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PULSE TECHNIQUE (measuring pulse characteristics G01R; mechanical counters having an electrical input G06M; information storage devices in general G11; sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores G11C 27/02; construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet, H01H; static conversion of electric power H02M; generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner H03B; modulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses H03C, H04L; discriminator circuits involving pulse counting H03D; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; coding, decoding or code conversion in general H03M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Methods, circuits, devices or apparatus using active elements operating in a discontinuous or switching manner for generating, counting, amplifying. Shaping, modulating, demodulating or otherwise manipulating signals;
  • Electronic switching not involving contact-making and braking.
  • Logic circuits handling electric pulses.

In general, it should be noted that the word 'Pulse' in the title description is a clear limiting feature for this subclass.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring electrical signals (to get a value)
Testing electrical circuits
Measuring pulse characteristic
Mechanical counters having an electrical input
Information storage devices in general
G11
Sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores
Construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet
Static conversion of electric power
Generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner
Odulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses
Discriminator circuits involving pulse counting
Automatic control of generators
Starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified
Coding, decoding or code conversion in general
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Differential
really means differential, not just complementary, i.e. two signals with an inverter in between are not differential
Circuits for generating electric pulses; Monostable, bistable or multistable circuits (H03K 4/00 takes precedence; for digital computers G06F 1/025, [N: G06F 1/04])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Latches and flip-flops;
  • Non-linear (switching) oscillators;
  • Latching level shifters.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Duty cycle correction circuits
Linear (non-switching) oscillators
Pulse width modulation
Random number generators

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Latches and flip-flops used as static stores in semiconductor memories
Latches used in scan test of integrated circuits
Power pulse generators for driving lasers
Voltage- and current controlled oscillators
Special rules of classification within this group

Latching level shifters should be classified in the corresponding bistable circuit subgroups of this main group.

Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions (generation of supply voltages from deflection waveforms H04N 3/18)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Relaxation oscillators.
  • Switched-capacitor oscillators
  • Ramp and sawtooth generators.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multivibrators generating pulse signals other than finite-sloped or staircase signals should be classified in H03K 3/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Direct-digital frequency synthesizers
Generation of supply voltages from deflection waveforms
Modifying slopes of pulses
Special rules of classification within this group

H03K 4/026: Digital generators followed by a digital-to-analog converter to produce analogue output stepped signals.

Manipulating pulses not covered by any of the other main groups in this subclass (circuits with regenerative action H03K 3/00, H03K 4/00; by the use of non-linear magnetic or dielectric devices H03K 3/45)
Manipulating pulses having a finite slope and not covered by one of the other main groups of this subclass (circuits with regenerative action H03K 4/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Slew rate correction in ramp or triangular waveform generators..

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Modulating pulses with a continuously-variable modulating signal
Demodulating pulses which have been modulated with a continuously-variable signal
Transforming types of modulations, e.g. position-modulated pulses into duration-modulated pulses
Producing pulses by distorting or combining sinusoidal waveforms (combining sinewaves using elements operating in a non-switching manner H03B; [N: limiting or clipping, e.g. H03G 11/00 ])
Electronic switching or gating , i.e. not by contact-making or -braking (selection of the stylus or auxiliary electrode in electric printing B41J 2/405; sample-and-hold arrangements G11C 27/02; switching or interrupting devices in waveguides H01P; gated amplifiers H03F 3/72; switching arrangements for exchange systems using static devices H04Q 3/52)
Logic circuits, i.e. having at least two inputs acting on one output; Inverting circuits [N: (inverting circuits used as delay elements H03K 5/13)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits having at least two inputs acting on one output inverting circuits or buffers.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When a circuit is used or adapted for switching a load, it is classified in H03K 17/00. When it is used/adapted for driving a logic circuit (e.g. output buffer), it goes to H03K 19/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
CAD, Layout and Routing
Clock generation/distribution
I/O data interface arrangement
Hot Plugging (device-to-bus)
Emergency protective circuits
Baseband systems (for transmission): line drivers, impedance matching, termination
Program control
ESD protection
Inverting circuits used as delay element
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nano-technology logic
Special rules of classification within this group

The groups H03K 19/00369 take precedence over H03K 19/0005

H03K 19/003: Circuits for increasing the reliability, not for notifying the user that a failure took place

H03K 19/00323: Skew compensation

H03K 19/00346: Slope control, slew rate adaptation

H03K 19/007: Circuits in this class go, when they fail, to a safe state. They do not notify the user of a failure

H03K 19/01 covers accelerating switching in logic circuits and should not be confused with H03K 17/04 which covers accelerating the switching of a switch

H03K 19/177: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).

Details of pulse counters or frequency dividers [N: (number-of-one counters G06F 7/607)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of logic circuits having electric(digital) pulses as input signals and either counting incoming pulses or producing an output pulse stream based on the incoming pulse stream having a modified pulse repeating period.

Reference relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
High Security Counting
Measuring Pulse Width Time
Coincidence Detection
G01T1/72
Non-integer Counting and Performing Operations by counting
Member-of-one (population) Counter
Binary Multiplication andPulse rate divider
PLLs including Dividers
Changing Frequency
Input circuits
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special logic at input for pulse treatment e.g. pulse shaping

Figure taken from DE3842874

Output circuits
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special logic at register outputs e.g. for a counter value dependent reset.

Figure taken from JP57199337

Circuits for carrying over pulses between successive decades
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic counter having multiple counting stages including a carry over bit between stages.

Figure taken from US5,946,369

Circuits for visual indication of the result
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic for representing the result to a user.

Figure taken from DE3031612

Starting, stopping or resetting the counter (counters with a base other than a power of two H03K 23/48, H03K 23/66)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic for influencing the counter status.

Figure taken from EP0471390.

Monitoring; Error detection; Preventing or correcting improper counter operation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring whether an error occured during the counting process (not the process producing the pulses)

Figure taken from DE2550177

Pulse counters comprising counting chains; Frequency dividers comprising counting chains (H03K 29/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Logic for digital counting chains used in pulse counters or frequency dividers

[N: using elements not covered by groups H03K 23/002 and H03K 23/74 to H03K 23/84]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other elements as complementary IGFET's, electrically-ignited compounds e.g. pyrotechnical static relays

[N: Counters counting in a non-natural counting order, e.g. random counters]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detailed counting encoding scheme.

Gating or clocking signals applied to all stages, i.e. synchronous counters [N: (H03K 23/74 to H03K 23/84 take precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details regarding the clock used for triggering the counting of incoming pulses

Gating or clocking signals not applied to all stages, i.e. asynchronous counters (H03K 23/74 to H03K 23/84 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Counter with a "rippling" trigger pulse form stage to stage - asynchronous counters.

with a base or radix other than a power of two (H03K 23/40 to H03K 23/62 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Variable counting base, non-integer or odd-number counters.

Pulse counters with step-by-step integration and static storage; Analogous frequency dividers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Static storage type counters - e.g. capacitive type

Figure taken from EP0916188

Pulse counters in which pulses are continuously circulated in a closed loop; Analogous frequency dividers (feedback shift register counters H03K 23/54)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Figure taken from GB2008296.

Pulse counters comprising multi-stable elements, e.g. for ternary scale, for decimal scale; Analogous frequency dividers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A triggering pulse is generated in response to each input signal to be counted. The triggering pulse is applied to the device to change the voltage across the device. The voltage across the device is output as an indication of the number of received input signals. The device may be a resonant tunnelling diode with multiple peaks in its current versus voltage characteristic. The device may be a resonant tunnelling diode with multiple peaks in its current versus voltage characteristic.

Figure taken from US 5,033,069

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013