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TRANSMISSION (transmission systems for measured values, control or similar signals G08C; coding, decoding, code conversion, in general H03M; broadcast communication H04H; multiplex systems H04J; secret communication H04K; transmission of digital information H04L)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The transmission of information carrying signals, the transmission being independent of the nature of the information. Monitoring and testing arrangements and the suppression and limitation of noise and interference.

The user is referred to the IPC definitions of individual main groups of subclass H04B:

Transmission systems characterised by the waveband used for transmission:

Radio waves - see definition for main group H04B 7/00.

Light, infrared waves or corpuscular radiation - see definition for main group H04B 10/00.

Ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves - see definition for main group H04B 11/00.

Transmission systems characterised by the medium used for transmission:

Conductors - see definition for main group H04B 3/00.

Free-space propagation - see definition for main groups H04B 5/00H04B 7/00H04B 10/00H04B 11/00.

Earth, water or body - see definition for main group H04B 13/00.

Transmission systems characterised by the carrier modulation used for transmission:

Pulse modulation - see definition for main group H04B 14/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If the transmission systems are specially adapted for particular applications classification is also made in subclasses listed in section "Informative references".

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission systems for measured values, control or similar signals
Speech analysis or synthesis
Coding, decoding or code conversion
Broadcast communication
Multiplex communication
Secret communication
Transmission of digital information
Telephonic communication
Pictorial communication
Wireless communication networks
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Transmission systems characterised by the medium used for transmission or by band of employing waves should be classified in groups H04B 3/00- H04B 11/00 or in residual group H04B 13/00.

Transmission systems characterised by the use of carrier modulation or sub-carrier should be classified in group H04B 14/00 and details thereof in group H04B 1/00.

Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B 3/00 to H04B 13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission (tuning resonant circuits H03J)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of transmission systems that are general for transmission systems covered by two or more groups H04B 3/00-H04B 13/00.

Details of transmission systems not characterized by the medium used for transmission.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If the transmission systems are specially adapted for particular applications classification is also made in subclasses listed in section "Informative references".

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Demodulation or transference of modulation from one carrier to another
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gain Control circuits
Amplifier circuits
Filter circuits
Antennas
Line transceivers
Monitoring; testing
Modifications of amplifiers to reduce non-linear distortion
Spatial arrangements of component circuits in radio pills for living beings
Waveguides; Resonators, lines or other devices of the waveguide type
Power saving arrangements
Battery chargers
Narrow band interference in spread spectrum systems
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Homodyne receiver
A receiver which involves multiplying the modulated received signal by a local oscillator which has the same frequency as that associated with the received signal, so that the received signal will be directly converted into the baseband.
Superheterodyne receiver
A receiver in which the frequency of the incoming signal is reduced in a mixer or frequency changer by heterodyning with another frequency at the local oscillator. (Heterodyning: combining two sinusoidal frequencies radio frequency waves in a non-linear device resulting in sum and difference frequencies).
Synchrodyne receiver
A receiver in which a mixing carrier signal is inserted in exact synchronism with the original carrier at the transmitter. Used for the selective detection of signals coded in a certain way.
{Software-defined radio [SDR} systems, i.e. systems wherein components typically implemented in hardware, e.g. filters or modulators/demodulators, are implented using software, e.g. by involving an AD or DA conversion stage such that at least part of the signal processing is performed in the digital domain ( digital baseband systems H04L 25/00 ; digital modulation/demodulation H04L 27/00 ; CDMA H04B 1/707 ; TDMA H04B 7/2643 ; image transmission H04N 5/00) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems wherein components typically implemented in hardware, e.g. filters

modulators/demodulators, are implemented using software, e.g. by involving an AD or DA conversion stage such that at least part of the signal processing is performed in the digital domain.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digital baseband systems
Digital modulation/demodulation
Cdma
Tdma
Image transmission
{Channel filtering, i.e. selecting a frequency channel within the SDR system ( multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals being represented by different frequencies H04L 5/06 ; multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals H04L 5/023) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

selecting a frequency channel within the SDR system

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals being represented by different frequencies
Multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals
{Digital filtering (H04B 1/001 takes precedence; digital filters per se H03H 17/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Impedance networks using digital techniques
Using channel filtering with AD/DA conversion at radiofrequency or intermediate frequency stage
{Decimation, i.e. data rate reduction techniques (H04B 1/0025 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using a sampling rate lower than twice the highest frequency component of the sampled signal
{using a sampling rate lower than twice the highest frequency component of the sampled signal ( for demodulation of angle-modulated signals H03D 3/006) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Demodulation of angle-modulated signals
{with analogue quadrature frequency conversion to and from the baseband ( quadrature modulators and demodulators per se H03D 3/007 , H03C 3/40) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Quadrature modulators
Quadrature demodulators
{Channel filtering, i.e. selecting a frequency channel within a software radio system ( multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals being represented by different frequencies H04L 5/06 ; multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals H04L 5/023) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

selecting a frequency channel within the SDR system

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals being represented by different frequencies
Multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals
{Digital filtering (H04B 1/0035 takes precedence; digital filters per se H03H 17/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Impedance networks using digital techniques
Using channel filtering with AD/DA conversion at baseband stage
{adapting radio receivers, transmitters andtransceivers for operation on two or more bands, i.e. frequency ranges}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Band
a frequency range with a bandwidth larger than a signal or channel bandwidth, in general covering several communication channels, e.g. AM broadcast band (Medium Wave) or mobile telephone communications band [such as the GSM-900MHz band]
{using switches for selecting the desired band (H04B 1/0057 takes preference ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using diplexing or multiplexing filters for selecting the desired band
{with separate antennas for the more than one band (H04B 1/0053 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Common antenna for more than one band
{using a common intermediate frequency for more than one band (H04B 1/0075 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using different intermediate frequencies for the different bands
Constructional details, e.g. casings, housings { ( adapted for airplanes B64D) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements or equipments adapted for airplanes
Portable transmitters { ( distress beacons G01S 1/68 ; means for indicating the location of accidentally buried persons A63B 29/021) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Distress beacons
Means for indicating the location of accidentally buried persons
Circuits ( of television transmitters H04N 5/38; { oscillators H03B ; modulators H03C 1/00 , H03C 3/00 , H03C 5/00 ; amplifiers H03F ; power supplies H04B 1/1607} )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Oscillators
Modulators
Amplifiers
Power supplies
{Arrangements for matching and coupling between power amplifier and antenna or between amplifying stages ( matching circuits in general H03H) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Matching circuits in general
{Fault detection or indication (H04B 1/0483 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmitters with multiple parallel paths
{with means for limiting noise, interference or distortion (H04B 1/0483 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmitters with multiple parallel paths
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monitoring faults in transmitters
{to be used in vehicles (H04B 1/086 takes precedence; holding or mounting accessories B60R 11/02) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Portable receivers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holding or mounting accessories
Means associated with receiver for limiting or suppressing noise or interference {induced by transmission ( interference reduction in spread spectrum systems H04B1/707F ; equalising on HF or IF H04B 7/005 ; diversity systems H04B 7/02 ; elimination of image frequencies H03D 7/18 ; noise suppression by control of amplification H03G 3/00 , H03G 5/00 , H03G 7/00 ; squelching H03G 3/26 , H03G 3/34) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Interference reduction in spread spectrum systems
Equalising on HF or IF
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diversity systems
Elimination of image frequencies
Noise suppression by control of amplification
Squelching
{Placing the antenna at a place where the noise level is low and using a noise-free transmission line between the antenna and the receivers ( screened aerials H01Q 7/04 ; feeders for aerials H01Q 9/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screened aerials
Feeders for aerials
{noise filters connected between the power supply and the receiver ( suppression or limitation of noise from electric apparatus H04B 15/00 ; demodulation H03D; ripple filters H02M 1/14 ; filters in general 95G, H03H; power supplies H04B 1/1607) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Suppression or limitation of noise from electric apparatus
Ripple filters
Demodulation
Filters in general
Power supplies
{with automatic suppression of narrow band noise or interference, e.g. by using tuneable notch filters (H04B 1/123 takes precedence; filter circuits H03H) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using adaptive balancing or compensation means
Narrow band interference reduction in spread spectrum systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filter circuits
{Reduction of multipath noise ( by equalising H04B 7/005) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Reduction of multipath noise by equalising
{by improving strong signal performance of the receiver when strong unwanted signals are present at the receiver input}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Unwanted signal
signals outside the wanted signal bandwidth
Neutralising, balancing, or compensation arrangements { ( balancing ripple filters H04B 15/005 , H02M 1/143) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Balancing ripple filters
{using adaptive balancing or compensation means ( adaptive filter circuits and algorithms H03H) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptive filter circuits and algorithms
{having multiple inputs, e.g. auxiliary antenna for receiving interfering signal ( aerials in general H01Q) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Aerials in general
Circuits { ( demodulators H03D) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Demodulators
{Supply circuits ( converters 92P, 92Q, H02M; filters therefor H02M 1/14 ; voltage stabilisers G05F 1/46) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Converters
Filters for converters
Voltage stabilisers
Power saving arrangements
{Switching on; Switching off, e.g. remotely ( battery saving circuits associated with selective call operation H04W 52/00 ; details of power consumption reduction in a PLL, H03L 7/0802 , H03L 7/14 , H03L 2207/08 , H03L 2207/18 ; muting amplifiers by gain control see H03G 3/34) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of power consumption reduction in a PLL
Muting amplifiers by gain control
Power saving arrangements
{Special arrangements for the reduction of the damping of resonant circuits of receivers ( amplifiers H03F ; negative impedance networks for line transmission systems H04B 3/16) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Amplifiers
Negative impedance networks for line transmission systems
{Special circuits to enhance selectivity of receivers not otherwise provided for (resonant circuits H03H) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Resonant circuits; filters
{adapted for the reception of stereophonic signals}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Broadcast stereophonic receivers
{using companding of the stereo difference signal, e.g. FMX ( volume compression or expansion in amplifiers H03G 7/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Volume compression or expansion in amplifiers
for coupling gramophone pick-up, recorder output, or microphone to receiver, {e.g. for Hi-Fi systems or audio/video combinations ( constructional details for associated working of receivers and recording devices G11B 31/003 ; for television signals only H04N 5/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional details for associated working of receivers and recording devices
For television signals only
{by remote control}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Remote controllers
{with an audio or audio/video bus for signal distribution (H04B 1/205 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With control bus for exchanging commands
the receiver comprising at least one semiconductor device having three or more electrodes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Older documents covering circuits with vacuum tubes
the receiver comprising at least one semiconductor device having three or more electrodes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Older documents covering circuits with vacuum tubes
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Superheterodyne receiver
A receiver in which the frequency of the incoming signal is reduced in a mixer or frequency changer by heterodyning with another frequency at the local oscillator. (Heterodyning: combining two sinusoidal frequencies radio frequency waves in a non-linear device resulting in sum and difference frequencies).
If
Intermediate Frequency
Lo
local oscillator
for homodyne or synchrodyne receivers ( demodulator circuits H03D 1/22)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additionally, super-regenerative receivers can be found in this group

