streaming protocols, the packet-based signalling, the gatewaying etc. General aspects of TV broadcast are normally covered by H04N 7/00 classes. The general aspects of data multicasting and broadcasting are normally covered by the H04L 12/18 class.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

data switching systems for broadcast or conference

analog television systems in general

creating video channels for a dedicated end-user group

arrangements for broadcast or distribution combined with broadcast

arrangements for broadcast applications with a direct linkage of broadcast information

arrangements for push based network services

{Content on demand (analog television systems using two way working H04N 7/173 ; end-user applications for requesting content, additional data or services H04N 21/472)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Media is streamed in the downstream direction from a source to selected destinations which requested the media. (e.g. from a head-end server to subscriber terminals). Applications that may be covered include on demand video streaming, etc. Aspects that are covered by this entry involve the packet streaming protocols, the packet-based signalling, the gatewaying, the possible session setup etc. General aspects of TV are normally covered by H04N 7/00 classes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

analog television systems using two way working

end-user applications for requesting content, additional data or services

{Control of source by destination, e.g. user controlling streaming rate of server (explicit feedback from the destination to the source to modify data rate for flow control or congestion control in packet switching networks, e.g. choke packet H04L 47/26 ; end-to-end flow control in packet switching networks H04L 47/18 ; analog television systems using two way working H04N 7/173 ; control signals to video servers issued by video clients H04N 21/6377)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The subscriber terminal can control the way media is streamed by the source (e.g. streaming rate, pause, stop etc.). Applications that may be covered include VCR-like control of the source, etc. Aspects that are covered by this entry involve the packet protocols (e.g. RTSP), the packet-based signalling, the gatewaying, the possible session setup etc. General aspects of TV are normally covered by H04N 7/00 class.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

explicit feedback from the destination to the source to modify data rate for flow control or congestion control in packet switching networks, e.g. choke packet

end-to-end flow control in packet switching networks

analog television systems using two way working

control signals to video servers issued by video clients

{Media handling, encoding, streaming or conversion}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The manipulation, the handling and the transmission of the media content itself as opposed to the signalling associated with it. Note: the creation of the media content (e.g. converting the image information into digitalised MPEG frames, etc.) is covered by the H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00 and H04N 5/00 classes. This entry deals with encapsulation of the digitalised content into network packets, the network transport protocols governing the transmission of these content-carrying packets, and the processes involving the interaction of the content itself and the packets carrying this content with the network.

This parent class is only used if none of the explicit children subclasses below is suitable.

{Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion (transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation H04N 7/24 ; adaptation for terminals or networks with limited resources or for terminal portability H04L 67/04 ; involving interrnediate processing or storage in the network H04L 67/28 ; network application being adapted for the location of the user terminal H04L 67/18 ; computer conferences, network arrangements for conference optimisation or adaptation H04L 12/1827 ; message switching systems, e.g. electronic mail systems, with message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities H04L 12/5825 ; flow control or congestion control in packet switching networks H04L 12/569)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Manipulating, converting and adapting the content, in support of its transition through the network: e.g. Selecting a different codec for BW saving or for matching to the capabilities of the terminal, dropping a medium for BW saving or for matching to the capabilities of the terminal, selecting or switching to a lower resolution version of the content for BW saving, etc. Normally this subclass is not used, but one of the following three subentries is used depending on where the media manipulation takes place.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

adaptation for terminals or networks with limited resources or for terminal portability

involving intermediate processing or storage in the network

network application being adapted for the location of the user terminal

computer conferences, network arrangements for conference optimisation or adaptation

message switching systems, e.g. electronic mail systems, with message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities

flow control or congestion control in packet switching networks

{at the source (reformatting of video signals in video distribution servers H04N 21/2343 ; reformatting of additional data in video distribution servers H04N 21/2355)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The content handling takes place at the source.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

reformatting of video signals in video distribution servers

reformatting of additional data in video distribution servers

{at the destination (reformatting of video signals in video clients H04N 21/4402 ; reformatting of additional data in video clients H04N 21/4355)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The content handling takes place at the destination.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

reformatting of video signals in video clients

reformatting of additional data in video clients

{intermediate}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The content handling takes place at an intermediate node in the network.

{Stream encoding details (interfacing the downstream path of a video distribution network H04N 21/238 , H04N 21/438 ; controlling the complexity of a video stream H04N 21/2662 , H04N 21/4621 , H04N 21/64792 ; protocols for data compression H04L 69/04 ; header parsing or analysis H04L 69/22)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of the encoding of the packet streams; e.g. the encapsulation of MPEG transports into RTP packets, multiplexing of RTP/UDP packets, RTP packet header compression (may also be covered by H04L 69/04), RTP header extensions, piggy-bagging executable code in the content carrying packets, etc. Note that the encoding of the media data itself (i.e. voice coding or image coding in MPEG) is not covered by H04L 65/00 but by H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00, H04N 5/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

interfacing the downstream path of a video distribution network

controlling the complexity of a video stream

protocols for data compression

header parsing or analysis

{Streaming protocols, e.g. RTP or RTCP}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All the protocols dedicated to the transmission and the control of the transmission of real time streaming content, including the full IETF RTP family of protocols (RTP, RTCP, RTSP).

Note: an RTP packet header extension, with details of the encoding of the header, may be classified both in H04L 65/607 and H04L 65/608.

