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PULSE TECHNIQUE (measuring pulse characteristics G01R; mechanical counters having an electrical input G06M; information storage devices in general G11; sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores G11C 27/02; construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet, H01H; static conversion of electric power H02M; generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner H03B; modulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses H03C, H04L; discriminator circuits involving pulse counting H03D; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; coding, decoding or code conversion in general H03M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Methods, circuits, devices or apparatus using active elements operating in a discontinuous or switching manner for generating, counting, amplifying, shaping, modulating, demodulating or otherwise manipulating signals;
  • Electronic switching not involving contact-making and braking;
  • Logic circuits handling electric pulses.

In general, it should be noted that the word 'Pulse' in the title description is a clear limiting feature for this subclass.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
measuring electrical signals (to get a value)
testing electrical circuits
measuring pulse characteristic
mechanical counters having an electrical input
information storage devices in general
sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores
construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet
static conversion of electric power
generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner
odulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses
discriminator circuits involving pulse counting
automatic control of generators
starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified
coding, decoding or code conversion in general
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Differential
really means differential, not just complementary, i.e. two signals with an inverter in between are not differential
Circuits for generating electric pulses; Monostable, bistable or multistable circuits (H03K 4/00 takes precedence; for digital computers G06F 1/025, {G06F 1/04} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Latches and flip-flops;
  • Non-linear (switching) oscillators;
  • Latching level shifters.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Duty cycle correction circuits
Linear (non-switching) oscillators
Pulse width modulation
Random number generators

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Latches and flip-flops used as static stores in semiconductor memories
Latches used in scan test of integrated circuits
Power pulse generators for driving lasers
Voltage- and current controlled oscillators
Special rules of classification within this group

Latching level shifters should be classified in the corresponding bistable circuit subgroups of this main group.

Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions (generation of supply voltages from deflection waveforms H04N 3/18)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Relaxation oscillators.
  • Switched-capacitor oscillators
  • Ramp and sawtooth generators.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multivibrators generating pulse signals other than finite-sloped or staircase signals should be classified in H03K 3/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Direct-digital frequency synthesizers
Generation of supply voltages from deflection waveforms
Modifying slopes of pulses
Special rules of classification within this group

H03K 4/026: Digital generators followed by a digital-to-analog converter to produce analogue output stepped signals.

Manipulating pulses not covered by one of the other main groups in this subclass (circuits with regenerative action H03K 3/00, H03K 4/00; by the use of non-linear magnetic or dielectric devices H03K 3/45)
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Regenerative action
internal or external positive feed-back.
Delay line
transmission line
{Changing the frequency (modulating pulses H03K 7/00; frequency dividers H03K 21/00 to H03K 29/00; additive or subtractive mixing of two pulse rates into one G06F 7/605; pulse rate dividers G06F 7/68) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mostly pulse rate multiply by 2 circuits based on delaying and combining.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulse frequency multipliers
Changing the DC level (television signals H04N 3/00)
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Level shifters interfacing between logic families or coupling logic circuit stages
Shaping pulses (discrimination against noise or interference H03K 5/125)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For baseband data transmission
For reducing generated interference
For reducing power consumption
For impedance matching
by increasing duration; by decreasing duration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also used for slew rate control circuits.

by the use of delay lines or other analogue delay elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For instance circuits for staggering turn on signals.

{using dispersive delay lines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Delay lines having propagation speed depending on input frequency.

by limiting; by thresholding; by slicing, i.e. combined limiting and thresholding (H03K 5/07 takes precedence; comparing one pulse with another H03K 5/22; providing a determined threshold for switching H03K 17/30)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Clamping circuits in general

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Clamping for ESD protection
For details of threshold comparators
[N: modified by switching, e.g. by a periodic signal or by a signal in synchronism with the transitions of the output signal]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The value of the threshold is generated by feedback AND the value is modified by switching.

{generated by feedback}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

i.e. the value of the threshold is generated by feedback.

by steepening leading or trailing edges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mostly used for pulse compression circuits using non-linear transmission lines having propagation speed depending on input amplitude, such as diode loaded transmission lines, to steepen one of the pulse edges and slow the other.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Changing the slew rate of leading and/or falling pulses in general
Accelerating switching
Suppression or limitation of noise or interference (specially adapted for transmission systems H04B 15/00, H04L 25/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mostly suppression of glitches in binary signals by delay and subsequent logic combination with the original signal.

