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ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS(spark-gaps H01T; arc lamps with consumable electrodes H05B; particle accelerators H05H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Devices, i.e. electric discharge tubes or discharge lamps, for producing, influencing, or using a flow of electrons or ions, and having a closed or substantially closed casing containing a chosen gas, vapour, or vacuum, upon the pressure and nature of which the characteristics of the device depend. Examples include devices for controlling, indicating, or switching electric current, counting electric pulses, producing light or other electromagnetic oscillations, such as X-rays, or for separating or analysing radiation or particles.
  • Details of electric discharge tubes or discharge lamps, including details applicable to both discharge devices and incandescent lamps.
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of electric discharge tubes, discharge lamps, or parts thereof, including apparatus and processes for manufacture applicable to both discharge devices and incandescent lamps.
  • Recovery of material from discharge tubes or discharge lamps.

In particular:

AC-PDP

DC-PDP

Vacuum tubes

Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling wave tubes, magnetrons

Ion beam tubes

Cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes, in particular electron emission (e.g. field emission) display panels

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel

X-ray tubes

Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge

Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of gas

Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas or for evacuation by diffusion of ions

Secondary emission tubes or electron-multiplier tubes

Discharge tubes functioning as thermionic generators

Tubes for determining the presence, intensity or energy or radiation or particles

Particle spectrometer or separator tubes

Gas- or vapour-discharge lamps

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel or with at least one main electrode outside the vessel

Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture thereof

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Emission spectrometry

Spark gaps, including gas-filled spark gaps

Arc lamps with consumable electrodes

Particle accelerators

Plasma discharge EUV light sources in which a gas is locally compressed to create a discharge space and then allowed to expand into a vacuum

Electrical connectors separable from the tube

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Isotope separation using separate tubes

Investigating or analyzing surface structures in atomic ranges using scanning-probe techniques

Investigating or analyzing electrically excited material, e.g. electroluminescence

Analyzing materials by investigating the ionization of gases; by investigating electric discharges, e.g. emission of cathode

Mass spectrometers specially adapted for column chromatography

Contactless testing of electronic circuits using electron beams

Electrostatic dosimeters in general

Secondary-emission measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

Details of scanning-probe apparatus in general

Gas lasers pumped by electric discharges

Generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases

Tubes for generating potential differences by charges carried on a gas stream

Light sources using a combination of discharge and other kinds of light generation (other than those covered in group H01J 61/96)

Generating plasma in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric incandescent lamps

Liquid crystal displays (LCD)

Displays using organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)

Special rules of classification within this subclass

In this subclass, groups H01J 1/00-H01J 7/00 relate only to:

  • Details of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or lamp, or
  • Details mentioned in a specification as applicable to two or more kinds of tubes or lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00-H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00-H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00-H01J 41/00, H01J 47/00-H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds.
  • A detail only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind is covered by the detail group appropriate to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of that basic kind, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

In this subclass, group H01J 9/00 relates to apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of electric discharge tubes, discharge lamps, or parts thereof.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Lamp

In this subclass, "lamp" includes tubes emitting visible, ultra-violet or infra-red light.

Spark Gap

A "spark gap" is an enclosed or non-enclosed discharge device having cold electrodes and used exclusively to discharge a quantity of electrical energy in a small time duration.

Spectrometer

An instrument used to disperse radiant energy or particles into a spectrum and measure properties such as wavelength, mass, energy, or index of refraction.

Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps( details of electron-optical arrangements or of ion traps H01J 3/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of electrodes, or magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, e.g. a CNT-based field emission device, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind

Details of electron-optical arrangements or of ion traps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 1/00

Electrodes and electron emitters

Conductors or conductive bodies characterised by the conductive materials; Selection of materials as conductors

Metallurgy

C21, C22

Metal alloys

Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)

Metal coating of glasses

Multilayer metal coating of glasses

Photolithographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials therefor

Carbon and compounds thereof; manufacture thereof, e.g. carbon nanotubes [CNT] and manufacture thereof

Deposition of carbon by e.g. chemical vapour deposition

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings, e.g of CNT and carbon fibres on a substrate

PZT (lead zirconate titanate) emitter materials and manufacture thereof

Micro-structural devices or systems and manufacture thereof

Nano-structures and manufacture thereof

Nanotechnology

Filaments for incandescent lamps

Secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

Luminescent screens

Luminescent materials or compositions

Special rules of classification within this group
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED

field emission device / display

CNT

carbon nanotube(s)

Heaters( filaments for incandescent lamps H01K 1/02 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Heating arrangements for discharge tubes with liquid-pool cathodes

Filaments for incandescent lamps

having an electric field perpendicular to the surface, e.g. tunnel-effect cathodes of Metal-Insulator-Metal [MIM] type{( H01J 1/304 to H01J 1/308 take predecence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Field-emissive cathodes

Semiconductor cathodes, e.g. cathodes with PN junction layers

Secondary-electron-emitting electrodes( H01J 1/35 takes precedence; luminescent screens H01J 1/62 ; charge storage screens in general H01J 1/78 ; charge storage screens using secondary emission for image tubes H01J 29/41 ; dynodes for secondary emission tubes H01J 43/10 ; secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation G01T 1/28 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrodes exhibiting both secondary emission and photo-emission

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Luminescent screens

Charge storage screens in general

Charge storage screens using secondary emission for image tubes

Dynodes for secondary emission tubes

Secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

Photo-emissive cathodes( H01J 1/35 takes precedence; photoelectric screens H01J 1/78 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrodes exhibiting both secondary emission and photo-emission

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photoelectric screens

Cooling of anodes( cooling rotary anodes H01J 1/44 ); Heating of anodes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Cooling rotary anodes

Control electrodes, e.g. grid( for igniting arrangements H01J 7/30 ); Auxiliary electrodes( auxiliary anodes for maintaining a discharge H01J 1/36 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes for igniting arrangements

Auxiliary anodes for maintaining a discharge

Screens for shielding( screens acting as control electrodes H01J 1/46 ); Guides for influencing the discharge; Masks interposed in the electron stream
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Screens acting as control electrodes

Insulation between electrodes or supports within the vacuum space( leading-in conductors H01J 5/46 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Leading-in conductors

Mountings for individual electrodes( for directly-heated cathodes H01J 1/15 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mountings for directly-heated cathodes

Details of electron-optical or ion-optical arrangements or of ion traps common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of electron-optical or ion-optical arrangements or of ion traps of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

In particular: Electron/ion guns of an unspecified electron/ion beam tube and control electrode structures of a field emission device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 3/00

Arrangements for handling radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, moderating

Particle accelerators

Electron guns of - cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes - discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge

Ion guns of ion beam tubes

Circuit arrangements for producing sawtooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents

Special rules of classification within this group
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED

field emission device / display

Electron guns{( electron guns for discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge H01J 37/06 ; for cathode ray tubes H01J 29/48 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron guns for discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge

Electron guns for cathode ray tubes

two or more guns being arranged in a single vacuum space, e.g. for plural-ray tubes( H01J 3/07 takes precedence ){ see provisionally also H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for controlling convergence of a plurality of beams

Arrangements for controlling intensity of ray or beam( H01J 3/02 , H01J 3/04 take precedence ){ see provisionally also H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron guns

Ion guns

Arrangements for centering ray or beam( H01J 3/02 , H01J 3/04 take precedence ){ see provisionally also H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron guns

Ion guns

Arrangements for controlling cross-section of ray or beam; Arrangements for correcting aberration of beam, e.g. due to lenses( H01J 3/02 , H01J 3/04 take precedence ){ see provisionally also H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron guns

Ion guns

Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam( H01J 3/02 , H01J 3/04 take precedence ){ see provisionally also H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron guns

Ion guns

Arrangements for deflecting ray or beam( circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents H03K ; { H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 and H01J 37/147 take precedence })
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements of electrodes and associated parts for generating or controlling the ray or beam, e.g. electron-optical arrangement

Arrangements for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents

Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 5/00

Vessels

Glass compositions

Glass ceramics

Ceramics

Surface treatment of glass ... by coating (e.g. with dielectric materials)

Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)... by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation

Fusion frit compositions

Joining glass to glass other than by fusing; Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material

Reforming and uniting glass sheets by fusing

Laminating glass layers

B32C17/10

Units comprising two or more parallel glass of like panes permanently secured together

E06B23/00

Soldering; welding; working by laser beamWorking by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring

Connecting or feeding means

Electric coupling devices comprising a holder adapted for supporting a tube or lamp and not forming part of the tube or lamp

Vessels or containers characterised by the material thereof( selection of the material of the coating H01J 5/08 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selection of the material of the coating

provided with coatings on the walls therof; Selection of materials for the coatings( luminescent coatings H01J 1/62 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Luminescent coatings

Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel( luminescent coatings H01J 1/62 ){ see provisionally H01J 29/84 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Luminescent coatings

for an individual conductor( pinched-stem seals H01J 5/38 ; end-disc seals H01J 5/40 ; annular seals H01J 5/44 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pinched-stem seals

End-disc seals

Annular seals

Means forming part of the tube or lamp for the purpose of supporting it( associated with electrical connecting means H01J 5/50 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrical connecting means

Details not provided for in the preceding groups and common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details not provided for in the preceding groups of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

In particular: Selection of substances for gas fillings and specified operating pressure or temperature; means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel; cooling arrangements, heating arrangements and means for circulating gas or vapour within the discharge space; ignition arrangements

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 7/00

Getters in cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes

Getters in AC plasma display panels

Getters in DC plasma display panels

Control or maintenance of pressure in the vessel or discharge tubes or lamps

Circuit arrangements for igniting

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

NEG

non-evaporable getter

Selection of substances for gas fillings; Specified operating pressure or temperature( radioactive fillings H01J 7/40 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Radioactive fillings

Cooling arrangements( for main electrodes H01J 1/02 ); Heating arrangements( for main electrodes H01J 1/02 ); Means for circulating gas or vapour within the discharge space
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cooling arrangements for main electrodes

Heating arrangements for main electrodes

Igniting arrangements( circuit arrangements H02M 1/02 , H05B )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements

Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture,{installation, removal, maintenance}of electric discharge tubes, discharge lamps, or parts thereof( manufacture of vessels or containers from metal B21, e.g. B21D 51/00 , from glass C03B ); Recovery of material from discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture, of electric discharge tubes and discharge lamps of H01J, or parts thereof; Repairing or regenerating used or defective discharge tubes or discharge lamps of H01J; Recovery of material from discharge tubes or discharge lamps of H01J