{QoS aspects (traffic-type related flow control in packet switching networks, e.g. priorities or QoS H04L 47/24 ; admission control/resource reservation in packet switching networks based on QoS or priority awareness H04L 47/805 , monitoring arrangements, testing arrangements, with monitoring of QoS metrics H04L 12/2634 ; arrangements for scheduling or organising the servicing of requests whereby quality of service or priority requirements are taken into account H04L 67/322 ; network service management, ensuring proper service fulfillment according to an agreement or contract between two parties, e.g. between an IT-provider and a customer H04L 12/2464 ; adaptation for terminals or networks with limited resources, or for terminal portability H04L 67/04 ; reducing the amount or size of exchanged application data H04L 67/2828 ; network application adapted for the location of the user terminal H04L 67/18 ; monitoring of the downstream path of a video distribution network H04N 21/2402 , H04N 21/44209)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Quality of Service, QoS, aspects related to real time Multimedia Communication in the context of H04L 65/00.

Documents classified into this group relate to specific QoS issues, irrespective as to whether these issues apply to a service, signalling, an entity, an application, etc. or to techniques which intend to support an improved user experience. The group is meant to be assigned as a qualifier to documents which may or may not have been assigned one of the other entries under H04L 65/00. As an example, a document describing the setting up of an audio and video call, and where during the call the available BW is continuously monitored and at a critical moment the video medium is dropped in order to preserve bandwidth, should be assigned the following entries:

H04L 65/1069 (Call setup), H04L 65/1089 (removing a medium) and H04L 65/80 (QoS).

The following aspects in real-time communication are considered examples falling under QoS:

Note that some of these techniques are known from other fields (e.g. monitoring (H04L 12/26), load balancing (H04L 67/1002), etc.) and are often also classified there. However if the technique is specifically adapted to real-time multimedia communication it is also classified here. Where applicable, the other fields are indicated below and are useful when searching for particular techniques.

  • Content support streams

QoS technique whereby one or more additional and separate support streams to a content stream is/are transmitted in parallel, providing for an improved user experience.

Techniques relating to buffer management in sender, receiver or intermediate node used in order to compensate for network deficiencies such as delay, jitter, etc.

Techniques whereby during the streaming of content the stream is rerouted via an alternate path through the network when network problems such as congestion appear.

  • Server arrangements

Arrangements and techniques at the server side for improving the QoS in real-time or near real-time services.

  • Network infrastructure

Arrangements and techniques in the network, in terms of special network infrastructure entities, for improving the QoS in real-time or near real-time services.

  • Redundant media transmission

Transmission of a redundant separate content stream in parallel, possibly using a different codec over a possibly alternate route in order to improve the reliability of the content delivery to the client; the redundant content streams cannot be added together.

  • Multiple stream components

Content is streamed to a client using different sub-streams (sub layers) whereby one (bas layer) - or each separate sub-stream (sub-layer) on its own allows for playback of the content and whereby multiple sub-streams (sub-layers) can be added together and provide for an improved quality of the playback.

Arrangements for load balancing in order to offload a server or a part of the network.

  • Multiple Channel transmission (also in H04W)

Content stream is spread (dynamically) over multiple channels in a usually wireless access.

The coding of the content stream is adjusted in real-time depending on the conditions of the network, the bandwidth availability or the client/server device.

  • Alternate coding

Switching between different versions of the content depending on the conditions of the network, the bandwidth availability or the client/server device; whereby the different versions exist prior to the content transmission

  • Content provider selection

Near real-time content provider selection for allowing optimal QoS experience.

  • Adaptive rate selection

Dynamic transmission rate selection depending on the conditions of the network, the bandwidth availability or the client/server device, covers for example subsampling and upsampling.

  • Scheduling

Near real-time techniques for timing the start of the transmission or playout of a stream depending on the conditions of the network, the bandwidth availability or the client/server device.

  • Server resource optimisation

Improvements and techniques allowing for increased server side performance.

  • Reducing required client resources

Improvements and techniques allowing for increased client side performance.

  • Network bandwidth reduction

Improvements and techniques allowing for reduced network demand in terms of bandwidth.

Specific real-time measurement techniques supportive of QoS arrangements for multimedia communications.

  • Timing and synchronisation techniques

Techniques for synchronization between different streams relating to a unique content experience and between different playback entities. Covers also solutions where timing issues are important.

QoS aspects tackling jitter in particular.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

traffic-type related flow control in packet switching networks, e.g. priorities or QoS

admission control/resource reservation in packet switching networks based on QoS or priority awareness

monitoring arrangements, testing arrangements, with monitoring of QoS metrics

arrangements for scheduling or organising the servicing of requests whereby quality of service or priority requirements are taken into account

network service management, ensuring proper service fulfillment according to an agreement or contract between two parties, e.g. between an IT-provider and a customer

adaptation for terminals or networks with limited resources, or for terminal portability

reducing the amount or size of exchanged application data

network application adapted for the location of the user terminal

monitoring of the downstream path of a video distribution network

{Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications (message switching systems H04L 51/00 ; network management protocols H04L 41/00 ; routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks H04L 45/00 ; protocols for real-time multimedia communication H04L 65/00 ; information retrieval G06F 17/30 ; services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication networks H04W 4/00 ; network structures or processes for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients H04N 21/00 ; exchange systems providing special services or facilities to subscribers involving telephonic communications H04M 3/42 ; distributed information systems G06F 9/00 , G06F 17/00 ; lower layer network functionalities which support application layer provisions H04L 12/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

message switching systems

network management protocols

routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks

protocols for real-time multimedia communication

information retrieval

services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication networks

network structures or processes for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients

exchange systems providing special services or facilities to subscribers inv