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Homodyne receiver
A receiver which involves multiplying the modulated received signal by a local oscillator which has the same frequency as that associated with the received signal, so that the received signal will be directly converted into the baseband.
Synchrodyne receiver
A receiver in which a mixing carrier signal is inserted in exact synchronism with the original carrier at the transmitter. Used for the selective detection of signals coded in a certain way.
{for single sideband receivers ( demodulator circuits H03D 1/24) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Demodulator circuits
Transceivers, i.e. devices in which transmitter and receiver form a structural unit and in which at least one part is used for functions of transmitting and receiving { ( construction of portable transceivers H04B 1/034 ; specially adapted to be fitted into airplanes B64D 43/00 ; paging systems G08B 3/10 ; traffic between a small number of stations with amplifiers or loudspeakers H04M 9/00 A; selecting arrangements for radio-calling systems H04W ; wireless communication networks H04W) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Construction of portable transceivers
Specially adapted to be fitted into airplanes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Paging systems
Traffic between a small number of stations with amplifiers or loudspeakers
Wireless communication networks
{Mechanical arrangements for accommodating identification devices e.g. cards, chips; with connectors for programming identification devices}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of identification cards
{for being used in vehicles (H04B 1/3827 takes precedence; holding or mounting accessories B60R 11/02) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for holding or mounting accessories
Portable transceivers
{arrangements for reducing RF exposure to the user, e.g. by changing the shape of the transceiver while in use ( means for shaping the antenna pattern H01Q 1/245) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for shaping the antenna pattern
{Arrangements for converting portable transceivers for other use, e.g. fixed or mobile use}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cradles ; Car kits ; boosters

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For portable telephone terminals
{Arrangements for mounting batteries or battery chargers}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Battery chargers
{for selecting or indicating operating mode}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
In portable telephone terminals
{with more than one transmission mode, e.g. analog and digital modes}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiband transceivers
Transmit/receive switching ( { in radar systems G01S 7/034} ; tubes therefor H01J 17/64 ; waveguide switches H01P 1/10)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmit/receive switching in radar systems
by voice-frequency signals; by pilot signals { ( echo suppression H04B 3/20) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Echo suppression
in circuit for connecting transmitter and receiver to a common transmission path, e.g. by energy of transmitter ( in radar systems G01S ; {H04B 1/46 takes precedence } )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By voice-frequency signals; by pilot signals
Hybrid arrangements, i.e. for transition from single-path two-way transmission to single transmission on each of two path, or vice-versa { ( multiport networks H03H 7/46 ; microwave multiplexers H01P 1/213) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multiport networks
Microwave multiplexers
{with means for reducing leakage of transmitter signal into the receiver ( for repeater stations H04B7/155B) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For repeater stations
Hybrid arrangements, i.e. for transition from single-path two-way transmission to single transmission on each of two paths, or vice-versa { ( multiport networks H03H 7/48 ; for two-way amplifiers H03F 3/62 ; in multiplex communication H04J 1/10 ; balance/unbalance networks H03H 7/42 , H03H 11/32 ; construction of transformers 95G2, H01F; conjugate coupling devices of the waveguide type H01P 5/16) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multiport networks
For two-way amplifiers
In multiplex communication
Balance/unbalance networks
Conjugate coupling devices of the waveguide type
microwave multiplexers
multiport networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Construction of transformers
{using opto-couplers ( light transmission systems H04B 10/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Light transmission systems
Responders; Transponders ( relay systems H04B 7/14)
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used: See G07K19/07T

{using psychoacoustic properties of the ear, e.g. masking effect}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Perceptual coders
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used.

Spread spectrum techniques
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spread spectrum techniques representing methods by which communication energy generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

With regard to code multiplexing, the borderline between H04B 1/69 and H04J 13/00 should be determined based on whether the features relevant for classification are focused on the code multiplexing aspects or the implementation of the spread-spectrum technique (e.g. details of how the signals are physically transmitted, received and processed).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may also be of interest for search:

Code multiplexing
Narrowband interference reduction
Carrier synchronization per se
Multicarrier techniques
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification of invention and additional information:

The invention information (main focus of the document) is classified in CPC groups and is compulsory.

Additional information is classified in Indexing Codes corresponding to the CPC groups. Classification of additional information is compulsory.

Indexing Codes which have no corresponding CPC group are used to classify invention information (compulsory) or additional information (compulsory). When classifying invention information, the most appropriate CPC group must also be assigned.

Examples:

Invention relating to spread spectrum chirp is assigned H04B 2001/6912 and H04B 1/69

Invention relating to spread spectrum time hopping with additional information on frequency hopping is assigned H04B 2001/6908 and H04B 1/69 and H04B 1/713

Invention relating to impulse radio with additional information on time hopping is assigned H04B 1/7163 and H04B 2001/6908

Combinations

For cases where the invention relates to combining the features of two or more subgroups, the following should be applied:

If the relevant information relates only to the fact that the aspects are combined, the documents are classified with CPC in the group above the concerned subgroups and assigned an Indexing Code in each of the concerned subgroups. If there is a dedicated entry for combinations this CPC is assigned instead of the headgroup.

If, besides the combination, aspects relating to the subgroups are also relevant, then multiple CPC groups may be assigned as appropriate.

Examples:

Invention relating to frequency hopping/direct sequence combination is assigned H04B 1/692, H04B 1/707, H04B 1/713

Invention relating to frequency hopping/direct sequence system with a focus on frequency hopping interference issues is assigned H04B 1/692, H04B 1/707, H04B 1/715

Invention relating to frequency hopping interference issues which can applied to Frequency hopping/Direct Sequence systems is assigned H04B 1/715, H04B 1/692, H04B 1/707

Inventive combination of parallel and subtractive interference cancellation for direct sequence system is assigned H04B 1/7107, H04B 1/71072, H04B 1/71075

Note(s)

When classifying in this group, any aspect of code division multiplexing, which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified in group H04J 13/00.  

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Rake
A receiver comprising sub-receivers called fingers wherein each finger detects a single multipath component. The contributions of the fingers can be combined at a later stage
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

UWB
ultra-wideband
DSSS
direct sequence spread spectrum
CDMA
code division multiple access
FH
frequency hopping
Hybrid techniques using combinations of two or more spread spectrum techniques
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hybrids of spread spectrum techniques, e.g. frequency hopping/direct-sequence systems, time-hopping/direct-sequence systems.

using direct sequence modulation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Direct-sequence spread-spectrum techniques which directly modulate the data being transmitted by a spreading code whose frequency (chip rate) is much higher than the modulated bandwidth of the data signal (symbol rate).

An example of direct sequence modulation is CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). Examples of systems are IS-95 (Interim Standard 2000), CDMA 2000, UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone System), WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Aspects relating to the codes e.g. types of codes, code generation and code allocation
Carrier synchronization per se
using frequency hopping
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum techniques which involve transmitting radio signals by switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a hopping sequence known to both transmitter and receiver.

using impulse radio
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Impulse radio spread spectrum which involve an ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system that transmits baseband pulses of very short duration (typically of the order of a nanosecond) with bandwidths that span from near dc to several GHz.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Non-pulse systems which meet the requirements of the FCC mask for UWB communication (e.g. UWB OFDM systems)
Special rules of classification within this group

From 01/04/2011 documents relating to pulse-related aspects are classified in H04B 1/717 and the backlog for such documents is continuously being reclassified from H04B 1/7163.

Circuits or components for simulating aerials, e.g. dummy aerial ( dissipative waveguide terminations H01P 1/26)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
dissipative waveguide terminations
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used. See H01P 1/26, H03H 7/38 or H03H 11/28.

Pilot transmitters or receivers for control of transmission or for equalising
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used. See H04W 52/00 or H04L 25/00

Line transmission systems ( combined with near-field transmission systems H04B 5/00 ; constructional features of cables H01B 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems characterized by the medium being electrical conductors (e.g. wires, metal cables) or waveguides.

Data or signal transmission using twisted pair, coaxial cable, submarine cables, wave guides. These subgroups deal as well with the reliability of the line transmission system, including testing of the line transmission parameters, compensation of echo due to impedance mismatching, equalizing and interference

These subgroup deal with all technical aspects concerning crosstalk compensation or cancellation in a multi-wire line transmission.