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes and electron emitters

Metallurgy

C21, C22

Metal alloys

Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)

Metal coating of glasses

Multilayer metal coating of glasses

Photolithographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials therefor

Carbon and compounds thereof; manufacture thereof CNT material and manufacture thereof

Deposition of carbon by e.g. chemical vapour deposition

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatingse.g of CNT and carbon fibres on a substrate

PZT (lead zirconate titanate) emitter materials and manufacture thereof

Micro-structural technology

Nano-structures and manufacture or treatment thereof

Luminescent screens

Luminescent materials or compositions

Luminescent screens for X-ray purposes

Deflecting devices

Manufacturing coils for transformers, inductances, reactors or choke coils

Vessels

Manufacture of vessels or containers from metal

Manufacture of vessels or containers from glass

Surface treatment of glass by coating (e.g. with dielectric materials)

Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials) by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantationby chemical vapour deposition

Fusion frit compositions

Joining glass to glass other than by fusing; Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material

Reforming and uniting glass sheets by fusing

Laminating glass layers

B32C17/10

Soldering; welding; working by laser beamWorking by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring

Coatings on or surface treatment of optical elementsAntireflection coatings in general

Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, e.g. by using adhesives Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin

Adhesives

Moulds

Cleaning devices or components

Classification is made in H01J 9/00 and additionally in H01J 2209/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

As to plasma display panels and electron emission display/flat panels:

  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of electrodes, dielectric layers or protection layers of plasma display panels are covered by H01J 9/02 (since being part of the manufacture of the electrode system).Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of control electrodes (gate electrodes, focusing electrodes) of electron emission flat panels are covered by H01J 9/148. Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of anode electrodes of electron emission flat panels are covered by H01J 9/148 if merely the anode electrode(s) is(are) concerned. The arrangement of luminescent material, the reflective layers or the black matrix is rather covered by H01J 9/227 and subgroups thereof. The manufacture of field emitters, like carbon nanotube emitters, is covered by H01J 9/025, the manufacture of CNT materials in general by C01B 31/022.
  • Methods of assembling together the component parts of electrode systems of the display panels are covered by H01J 9/185.

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for applying optical layers / coatings or shielding layers / coatings (e.g. filter layers, electromagnetic interference shielding layers, anti-reflection coatings, anti-glare coatings) integral with or directly attached to the display panel, e.g. to the front substrate, are covered by H01J 9/205. Apparatus or processes for applying luminescent material/coatings to the screen or vessel are covered by H01J 9/227 and subgroups thereof. H01J 9/2278 covers the application of light absorbing material (black matrix), e.g. between the luminescent material.

  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of the vessel of the display panels are covered by H01J 9/241 (regarding faceplate (front substrate); backplate (rear substrate); frame between the plates), H01J 9/242 (regarding spacers / barrier ribs between the faceplate and the backplate) or H01J 9/261 (regarding sealing together parts of the vessel).
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of leading-in conductors are covered by H01J 9/28 and those adapted to the sealing of leading-in conductors are covered by H01J 9/32.
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to exhausting, degassing, filling, or cleaning the vessels are covered by H01J 9/38 (or subgroups thereof), those adapted to the closing of the vessels are covered by H01J 9/40.
  • Further, the subgroups H01J 9/42 (measuring or testing during manufacture), H01J 9/44, H01J 9/445 (factory adjustment), H01J 9/46, H01J 9/48 (machines having sequentially arranged operating stations), H01J 9/50, H01J 9/505 (repairing or regenerating), H01J 9/52 (recovery of material) also cover plasma display panels and electron emission display panels.
Manufacture of photo-electric screens or charge-storage screens{ no documents, see H01J 29/36 }
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used, the subject matter is covered by H01J 29/36

Manufacture of magnetic deflecting devices for cathode-ray tubes( manufacturing coils for transformers, inductances, reactors or choke coils H01F 41/04 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacturing coils for transformers, inductances, reactors or choke coils

Recovery of material from discharge tubes or lamps( H01J 9/50 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Repairing or regenerating used or defective discharge tubes or lamps

Gas-filled discharge tubes with alternating current induction of the discharge, e.g. AC-PDPs [Alternating Current Plasma Display Panels]( circuits or methods for driving PDPs G09G 3/28 ); Gas-filled discharge tubes without any main electrode inside the vessel; Gas-filled discharge tubes with at least one main electrode outside the vessel( discharge lamps H01J 65/00 { H01J 61/00 , H01J 63/00 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Plasma display panels having alternating current induction of the discharge as well as gas-filled discharge tubes with at least one main electrode outside the vessel. The main electrode is out of contact with the plasma.
  • Arrangements for plasma display panels such as cables, wiring, heat dissipating bodies, electromagnetic shielding arrangements that are inside the vessel, or partly inside the vessel, or directly attached to the vessel.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods for manufacturing AC-PDPs

Circuits or methods for driving AC-PDPs

Discharge lamps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Liquid crystal displays [LCD]

Displays using organic light-emitting diodes

Light emitting diodes [LED]

Organic light-emitting diodes [OLED]

Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements

Cathode ray tubes [CRT]

Field emission displays [FED]

Direct current plasma display panels [DC-PDP]

Plasma addressed liquid crystal devices [PALC]

H01J 17/485, G02F1/133P

Touch screens

Electrophoretic displays

Casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus

Constructional details common to different types of electric apparatus

Modifications to facilitate cooling, ventilating, or heating in electrical apparatus

Electromagnetic shielding

Cooling arrangements being part of the tube, e.g. an heat dissipation sheet directly attached to the vessel

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this main group, classification is made in any appropriate place, i.e. multi-aspect classification is used. This means that, e.g., a document relating to a dielectric layer of an AC-PDP is classified in one of H01J10/00 to H01J18/00 (identifying the kind of structure of the PDP) and in H01J 11/38 (relating to dielectric and insulating layers).

In this main group documents are classified according to the reformed ECLA approach, i.e. important (invention-type) information is identified with ECLA symbols, e.g. H01J 11/12, additional (secondary) information with Indexing Code symbols, e.g. H01J 2211/12.

Classification of important information and additional information is obligatory in this main group.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Main electrode

sustain electrode, address electrode or scan electrode

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AC

Alternating Current

DC

Direct Current

PDP

Plasma Display Panel

EMI

ElectroMagnetic Interference

NIR

Near InfraRed

IR

InfraRed

PALC

Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystals

AC-PDPs with at least one main electrode being out of contact with the plasma
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The kind of structure of the AC plasma display panel.

Electrodes, e.g. special shape, material or configuration
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composition of metallic electrodes

Working metallic powder

Multilayer coating of glasses with metal

Joining glass to metal

Coating on polymers

Photolitographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "discharge electrodes", "maintenance electrodes", "scan and sustain electrodes" and "display electrodes"
  • "address electrodes", "write electrodes", "column electrodes" and "data electrodes".
Vessels, containers or parts thereof, e.g. substrates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vessels, containers or parts thereof, substrates for plasma displays, alignment marks on the substrate.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)

Glass compositions

Frits

Glass ceramics

Powdered glass

Glass composition containing a non glass component

Ceramics

Shaping of glass

Spacers, barriers, ribs, partitions or the like
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)

Glass compositions

Ceramics

Special rules of classification within this group

Further details are covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Cross section of the spacers

Pattern of the spacers

Dummy spacers

Dielectric or insulating layers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)

Glass compositions

Glass ceramics

Surface treatment of glass (e.g. coating, etching, ion exchange, etc.)

Ceramics

Layered products comprising glass

Insulating bodies characterized by the material

Layers for protecting or enhancing the electron emission, e.g. MgO layers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)

Glass compositions

Glass ceramics

Surface treatment of glass (e.g. coating, etching, ion exchange, etc.)

Ceramics

Layered products comprising glass

Fluorescent layers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fluorescent materials per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Regarding fluorescent materials: in order to be classified in H01J 11/42, the invention has to refer to an AC plasma display panel, wherein the phosphor is composed of a particular material.

Optical arrangements or shielding arrangements, e.g. filters, black matrices, light reflecting means or electromagnetic shielding means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical arrangements or shielding arrangements. Also means to improve contrast.

For example, a document regarding an arrangement to improve contrast, like adding pigments of different colours in ribs, dielectric layer and substrate, is covered by H01J 11/44. Filters for AC-PDPs are covered by H01J 11/44 if they are inside or directly attached to the vessel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical elements other than lenses

Optical elements characterized by the material

Electromagnetic shielding

Layered products comprising resin

Layered products comprising glass

Production of optical devices by litographic processes; photosensitive materials

Materials of adhesive layers

C09J/00

Special rules of classification within this group

Further details are covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Light reflecting means; Anti-reflection means

Means for improving contrast or colour purity, e.g. black matrix or light shielding means

Electromagnetic shielding means; Antistatic means

Near infrared shielding means

Connecting or feeding means, e.g. leading-in conductors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for giving electricity to the electrodes of the AC-PDP. Such means are classified here only if at least part of said means is inside the vessel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connectors

H01R/00

Driving circuits

Printed circuits

Assembling printed circuits with other printed circuits

Casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus

Constructional details common to different types of electric apparatus

Sealing, e.g. seals specially adapted for leading-in conductors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composition of fusing seals

Means for exhausting the gas
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for exhausting the gas, e.g. vent pipes or ribs arrangements for exhausting the gas

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Methods of exhausting vessels

Discharge tubes with liquid-pool cathodes, e.g. metal-vapour rectifying tubes( lamps H01J 61/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gas filled discharge tubes with liquid pool cathodes. Metal-vapour rectifier. In particular, mercury-vapour rectifier for converting high-voltage or high-current alternating current into direct current.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Discharge lamps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements for discharge tubes in static converters

Anodes; Auxiliary anodes for maintaining the discharge( screens H01J 13/22 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Screens

Control electrodes, e.g. grid( for igniting arrangements H01J 13/34 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control electrodes for igniting arrangements

Cooling arrangements; Heating arrangements( for cathodes H01J 13/14 ; for anodes H01J 13/18 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cooling arrangements for cathodes

Cooling arrangements for anodes

Igniting arrangements( circuits arrangements H02M 1/02 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits arrangements

Devices for preventing or eliminating arcing-back( screens therefor H01J 13/22 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Screens therefor