Some documents (often also classified in H03K 5/156 or H03K 5/1565) relate to phase noise suppression in (interpolated) clock signals.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Suppressing noise by slew rate control
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

For glitches produced when switching from one clock signal to another G06F 1/08 takes precedence.

Arrangements having a single output and transforming input signals into pulses delivered at desired time intervals { (measuring time intervals using electronic timing, e.g. counting means G04F 1/005) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Mainly used for delay circuits but also for some generic pulse circuits having multiple inputs and a single output
  • Phase interpolation
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Additional aspects are classified as follows

Phase interpolation circuits H03K 2005/00052

Digitally controlled
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Also classify in: H03K 2005/00058 (controlled by a digital setting)

by the use of time reference signals, e.g. clock signals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Synchronising a signal to a clock signal
  • Using a clock signal as a reference for controlling a delay, e.g. synchronous mirror delay circuits (SMDs), in which a detected number of gates in a first delay line - through which a signal edge propagates in a predetermined time defined by the reference clock - is used for controlling the number of delay elements in a second delay line for compensation.
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Synchronisation of pulses generated from circuits classified in H03K 4/00
Synchronisation of clock signals in data processing equipment
Clocked shift registers
PLL, DLL
Synchronising data receiver with transmitter, e.g. using clock data recovery
Synchronisation in TDM systems
Arrangements in which pulses are delivered at different times at several outputs, i.e. pulse distributors (distributing, switching or gating arrangements H03K 17/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distributing clock signals in data processing equipment:
{with asynchronously driven series connected output stages}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tapped arrangement

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
using a chain of active delay devices
H03K5/132
{with parallel driven output stages; with synchronously driven series connected output stages}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulse distributor with output stages driven more or less synchronously either in parallel in a tree-like structure OR sequentially with shift register like structure.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Distributing clock signals in data processing equipment
{using devices arranged in a shift register}
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shift registers per se
with two complementary outputs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Providing simultaneous switching of two complementary signals.

{non-overlapping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In particular suitable for preventing simultaneous conduction in push pull stages.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Protecting switching stages against overload by arrangements in the control circuit
Preventing simultaneous conduction in DC/DC converters
Complementarily driven MOS switches
Arrangements in which a pulse is delivered at the instant when a predetermined characteristic of an input signal is present or at a fixed time interval after this instant (switching at zero crossing H03K 17/13; {measuring characteristics of individual pulses G01R 29/02} )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
indicating of signal events
Peak detectors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Peak instant detectors only

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Peak level detectors
AM demodulators and envelope detectors
{the output pulses having a constant duty cycle}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also contains ccts for suppressing jitter and phase noise in pulse signals.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Generators (i.e. circuits not having a signal input) with duty cycle adjustment
Duty cycle modulation schemes
Applications of delay lines not covered by the preceding subgroups
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transversal filters
Monitoring patterns of pulse trains (indicating amplitude G01R 19/00; indicating frequency G01R 23/00; measuring characteristics of individual pulses G01R 29/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting presence of valid pulse signal, e.g monitoring amplitude and/or frequency of pulse signal.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distribution of clock signals
Measuring electrical variables
the characteristic being amplitude
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulse comparators.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
DC comparators
Indicating signal level
Thresholding or clamping
Comparators using latches or having hysteresis
Sense amplifiers
Current (mirror) comparators: Only the ones giving full swing outputs classified here
Circuits comparing digital numbers
Manipulating pulses having a finite slope and not covered by one of the other main groups of this subclass (circuits with regenerative action H03K 4/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Slew rate correction in ramp or triangular waveform generators..

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
[N: modified by switching, e.g. by a periodic signal or by a signal in synchronism with the transitions of the output signal]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The switching only relating to the switching instants.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
If the value of the threshold being switched is generated by feedback
If the value is generated by feedback AND modified by switching
Modulating pulses with a continuously-variable modulating signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Continuous modulating signal meaning (quasi-)analog.

Only basic schemes for modulating one or more pulse characteristics are classsified here. See also application fields.

\

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discrete pulse modulation
Position modulation, i.e. PPM
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Impulse radio, UWB signals
Frequency or rate modulation, i.e. PFM or PRM
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For spread spectrum clock signals
Random signal generators
Random number generators
G06F1/58R
Noise generators
Duration or width modulation {Duty cycle modulation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Basic modulation concept such as comparing voltage to (quasi-)analog ramp signal.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For data signals
For signal generators
D/A converters
Class D amplifiers
switch mode controllers
Demodulating pulses which have been modulated with a continuously-variable signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only for documents not showing the modulator or where the demodulator is clearly the main aspect.

Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking (selection of the stylus or auxiliary electrode in electric printing B41J 2/405; sample-and-hold arrangements G11C 27/02; switching or interrupting devices in waveguides H01P; gated amplifiers H03F 3/72; switching arrangements for exchange systems using static devices H04Q 3/52)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Composite switches: multiple types of transistors form a switching unit e.g. IGBT
  • Output circuit: drain-source or collector-emitter path including load
  • Input circuit: means connected to gate- or base-connection
  • Feedback from the output to the input circuit: does not include e.g. common source or emitter connections as a voltage reference
{Switching arrangements with several input- or output terminals (code converters H03M 5/00, H03M 7/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General multiplexers (block diagrams)

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

More detailed structures are classified as follows:

bipolar transistor based mux circuits: H03K 17/62and subgroups

field-effect transistor based mux circuits: H03K 17/693

diode based mux circuits: H03K 17/76

Modifications for accelerating switching
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acceleration means

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
the mere speed gain one gets by using a different material, type of transistor, etc
{in composite switches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Composite switches -> mainly IGBTs

Modifications for ensuring a fully conducting state
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Diode replacement circuits
Modifications for protecting switching circuit against overcurrent or overvoltage
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Safety devices eventually
For testing etc. of semiconductors
Special rules of classification within this group

Protection circuits for protecting the switch go in here, those protecting the load go in H02H 3/00 (remember to distribute it in classification). We will therefore in almost any case have to search in there as well.

Any document with a switch and a temperature detector is classified in H03K 2017/0806.

by measures taken in the control circuit
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuits whose output signals could be used for x-bar current prevention in a half-bridge, i.e. non-overlapping signals
by measures taken in the output circuit
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For solid state switches which are protected by having a mechanical switch (MEMS) in series
Modifications for increasing the maximum permissible switched voltage
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
by merely different types of transistors
Modifications for increasing the maximum permissible switched current
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
by merely different types of transistors
Modifications for switching at zero crossing (generating an impulse at zero crossing H03K 5/153)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
zero crossing detectors
Modifications for eliminating interference voltages or currents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Caused by the switching, e.g. reducing switching noise

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
means for preventing simultaneous conduction
{Soft switching}
Special rules of classification within this group

Soft switching aspects are also classified in H02H 9/001

{Soft switching}
Special rules of classification within this group

Soft switching aspects are also classified in H02H 9/001

Modifications for indicating state of switch
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any kind of state, i.e. not only the switching state but also e.g. if short-circuited, how many times overloaded so far etc. etc.

indicating -> display or generation of feedback signals to higher entity etc.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Indicating
display or generation of feedback signals e.g. to a higher entity etc...
Modifications for ensuring a predetermined initial state when the supply voltage has been applied (bi-stable generators H03K 3/12)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Merely power-on-reset circuits of any kind

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Resetting means
Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages Indicating that current or voltage is either above or below a predetermined value
Storing the actual state when the supply voltage fails
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
latches for opamps or comparator
bipolar transistor
logic circuit
field-effect transistor
Time-programme switches providing a choice of time-intervals for executing more than one switching action and automatically terminating their operation after the programme is completed (electronic clocks comprising means to be operated at preselected times or after preselected time-intervals G04G 15/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also Christmas tree type pre-programmable plugs

Modifications for providing a predetermined threshold before switching (shaping pulses by thresholding H03K 5/08; {for logic circuits H03K 19/0021} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Keeping an absolute switching threshold or switching at a threshold different from the threshold of the switching element

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Diode replacement Transistors can also be classified in H03K 17/06 or H03K 17/063.

using field-effect transistors
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
characterised by the way in which the control signal is generated (mechanical structural details of control members of switches or keyboards, such as keys, push-buttons, levers or other mechanisms for transferring force to the activated elements, not directly producing electronic effects H01H; keyboards for special applications, see the relevant places, e.g. B41J, G06F 3/023, H04L 15/00, H04L 17/00, H04M 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Some detection methods which are not to be found elsewhere & details related to the operation of generic sensors.