Data communication using existing mains power cable already installed in the building infrastructure or in vehicles. This subgroup contains as well data transmission over high voltage (HV) power cables.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Power over Ethernet
Near-field transmission system
Constructional features of cables
Hybrid circuits for transceivers
Hybrid junctions of waveguide
Shaping frequency spectrum at the transmitter
Control of amplification in general
Acoustic echo cancellation
Load coils
Suppression or limitation of noise or interference
Wireless repeater
Testing cables properties
Extract feeding power from signals
Electricity meters
Line Equalizers
Decision Feedback Equalizers
Transversal Filters
Alarm system using power transmission lines
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Communication cables or conductors
Waveguides; Resonators, lines or other devices of the waveguide type
Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network condition
Multi-carrier modulation system
Error detection and prevention
Digital adaptive filters
Home Automation Networks
Differential Transmission
Special rules of classification within this group

Indexing Codes for the subgroups H04B 3/54-H04B 3/58, to be used for classifying additional information:

Methods of transmitting or receiving signals via power distribution lines (index not used for classify)

using protocols including special data frame format, hybrid networks

by modifying waveform of the power source. Including interrupting power mains waveform via a switch, Triac, Scr.

by adding signals to the wave form of the power source. Injecting in the mains a modulated signal at much higher frequency of the mains

using zero crossing information

improving S/N ratio and or coupling factor by impedance matching, noise reduction, gain control

Applications for powerline communications (index not used for classification)

Remote metering, smart grids, AMR

Wired telephone (Eg. PSTN, ADSL). Including interfaces between power line network and wired telephone network

Wireless systems or telephone. Including interfaces between power line network and wireless network (e.g.. GSM, RF transmission, Infrared)

Local network. Using the power line to create a local network

Audio/video application, (e.g. interphone, audio video broadcasting)

Adapter and plugs. Including Home Plug and smart sockets.

Monitor sensor, Load control or drive; Alarm systems, Home automation, Zigbee.

Systems for power line communications (index not used for classification)

using three phases conductors

via DC power distribution e.g. vehicles

adapted for drill or well combined with data transmission H04B 2203/5479 using repeaters

using coupling circuits, cables

using filtering and bypassing

having measurements and testing channel

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Plc
Power line communication
Plcc
Power line carrier communication
Mv
Medium Voltage
Hv
High Voltage
Ofdm
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Lan
Local Area Network
Pstn
Public Switched Telephone Network
Near-field transmission systems, e.g. inductive loop type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems of a limited range wherein the information signal transmission is inductive or capacitive, rather than electromagnetic, e.g. inductive loop type

Transmission systems operating in the low frequency and high frequency bands with reduced range and relatively short reading distances well within the radian sphere defined by λ/2π (wherein λ corresponds to the wavelength of the transmission signal). Near field communication systems are asymmetrical systems which do not allow a duplex communication initiated at both ends. The transmission of power is also inductive or capacitive, rather than electromagnetic.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Leaky cables per se
Radiating cables for railways
Record carriers
Read/write systems for railways
Transformers or inductances adapted for inductive coupling
Paging systems in general
Transmitting signals using magnetically coupled devices
Transmitting signals using capacity coupling
Inductive power transfer between ac and dc networks
Charging batteries using inductive coupling
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rfid in payment systems
Card readers, RFID cards
Sensing electronic for record carriers
G06K7/08C6, G06K 7/10118
Transmitting signals using magnetically coupled devices
Transmitting signals using capacity coupling
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Nfc
near field communication
{for data transfer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only data transfer

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Data and power transfer
{for power transfer}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Data and power transfer
{for use in interrogation, identification or read/write systems ( record carriers G06K 7/00 , G06K 19/00 ; for railways B61L 3/12) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Record carriers for railways
{in RFID [Radio Frequency Identification} systems]
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Rfid
Radio Frequency Identification
{using inductive coupling ( transformers or inductances adapted for inductive coupling H01F 38/14) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transformers or inductances adapted for inductive coupling
{with antenna coils ( loop aerials H01Q 7/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Loop aerials
Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field (H04B 10/00 , H04B 15/00 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radio transmission systems wherein the information signal transmission is by electromagnetic waves other than light or infra-red.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Near-field transmission systems, e.g. inductive loop type
Transmission systems employing beams of corpuscular radiation, or electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light, infra-red
Suppression or limitation of noise or interference
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diversity systems specially adapted for direction finding
Systems using reradiation of radio waves, e.g. secondary radar systems; Analogous systems
Aerials
Selecting arrangements to which subscribers are connected via radio links
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA - TDMA
Hybrid Code- Time Division Multiple Access
FDMA
Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDMA - TDMA
Hybrid Frequency Time Division Multiple Access
SDMA
Space Division Multiple Access
SSMA
Spread-Spectrum Multiple Access
TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access
{Reducing depolarization effects}
Special rules of classification within this group

class obsolete, not used for CPC classification

Control of transmission; Equalising
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

class obsolete, not used for CPC classification

Reducing phase shift
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reducing phase shift to compensate for Doppler effect

Reducing echo effects
Special rules of classification within this group

class obsolete, not used for CPC classification

Diversity systems ( for direction finding G01S 3/72 ; aerial arrays or systems H01Q; { reducing multipath interference in spread spectrum systems H04B1/707F3 ; specially adapted for satellite systems H04B 7/18534 ; for telegraphy or data transmission H04L 1/02} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects related to diversity, beamforming and antenna weighting:

  • when the signal has diverse possibilities of being transmitted/ received through one or several antennas with different characteristics (including time, frequency, space, polarization, angle, phase...); "diverse possibilities" means the signal does not always have to be transmitted by more than one antenna. The diversity in this case would be achieved in the channel between the transmitter and receiver. This channel diversity is aimed to increase quality and reliability at the receiver;
  • exploiting gain of one or more fading channels either uncorrelated or correlated (such as single beamforming and pre-coding);
  • transmission through multiple beams for single user and multiple user;
  • feedback of information in order to assign weights and improve reliability of the signal in transmission/ reception;
  • generation of antenna weights for multiple antennas;
  • transmission of a plurality of different signals from different antennas, wherein at least one of said signals is transmitted (potentially weighted) from more than one antenna; for example MIMO transmission for N different streams via M different antennas, where M linear combinations of the N streams are transmitted, each linear combination being transmitted from each antenna.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Direction finding
Aerial arrays or systems
Reducing multipath interference in spread spectrum systems
H04B1/707F3
Specially adapted for satellite systems
For digital data transmission as such
Pure time diversity
Ofdm
Relay systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rake receivers
H04B1/707F3
SDMA
Pre-equalising for ISI-reduction
Space-time coding
{Site diversity, e.g. macro-diversity ( for co-located independent aerials H04B 7/04) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multicasting of data during hand-off to several target access points
H04W36/00M4
{Cooperative use of antennas of several nodes, e.g. in coordinated multipoint or cooperative MIMO [Multiple Input Multiple Output}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: see US2010034146 (figure 7):

media0.png

{Cooperative diversity, e.g. using fixed or mobile stations as relays ( cooperative coding H04L 1/0077 , relays per se in CoMP H04B 7/15592) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Relay systems
cooperative coding
relays per se in CoMP
{Spatial transmit diversity using a single antenna at the transmitter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified in this group: see e.g. US2011070840 (abstract): "... The antenna(s) are spatially translated in an arbitrary trajectory. As the antenna(s) is being spatially translated, a data processing means samples the incoming signal at set intervals based on a clock signal provided by a system clock. By sampling the incoming signal at different times at different spatial locations on the arbitrary trajectory, the system acts as a synthetic antenna array. The different samplings of the incoming signal at different times and positions provide signal diversity gain as well as different readings which can be used to estimate and/or calculate various parameters of the incoming signal.".

using a plurality of spaced independent aerials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Plurality of spaced independent aerials, both correlated (beamforming) or non-correlated (diversity) at transmitter or receiver or both, either using simultaneous transmission/reception (e.g. for beamforming) or successive transmission/reception (antenna switching/selection).

{using a plurality of beams, e.g. beam diversity}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: see WO2009046409 (figures 4, 7)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmitter beamforming
{Multiple input multiple output [MIMO} systems]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

transmission of a plurality of different signals from different antennas, wherein at least one of said signals is transmitted (potentially weighted) from more than one antenna; for example MIMO transmission for N different streams via M different antennas, where M linear combinations of the N streams are transmitted, each linear combination being transmitted from each antenna.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over the transmit/receive diversity groups H04B 7/06 and H04B 7/08.

Synonyms and Keywords
MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output
SIMO
Single Input Multiple Output
MISO
Multiple Input Single Output
{Feedback systems}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of feedback
{utilizing implicit feedback, e.g. steered pilot signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: US2004179627 (figure 3):

media1.png

{Power distribution aspects}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Power control in diversity systems
{using a plurality of sectors, e.g. sector diversity}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see e.g. US2008004016 (abstract): "A base station for establishing a picocell is configured so as to provide multiple sectors, with spatial diversity between sectors. The combination of the multiple sectors and the spatial diversity reduces signal power requirements in the air interface within a confined space and provides improvements in quality of service."

at transmitting station, e.g. time diversity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Plurality of spaced independent aerials at the transmitter (correlated or uncorrelated)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mimo systems
{using antenna switching (H04B 7/0686 takes precedence; antenna beam directivity switching H01Q 3/24) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hybrid systems, i.e. switching and simultaneous transmission
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Antenna beam directivity switching
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/0686 takes precedence.

{using feedback from receiving side ( feedback signaling for adaptive modulation/coding H04L 1/0001) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Feedback signalling for adaptive modulation and coding
{Differential feedback}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified in this group: see e.g. WO2008157620 (fig. 2 and paragraph [0031]):

media2.png

{Variable contents, e.g. long-term or short-short}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see e.g. WO2008157620 (fig. 2 and paragraph [0031]).

{at the receiver, e.g. antenna verification at mobile station}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see US2006068791 (fig. 2, paragraph [0031]):

media3.png

or abstract of Seeger A; Sikora M, "Antenna weight verification for closed loop transmit diversity, GLOBECOM'03. 2003 - IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. SAN FRANCISCO, CA, DEC. 1 - 5, 2003; [IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE], 20031201; 20031201 - 20031205, NEW YORK, NY : IEEE, US, XP010678496: "Closed loop transmit diversity (CLTD) for FDD WCDMA relies on low-rate feedback to achieve both beamforming and diversity gain. Since the feedback channel is not immune to errors, occasionally base station (BS) uses different antenna weight vector from the one requested by mobile station (MS).