Gas-filled discharge tubes with gaseous cathodes, e.g. plasma cathode( lamps H01J 61/62 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lamps

Gas-filled discharge tubes with solid cathode( H01J 25/00 , H01J 27/00 , H01J 31/00 to H01J 41/00 { H01J 11/00 } take precedence; gas or vapour discharge lamps H01J 61/00 ; gas filled spark gaps H01T; Marx converters H02M 7/26 ; tubes for generating potential differences by charges carried in a gas stream H02N )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gas filled discharge tubes with solid cathode. Plasma display panels operated with direct current (DC PDPs) and their details. Plasma addressed liquid crystal displays (PALC). Thyratrons.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Gas-filled discharge tubes with alternating current induction of the discharge, e.g. AC-PDPs

Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling wave tubes, magnetrons

Ion beam tubes

Cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes, in particular electron emission (e.g. field emission) display panels

Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas or for evacuation by diffusion of ions

Spark gaps, including gas-filled spark gaps

Marx converters

Discharge lamps

Tubes for generating potential differences by charges carried in a gas stream

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Liquid crystal displays [LCD]

Displays using organic light-emitting diodes

Light emitting diodes [LED]

Organic light-emitting diodes [OLED]

Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements

Cathode ray tubes [CRT]

Field emission displays [FED]

Direct current plasma display panels [DC-PDP]

Plasma addressed liquid crystal devices [PALC]

H01J 17/485, G02F1/133P

Touch screens

Electrophoretic displays

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this main group, classification is made in any appropriate place, i.e. multi-aspect classification is used. This means that, e.g., a document relating to an anode of a PALC should be classified in H01J 17/485 (relating to the PALC) and H01J 17/10 (relating to the anode).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DC

Direct Current

PDP

Plasma Display Panel

PALC

Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystals

Selection of substances for gas fillings; Specified operating pressure or temperature( radioactive fillings H01J 17/32 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Radioactive fillings

Cold-cathode tubes( TR boxes H01J 17/64 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

TR boxes

with one cathode and one anode, e.g. glow tube, tuning-indicator glow tube, voltage-stabiliser tube, voltage-indicator tube,( cathode-glow lamps H01J 61/04 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Cathode-glow lamps

Display panels, e.g. with crossed electrodes{e.g. making use of direct current}( gas discharge type indicating arrangements effected by the combination of a number of individual lamps G09F 9/313 {display panels making use of alternating current H01J 11/00})
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Gas discharge type indicating arrangements effected by the combination of a number of individual lamps

Display panels making use of alternating current

Thermionic-cathode tubes( TR boxes H01J 17/64 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

TR boxes

Details of vacuum tubes of the types covered by group H01J 21/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of tubes in which the electron stream is not altered in other ways than on/off.

Heaters( filaments for incandescent lamps H01K 1/02 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filaments for incandescent lamps

Screens for shielding( screens acting as control electrodes H01J 19/38 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Screens acting as control electrodes

Insulation between electrodes or supports within the vacuum space( leading-in conductors H01J 19/62 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Leading-in conductors

Mountings for individual electrodes( for directly-heated cathodes H01J 19/12 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mountings for directly-heated cathodes

Means forming part of the tube for the purpose supporting it( associated with electrical connecting means H01J 19/66 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means associated with electrical connecting means

Means forming part of the tube for the purpose of providing electrical connection to it( construction of connectors H01R ){ no documents, see H01J 5/46 to H01J 5/62 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Construction of connectors

Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used for classification, the subjet matter is covered by H01J 5/46 to H01J 5/62.

Cooling arrangements( cooling of anodes H01J 19/36 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cooling of anodes

Vacuum tubes( H01J 25/00 , H01J 31/00 to H01J 37/00 , H01J 43/00 take precedence; details of vacuum tubes H01J 19/00 ; cathode ray or electron stream lamps H01J 63/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tubes in which the electron stream is not altered in other ways than on/off.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons

Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel

X-ray tubes

Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof

Secondary-emission tubes; Electron-multiplier tubes

Cathode-ray or electron-stream lamps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of vacuum tubes

Tubes with more than one discharge path; Multiple tubes, e.g. double diode, triode-hexode( secondary-emission tubes, electron-multiplier tubes H01J 43/00 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Secondary-emission tubes, electron-multiplier tubes

Tubes with electrode system arranged or dimensioned so as to eliminate transit-time effect( with flat electrodes H01J 21/36 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Flat electrodes

Details of transit-time tubes of the types covered by group H01J 25/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of tubes in which the electron stream is altered in other ways than on/off.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

TWT

traveling wave tube

TWTA

traveling wave tube amplifier

Vircator

virtual cathode oscillator

Electrodes; Magnetic control means; Screens( associated with resonator or delay system H01J 23/16 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means associated with resonator or delay system

producing a solid cylindrical beam( H01J 23/075 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Magnetron injection guns

producing a hollow cylindrical beam( H01J 23/075 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Magnetron injection guns

Electric system for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path, e.g. E-type( focusing arrangements H01J 23/08 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Focusing arrangements

Magnet systems for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path, e.g. a spiral path( magnetic focusing arrangements H01J 23/08 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Magnetic focusing arrangements

Means for reducing noise( in electron or ion gun H01J 23/06 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for reducing noise in electron or ion gun

the interaction circuit being a helix or a helix-derived slow-wave structure( H01J 23/44 to H01J 23/48 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Rod-type coupling devices

Loop coupling devices

Devices for linking interaction circuit with coaxial lines; Devices of the coupled helices type

Rod-type coupling devices( H01J 23/46 , H01J 23/48 , H01J 23/54 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Loop coupling devices

Devices for linking interaction circuit with coaxial lines; Devices of the coupled helices type

Filtering devices preventing unwanted frequencies or modes to be coupled to, or out of, the interaction circuit; Prevention of high frequency leakage in the environment

for linking interaction circuit with coaxial lines; Devices of the coupled helices type( H01J 23/46 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Loop coupling devices

the interaction circuit being a helix or derived from a helix( H01J 23/52 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Coupled helices being disposed coaxially around one another

Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons( details of transit-time tubes H01J 23/00 ; particle accelerators H05H )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tubes in which the electron stream is altered in other ways than on/off.

Details of transit-time tubes

Particle accelerators

Tubes in which the electron stream is only switched on/off

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Common microwave oven magnetrons

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

TWT

traveling wave tube

TWTA

traveling wave tube amplifier

Vircator

virtual cathode oscillator

Tubes with electron stream modulated in velocity or density in a modulator zone and thereafter giving up energy in an inducing zone, the zones being associated with one or more resonators( tubes in which a travelling-wave is simulated at spaced gaps H01J 25/34 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes in which a travelling-wave is simulated at spaced gaps

Tubes in which an electron stream interacts with a wave travelling along a delay line or equivalent sequence of impedance elements, and with a magnet system producing an H-field crossing the E-field( with travelling wave moving completely around the electron space H01J 25/50 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes with travelling wave moving completely around the electron space

Magnetrons, i.e. tubes with a magnet system producing an H-field crossing the E-field( with travelling wave not moving completely around the electron space H01J 25/42 ; functioning with plural reflection or with reversed cyclotron action H01J 25/62 , H01J 25/64 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetrons with travelling wave not moving completely around the electron space

Functioning with plural reflection or with reversed cyclotron action

having only one cavity or other resonator, e.g. neutrode tube( having a composite resonator H01J 25/58 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composite resonator

Tubes specially designed to act as oscillator with positive grid and retarding field, e.g. for Barkhausen-Kurz oscillators( with secondary emission H01J 25/76 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes with secondary emission

in which a standing wave or a considerable part thereof is produced along an electrode, e.g. Clavier tube( with resonator having distributed inductance and capacitance H01J 25/70 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes with resonator having distributed inductance and capacitance

Tubes specially designed to act as transit-time diode oscillators, e.g. monotron( with secondary emission H01J 25/76 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes with secondary emission

Ion beam tubes( H01J 25/00 , H01J 33/00 , H01J 37/00 take precedence; particle accelerators H05H )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric discharge tubes generating a beam of ions

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ion guns common to two or more basic types of discharges

Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel

Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof

Devices providing for corona discharge

Apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases, e.g. into the atmosphere

Particle accelerators

Generating plasma

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Ion thrusters

Ion sources for discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for ion implanters or ion microscopes

Ion sources for particle spectrometers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for handling radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, moderating

Ion sources; Ion guns({ for examination or processing discharge tubes H01J 37/08 ; ion sources, ion guns for particle spectrometer or separator tubes H01J 49/10 ; ion propulsion F03H 1/00 }; arrangements for handling particles, e.g. focusing,{charge exchanging, polarising} , G21K 1/00 ; generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases H01T 23/00 ; generating plasma H05H 1/24 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ion guns for examination or processing discharge tubes

Ion sources, ion guns for particle spectrometer or separator tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ion propulsion

F03H1/00B

Arrangements forhandling particles, e.g. focusing charge exchanging, polarising

Generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases

Generating plasma

using reflex discharge, e.g. Penning ion sources{ Electron bombardment ion sources H01J 27/08 }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron bombardment ion sources

using surface ionisation, e.g. field effect ion sources, thermionic ion sources( H01J 27/20 , H01J 27/24 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Particle beam bombardment, e.g. ionisers

Photo-ionisation, e.g. using laser beam

Details of cathode-ray tubes or of electron-beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J 31/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of cathode ray tubes or of electron beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J 31/00, as far as the details are an integral component of (structurally combined with) the tubes.