This class contains different sensing priciples:

microwave

RF energy sensor

ultrasonic

infrasonic

acoustically activated

temperature activated

Power supply related documents are found here and in H03K 17/945 if for generic sensor. H03K 17/951 is for power supply for non-generic sensor, even if not magnetic.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radio-controlled
Alarms using Doppler-effect
Doppler-effect microwave sensor
Pyroelectric alarms
Optical passive sensors
Ultrasonic alarms
Wireless distribution of power
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
for reflection on object
for HF proximity sensors operating with electromagnetic waves (near field)
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
RF energy sensor
e.g. to sense absorption of RF energy by a resonant tank circuit at predetermined frequencies, where the tank circuit corresponds to each keybutton. An emitter device emits energy in a path of tank circuit towards the RF energy sensor. A determination device determines a depression state of the keybuttons in accordance with absorption
{using an optical detector (H03K 17/968 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical scanner
G02B26/08M4B
Detection only, no switching
Photocouplers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Light barriers and using reflection on object
Proximity switches (H03K 17/96 takes precedence; {proximity fuzes F42C 13/00; detecting masses or objects, e.g. by using a magnetic or optical detector G01V, e.g. G01V 3/00, G01V 8/10} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details, housings for sensors, network of proximity sensors, programming of proximity switches

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Housings for sensors
Explicitly for magnetic proximity sensors
{Measures for increasing reliability}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Temperature compensation, self-test, redundant sensors, security switches (using codes), passive and active responders, protection against noise and interference

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transponders in proximity switches
Passive transponders,
{Measures for supplying operating voltage to the detector circuit}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For practical purposes also power supply details of non-magnetic touch sensors.

{using non-linear magnetic devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also bistable magnetic elements (Barkhausen effect, Wiegand effect, Matteucci effect).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Barkhausen effect
Electronic switching or gating using a magnetic movable element
Wiegand effect
{using galvanomagnetic devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistance.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hall effect:
Magnetoresistance:
If target is magnetic:
{using inductive coils}
Special rules of classification within this group

H03K 17/9537 takes precedence.

{in a resonant circuit}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

LC-resonant circuit in general (e.g. signal is interrogation pulse, usually generating damped or decaying oscillations)

{forming part of an oscillator}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

LC-resonant circuit forming part of oscillator; the variable parameter is undetermined

{with variable frequency}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

LC-resonant circuit forming part of oscillator; the variable parameter is oscillation frequency

{with variable amplitude}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

LC-resonant circuit forming part of oscillator; the variable parameter is oscillation amplitude

using a capacitive detector
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Charge transfer, phase comparison, frequency shift, resistance-capacitance timing circuits

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Distance measurement
Electrically operated windows or roofs
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Housings for sensors
Measuring capacitance
Capacitive touch switches
Detection of varying capacitance
Touch switches
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details, detection principles, simulation of slider, key illumination details

{Capacitive touch switches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection principle

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring capacitance
{using a plurality of detectors, e.g. keyboard}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digitisers by capacitive means
{ using a force resistance transducer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for interpreting an external force as a variable resistance (e.g. strain gauges)

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistive touch switches
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring force or stress in general
Measuring force or stress using distributed sensing elements
Adjustable resistors adjustable by mechanical pressure of force
Adjustable resistors by using means responding to magnetic or electric fields, e.g. by addition of magnetisable or piezoelectric particles to the resistive material
Adjustable resistors on resistive material dispersed in an elastic material
Adjustable by changing surface pressure between resistive masses or resistive and conductive masses
Digitisers using force sensing means
Switches with contacts carried by or formed from layers in a multilayer structure, e.g. membrane switches
Switches characterised by the material of the contacts, e.g. conductive polymers
{ Optical touch switches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

ONLY documents which disclose reflection on a permanent interface surface

{using a plurality of detectors, e.g. keyboard}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Simulation of slider, in combination with display

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digitisers by opto-electronic means
{using a light guide}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

With deformation of the light guide

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Touch
Deformation
{ Resistive touch switches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

An object (e.g. finger) provides path for current

Switches controlled by moving an element forming part of the switch
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tactile feedback, illuminated, rotary, ...