Surprisingly, most of the resulting performance degradation is caused not by reduced power of the Rx signal, but by erroneous dedicated channel estimation at the MS relying on knowledge of used weight vector. In this paper we introduce a general trellisbased antenna weight verification algorithm, which attempts to detect feedback errors and determine the most likely weight vector."

{at the transmitter, e.g. error detection at base station}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example error detection/ correction of feedback bits at diversity transmitter.

{using vector or matrix manipulations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see US2006056531 (abstract): "Feedback bandwidth may be reduced in a closed loop MIMO system by Householder transformations, vector quantization using codebooks, and down-sampling in the frequency domain. A column of a beamforming matrix is quantized using a codebook, a Householder reflection is performed on the beamforming matrix to reduce the dimensionality of the beamforming matrix, and the quantizing and performing of Householder reflection on the previously dimensionality reduced beamforming matrix is recursively repeated to obtain a further reduction of dimensionality of the beamforming matrix."

{using different channel coding between antennas ( space-time coding H04L 1/0618) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Space-time coding
{using different delays between antennas}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see WO0011806 (abstract and figure 1):

media4.png

{using different spreading codes between antennas ( code allocation T04J11/00B4 and T04J13/00B4) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Code allocation
T04J11/00B4, T04J13/00B4
{using space frequency diversity ( space-frequency coding H04L 1/0606) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Space-frequency coding
{using phase diversity (e.g. phase sweeping) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: see US2006172710 (abstract) for phase sweeping diversity.

{using different transmission schemes, at least one of them being a diversity transmission scheme}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see e.g. EP2276305 (figure 5):

media5.png

{using spatial multiplexing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: see e.g. US2003235147:

media6.png

at receiving station, e.g. space diversity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Plurality of spaced independent aerials at the receiver (correlated or uncorrelated).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mimo systems
{using antenna selection (H04B 7/0868 takes precedence; antenna beam directivity switching H01Q 3/24) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Antenna beam directivity switching
Hybrid systems, i.e switching and combining
{with single receiver and antenna switching (H04B 7/0822 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here for receive antennas switched to a single receiver circuit; see US2010075603 (figure 1):

media7.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
according to predefined selection scheme
{with multiple receivers and antenna path selection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of document classified here: where the selection criterion is not necessarily identified, see WO2008003029 (figure 1):

media8.png

{using pre-detection combining (H04B 7/0868 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hybrid systems, i.e switching and combining
{Equal gain combining, only phase adjustments ( antenna beam scanning or forming by phase or amplitude control H01Q 3/26 , e.g. phased arrays ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Antenna beam scanning or forming by phase or amplitude control; phased arrays
{per branch equalization, e.g. by an FIR-filter or RAKE receiver per antenna branch ( rake receivers as such H04B1/707F3) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: see US2009097577 (figure 1):

media9.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rake receivers as such
H04B1/707F3
{using training sequences or error signal ( minimizing error signal H04B 7/0854) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: see US6115406 (figure 5):

media10.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Minimizing error signal
{using weights depending on external parameters, e.g. direction of arrival (DOA), predetermined weights or beamforming}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Beamforming at the receiver included here.

{using post-detection diversity}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example of documents classified here: see EP1257070 (figure 1):

media11.png

{Space-time diversity ( rake receivers H04B1/707F3 ; space-time decoding H04L 1/0631) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rake receivers
H04B1/707F3
Space-time coding
{using beamforming per multi-path, e.g. to cope with different directions of arrival [DOA} at different multi-paths]
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Sdma
Space Division Multiple Access
Relay systems ( interrogator-responder radar systems G01S 13/74 ; {CATV (community antenna television) systems H04H 20/78 ; adapted for television H04N 7/20} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radio relay systems are divided into passive relay systems (H04B 7/145) and active relay systems (H04B 7/15).

A passive relay is a relay on which a signal is only reflected.

Active relay systems are used by communication arrangements to receive, to process and to retransmit signals between devices separated by air or space.

Mobility is possible between the devices of the active relay system and the transmission can be unidirectional or bidirectional.

The processing within the relay is of a wide range. For instance the relay processing covers the following issues. The signals relayed can be a multiplex of a plurality of signals. The processing minimizes the interference between the signal received and retransmitted. Signal are regenerated, signals are switched in the relay before retransmission. Further processing details are indicated in the subgroups of H04B 7/15.

Moreover, as indicated below, the active relay systems are further subdivided into ground based relay stations, airborne relay stations and space based relay station (satellites).

Relationship between large subject matter areas
Broadcast communication
Multiplexing
Telephony
Wireless communication networks
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Repeater in line transmission systems
Repeater in transmission systems employing waves other than radio waves
Network planning: Network coordinated processing with regard to cell extension
Details of error protection techniques processed in relay station
Details of modulation techniques processed in relay station
Details of amplifier gain control
Generic documents concerning resource allocation e.g. time, frequency and/or codes
Details of wireless communication routing
Wireless communication terminal adapted for relaying to or from other wireless communication terminal
Cosmonautic vehicle (e.g. satellite per se)
Geolocalisation
Interrogator-responder
Aircraft piloting
Traffic control for aircraft
Antenna orientation
Metering arrangements

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Aerial array
Broadcast receiver
Multiplexing
Synchronisation of receiver with transmitter
Television systems
Selective content distribution
Catv (Community Antenna Television) systems
Relay systems adapted for television
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diversity systems
Scatter propagation systems
Secret and secure communications
Data switching networks
Protocols in data network
Broadcast systems
Synchronization in wireless networks
Passive relay systems { ( construction of passive reflectors G01S13/02A) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A passive relay is a relay on which a signal is only reflected. No processing is done by such a relay. A passive relay is used to scatter a signal.

Radio waves, below a certain frequency, are reflected by the ionosphere. This allows propagation beyond the horizon.

Meteor burst communication or meteor scatter communication uses the ionized trail of a meteor for radio wave reflection.

Two antennas linked by a waveguide assure radio relaying. This is used for example to allow reception in a tunnel.

Reflection can be achieved by the use of a passive airborne platform.

To enable radio wave transmission in buildings, passive antennas, material transparent to radio waves … are used.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Construction of passive reflectors
G01S13/02A
Ground-based stations (H04B 7/204 takes precedence; { for satellite systems H04B 7/18517} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Relays are used for range extension, to cover shadowed regions, to allow communication with the inside of a building, to transmit signals over long distances.

Microwaves relays working from 2 to 5 GHz with fixed stations in line of sight allow point to point high data rate transmission for telephony or broadcasting signals.

Shortwave relay are used for broadcasting.

Relays are used in a wireless network for radio cell extension.

Cooperative relays are used for signals diversity.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ground-based stations for satellite systems
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/204 takes precedence

{Relay station based processing for cell extension or control of coverage area, ( network planning with network coordinated processing with regard to cell extension H04W 16/26 ; network topologies using dedicated repeater stations H04W 84/047 ; terminal devices adapted for relaying to or from an other terminal H04W 88/04) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Network topologies using dedicated repeater stations
{for shadowing compensation ( for satellite mobile telephony service systems H04B 7/18536) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shadowing compensation for satellite mobile telephony service systems
{combining by calculations packets received from different stations before transmitting the combined packets as part of network coding ( network coding aspects for detection or prevention of errors in the information received H04L 1/0076 ; network traffic management with optimizing of information sizing, e.g. header compression, by using assembly and disassembly of packets H04W 28/065) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Network coding aspects for detection or prevention of errors in the information received
Network traffic management with optimizing information sizing e.g. header compression, by using assembly and disassembly of packets
{Control of relay amplifier gain ( amplifier gain control in general H03G 3/00 ; gain control reducing self - or loop interference H04B 7/15578) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Amplifier gain control in general,
Gain control to reduce self- or loop interference
{Selecting at relay station its transmit and receive resources ( selection of wireless resources by user or terminal H04W72/04B ; arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path by two-dimensional division of the resources H04L 5/0003 , or by allocating sub-channels H04L 5/003) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selection of wireless resources by user or user terminal
H04W72/04B
Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path by two dimensional division of the resources or by allocating subchannels
{Adapting at the relay station communication parameters for supporting cooperative relaying, i.e. transmission of the same data via direct - and relayed path ( cooperative diversity H04B 7/024) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
cooperative diversity
employing angle modulation
Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B7/155B.

employing pulse modulation, e.g. pulse code modulation
Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B7/155B.

Space-based or airborne stations; {Stations for satellite systems} (H04B 7/204 takes precedence )
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/204 takes precedence.

{Aircraft used as relay or high altitude atmospheric platform}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The stations are navigating in the stratosphere (below 50 km).

The airborne station is an unmanned airborne device or an aircraft covering a region (for example in case of an emergency situation when communications are disrupted during a catastrophically event). The relay is a lighter than air device, a balloon, a dirigible, a device called HALE (High Altitude Low Expenditure), HAAP (High Altitude Atmospheric Platform), SHARP (Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform) or an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

The airborne station works alone or is part of a network of other stations. The communications can then be handed over to another platform. A satellite can be part of the network. The technical characteristics of these devices, their trajectory are adapted for communication. The relays are drifting in the sky or they are stabilized in position and altitude.

{Communications with or from aircraft, i.e. aeronautical mobile service}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Communications with or from an aircraft without relaying through a satellite.

The system are communication systems for commercial aircrafts and used for transmission between the passengers and the ground for voice or data communication. The systems are as well for communications between the cockpit and earth control stations for air traffic control, for aircraft short messages service …

Such systems are as well used for transport devices like a bus or ship.

The communications are multiplexed on the up and down link and must be demultiplexed. Antenna aspects in such systems.

A network of ground stations is necessary to follow the aircraft. A call is handed over between ground stations.

A network can be established between aircrafts. Other aircrafts must be localized.

The aircraft flies over regions with different ground systems and regulations

A communication network exits on board allowing on board broadcasting to the passengers or communications between users and the crew. Data transmission for in-flight entertainment, for use of Internet.

The aircraft can be equipped with terminals or the user can use his own voice or data terminal. Security. The use of a terminal is potentially dangerous because of its radiations.