In particular: Electrodes; Screens (e.g. luminescent screens); Electron-optical arrangements (e.g. control electrodes, electron guns, focusing and deflection arrangements); Vessels; Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel; Leading-in arrangements; Seals; Means forming part of the tube for the purpose of providing electrical connection to it; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube; Selection of substances for gas fillings; Circuit elements structurally associated with the tube

Further information:

Generally only the following ECLA subgroups of H01J 29/00 cover electron emission display panels (e.g. field emission display panels):

H01J 29/006 (cooling means); H01J 29/02 (electrodes); H01J 29/04 (cathodes); H01J 29/085 (anode plates, in particular anode electrode(s)); H01J 29/20, H01J 29/22, H01J 29/28, H01J 29/30- H01J 29/327 (luminescent screens, including reflective layers and black matrix associated therewith); H01J 29/467, H01J 29/481 (control electrodes / control electrode structures, (gate electrodes; focusing electrodes; insulating layers between the cathode electrodes and the gate electrodes or between the gate electrodes and the focusing electrodes)); H01J 29/86, H01J 29/862, H01J 29/863, H01J 29/864, H01J 29/868, H01J 29/88, H01J 29/89, H01J 29/896, H01J 29/898 (vessels; including faceplate (front substrate), backplate (rear substrate), frame between the plates, spacers / barrier ribs between the faceplate and the backplate; sealings of the vessel; optical arrangements or shielding arrangements (e.g. filters) integral with or directly attached to the display panel, e.g. to the front substrate); H01J 29/90 (leading in arrangements; seals therefor); H01J 29/92, H01J 29/925 (means forming part of the display panel for the purpose of providing electrical connection to it, e.g. terminal arrangements); H01J 29/94 (means for exhausting the vessel or maintaining vacuum within the vessel); H01J 29/96 (circuit arrangements structurally associated with the display panels, e.g. resistive / capacitive circuit elements to adapt/control the applied electric potentials)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Printed circuit boards for electron emission display apparatus; arrangement and connection thereof (e.g. to the electrodes of the display panel) when not integral with the display panel

Electrical connectors not integral with the display panel

Casings or cabinets of display apparatus not integral with the display panelSupporting structures in these casings or cabinets for circuit boards not integral with the display panel

Stands or trestles as supports for display apparatus

Cooling or ventilating arrangements of display apparatus, when not integral with the display panel

EMI shielding filters of display panels when not integral with or directly attached to the display panel

Control circuits for electron emission display panels or methods of driving thereof

Control circuits for cathode ray tubes or methods of driving thereof

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 29/00

Electrodes

Conductors or conductive bodies characterised by the conductive materials; Selection of materials as conductors

Metallurgy

C21, C22

Metal alloys

Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)

Metal coating of glasses

Multilayer metal coating of glasses

Photolithographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials therefor

Carbon and compounds thereof; manufacture thereof CNT material and manufacture thereof

Deposition of carbon by e.g. chemical vapour deposition

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatingse.g of CNT and carbon fibres on a substrate

PZT (lead zirconate titanate) emitter materials and manufacture thereof

Micro-structural devices or systems and manufacture thereof

Nano-structures and manufacture thereof

Nanotechnology

Filaments for incandescent lamps

Secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

Luminescent screens

Luminescent materials or compositions

Luminescent screens for X-ray purposes

Vessels

Glass compositions

Glass ceramics

Ceramics

Surface treatment of glass by coating (e.g. with dielectric materials)

Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials) by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantationby chemical vapour deposition

Fusion frit compositions

Joining glass to glass other than by fusing; Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material

Reforming and uniting glass sheets by fusing

Laminating glass layers

B32C17/10

Units comprising two or more parallel glass of like panes permanently secured together

E06B23/00

Soldering; welding; working by laser beamWorking by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring

Casings or cabinets of display apparatus not integral with the display panelSupporting structures in these casings or cabinets for circuit boards not integral with the display panel

Stands or trestles as supports for display apparatus

Screening against electric or magnetic fields

EMI shielding filters of display panels when not integral with or directly attached to the display panel

Optical filters in general

Coatings on or surface treatment of optical elementsAntireflection coatings in general

Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, e.g. by using adhesives Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin

Adhesives

Optical elements characterised by the materialother than lenses

Touch screens

Connecting or feeding means; control circuits / driving methods

Printed circuits / circuit boards (e.g. for display apparatus); arrangement and connection thereof Printed elements for providing electric connections to or between printed circuits Structural association of two or more printed circuits Printed circuits structurally associated with non-printed electric components Apparatus or processes for manufacturing of printed circuitsAssembling printed circuits with other printed circuits

Electrical connecting elements (e.g. connection terminals) for connection of / to printed circuits (e.g. printed circuit boards)

Control circuits for electron emission displays or methods of driving thereof

Control circuits for cathode ray tubes or methods of driving thereof

Cooling

Cooling or ventilating arrangements of display apparatus, when not integral with the display panel

Special rules of classification within this group
  • Classification of the type of tube in H01J 31/00 and of the relevant details in H01J 29/00 is obligatory.
  • The Indexing Codes H01J 2329/00 are numbered in correspondence to subgroups of H01J 29/00, but in much more detail.
  • Groups H01J 29/48 to H01J 29/51 take precedence over groups H01J 29/52-H01J 29/68.
  • Details of electron emission display panels (e.g. field emission display panels) are classified obligatory in both H01J 29/00 and H01J 2329/00, even for details for which H01J 2329/00 does not provide a more detailed relevant subgroup than H01J 29/00.
  • Details of other tubes of H01J 31/00, in particular of classical cathode ray tubes, are classified in H01J 29/00 and - in case of a more detailed relevant Indexing Code subgroup - also in H01J 2229/00.
  • Details of cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular of flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight, are classified in H01J 63/00.
  • If an electron emission display panel and a flat panel electron emission lamp as LCD backlight is disclosed, classification in H01J 29/00, H01J 2329/00, H01J 31/127 and H01J 63/00 is provided.
  • When details are disclosed for different types of flat panel displays (e.g. plasma display panels, electron emission display panels, LCD display panels, OLED display panels), classification is provided for each type thereof.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED

Field emission display / device

CRT

Cathode ray tube

EMI (shielding)

Electromagnetic interference (shielding)

NIR (shielding)

Near infrared (shielding)

AR (film)

Antireflection (film)

Cathodes( electron guns H01J 29/48 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron guns

Electrodes intimately associated with a screen on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted, or stored, e.g. backing-plate for storage tube, for collecting secondary electrons( arrangements for colour switching H01J 29/80 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for colour switching

characterised by the luminescent material{ for luminescent screens for X-ray purposes G21K 4/00 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Luminescent screens for X-ray purposes

not using charge storage, e.g. photo-emissive screen, extended cathode{( electrodes using photo-emission in general H01J 1/34 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes using photo-emission in general

Charge-storage screens{( H01J 29/395 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Charge-storage grids exhibiting triode effect

using secondary emission, e.g. for supericonoscope{( electrodes using secondary emission in general H01J 1/32 ; secondary emission tubes H01J 43/00 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes using secondary emission in general

Secondary emission tubes

exhibiting internal electric effects caused by particle radiation, e.g. bombardment-induced conductivity{( particle detectors exhibiting internal electric effects G01T 1/26 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Article detectors exhibiting internal electric effects

exhibiting internal electric effects caused by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. photo-conductive screen, photo-dielectric screen, photovoltaic screen{ photoconductive layers for electrography G03G 5/00 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photoconductive layers for electrography

Arrangements of electrodes and associated parts for generating or controlling the ray or beam, e.g. electron-optical arrangement{( transit time tubes H01J 23/00 , H01J 25/00 ; X-ray tubes H01J 35/00 ; beam tubes for examining ions, e.g. electron or ion microscopes, or processing of objects or materials e.g. electron or ion beam tubes H01J 37/04 ; electron multipliers H01J 43/04 ; handling of radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, deviating, not otherwise provided for G21K 1/00 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transit time tubes

X-ray tubes

Beam tubes for examining ions, e.g. electron or ion microscopes, or processing of objects or materials e.g. electron or ion beam tubes

Electron multipliers

Handling of radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, deviating, not otherwise provided for

Two or more guns in a single vacuum space, e.g. for plural-ray tube( H01J 29/51 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for controlling convergence of a plurality of beams by means of electric field

Arrangements for controlling intensity of ray or beam, e.g. for modulation{( H01J 29/467 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Control electrodes for flat display tubes,

Arrangements for centring ray or beam{( H01J 29/467 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Control electrodes for flat display tubes,

Arrangements for controlling cross-section of ray or beam; Arrangements for correcting aberration of beam, e.g. due to lenses{( H01J 29/467 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Control electrodes for flat display tubes,

Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam{( H01J 29/467 , H01J 29/585 take precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Control electrodes for flat display tubes,

Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam in which the transit time of the electrons has to be taken into account

Arrangements for deflecting ray or beam({ H01J 29/467 , H01J 29/525 , H01J 29/701 , H01J 29/708 take precedence } ; circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents H03K )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Control electrodes for flat display tubes,

Digitally controlled systems, e.g. Digisplay

Systems for correcting deviation or convergence of a plurality of beams by means of magnetic fields at least

Arrangements in which the transit time of the electrons has to be taken into account

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents

Arrangements for controlling the ray or beam after passing the main deflection system, e.g. for post-acceleration or post-concentration, for colour switching{( H01J 29/701 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Systems for correcting deviation or convergence of a plurality of beams by means of magnetic fields at least

using shadow masks( shadow masks per se H01J 29/07 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shadow masks per se

Traps for removing or diverting unwanted particles, e.g. negative ions, fringing electrons; Arrangements for velocity or mass selection( particle spectrometer or separator tubes H01J 49/00 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Particle spectrometer or separator tubes

provided with coatings on the walls thereof; Selection of materials for the coatings({ H01J 29/868 and H01J 29/89 take precedence } ; luminescent screens H01J 29/18 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Screens covering the input or output face of the vessel, e.g. transparent anti-static coatings, X-ray absorbing layers

Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined [N: or co-operating] with the vessel

Luminescent screens

Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined{or co-operating}with the vessel{( H01J 29/866 and H01J 29/868 take precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for introducing a recording support into the vessel

Screens covering the input or output face of the vessel, e.g. transparent anti-static coatings, X-ray absorbing layers

Selection of substances for gas fillings; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube e.g. by gettering{( exhausting, degassing, gettering of electric discharge tubes in general H01J 9/38 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Exhausting, degassing, gettering of electric discharge tubes in general

Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes( H01J 25/00 , H01J 35/00 , H01J 37/00 take precedence; cathode ray or electron stream lamps H01J 63/00 ; details of cathode ray tubes or of electron beam tubes H01J 29/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes, as far as the tubes per se are concerned.