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Joysticks with analog output
using opto-electronic devices
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical rotary encoders per se
having a plurality of control members, e.g. keyboard
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coding in connection with keyboards or like devices using opto-electronic means
H03M211/26
using a magnetic movable element
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type of magnetic sensor: inductance, hall sensor, magnetoresistance

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hall sensors
using a capacitive movable element
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The movable part is an electrode forming part of the switch or the dielectric

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member by varying capacitance
Logic circuits, i.e. having at least two inputs acting on one output; Inverting circuits { (inverting circuits used as delay elements H03K 5/13) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits having at least two inputs acting on one output inverting circuits or buffers.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When a circuit is used or adapted for switching a load, it is classified in H03K 17/00. When it is used/adapted for driving a logic circuit (e.g. output buffer), it goes to H03K 19/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
CAD, Layout and Routing
Clock generation/distribution
I/O data interface arrangement
Hot Plugging (device-to-bus)
Emergency protective circuits
Baseband systems (for transmission): line drivers, impedance matching, termination
Program control
ESD protection
Inverting circuits used as delay element
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nano-technology logic
Special rules of classification within this group

The groups H03K 19/00369 take precedence over H03K 19/0005

H03K 19/003: Circuits for increasing the reliability, not for notifying the user that a failure took place

H03K 19/00323: Skew compensation

H03K 19/00346: Slope control, slew rate adaptation

H03K 19/007: Circuits in this class go, when they fail, to a safe state. They do not notify the user of a failure

H03K 19/01 covers accelerating switching in logic circuits and should not be confused with H03K 17/04 which covers accelerating the switching of a switch

H03K 19/177: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).

Details of pulse counters or frequency dividers { (number-of-one counters G06F 7/607) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of logic circuits having electric(digital) pulses as input signals and either counting incoming pulses or producing an output pulse stream based on the incoming pulse stream having a modified pulse repeating period.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
High Security Counting
Measuring Pulse Width Time
Coincidence Detection
G01T1/72
Non-integer Counting and Performing Operations by counting
Member-of-one (population) Counter
Binary Multiplication andPulse rate divider
PLLs including Dividers
Changing Frequency
Input circuits
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special logic at input for pulse treatment e.g. pulse shaping

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in this group:

media0.jpg

Figure taken from DE3842874

Output circuits
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special logic at register outputs e.g. for a counter value dependent reset.

media1.jpg

Figure taken from JP57199337

Circuits for carrying over pulses between successive decades
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic counter having multiple counting stages including a carry over bit between stages.

media2.jpg

Figure taken from US5,946,369

Circuits for visual indication of the result
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic for representing the result to a user.

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Figure taken from DE3031612

Starting, stopping or resetting the counter (counters with a base other than a power of two H03K 23/48, H03K 23/66)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic for influencing the counter status.

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Figure taken from EP0471390.

Monitoring; Error detection; Preventing or correcting improper counter operation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring whether an error occured during the counting process (not the process producing the pulses)

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Figure taken from DE2550177

Pulse counters comprising counting chains; Frequency dividers comprising counting chains (H03K 29/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic for digital counting chains used in pulse counters or frequency dividers

{using elements not covered by groups H03K 23/002 and H03K 23/74 to H03K 23/84}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other elements as complementary IGFET's, electrically-ignited compounds e.g. pyrotechnical static relays

{Counters counting in a non-natural counting order, e.g. random counters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detailed counting encoding scheme.

Gating or clocking signals applied to all stages, i.e. synchronous counters { (H03K 23/74 to H03K 23/84 take precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details regarding the clock used for triggering the counting of incoming pulses

Gating or clocking signals not applied to all stages, i.e. asynchronous counters (H03K 23/74 to H03K 23/84 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Counter with a "rippling" trigger pulse form stage to stage - asynchronous counters.

with a base or radix other than a power of two (H03K 23/40 to H03K 23/62 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Variable counting base, non-integer or odd-number counters.

Pulse counters with step-by-step integration and static storage; Analogous frequency dividers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Static storage type counters - e.g. capacitive type

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Figure taken from EP0916188

Pulse counters in which pulses are continuously circulated in a closed loop; Analogous frequency dividers (feedback shift register counters H03K 23/54)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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Figure taken from GB2008296.

Pulse counters comprising multi-stable elements, e.g. for ternary scale, for decimal scale; Analogous frequency dividers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A triggering pulse is generated in response to each input signal to be counted. The triggering pulse is applied to the device to change the voltage across the device. The voltage across the device is output as an indication of the number of received input signals. The device may be a resonant tunnelling diode with multiple peaks in its current versus voltage characteristic. The device may be a resonant tunnelling diode with multiple peaks in its current versus voltage characteristic.

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Figure taken from US 5,033,069

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013