A user on board of an aircraft must be localized by the ground system to establish the link and for billing.

Communication equipment and specific aircraft devices like navigation apparatuses are integrated on board. Relaying toward earth of aircraft sensor values.

{with satellite system used as relay, i.e. aeronautical mobile satellite service}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Communications with or from an aircraft with relaying through a satellite for commercial aircrafts and for communications between the cockpit and earth control. Systems for aircrafts and for devices like a bus or ship.

The communication aspects covered are identical as for H04B 7/18506 but at least one satellite is involved in the aircraft-ground link.

Use of geostationary satellites or not. Localisation of the satellites by the aircraft.

Handover between satellites.

The antennas of the aircraft are oriented towards the satellite.

The transmission delay is increased with use of a satellite.

Particular application: video broadcasting.

{Systems using a satellite or space-based relay (H04B 7/18508 , H04B 7/18521 take precedence; providing specific services H04B 7/18523 to H04B 7/18576) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Satellites are used for relaying communications.

Satellite systems for varied applications exit. Communication aspects for such systems. Satellite applications can be: earth observation, weather forecast data transmission, emergency calls, fleet tracking, space based radar, aircraft guidance and navigation, navigation systems using satellites, land observing satellites.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/18508, H04B 7/18521 take precedence.

For providing specific services H04B 7/18523 to H04B 7/18576

{Transmission in a satellite or space-based system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects relating to communications in uplink and downlink in a satellite system such as:

  • Feeder link and user link.
  • Frequency allocation. Frequency sharing and reuse. Frequency hopping.
  • Modulation. Polarisations. Power control. Interleaving.
  • Channel modelling. Diversity reception. Use of a plurality of satellites, a plurality of beams. Rake receivers.
  • Link margin. Interference reduction. Doppler Effect. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). Rain effect. Fading: Rician, Rayleigh fading. Signal shadowing.
{Transmission equipment in satellites or space-based relays}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Equipment on board of the satellite. Telecommunication payload, bus and platform equipments.

All equipment on-board involved in transmission such as: transponder, amplifier, multiplexer, demultiplexer, on-board digital processors, antennas.

{Transmission equipment in earth stations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All equipments used in earth-based stations.

These stations can be: a hub station, a control station, a gateway, a user terminal, a Small Aperture Terminal.

{Operations control, administration or maintenance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spare satellite. Replacement satellite. Backup satellite. Reconfiguration of a satellite.

Measuring performance of a system. Calibration of a system. Reception quality. Fault diagnostic.

Monitoring, control, telemetry.

Satellite attitude and orbital control to optimize communication performance.

System simulation.

{Systems of inter linked satellites, i.e. inter satellite service ( for optical links between satellites H04B 10/105) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The link between satellites can be radio or optical.

Constellation of satellites with inter-satellite links to route a communication through the network of satellites.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical links between satellites
{Satellite systems for providing broadcast service to terrestrial stations, i.e. broadcast satellite service ( arrangements specially adapted for satellite broadcast receiving H04H 40/90 ; picture transmission via satellite H04N 1/00103 ; television transmission via satellite H04N 7/20) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Simulcast (simultaneous broadcasting). Multicasting (transmission to a group of users). Geocast (transmission to geographic areas).

Feedback from the user (thru satellite or thru terrestrial network) for interactive system.

On-board transponders.

Relationship between large subject matter areas
Arrangements specially adapted for satellite broadcast
Receiving picture transmission via satellite
Television transmission via satellite
Special rules of classification within this group

This group in not used if the satellite is transparent to the broadcast service.

{Arrangements for data linking, networking or transporting, or for controlling an end to end session ( data switching networks H04L 12/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Data switching networks
{Satellite systems for providing two-way communications service to a network of fixed stations, i.e. fixed satellite service or very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mainly for Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) system.

Fixed satellite service. for telephony, telecommunication and data communication.

The satellites used are geostationary, geosynchronous.

{Arrangements for managing transmission, i.e. for transporting data or a signalling message}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transport of data or signalling messages. Transport of voice channels.

Traffic channels, dedicated control channels, broadcast channels, paging channels, beacon signal, pilot channels, synchronisation channels.

Spot beams antennas for creation of communication cells.

{for enhancing link reliablility, e.g. satellites diversity}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In particular for diversity used to increase link quality.

Resources seamlessly added or subtracted.

Transmission with multidirectional antennas from the base station to achieve diversity.

{Shadowing compensation therefor, e.g. by using an additional terrestrial relay}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shadowing due to blockage of signals. Use of an additional terrestrial relay or other techniques.

{Arrangements for managing radio, resources, i.e. for establishing or releasing a connection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Allocation of radio resources for establishing or releasing a connection.

Resource allocation for load balancing.

Determination and dissemination of information through the network of gateway for resource planning.

Frequency planning.

Frequency attributed according to need, to a reuse pattern, to limit interference.

Power control in real and non real time.

Time slot allocation.

Channel allocation: fixed, borrowed, dynamic.

{for handover of resources}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A communication is handed over from one satellite to another according to the satellites rotations.

Handoff beam to beam, satellite to satellite, frequency to frequency.

Network controlled handover, mobile controlled handover, mobile assisted handover.

{for adaptation of transmission parameters, e.g. power control ( for detecting or preventing errors in the information received H04L 1/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting or preventing errors in the information received
{Arrangements for managing station mobility, i.e. for station registration or localisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Terminal registration process. Local or global registration.

Location update of terminal.

Registration in a local and global database with user identification and position.

Re-registration. Periodic registration of a mobile, registration after loss of a signal (outage), terminal unavailability.

{for geolocalisation of a station ( position fixing by direction or distance determination G01S 5/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Geolocalisation of a user for radio localisation, call barring, call billing, synchronisation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Position fixing by direction or distance determination
{using a telephonic control signal, e.g. propagation delay variation, Doppler frequency variation, power variation, beam identification}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measure of propagation delay variation, Doppler frequency variation, power variation, beam identification.

Measure of time delay satellite-user.

{using a telephonic control signal and a second ranging satellite ( determining absolute distances from a plurality of spaced points of known location G01S 5/14) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining absolute distances from a plurality of spaced points of known location
{for call routing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Routing through terrestrial network with only node-satellite-terminal links.

Mobile to mobile call.

Mobile to fixed, fixed to mobile call.

Routing tables used are changed according to network topology (link usage, congestion, failure, shutdown).

Optimization of transmission path (minimum hop route, packet delay).

Satellite in relation with more than one node for control.

{Arrangements for interconnecting multiple systems ( data switching networks H04L 12/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of a terrestrial and a satellite system (dual mode).

Protocol conversion between different satellites, terrestrial systems.

Use of a terminal adapted for the two systems. Characteristics differ: antenna used (orientation), power transmitted (higher for a satellite system, user head protection).

{Arrangements for preventing unauthorised access or for providing user protection ( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for secret or secure communication
{Satellite systems for providing narrowband data service to fixed or mobile stations, e.g. using a minisatellite, a microsatellite ( for selecting H04W) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of a minisatellite, a microsatellite. Miniaturized satellites. Milli, micro, nano, picosatellites.

Little LEO. Smaller low cost satellites on a low earth orbit.

Satellite formation flying, trailing formation, cluster formation.

Fractionated spacecraft.

Systems for data, asset or vehicle tracking, messaging, emergency, alert services, disaster, medicine, education, data acquisition, meter reading, e-mail, fax, store and forward messaging.

Terminals adapted to system function.

{Satellite systems for providing broadband data service to individual earth stations ( for selecting H04W ; provisions for broadband connection, H04Q 11/0478) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Data communication for users which can be mobile using a satellite as relay between the user and a control station. The data transported are of large band.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Provisions for broadband connection
{Arrangements for data transmission on the physical system, i.e. for data bit transmission between network components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Description of the transmission equipments of the system. Satellite, terminal and control station. Description of the transport of the information. Modulation, demodulation, antenna, radio link between earth and satellite, bit synchronisation.

{Arrangements for data linking, i.e. for data framing, for error recovery, for multiple access}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Construction of the frame, preamble, multiplexing, demultiplexing, TDMA, CDMA, FDMA, frequency hopping, frame synchronisation, error control (ARQ, FEC), data packet queuing or scheduling.

{Arrangements for data transporting, e.g. for an end to end data transport or check}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Segmentation and reassembly.

Connection oriented, connectionless communication. Establishment of the physical links.

Transport of bits, bytes, packets.

Multiplexing, demultiplexing on a single link.

Congestion control. Flow control.

Fiability of the transport.

Error detection and recovery (forward error correction, repetition, automatic repetition).

{Arrangements for preventing unauthorised access or for providing user protection ( arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L 9/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Encryption. Decryption. Use of SIM card. Adaptor card or conditional access. Scrambling, descrambling. Billing.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for secret or secure communication
Earth-synchronous stations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The satellite is on a geostationary, an equatorial, a geosynchronous orbit or semi-synchronous orbit.

Description of the constellation of satellites, of the orbital parameters.

Non-synchronous stations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The orbits are low earth orbit (LEO), medium earth orbit (MEO) or high earth orbit (HEO) according to the altitude of the satellite. Mixed constellation.

Inclined orbit, polar orbit, sun synchronous orbit, circular orbit, elliptical orbit, Molnia, Tundra.

Multiple access
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{Spot beam multiple access}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Antennas. Multi-beams antenna. Beam forming network. Phased array antenna. Multispots antenna.

Scanning beams. Grid of multiple fixed beams. Beam rotation for satellite roaming compensation. Beam hopping. Beams alternatively transmitting, receiving. Panels. Grids of complex shape (hexagonal).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Satellite on board equipment.
{Mixed mode, TDM and FDM systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{SS-FDMA, FDMA satellite switching}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{SS-TDMA, TDMA satellite switching}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{Frame structure, synchronisation or frame acquisition in SS-TDMA systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

Frequency-division multiple access {(FDMA)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

Time-division multiple access {(TDMA)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{Channels assignment to the different stations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{Variable assignment, e.g. demand assignment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{Synchronisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

{using a reference station}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

{Changing of the reference station}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

Code division or spread-spectrum multiple access ( {CDMA, SSMA} ; spread spectrum techniques in general H04B 1/69)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On board of a satellite.