In particular: Electron emission display panels of the field emission type (field emission display panels, FED), semiconductor type, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type or thin film type (surface conduction emission type); classical cathode ray tubes for TV and monitor use; pick up tubes (input of electromagnetic radiation, e.g. visible light, and electric output); image-conversion and image-amplification tubes

Further information:

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight, are covered by H01J 63/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of tubes of H01J 31/00

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight

Particle accelerators

H05H 3/00- H05K15/00

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatuses or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of tubes of H01J 31/00

Other types of displays

Liquid crystal displays (LCD)

Displays using organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) per se

Alternating current plasma display panels (AC-PDP)

Direct current plasma display panels (DC-PDP)

Plasma addressed liquid crystal devices (PALC)

H01J 17/485, G02F1/133P

Electrophoretic displays

LED displays

General aspects regarding displays/displaying

Displaying; advertising; signsIndicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements

Touch screens

Lamps, e.g. flat panel lamps

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight

Discharge lamps

Electric lamps using light emitting diode (LED)

F21K99/00S

Light emitting diodes (LED) per se

Electroluminescent light sources

Electric lamps using a combination of different types of light generation

Others

Telescopes, viewfinders, optical aiming devices with means for image conversion or intensification, e.g. night vision systems

Conversion screens for the conversion of the spatial distribution of X-rays or particle radiation into visible images

Solid state imager structures, e.g. CCD imagers

Special rules of classification within this group
  • Classification of the type of tube in H01J 31/00 and of the relevant details in H01J 29/00 is obligatory.
  • Most electron emission display panels, comprising matrix-arrayed electron emission sources and pixels / pixel groups, are classified in H01J 31/127. If the arrangement of the electron emission sources and of the pixels / pixel groups is not indicated, e.g. in case of a front filter of a general electron emission display panel (with the filter being integral with the front substrate of the panel), H01J 31/123 is provided.
  • Indexing Code symbols H01J 2231/00 are assigned, in addition to ECLA classification symbols H01J 31/00, in case of a more detailed relevant Indexing Code subgroup, with the exception of electron emission display panels.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED

field emission display / device

CRT

cathode ray tube

having one or more output electrodes which may be impacted selectively by the ray or beam, and onto, from, or over which the ray or beam may be deflected or de-focused{ pulse counting circuits therewith H03K 29/06 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pulse counting circuits therewith

H03K29/02

Magic-eye or analogous tuning indicators{( mounting of visual indicators in a radio set H03J 1/04 ; circuits for timing indicators H03J 3/14 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting of visual indicators in a radio set

Circuits for timing indicators

with ray or beam selectively directed to luminescent anode segments{( printing by application of radiation B41J 2/447 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Printing by application of radiation

with mask carrying a number of selectively displayable signs, e.g. charactron, numeroscope{( tubes with a mask carrying a matrix of openings, a selection of which permits a sign to be displayed H01J 31/128 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes with a mask carrying a matrix of openings, a selection of which permits a sign to be displayed

H01J31/12L

with image written by a ray or beam on a grid-like charge-accumulating screen, and with a ray or beam passing through and influenced by this screen before striking the luminescent screen, e.g. direct-view storage tube{( charge storage grids exhibiting triode effect H01J 29/395 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Charge storage grids exhibiting triode effect

for displaying images or patterns in two or more colours{( circuits for colour television H04N 9/16 to H04N 9/28 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for colour television

with screen acting as light valve by shutter operation, e.g. eidophor{( projection arrangements for image reproduction, e.g. using eidophor H04N 5/74 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Projection arrangements for image reproduction, e.g. using eidophor

Image pick-up tubes having an input of visible light and electric output( tubes without defined electron beams and having a light ray scanning photo-emissive screen H01J 40/20 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tubes without defined electron beams and having a light ray scanning photo-emissive screen

with electron ray scanning the image screen{ H01J 31/283 , H01J 31/286 take precedence }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Image pick-up tubes having with electron ray scanning the image screen with a target comprising semiconductor junctions

Image pick-up tubes having with electron ray scanning the image screen

Tubes in which electrical output represents both intensity and colour of image{ colour television cameras with only one tube H04N 9/07 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Colour television cameras with only one tube

H04N9/06

Tubes for storage of image or information pattern or for conversion of definition of television or like image, i.e. having electrical input and electrical output{( electrostatic memories using electron beam tubes G11C 11/23 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrostatic memories using electron beam tubes

G11C11/329

having means for deflecting, either selectively or sequentially, an electron ray on to separate surface elements of the screen( by circuitry alone H01J 29/08 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Deflecting an electron ray on to separate surface elements of the screen by circuitry alone

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel({ irradiation devices G21K } ; particle accelerators H05H ); Lenard tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel and Lenard tubes, as far as the tubes per se are concerned; and details thereof, as far as the details are an integral component of the tubes.

In particular: Electron beam permeable/transparent windows

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Irradiation devices

Particle accelerators

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatuses or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of tubes of H01J 33/00

Irradiation devices

Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge

Details{( vessels for operation at high tension H01J 5/06 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Vessels for operation at high tension

X-ray tubes( X-ray lasers H01S 4/00 ; X-ray technique in general H05G , { e.g. apparatus or processes specially adapted for producing X-rays, not involving X-ray tubes, e.g. involving generation of a plasma H05G 2/00 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vacuum tubes in which electrons hit a target (commonly termed "anode") in order to produce electromagnetic radiation caused by the deceleration of electrons (Bremsstrahlung) or a recombination of inner core holes (characteristic radiation).

All technical details of x-ray tubes, as long as these are situated inside the vacuum housing or an integral part of the housing (e.g. radiation transmissive windows).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Producing x-rays from a hot plasma by recombinations inside the plasma

Other means of producing x-rays, e.g. Synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

X-ray technique in general

Circuits providing power to x-ray tubes or otherwise driving it ("x-ray generators")

X-ray lasers

Special rules of classification within this group

To this group, Indexing Codes

are obligatory to be attributed as invention information for further details.

Indexing Codes

may optionally be used for additional information.

Cathodes{( electron guns in general H01J 3/02 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron guns in general

{Field emission, photo emission or secondary emission cathodes}
Special rules of classification within this group

Emissive structures consisting of carbon nanotubes [CNT] are additionally covered by Indexing Code H01J 2201/30446.

Anodes; Anti cathodes{( anti-cathodes serving as windows H01J 35/18 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrodes impacted by charged particles in order to produce X-rays.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Anti-cathodes serving as windows

Transmission Targets

Laminated Targets

Target substrate interlayers

Rotary anodes; Arrangements for rotating anodes; Cooling rotary anodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rotating anode tubes in general

Refractory alloys

Cooling characterized by the method

{Arrangements for rotating anodes, e.g. supporting means; greasing; sealing the axle; shielding or protecting the driving means}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dynamic pressure bearing

Rotating shafts per se

{Active cooling, e.g. fluid flow, heat pipes}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Techniques particularly adapted for cooling of a tube inside closed housing

{Substrates for and bonding of emissive target, e.g. composite structures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Substrates for rotating anode, such that the substrate requires an additional target layer; Details relating to the bonding of target to substrate e.g. using metallic interlayers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Laminated Targets

Target substrate interlayers

Cooling non-rotary anodes{( mounting the tube within a closed housing, e.g. for cooling purposes H05G 1/04 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting the tube within a closed housing, e.g. for cooling purposes

Arrangements for concentrating, focusing, or directing the cathode ray{( for cathode ray tubes in general H01J 29/46 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Focusing of the electron beam, e.g. by magnetic means; directing and deflecting of the beam e.g. by electrostatic means; microfocus X-ray tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

X-ray tubes with Electrodes for controlling the current of the cathode ray, e.g. control grids

Arrangements for concentrating, focusing, or directing the cathode ray for cathode ray tubes in general

Vessels; Containers; Shields associated therewith{( vessels for high tension operation in general H01J 5/06 ; mounting the tube within a closed housing H05G 1/04 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vessels for high tension operation in general

Mounting the tube within a closed housing

Shields against charged particles

Windows
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Structures transparent to X-rays but separating a space of certain properties, e.g. ambient pressure, from a space having different respective properties, e.g. low pressure, including windows acting as target anodes.

Further information:

Windows acting as target anodes are additionally covered by the Indexing Code H01J 2235/186.

Selection of substances for gas fillings; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube, e.g. by gettering{( for gas-discharge tubes in general H01J 7/02 to H01J 61/76 ; evacuating, filling, gettering in general H01J 9/38 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For gas-discharge tubes in general

Evacuating, filling, gettering in general

Tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray on the anode or anti-cathode is movable relative to the surface thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tubes in which said point of impact is movable, e.g.

to limit the local heat load on the anode by means of movement of the anode relative to the beam.

to obtain a variation in focal spot position, e.g. for oversampling.

by rotation of the anode or anti-cathode
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rotating anode tubes, i.e. tubes in which the anode rotates in operation, without affecting the position of the the x-ray source, in order to reduce the thermal load on the anode.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details on rotating anodes, cooling or mounting of rotating anodes

{by using a rotating X-ray tube in conjunction therewith}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tubes in which the point of generation of X-rays is fixed with respect to the laboratory frame, but not with respect to the vacuum housing of the tube, e.g. because it rotates with the anode.

Further information:

These tubes have been termed "rotary piston radiator" (resulting from a technically wrong translation of the german "Drehkolbenstrahler").

More recently, they are referred to as rotary bulb radiator or rotary envelope radiator.

Example: DE102004056110 (Fig 1)

media0.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tubes in which the anode rotates with respect to the vacuum envelope

Anodes which rotate with respect to the vacuum envelope and details related to such anodes

Tubes wherein the X-rays are produced at or near the end of the tube or a part thereof which tube or part has a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into a small hole or cavity
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Radiation therapy

A61N5/10B3

Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof( H01J 33/00 , H01J 40/00 , H01J 41/00 , H01J 47/00 , H01J 49/00 take precedence; {scanning-probe techniques or apparatus G01Q} ; contactless testing of electronic circuits using electron beams G01R 31/305 ; {particle accelerators H05H})
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Discharge tubes or details thereof, in which a sample, workpiece or similar object can be placed and removed that is exposed to a discharge (in the following "tubes") to be e.g. analysed or processed (in the following "analysis tubes" or "treatment tubes", respectively)

Typical "discharge tubes" covered by this main group are

electron microscopes or ion microscopes

spot analysers (i.e. systems with relatively large (larger than about 50-100nm) beam spots for Auger or particle beam induced X-ray analysis)

focused ion beam instruments

ion implanters

electron or ion lithography systems (i.e. for producing latent images for future processing steps in resists)

systems for working materials with electron or ion beams (e.g. electron beam welding or cutting or drilling or machining, e-beam evaporation, etc.)

systems for plasma-treatment (e.g. plasma etching or deposition systems).

The "discharge" is usually in the form of a dedicated, possibly guided and/or focused beam (in the following "beam tubes") of charged particles or in the form of a plasma (in the following "plasma tubes") not forming a beam.