Relationship between large subject matter areas
Spread spectrum techniques in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Group for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04B 7/18515.

Scatter propagation systems, {e.g. ionospheric, tropospheric or meteor scatter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of ionosphere, troposphere reflexion or meteor scatter.

In such systems, the radio propagation is not a line of sight propagation between two devices. The signals are reflected, refracted or scattered by natural components of the earth atmosphere. A network using such reflexions and the radio link between the divers network components are described. Passive relay are described in H04B 7/145.

Radio waves are refracted by the ionized layers of the upper atmosphere. These layers are influenced by the sun. Such communications are used for amateur radio, marine and aircraft communications, shortwave broadcast.

Tropospheric scatter is a method of communication in which signals at particular frequencies are randomly scattered by the upper layers of the troposphere allowing the transmission of signals on a distance of hundred of kilometres. Only a small amount of the transmitted power is received. A narrow frequency band is generally used.

A meteor burst communication system uses the ionized meteor trails as radio reflector between two stations. These trails exit at an altitude of approximately 100 km and allow a long range, low data rate intermittent communication of a few seconds on a distance of 2000 km.

Auroral ionization, rain, lightning can create scattering.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Relay systems
Wireless communication networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Passive relay systems
for communication between two or more posts ( for selecting H04W ; {wireless communication networks H04W} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In a communication network, the physical link and the signals transmitted between the divers network components are described. The link can be wired or wireless, the network components are fixed in this head group, mobile in the different sub-groups.

Transmission medium: twisted pairs, copper wires, coaxial cable, air ...

Nature of information transmitted: voice, video, data ...

Description of the signal to be transmitted: analogue, digital transmission, analogue/digital conversion, voice codec.

Coding of the signal, PCM, line codes (NRZ, unipolar, bipolar, Manchester encoding...).

Modulation used (QPSK, PSK, QAM, FSK, PSK, ASK). Amplitude, phase, frequency modulation.

Transmission and reception of the signal. Demodulation. Decoding.

Error recovery and correction. Error correction codes (linear, cyclic, BCH, convolutional codes). Channel codes. Signal repetition (ARQ).

Description of the network: star, mesh, ring network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Relay systems
Wireless systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spread spectrum communications
Equalisation
Diversity system
Scatter propagation system
Time Division Multiplex communication
Error protection
Multiplexing
Synchronisation
Secret and secure communications
Data switching networks
Modulation
Protocol in data network
Broadcast systems
Synchronization in wireless networks
at least one of which is mobile
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In a wireless communication network, the radio link, called air interface, between the divers network components is described.

Different mobile systems exist. For example: cordless telephony is a short range system.

The mobile telephony has evolved toward cellular telecommunication systems for voice, narrowband or broadband data transmission.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The physical channel, channel access procedures and multiple access are the lower levels of the transmission system linking users and are the object of these groups. The higher levels control the flow of messages between the network components and allow the building up of a communication and are the subject of H04W in general.

{Arrangements for wireless physical layer control (H04B 7/2612 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The signals transmitted on the air interface and the apparatuses therefore are described.

The frequency band or time interval allocated is separated in physical wireless channels.

Definition of the physical and logical channels, mapping of the logical channels on the physical channels. Logical channels for traffic of voice or data. Logical channels for control: dedicated control channels, broadcast channels, paging channels, access grant logical channels, random access channels, pilot channels, synchronisation channels ... Frequencies, time slots used, number of bits, format, overhead bits, preamble, guard periods ...

Emission: digitization, source coding, interleaving, ciphering, burst formatting, modulation. BPSK, QAM, hierarchical modulation.

Transmission: path loss, multipath fading, noise, interference, error and error correction (equalisation, error correction codes, interleaving ...).

Reception: source decoding, channel decoding, desinterleaving, deciphering, burst formatting, demodulation.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/2612 takes precedence.

{Arrangements for base station coverage control, e.g. by using relays in tunnels}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Relays are used for linking a user equipment with a base station.

Relays for lightening dark zones. Use of relays in tunnels, in buildings, in closed environments.

Roadway communication systems.

Fixed relay, mobile relay.

Relays for cell extension.

Multiplicity of relays.

Relay selection.

Cooperative relays.

Multihop communication.

Use of multiple antennas. Antenna characteristics, antenna patterns, spacing of antennas.

Relay functionality and design. Half-duplex, full duplex repeater. TDD (Time Division Duplex), frequency change, frequency selective repeaters, amplify and forward, decode and forward repeaters. Loop-back interference cancellation. Signal delay. Link with the base station, link with a user equipment. Protocols implemented in the relay.

{Arrangements for wireless medium access control, e.g. by allocating physical layer transmission capacity (H04B 7/2615 to H04B 7/2643 take precedence; provision for broadband connection H04Q 11/0478) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Allocation of a physical layer transmission capacity.

Transport channels for carrying the logical channels.

Channel access control mechanisms.

Error recovery, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request).

Multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques such as: random access protocols (ALOHA, CSMA; CSMA/CD), fixed assignment protocols (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, SDMA), demand assignment protocols (polling, reservation protocols (centralized), token passing protocols (decentralized)).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Provision for broadband connection
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/2615 to H04B 7/2643 take precedence.

{using frequency division multiple access [FDMA} (H04B 7/2615 takes precedence ) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing).

FDD (Frequency Division Duplex).

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/2615 takes precedence.

{using common wave}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using a common frequency.

Single frequency network.

A network of stations broadcasting on a single frequency for example.

For DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial), DVB-H (handheld), DVB-SH (satellite handheld), DTMB (Digital Terrestrial Media Broadcasting) , DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting), mediaflo (forward link only).

Repeaters synchronized, adaptive equalization.

Use of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation), COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation; FEC convolutional coding, time and frequency interleaving).

{using code-division multiple access [CDMA} or spread spectrum multiple access [SSMA] (H04B 7/2618 takes precedence ) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Divers types of spread spectrum systems:

  • Direct-sequence spread spectrum.
  • Frequency-hopping spread spectrum.
  • Time-hopping spread spectrum.
  • Chirp spread-spectrum.
  • Ultra wide band.

Codes used:

  • Pseudo-random noise code.
  • Orthogonal codes, Walsh-Hadamard codes.
  • Non Orthogonal codes, shift-register sequences, M-sequences, Gold codes, Kasami codes.

Transceiver:

  • Auto-correlation, cross correlation, long codes, short codes.
  • Synchronous, asynchronous systems.
  • Near far problem, power control.
  • Code synchronization, acquisition and tracking.
  • Correlator, delay lock loop, thau dither loop, extended Kalman filter.
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/2618 takes precedence.

{for broadband transmission}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission of information on a plurality of parallel channels.

Protocols such as WCDMA (Wideband CDMA), HSPA (High Speed Packet Access).

{using time-division multiple access [TDMA} (H04B 7/2615 , H04B 7/2618 take precedence ) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

TDD (Time Division Duplex).

Superframes, frames, time slots.

Formats used for the frames and the time slots. Description of the burst, the information in the time slot.

Guard bands to avoid overlapping of the signals.

Preamble, training, equalisation, synchronisation, start/stop bits.

Uplink, downlink frame.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

H04B 7/2615, H04B 7/2618 take precedence.

{Arrangements for Wireless System Synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Arrangements for Wireless Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) System Synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{ Arrangements for Wireless Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) System Synchronisation, for code acquisition H04B1/707A , for code tracking H04B1/707B}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cdma code acquisition
H04B1/707A
Cdma code tracking
H04B1/707B
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Arrangements for Wireless Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) System Synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Frequency synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Time synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Synchronisation of a mobile station with one base station}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Synchronisation of a mobile station with more than one base station}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Inter base stations synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Master/slave synchronisation}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Centralised synchronisation, i.e. using external universal time reference, e.g. by using a global positioning system (GPS) or by distributing time reference over the wireline network}
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

{Over the air autonomous synchronisation, e.g. by monitoring network activity (H04B 7/2693 takes preference ) }
Special rules of classification within this group

Group used for consultation only. Documents are classified in H04W 56/00.

Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio-waves, e.g. infrared, visible or ultraviolet light, or employing corpuscular radiation, e.g. quantum communication
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • electromagnetic waves in the optical spectrum, e.g. visible, infrared, ultraviolet
  • optical corpuscular radiation, i.e. photons
  • non-optical electromagnetic waves other than radio-waves, e.g. low-frequency Terahertz waves
  • non-optical corpuscular radiation, i.e. beams of atomic or subatomic discrete particles
Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04B 10/00 deals with the physical layer of an optical communication system, i.e. dealing with the physical properties of the optical data signal, e.g., power, distortion, optical-electrical and electric-optical conversion of data.

H04J 14/00 deals with the optical multiplexing layer, e.g. dealing with the optical signals as channels necessary for data transfer, e.g. routing, allocation, add-dropping, WDM networks, WDM protection.

Optical switching is covered by H04Q 11/0001.