Typical energies of the particles in the discharge (e.g. electrons or ions in a beam) are in general below a few hundred keV.

Nevertheless, this group also covers ion implanters and ultra high energy electron microscopes (both with energies of up to several MeV).

Further information:

General Structure of the scheme H01J 37/00:

The scheme both for classes and indexing-codes is organised according to the following principle:

classes for details of the tube (sources, beam forming, sample holder etc.): H01J 37/02 to H01J 37/248 and H01J 2237/002 to H01J 2237/2487 ("details classes")

analysing or imaging: H01J 37/252 to H01J 37/2955 and H01J 2237/25 to H01J 2237/2857

particle beam processing: H01J 37/30 to H01J 37/3178 and H01J 2237/30 to H01J 2237/31747

processing with gas-filled tubes (plasma tubes): H01J 37/32 to H01J 37/36 and H01J 2237/32 to H01J 2237/339

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel; Lenard tubes

Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas

Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas or for detecting presence of gas; Discharge tubes for evacuation by diffusion of ions

Tubes for determining the presence, intensity, density or energy of radiation or particles

Particle spectrometer or separator tubes (in particular mass spectreters)

Scanning tunnelling microscopes

X-ray microscopes wherein a (sub)-nanometre sized x-ray source is generated in an SEM-like apparatus by focusing an electron probe onto an x-ray transmissive target (cf. e.g. EP1557864)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General purpose ion sources

Coating by physical vapour deposition (PVD) such as vacuum evaporation, sputtering or ion implantation of the coating forming material

Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes

Preparation of specimen for investigation

Determining chemical or physical properties of materials by investigating or analysing by the use of wave or particle radiation

Contactless testing using electron beams of electronic circuits and of individual semiconductor devices, respectively

Lithography

Holographic processes or apparatus using particles

Sensing record carriers by corpuscular radiation

Techniques for handling particles or ionising radiation not otherwise provided for

Manufacture of semiconductor devices by ion implantation

Testing of semiconductor devices during manufacture

H01L21/66

Modifying the pattern of conductors of semiconductor devices

Sterilising by irradiation (depending on the sterilised product)

Irradiation devices

Measuring i.a. length

Scanning probe techniques

Measurement of nuclear or x-radiation

Light optics

Light optical microscopes

Semiconductor devices

Pumping lasers i.a. by electron beams

Apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases, e.g. into the atmosphere

Plasma Technique and particle accelerators;in particular as indicated in the following:

Generating plasma; Handling plasma

Production or acceleration of neutral particle beams

Direct voltage accelerators; Accelerators using single pulses

Targets for producing nuclear reactions

Details of devices in H05H 9/00, H05H 11/00, H05H 13/00

Linear accelerators

Magnetic induction accelerators, e.g. betatrons

Magnetic resonance accelerators; Cyclotrons

Methods or devices for acceleration of charged particles not otherwise provided for

Targets, e.g. pellets for fusion reactions by i.a. charged particles beam injection

Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should usually be classified in all applicable categories:

If a document concerns embodiments or elements in detail which are covered by several subgroups dependent on a higher hierarchy group, the relevant information is classified in all the respective subgroups (example: a document concerning both ion sources and lenses is classified in H01J 37/08 and in H01J 37/10, not in the higher group H01J 37/04).

The higher hierarchy group is to be used

if no respective subgroup exists

if the general idea is relevant for the higher hierarchy as well as all the respective subgroups (example: a specific construction valid for all types of beam deflection is not classified in all the lower subgroups of H01J 37/147 but in H01J 37/147, but Indexing Codes under H01J 2237/00 should be given for the (most important) embodiments)

If a document relates to a detail for which a group in H01J 37/02 - H01J 37/248 exists, this is classified there if none of the two following precedence rules applies:

  • generating/controlling the discharge is classified in H01J 37/04 and subgroups, unless [entire] optical systems of treatment tubes are concerned, which are classified in H01J 37/3007
  • specific details for plasma tubes are usually considerably different from those of beam tubes and are classified in the subgroups of H01J 37/32 - if they are not of general interest for H01J 37/00, e.g. if relevant for different types of tubes.

If the classified detail is specific for a certain type or for certain types of tubes, then this tube type(s) should be classified with the appropriate symbol in either H01J 37/00 or H01J237/00, depending on the specificity.

For example:

A document discloses and claims a particular construction of an objective lens specifically in a scanning electron microscope and generally states that this lens could be employed also for all other types of charged particle beam instruments like transmission electron microscopes, focused ion beam systems and ion implanters. The document is classified in the appropriate subgroup in H01J 37/10 (lens) and in H01J 37/28 (SEM), it is however not classified in view of TEM, FIB or ion implanters because lenses for these systems are usually considerably different.

Invention information is classified in the respective symbol under H01J 37/00; Indexing Codes under H01J237/00 are to be given where they provide additional aspects or provide for a more detailed subdivision.

For example:

A document concerns details of the construction of a gas field ion source specifically in a FIB-microworking device. This document is classified in H01J 37/08 (ion sources) and H01J 37/3056 (microworking). It is further classified in H01J 2237/061 (construction of source) and H01J 2237/0807 (gas field ion source).

Additional (non-invention information) is classified with symbol under H01J 37/00 and/or Indexing Codes, if it is relevant for search:If a certain (non-claimed) feature is described in particular detail, it should be classified similar to invention information. If a combination of features is described which goes beyond what is implicit to a certain device or only minor but still search-relevant information is given on the particular feature, said features should be classified with respective Indexing Code(s).

For example: For the claimed construction of the gas field ion source in the FIB-system of the above example, in addition, also a known construction of a very fast beam blanker is described in detail which works particularly well with the inventive source. Then the symbol for the beam blanker H01J 37/045 and the Indexing Code H01J 2237/0432 (high speed beam blanking) should be given in addition.

Reminder in view of the structure of subclass H01J as a whole:

Rules for classification regarding H01J for general elements:

As it is the case in H01J in general, for elements of general type which may be found in other types of discharge tubes, a class corresponding to general schemes H01J 1/00 to H01J 7/00 is given, e.g. for cathodes, vessels, cooling means or the like. Same rules apply for manufacturing procedures (H01J 9/00), unless specific to the tube concerned (as however elements for the tubes covered by H01J 37/00 are usually very specific, this seldom applies).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SEM

scanning electron microscope

REM

Rasterelektronenmikrokop (German acronym for "SEM")

TEM

transmission electron microsope

STEM

scanning transmission electron microscope

FIB

focused ion beam

LMIS

liquid metal ion source

GFIS

gas field ion source

Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details for all types of tubes in H01J 37/00; the respective documents regarding the tube, i.e. for analysis tubes and processing tubes, beam tubes, etc. and plasma tubes of general interest for H01J 37/00, are classified in the subgroup covering the respective detail.

{Means for mechanically adjusting components not otherwise provided for( mechanically adjusting from the outside of electron or ion-optical components H01J 37/067 ; positioning the object or material H01J 37/20 ; vacuum locks, means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube H01J 37/18 ; other manipulating devices H01L 21/48 , G21F )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Mechanically adjusting from the outside of electron or ion-optical components

Positioning the object or material

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vacuum locks, means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube

Other manipulating devices

{Means for avoiding or neutralising unwanted electrical charges on tube components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • means for avoiding or neutralising unwanted electrical charges on the sample or in the beam
Arrangements of electrodes and associated parts for generating or controlling the discharge, e.g. electron-optical arrangement, ion-optical arrangement{ electron or ion-optical systems for localised treatment of materials H01J 37/3007 ; discharge control means in gas filled discharge tubes H01J 37/32009 }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-optical systems only of tubes of the types in H01J 37/252-H01J 37/2955 (analysis/beam tubes) or details for which no class specific subclass is provided below

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron or ion-optical systems for localised treatment of materials

Discharge control means in gas filled discharge tubes

Electron or ion-optical arrangements for separating electrons or ions according to their energy{or mass}( particle separator tubes H01J 49/00 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Particle separator tubes

Electron sources; Electron guns{ electron sources in general H01J 1/02 , H01J 19/02 ; electron guns in general H01J 3/02 }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron sources in general

Electron guns in general

Geometrical arrangement of electrodes for beam-forming
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Schematic construction, arrangement of potential or fields or voltages; more related to the functioning of the source rather than the specific "hardware" construction

Construction of guns or parts thereof( H01J 37/067 to H01J 37/077 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical construction, "hardware oriented" (e.g. mechanical construction, contact arrangements)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Replacing parts of guns; Mutual adjustment of electrodes

Eliminating deleterious effects due to thermal effects or electric or magnetic fields

Electron guns using field emission, photo emission, or secondary emission electron sources

Electron guns using thermionic emission from cathodes heated by particle bombardment or by irradiation, e.g. by laser

Electron guns using discharge in gases or vapours as electron sources

Replacing parts of guns; Mutual adjustment of electrodes( H01J 37/073 to H01J 37/077 take precedence; vacuum locks H01J 37/18 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron guns using field emission, photo emission, or secondary emission electron sources

Electron guns using thermionic emission from cathodes heated by particle bombardment or by irradiation, e.g. by laser

Electron guns using discharge in gases or vapours as electron sources

Vacuum locks

Eliminating deleterious effects due to thermal effects or electric or magnetic fields( H01J 37/073 to H01J 37/077 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electron guns using field emission, photo emission, or secondary emission electron sources

Electron guns using thermionic emission from cathodes heated by particle bombardment or by irradiation, e.g. by laser

Electron guns using discharge in gases or vapours as electron sources

Lenses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

only the lenses themselves

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron/ion optical arrangements

{Means for interchanging parts of the lens, e.g. pole pieces, within the tube( mechanically adjusting electron (ion) optical components H01J 37/15 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Mechanically adjusting electron (ion) optical components

Arrangements for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path({ H01J 37/045 takes precedence } ; lenses H01J 37/10 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Beam blanking or chopping, i.e. arrangements for momentarily interrupting exposure to the discharge

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lenses

External mechanical adjustment of electron or ion optical components( H01J 37/067 , H01J 37/20 take precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Replacing parts of guns; Mutual adjustment of electrodes

Means for supporting or positioning the objects or the material; Means for adjusting diaphragms or lenses associated with the support

Vacuum locks;{Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel( vacuum locks for electron-beam tubes in general H01J 29/865 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

everything associated with generating, maintaining, etc., vacuum (e.g. pumps, valves) as long as in connection with the tube

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vacuum locks for electron-beam tubes in general

Means for supporting or positioning the objects or the material; Means for adjusting diaphragms or lenses associated with the support{( introducing the objects H01J 37/18 ; preparing specimens for investigation G01N 1/06 , G01N 1/28 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Introducing the objects

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparing specimens for investigation

Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electronic solid state devices or components

Means for adjusting the focus{( adjusting the focus while observing the image by photographic or optical means H01J 37/22 ; means for observing the object or the point of impact on the object in tubes for the localised treatment of materials H01J 37/3005 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and methods for automatic focusing

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Adjusting the focus while observing the image by photographic or optical means

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for observing the object or the point of impact on the object in tubes for the localised treatment of materials

Optical elements, systems or apparatus per se

Optical or photographic arrangements associated with the tube{( using a CRT for the display of the image in a scanning electron microscope H01J 37/28 ; observing the object or the point of impact on the object in tubes for the localised treatment of materials H01J 37/3007 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using a CRT for the display of the image in a scanning electron microscope

Observing the object or the point of impact on the object in tubes for the localised treatment of materials

Optical elements, systems or apparatus per se

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Optical in this subgroup relates to light-optical

{Image processing arrangements associated with the tube( image data processing or generation, in general G06T )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image data processing or generation, in general

Image data processing or generation specially adapted for particular applications, see the relevant subclass

Geometric image transformation for image mosaicing

{High voltage power supply or regulation circuits( components H01J 37/248 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Components associated with high voltage supply

{Filament heating power supply or regulation circuits( H01J 37/241 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

High voltage power supply or regulation circuits

{Beam current control or regulation circuits( H01J 37/241 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

High voltage power supply or regulation circuits

Detectors; Associated components or circuits therefor( detectors per se G01T )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Detectors per se

Components associated with high voltage supply({ Means for measuring the high voltage per se G01R 15/00 } ; high voltage supply per se H02J , H02M )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for measuring the high voltage per se

High voltage supply per se

Tubes for spot-analysing by electron or ion beams; Microanalysers( investigating or analysing thereby G01N 23/22 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Beam tubes that do not deliver "spatial images" based on secondary and backscattered electrons, but based on other beam-induced information like e.g. Auger-electrons or X-rays - leading e.g. rather to material contrast (today mainly attachments or subsystems of electron microscopes rather than dedicated microanalysers)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Investigating or analysing with tubes for spot-analysing by electron or ion beams

using scanning beams
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further information:

"Spot analysis" in scanning electron or ion microscopes (in contrast to dedicated spot- or microanalysers) is classified H01J 37/28 and should in respective situations in addition be classified in H01J 37/256 or a respective indexing-code depending on the degree of specific adaption of the overall system

Electron or ion microscopes; Electron or ion diffraction tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission Electron Microscopes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Scanning Electron Microscopes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning probe techniques

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Scanning Electron Microscopes are covered by in H01J 37/28, also Scanning Transmission Microscopes are covered by H01J 37/28 with Indexing Code H01J 2237/2802

{Details}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details (not covered by the "Details"-classes H01J 37/02 and below) specific to electron or ion microscopes (both scanning and non-scanning)

{Measurement of magnetic- or electric fields in the object; Lorentzmicroscopy( emission microscopes H01J 37/285 ; reflecting microscopes H01J 37/29 ; spot analysing H01J 37/252 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Emission microscopes

Reflecting microscopes

Spot analysing

with scanning beams({ H01J 37/268 , H01J 37/292 , H01J 37/2955 take precedence } ; microanalysers using scanning beams H01J 37/256 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measurement of magnetic- or electric fields in the object; Lorentzmicroscopy with scanning beams

Reflection microscopes using scanning ray

Electron or ion diffraction tubes using scanning ray

Microanalysers using scanning beams

Emission microscopes, e.g. field-emission microscopes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

also so-called "atom probes"

Electron or ion diffraction tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

also spin analysers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron or ion-optical details

{Details}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details (which are not covered by the "Details"-classes H01J 37/02 and below) specific to beam treatment tubes

{Electron or ion-optical systems( electron or ion-optical details H01J 37/06 to H01J 37/153 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ion optical systems for analysis tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron or ion-optical details

Controlling tubes by external information, e.g. programme control( H01J 37/304 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Controlling tubes by information coming from the objects or from the beam, e.g. correction signals

for casting, melting, evaporating or etching{( methods for casting or melting of metals with electron beam or gas discharges C22B 9/22 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods for casting or melting of metals with electron beam or gas discharges

{for evaporating or etching( methods for evaporating or etching metals with electron or ion beams C23C 14/30 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods for evaporating or etching metals with electron or ion beams

{for microworking, e.g. etching of gratings, trimming of electrical components( trimming of resistors H01C 17/22 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

also for cutting / depositing by focussed ion beam, e.g. for fabrication of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems))

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Trimming of resistors

Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural devices or systems, e.g. MEMS

for cutting or drilling{( methods for cutting or drilling metals with electron beams B23K 15/00 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods for cutting or drilling metals with electron beams

for welding{( methods for welding metals with electron beams B23K 15/00 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods for welding metals with electron beams

for changing properties of the objects or for applying thin layers thereon, e.g. for ion implantation( H01J 37/36 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Gas-filled discharge tubes

{for ion implantation( plasma immersion ion implantation H01J 37/32412 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Plasma immersion ion implantation

{Particle-beam lithography, e.g. electron beam lithography}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Masks, i.e. mask manufacture, inspection, cleaning, repair

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stereolithography, i.e. manufacturing of 3D objects

Hydrostatic bearings

Magnetic or electric bearings

Vibrations dampers

Measuring by electric or magnetic means

Interferometers

Measuring by optical means (e.g. for alignment)

Measuring optical phase differences

Inspection by optical means

Measuring electric or magnetic variables

Measuring ionising radiation

Microscopes

Originals (masks)

Lithography applications (e.g. holography, imprint)

Resists

Exposure

Photolithography, e.g. high resolution photolithography

Exposure strategies

Mask-workpiece alignment in photolithography

Control and regulating systems

Lithographic production of optical disks

Electron or ion microscopes

Apparatus for manufacturing or treating semiconductors not provided elsewhere

Testing of semiconductor devices during manufacture

H01L21/66

Workpiece handling

Marks on workpieces (e.g. alignment marks)

Linear motors

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

E

electron

E beam, e-beam

electron beam

Gas-filled discharge tubes,{e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions}({ general methods or devices for heat treatments of ferrous or non-ferrous metals or alloys by cathodic discharges C21D 1/38 ; methods of carburising or nitriding of metals in general C23C 8/00 ; methods for coating, plating or surface treating of or with metallic material C23C 8/36 , C23C 14/32 , C23C 16/50 ; methods for coating, plating or surface treating of or with semiconductors H01L 21/00 ; }heating by discharge H05B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gas filled discharge tubes for plasma processing.

The different aspects covered by this group are:

  • production of plasma; e.g. RF or microwave plasma sources;
  • constructional aspects (hardware) of the apparatus;
  • operating strategies, e.g. remote plasma generation, specific treatments such as localised processing or treating interior parts of workpieces;
  • testing and control of the apparatus; e.g. gas control, generation of magnetic or electrostatic fields for controlling the plasma, process monitoring;
  • arrangement, mounting, housing, environment, cleaning or maintenance of the apparatus;
  • cathodic sputtering systems;cleaning surfaces while plating with ions of materials introduced into the discharge.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Plasma generation

Plasma generation using high frequency or microwaves

Plasma torches

Chemical coating processes using plasma

Treatment of semiconductors

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for introducing or removing gases

Coating cavities or hollow spaces, e.g. interior of tubes

Substrate holders

Coating cavities or hollow spaces, e.g. interior of tubes

Surface treatment on the inside of the reaction chamber

Cleaning of reactor or parts inside the reactor by using reactive gases

Introducing gases into reaction chamber or for modifying gas flows in reaction chamber

Supporting substrates in the reaction chamber

Elements in the interior of the support, e.g. electrodes, heating or cooling device

Hydrostatic bearings

Magnetic or electric bearings

Vibrations dampers

Measuring by electric or magnetic means

Measuring by optical means

Measuring optical phase differences

Inspection by optical means

Measuring electric or magnetic variables

Measuring ionising radiation

Microscopes

Originals (masks)

Resists

Exposure

High resolution photolithography

Control and regulating systems

Impedance-matching networks

Matching of load impedance to source impedance

Plasma generation

Plasma generation using high frequency or microwaves

Plasma torches

Vacuum locks

Apparatus for manufacturing or treating semiconductors not provided elsewhere

H01L21/00S

Apparatus for etching

Apparatus with a plurality of work-stations

H01L21/00S2Z

Loadlocks

H01L21/00S2Z9

Plasma doping

Treatment of semiconductors

Testing or measuring during manufacturing of semiconductor devices

H01L21/66

Workpiece handling

Linear motors

Special rules of classification within this group

The documents related to plasma processing in general should be classified in the relevant H01J 37/32009-H01J 37/32917 subgroups and not in H01J 37/32.