Light guide arrangements as components or modules per se are classified in G02B 6/00, e.g. modules based on light guides for coupling, splitting, mixing, switching and dispersion compensation

Lasers and fibre amplifiers per se are classified in H01S and H01S 3/067

Optical devices per se for changing the optical properties of the signals based on a change in refractive index, e.g. modulators are classified in G02F.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical elements, systems or apparatus
Optical coupling devices, e.g. optical fibres, dispersion compensators
Devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical properties of the medium of the devices or arrangements for control of the intensity, color, phase, polarization or directing of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating or demodulating; Frequency changing Non-linear optics; Optical analogue/digital converters
Optical devices that change the state (intensity, phase, polarisation) of light, e.g. modulators
Wavelength converters
Arrangements for handling particles or ionizing,radiation e.g. focusing or moderating
Semiconductor devices sensitive to infrared radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation
Lasers, optical amplifiers using stimulated emission
Semiconductor lasers
Measuring characteristics of optical pulses
Testing of optical devices, fibres, OTDR,
Time-division multiplex systems , e.g.SDH, SONET, OTN-networks
Optical multiplex systems
Optical clock recovery
Quantum cryptography
Bus networks
Digital modulated systems
Optical switching
Special rules of classification within this group

If appropriate, multiple classes for different technical features in the same document should be assigned

Optical - Non-optical transmission systems

Non-optical transmission systems, falling within the scope of this group, are only classified in group H04B 10/90.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Station
head-end or subscriber network terminal
Soliton
an optical pulse that does not change during propagation because of a balance between non-linear and linear effects in the fibre
Air
the standard gaseous mixture of nitrogen and oxygen or this mixture with varying amounts of moisture and particulate matter, enveloping the earth; the atmosphere
Fluid
liquid
Corpuscular radiation
the beams of atomic or subatomic discrete particles, e.g. photon, alpha particle, neutron, fission fragment or fissionable isotope
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SMF
Single Mode Fibre
MMF
Multi Mode Fibre
CD
Chromatic Dispersion
DPSK
Differential Phase Shift Keying
PSK
Phase Shift Keying
OTDR
Optical Time Domain Reflectometry
OSNR
Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
PMD
Polarization Mode Dispersion
RoF
Radio over Fibre
FWM
Four Wave Mixing
SPM
Self Phase Modulation
XPM
Cross Phase Modulation
PSK
Phase Shift Keying
ASK
Amplitude Shift Keying
FSK
Frequency Shift Keying
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
DPSK
Differential PSK
QPSK
Quadrature PSK
Arrangements for fault recovery
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein a corrective action is taken to return an inoperative or malfunctioning optical communication system or its component to a satisfactory operating condition.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Fault recovery specific to wavelength division multiplex [WDM] systems
Counter-measures to a fault in digital transmission systems
using working and protection systems { (H04J 14/0287 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the recovery is provided by a predetermined protection path in parallel with the working path that provides protection when the working path has a failure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working and protection systems specific to wavelength division multiplex [WDM] systems
using loopbacks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein data signals are detoured in a reverse path through the network to avoid the malfunctioning component.

using bypasses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including a provision for alternate routing around the malfunctioning component.

Arrangements for monitoring or testing transmission systems; Arrangements for fault measurement of transmission systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including means for monitoring, measurement or testing for evaluating an operational condition of an optical communication system or its components.

using a reflected signal, e.g. using optical time-domain reflectometers [OTDRs]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein at least one communication parameter is determined by information from a signal reflected from a location in the communication network.

using an out-of-service signal (H04B 10/071 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the operational condition of an optical communication network or its component is tested or evaluated using an external stimulus signal while the system is not in operation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using a reflected signal, e.g. using optical time-domain reflectometers [OTDR]
using an in-service signal (H04B 10/071 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the operational condition of an optical communication network or its component is tested or evaluated signal while the system is in operation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using a reflected signal, e.g. using optical time-domain reflectometers [OTDR]
using a supervisory or additional signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein at least one communication parameter is determined by information from a control signal provided in addition to the data signal. The additional signal can for example be modulated on the data signal or placed on a separate wavelength.

using measurements of the data signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein at least one communication parameter is determined by information derived from a measurement of the data signal, e.g. measurement of system performance parameters, e.g. OSNR, quality factor, dispersion value, power.

Arrangements specific to free-space transmission, i.e. transmission through air or vacuum
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein a signal-carrying optical beam is propagated such that the beam is transmitted through air or a vacuum and not spatially confined in any optical component or medium.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Light signal transmission through water
Line-of-sight transmission over an extended range
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the optical beam is transmitted in a straight line to the receiver across longer distances outdoors, e.g. between buildings.

{Arrangements for outdoor wireless networking of information}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein one central station is communicating wirelessly with a plurality of terminal stations. Even if the document focuses on one such connection, but it is clear from the description and drawings it is for a network, the document should be classified here.

Indoor or close-range type systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the optical beam is propagated between nearby apparatuses or elements within an indoor space, directly or via diffuse communication.

{One-way transmission}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject-matter wherein two devices are communicating only one-way, e.g. remote controllers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission systems for measured values or control using light, e.g, remote controls per se
{Arrangements for indoor wireless networking of information}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein one central station is communicating wirelessly with a plurality of terminal stations. Even if the document focuses on one such connection, but it is clear from the description and drawings it is for a network, the document should be classified here.

Visible light communication
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the signal-carrying optical beam includes or consists of light having a wavelength in the visible light spectrum, e.g. a modulated lighting device or a modulated overhead light.

specially adapted for satellite communication
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the optical beam is propagated to or from an Earth-orbiting object.

Arrangements specific to fibre transmission { ( optical fibres per se, structural details of arrangements comprising optical fibres or other optical elements G02B 6/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including one or more transparent elongated structures (e.g., rods, fibers, or pipes) which are used to transmit light waves from one point to another within the confines of their outer surface by means of internal reflections or modal transmission.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical waveguides per se
for the reduction or elimination of distortion or dispersion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprises means for correcting or reducing distortion induced by (1) scattering in a light beam as it travels along the fiber or (2) overlapping of a light signal on one wavelength onto different wavelengths because of reflected rays and different refractive indices of the optical fiber material.

due to chromatic dispersion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for correcting or reducing distortion that is caused by the broadening of the signal as it travels the length of the fiber.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dispersion compensators per se
using Bragg gratings { ( Bragg gratings per se G02B 6/02076 ; devices using fibre gratings for dispersion control per se G02B 6/29316) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for correcting or reducing distortion caused by chromatic dispersion using a fiber Bragg grating.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bragg gratings per se
Devices with fibre gratings for dispersion control per se
using dispersion-compensating fibres { ( dispersion-tailored or dispersion compensation fibres per se G02B 6/02214) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein a correction fibre of specified length and amount of dispersion is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dispersion-tailored and dispersion compensation fibres per se
{with dispersion management, i.e. using a combination of different kind of fibres in the transmission system ( devices with different kinds of fibres for dispersion control per se G02B 6/29374) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein over the whole fibre span a combination of different fibres are used to compensate for the dispersion of the span (does not cover a combination of fibres within a device)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices with different kinds of fibres for dispersion compensation per se
using spectral inversion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject-matter wherein dispersion is compensated through mid-span spectrum inversion.

due to scattering processes, e.g. Raman or Brillouin scattering
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for correcting or reducing distortion caused by the interaction of the signal with molecules in the fiber.

due to fibre non-linearities, e.g. Kerr effect { ( non-linear optical devices G02F 1/35) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for correcting or reducing distortion caused by variations in the optical properties of the fiber, e.g. due to the Kerr effect.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices based on non-linear optics
Self-phase modulation [SPM]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for compensating for Self-phase modulation. SPM is caused by the Kerr effect which produces a variation in the refractive index of the fibre. This variation in refractive index will produce a phase shift in the pulse, leading to a change of the pulse’s frequency spectrum.

Cross-phase modulation [XPM]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for compensating for Cross-phase modulation. XFM is caused by the Kerr effect which produces a variation in the refractive index of the fibre. This leads to one wavelength of light potentially affecting the phase of another wavelength of light.

Four-wave mixing [FWM]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising means for compensating for Four-wave mixing. FWM is an intermodulation phenomenon in optical systems; when three wavelengths interact in a nonlinear medium, they give rise to a fourth wavelength.

due to polarisation mode dispersion [PMD]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter which comprises means for correcting or reducing distortion caused by modal dispersion where two different polarizations of light in a waveguide, which normally travel at the same speed, travel at different speeds due to random imperfections and asymmetries, causing random spreading of optical pulses.

Radio-over-fibre, e.g. radio frequency signal modulated onto an optical carrier { ( sub-carrier multiplexing H04J 14/0298) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

RF-over-Fiber architecture, wherein a data-carrying RF (Radio Frequency) signal with a high frequency is imposed on a lightwave signal before being transported over the optical link. Wireless signals are optically distributed to base stations directly at high frequencies and converted from the optical to the electrical domain at the base stations before being amplified and radiated by an antenna.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
sub-carrier multiplexing
{Optical arrangements for CATV or video distribution ( adaptations of television systems for optical transmission H04N 7/22) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

RF-over-Fiber systems used specially for CATV or video distribution

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
adaptations of television systems for optical transmission
Multimode transmission { ( mode multiplex systems H04J 14/04) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising systems using more than one mode for transmission using multimode fibres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
mode multiplex systems
using a single light source for multiple stations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the light source in a first station is used to transmit an optical data signal to at least a second station and the second station modulates the received light to transmit an optical data signal to the first station. The at least second station does not comprise a local light source.

Arrangements for networking { ( free-space networks H04B 10/11 , WDM networks H04J 14/0278 , specific to radio-over-fibre H04B 10/25753) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein an optical communication system is comprised of a specific arrangement of interconnections.

Star-type networks {or tree-type networks}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein an optical data distribution system contains a common node connected to one end of each of three or more branches and the other end of which is connected to each member of a local area network multiplex system to permit optical information flow between all of the members.

Ring-type networks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the local area network consists of a series of stations connected to each other and the last station is connected to the first station.

Bus-type networks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein multiple optical stations are interconnected via a network of fiber optics in a bus configuration to enable transmission and reception between the stations.

Repeaters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including apparatus for receiving a light wave signal and reradiating the signal at a same or different carrier frequency.

Note. The recreating or retransmitting signal is usually at a higher power level or in a desired direction.

Note. The information content of the transmitted signal is not changed with respect to that of the received signal.

in which processing or amplification is carried out without conversion of the main signal from optical form { ( fibre optical amplifiers per se H01S 3/067) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the optical data signal is regenerated without conversion into the electrical domain. Feedback or control signals may be converted from optical to electrical.

Signal power control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the regeneration leads to a constant signal power level.

in a multiwavelength system, e.g. gain equalisation { ( for general power control in WDM systems, see also H04J 14/0221) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein the power control takes place in a wavelength division multiplexing [WDM] system

Transient power control, e.g. due to channel add/drop or rapid fluctuations in the input power
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which compensation is provided if the power of the signal changes rapidly due to changes in system parameters.

Bidirectional amplification
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the regeneration is provided using a single device that retransmits both upstream and downstream signals. The single device may contain different devices that interact with each other. A single fibre is used for upstream and downstream signals, the regeneration device can however comprise separate amplifiers for upstream and downstream signals.

Signal waveform processing, e.g. reshaping or retiming
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the shape and/or timing of the signal is processed prior to regeneration, e.g. 3R amplifiers.

Transceivers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein an optical transmitter and a receiver are at a common location for transmission and reception of separate optical signals in such a manner that an optical signal is transmitted using some of the same equipment used for the reception of another optical signal. The optical transmitter and receiver are usually confined to a common housing in a transceiver and termed "a station".

Simultaneously operating transmitter and receiver elements that are completely separated physically are excluded from this subclass.

using a single component as both light source and receiver, e.g. using a photoemitter as a photoreceiver
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein a same diode element is used both to transmit or receive signals depending on how it is biased.

Transmitters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including an opto-electric circuit for converting an information signal into a modulated optical signal suitable for propagation through or along a transmission medium. The opto-electric circuit includes, for example, opto-electronic light sources such as LEDs, laser diode, incandescent bulbs, an optical modulator and other elements associated with fiber optic or infrared transmission system required to communicate an information signal from one location to another via an optical beam.

Pulse generation, e.g. generation of solitons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising details of a process in which the optical energy is transformed into pulses having a particular characteristic before information signal coding or modulation is applied to the optical energy.

Details of coding or modulation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising details of a process in which information signal is coded into beams of optical energy by use of a carrier wave.

Pulse modulation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which modulation is produced by modulating a carrier light wave by a series of digital pulses and varying a non-amplitude attribute of the pulses (e.g., position, width) to represent information in the optical beam.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Intensity modulation
Polarisation modulation {e.g. polarization switching or transmission of a single data stream on two orthogonal polarizations ( polarization multiplexed systems H04J 14/06) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the polarization of the carrier light wave is controlled to represent information

Intensity modulation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which modulation is produced by varying the amplitude of a carrier light wave as a function of the information signal.

Phase or frequency modulation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which angle modulation is produced by proportionally varying the instantaneous phase angle of a sine wave carrier with the instantaneous value of an amplitude of a modulating signal, or by causing the instantaneous frequency of a sine wave carrier to depart from a carrier frequency an amount that is proportional to the instantaneous value of a modulating signal.

Digital modulation, e.g. differential phase shift keying [DPSK] or frequency shift keying [FSK]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the modulation is produced by creating discrete variations of the phase or frequency of the optical signal.

Power control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising details of regulating the energy level output from the transmitting laser or light emitter.

Wavelength control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter comprising details of regulating the wavelength output from the transmitting laser or light emitter. Regulating the wavelength output may include wavelength tuning or wavelength stabilization.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling the intensity, frequency, phase, polarisation or direction of the emitted radiation
Arrangements for controlling the laser output parameters
Compensation for non-linear transmitter output
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein at least one output of the opto-electric circuit is modified to be an approximately linear function of its inputs. (techniques for making the output of the transmitter into a linear output)

in external modulation systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including particular details of varying the output of at least one laser diode element using another element outside of the laser diode to provide the optically transmitted signal.

Receivers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter including an opto-electric circuit for retrieving information from a modulated optical signal propagated through or along a transmission medium.

Coherent receivers {i.e., optical receivers using an optical local oscillator ( delay line interferometer based DPSK optical receivers H04B 10/677) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein a received wave is combined with a locally generated wave to produce one or more beat frequency signals at the output for detection of the transmitted information signal.

Homodyne {, i.e., coherent receivers where the local oscillator is locked in frequency and phase to the carrier signal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A receiver that demodulates the received signal by mixing it with a local oscillator signal synchronized in frequency and phase to the carrier of the received signal.

Heterodyne {, i.e., coherent receivers where, after the opto-electronic conversion, an electrical signal at an intermediate frequency [fIF] is obtained}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A receiver that demodulates the received signal by mixing it with a local oscillator signal having a different frequency than the carrier of the received signal.

Non-coherent receivers, e.g. using direct detection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the data signal is directly converted from optical to electrical without the use of an oscillator.

Optical arrangements in the receiver
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the detection of the signal is enhanced by an optical arrangement in the receiver that is provided in addition to the photodetection means.

Electrical arrangements in the receiver
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter in which the detection of the signal is enhanced by an electrical arrangement within the receiver that is provided in addition to the photodetection means.

Photonic quantum communication
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter wherein characteristics of single photons are varied to represent respective bits of data and these photons are transmitted and/or received in a communication system to convey an information-bearing message.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems wherein the photons represent a cryptographic key
Optical aspects relating to the use of optical transmission for specific applications, not provided for in groups H04B 10/03 - H04B 10/70 , e.g. optical power feeding or optical transmission through water
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical aspects relating to specific applications of optical communication not provided for in any of the previous subgroups, e.g. optical power feeding, optical transmission through water or rotary joints,.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for fault recovery
Arrangements for monitoring or testing transmission systems; Arrangements for fault measurement of transmission systems
Arrangements specific to free-space transmission, i.e. transmission through air or vacuum
Arrangements specific for fibre transmission
Arrangements for networking
Repeaters
Transceivers
Transmitters
Receivers
Photonic quantum communication
Protection from unauthorised access, e.g. eavesdrop protection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject-matter dealing with protection from unauthorised access, e.g. eavesdrop protection. Concerning eavesdrop protection it is noted that it is irrelevant whether the signal to be protected from eavesdropping is encrypted or not.

Non-optical transmission systems, e.g. transmission systems employing non-photonic corpuscular radiation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-optical transmission systems that fall under the scope of the title of the main group; e.g. transmission system using Teraherz waves below the far infrared range or particles.

Transmission systems employing sonic, ultrasonic or infrasonic waves
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems employing ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Speech analysis or synthesis; Speech recognition
Telephonic communication
Loudspeakers, microphones or like acoustic electromechanical transducers
Stereophonic systems
Transmission systems characterised by the medium used for transmission, not provided for in groups H04B 3/00 to H04B 11/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems where the medium for transmission is more pertinent than the type of signal.

{Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the human body}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems where the medium is the human body.

Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the earth or a large mass of water thereon, e.g. earth telegraphy ( line transmission systems with earth or water return H04B 3/00 ; { geophysics, detecting hidden masses G01H, G01V 1/16 , G01V 1/18 , G01V 3/00 ; sonars G01S 1/72 ; applications of earth currents G01S 1/72 , H05F 7/00 ; direction and distance determination with lead cables G01S 13/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems where the medium is the earth or a large mass of water.

Transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission ( details thereof H04B 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission systems characterised by the use of a carrier modulation;

Transmission systems characterised by the use of pulse modulation, differential modulation or subcarrier modulation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
details of transmission systems not characterized by the medium used
Amplitude modulation
Angle modulation
Polarisation modulation and/or switching with transmission through light guides
Ofdm modulation techniques
Data mapping in impulse radio systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Demodulation or transference of modulation from one carrier to another
Coding, decoding or code conversion, in general
Amplitude modulated carrier systems
Frequency modulated carrier systems
Impulse radio
Suppression or limitation of noise or interference ( by means associated with receiver H04B 1/10)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reduction or elimination of unwanted disturbances of the information transmission.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Suppression or limitation of noise or interference by means associated with receiver
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Structural association with measuring or protective devices or electric components with suppressor for radio interference
Screening of apparatus or components against electric or magnetic fields
Reducing interference from electric apparatus by means located at or near the interfering apparatus ( structural association with dynamo-electric machines H02K 11/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Structural association with measuring or protective devices or electric components with suppressor for radio interference
Screening of apparatus or components against electric or magnetic fields
{Reducing interference from ignition apparatus of fuel engines ( cables with high resistance H01B) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cables with high resistance
the interference being caused by substantially sinusoidal oscillations, e.g. in a receiver, in a tape-recorder ( reducing parasitic oscillations H03B, H03F; screening H05K 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

interference from harmonics of clock frequency generators in transmission equipment

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
reducing parasitic oscillations
In computer clock generaters
In PLL frequency synthesizers
Monitoring; Testing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for determining the manner in which a transmission system is functioning or the existence, type and location of any trouble.

Monitoring of the communications radio link between the transmitter and the receiver. Measurements of quality parameters of the transmission/reception signal, monitoring of the transmission/reception path, calibrating measurements and modelling the propagation channel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring, testing line transmission systems
Equipment for monitoring, testing transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light, infra-red
H04B10/08
Details of Transmitters
Details of Receivers
Details of measuring arrangements for electric or magnetic variables
Arrangements for testing electric properties
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monitoring arrangements in multiplex communication
Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements in data switching networks
Monitoring of processes or resources in selective content distribution
Supervisory, testing and monitoring arrangements for wireless communication networks
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
I/Q
in phase / quadrature
Rf
radio frequency
Rscp
received signal code power
Rssi
received signal strength indicator
Sir
signal to interference ratio
Cir
carrier to interference ratio
{with feedback of measurements to the transmitter ( for modifying transmission characteristics H04L 1/0026 , for allocation of payload in multicarrier systems H04L 27/2608) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
using Feedback for transmission diversity
using Feedback for modifying transmission characteristics
using Feedback for allocation of payload in multi-carrier systems
{for locating or positioning the transmitter}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radio direction finding
Locating or presence detecting by the use of reflection or reradiation of radio waves
Satellite radio beacon positioning systems
{for resource allocation, admission control or handover}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hand-off or reselecting arrangements
of relay systems
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Obsolete group not used for classification.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013