The documents related to cathodic sputtering should be classified in the relevant H01J 37/3402-H01J 37/3476 subgroups and possibly also in H01J 37/34 if they relate to non-magnetron cathodic sputtering. General plasma processing aspects (e.g. gas control or material of the vessel) of documents related to cathodic sputtering should be classified in the relevant H01J 37/32009-H01J 37/32917 subgroups.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

AC

alternating current

DC

direct current

HF

high frequency

HIPIMS

high impulse power magnetron sputtering

RF

radio frequency

VHF

very high frequency

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ECR

electron cyclotron resonance

HIPIMS

high impulse power magnetron sputtering

PIII

plasma immersion ion implantation

PII

plasma ion implantation

PLAD

plasma doping

PSII

plasma source ion implantation

operating with cathodic sputtering( H01J 37/36 takes precedence; { methods of cathodic sputtering C23C 14/34 })
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Cleaning surfaces while plating with ions of materials introduced into the discharge

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Methods of cathodic sputtering

for cleaning surfaces while plating with ions of materials introduced into the discharge, e.g. introduced by evaporation{( condensing of electrically charged vapour onto a surface for covering materials with metals C23C 14/32 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensing of electrically charged vapour onto a surface for covering materials with metals

Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas( H01J 49/00 takes precedence; cathode-ray or image-pick-up tubes H01J 31/26 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric discharge tubes comprising essentially only a photo-cathode and a detector

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Photo-emissive cathodes per se

Image pick-up cathode ray tubes having an input of visible light and electric output

Electron-multiplier tubes

Ionisation chamber tubes for determining the presence, intensity, density or energy of radiation or particles

Particle spectrometer or separator tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solid-state photodiodes, i.e. semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation

having photo- emissive cathode, e.g. alkaline photoelectric cell( operating with secondary emission H01J 43/00 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

photo- emissive cathode operating with secondary emission

with luminescent coatings for influencing the sensitivity of the tube, e.g. by converting the input wavelength( image-conversion or image-amplification tubes H01J 31/50 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image-conversion or image-amplification tubes

Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas{or for detecting presence of gas}; Discharge tubes for evacuation by diffusion of ions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric discharge tubes wherein the discharge is used either for measuring the residual gas pressure (ionisation vacuum gauges), or for evacuating by diffusion of ions (ion pumps)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within gas-filled discharge tubes with solid cathode

Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical pumps for fluids

F04

Vacuum gauges by making use of ionisation effects

Secondary-emission tubes; Electron-multiplier tubes( dynamic electron-multiplier tubes H01J 25/76 ; secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation G01T 1/28 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric discharge tubes comprising secondary-electron emitting electrodes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring radiation intensity with secondary-emission detectors

Secondary-electron-emitting electrodes

Dynamic electron-multiplier tubes

Secondary-electron emitting electrode arrangements in cathode ray tubes

Manufacture of secondary-emission electrodes

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Image-conversion or image-amplification cathode ray tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computerised tomographs

Avalanche photodiodes

Synonyms and Keywords

EMT

Electron Multiplier Tube

MCP

Microchannel Plate

PMT

Photomultiplier Tube

Discharge tubes functioning as thermionic generators{( structural combination of fuel element with thermoelectric element G21C 3/40 ; nuclear power plants using thermionic converters G21D 7/04 ; structural combination of a radioactive source with a thermionic converter, e.g. radioisotope batteries G21H 1/10 ; generators in which thermal or kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by ionisation of a fluid and removal of the charge therefrom H02N 3/00 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric discharge tubes where a heat source thermionically emits electrons, producing an electric power output

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Thermo-electric devices with a junction of dissimilar materials (Seebeeck or Peltier effect)

Thermo-electric devices without a junction of dissimilar materials (Nernst-Ettinghausen effect)

Generators in which termal or kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by ionisation of a fluid and removal of the charge therefrom

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Structural combination of nuclear reactor fuel element with thermionic device

Nuclear power plants using thermionic converters

Structural combination of a radioactive source with a thermionic converter (radioisotope batteries)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Refrigeration machines, plant, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects

Synonyms and Keywords

TIC

Thermionic Converter

Tubes for determining the presence, intensity, density or energy of radiation or particles({ discharge tubes using igniting by associated radioactive materials or fillings, e.g. current stabilising tubes H01J 17/32 } ; photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas H01J 40/00 ; { discharge tubes for measuring the pressure, partial pressure of introduced gas or for detecting presence of gas H01J 41/02 ; ionisation chambers using a solid dielectric G01T 3/008 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric discharge tubes used for detecting high energy radiation or particles by ionisation of the gas in the tube

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring radiation intensity

Measuring neutron radiation using an ionisation chamber filled with a gas, liquid or solid, e.g. frozen liquid, dielectric

Discharge tubes using igniting by associated radioactive materials or fillings, e.g. current stabilising tubes

Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas

Discharge tubes for measuring the pressure, partial pressure of introduced gas or for detecting presence of gas

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Radiation therapy

Fire alarms using an ionisation chamber for detecting smoke or gas

Particle spectrometer or separator tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Instruments arranged to generate a spectrum of charged particles according to their mass-to-charge ratio (mass spectrometers) or according to their energy (energy spectrometers);
  • Details common to different types of spectrometers
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optical spectrometry

Measuring spectral distribution of X-rays or of nuclear radiation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Isotope separation by mass spectrography

Leak detectors using mass spectrometer detection systems

Analyzing materials by investigating the ionization of gases; by investigating electric discharges, e.g. emission of cathode

Mass spectrometers specially adapted for column chromatography

Methods of protein analysis involving mass spectrometry

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers for laboratory use, for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed

Electrostatic spraying apparatus

General methods for the preparation of peptides

Methods for sequencing involving nucleic acids

Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation

Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means (infrared, visible, ultraviolet radiation)

Investigating materials by measuring secondary emission

Automatic analysis devices for supplying samples to flow-through analysers

Recognising patterns in signals and combinations thereof

Special rules of classification within this group

In classifying particle separators, no distinction is made between spectrometry and spectrography, the difference being only in the manner of detection which in the first case is electrical and in the second case is by means of a photographic film.

Classification codes "invention information" should be allocated only to features or aspects peculiar to the invention. Further elements described as conventional should not be classified.

Example: a particular combination of an electrospray ion source with a quadrupole ion guide should be classified in both H01J 49/165 and H01J 49/063. However, a particular electrospray ion source followed by either an ion guide, a capillary or a skimmer should be classified only in H01J 49/165.

Classification codes "additional information" should be allocated for the documents where the use of a particle spectrometer is an essential feature of an invention, but where a conventional instrument is used. In this case allocation of a further code "invention information" (including circulation to other technical fields) is compulsory.

Example: if a method of protein analysis, classified in G01N 33/6848, includes an essential step of analysis by a standard time-of-flight mass spectrometer, H01J 49/40 should be allocated as additional information.

Synonyms and Keywords

CID

collision induced dissociation

ESI

electrospray ionisation

FT

fourier transform

ICR

ion cyclotron resonance

IMS

ion mobility spectrometry

MALDI

matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionisation

MS

mass spectrometry

Q or q

quadrupole employed in a combination, Q=with mass filtering, q=collision cell, e.g. Qq-TOF

QIT

quadrupole ion trap

TOF

time-of-flight

{Imaging particle spectrometry}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring secondary emission

Scanning probes

Image processing

Ion or electron microscope

Emission microscopes

{Microminiaturised spectrometers, e. g. chip-integrated devices, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Micro-structural systems per se

{Capillaries used for transferring samples or ions( electrospray nozzles H01J 49/167 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP1225616

media1.png

{for laser desorption, e.g. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation [MALDI}, surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation [SELDI] plates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO200706164

media2.png

{Ion deflecting means, e. g. ion gates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5696375

media3.png

{Multipole ion guides, e.g. quadrupoles, hexapoles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9938193

media4.png

{having stacked electrodes, e.g. ring stack, plate stack}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP1220291

media5.png

{Ion funnels}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6107628

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{Ion lenses, apertures, skimmers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6703610

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{using a solid target which is not previously vapourised}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. GB2143673

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{with electrons, e.g. electron impact ionisation, electron attachment( H01J 49/145 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6452167

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{Direct photo-ionisation, e.g. single photon or multi-photon ionisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5763875

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{Laser desorption/ionisation, e.g. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation [MALDI}( sample holders H01J 49/0418 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9963576

media11.jpg

{Electrospray ionisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP0123552

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{Capillaries and nozzles specially adapted therefor;(electrostatic spraying per se B05B 5/00)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP0566022

media13.png

{using crossed electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the beam, e.g. Wien filter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US4019989

media14.png

{with a magnetic sector of 90 degrees, e.g. Mattauch-Herzog type}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US3622781

media15.png

{with a cycloidal trajectory by using crossed electric and magnetic fields, e.g. trochoidal type}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5304799

media16.png

Radio frequency spectrometers, e.g. Bennett-type spectrometers, Redhead-type spectrometers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US2955204

media17.png

Omegatrons{Using ion cyclotron resonance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO03069651

media18.png

{characterised by orthogonal acceleration, e.g. focusing or selecting the ions, pusher electrode}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5763878

media19.png

{characterised by the reflectron, e. g. curved field, electrode shapes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. GB2402545

media20.png

{with multiple reflections( electrostatic traps H01J 49/4245 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO2007044696

media21.png

{with multiple changes of direction, e.g. by using electric or magnetic sectors, closed-loop time-of-flight}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US7227131

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{Quadrupole mass filters( H01J 49/4225 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP2299471

media23.png

{Multipole linear ion traps, e.g. quadrupoles, hexapoles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9707530

media24.png

{with radial ejection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP0684628

media25.jpg

{Stacked rings or stacked plates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9214259

media26.png

{Three-dimensional ion traps, i.e. comprising end-cap and ring electrodes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5654542

media27.png

{Electrostatic ion traps( H01J 49/422 takes precedence; multi-reflection time of flight spectrometers H01J 49/406 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6888130

media28.png

{with a logarithmic radial electric potential, e.g. orbitraps}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP1371081

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Gas- or vapour-discharge lamps( use for sterilising milk products A23C ; use for medical purposes A61N 5/00 ; use for disinfecting water C02F ; use for lighting F21 ; { use for advertising G09F } ; circuits therefor H05B ; arc lamps with consumable electrodes H05B ; electro-luminescent lamps H05B )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gas- or vapour-discharge lamps with main electrodes inside the vessel, and details thereof. In these lamps, the electrodes are not insulated from the discharge, e. g. by dielectric layers.

Examples of the discharge lamps covered here are:

  • Low pressure discharge lamps, e. g. fluorescent lamps; compact fluorescent lamps;
  • High pressure discharge lamps, e. g. high pressure mercury, sodium, xenon, or metal halide lamps;
  • Gas filled flash lamps.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Lamps may further have one (or more) outer envelopes (e.g. a reflector lamp comprising an integral assembly of lamp and reflector; a discharge lamp for a vehicle headlight with an outer envelope); these are classified in H01J 61/00 as long as the lamp and outer envelope are integrally formed or connected with each other and form one single item which can be connected to the power supply connector. The combination of a reflector comprising a lamp socket and a corresponding (replaceable) lamp is considered as a lighting system and is classified in the appropriate classes in F21V or F21S.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

DC plasma displays

Cathode-ray or electron-stream lamps, a phosphor or a gas is brought to luminescence by an electron beam

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel; Lamps with at least one main electrode outside the vessel, electrodeless lamps

Electric arc lamps with consumable electrodes

Electroluminescent light sources

Electric light sources using a combination of different types of light generation

Plasma discharge EUV light sources, in which a gas is locally compressed to create a discharge space and then allowed to expand into a vacuum

X-ray radiation generated from plasma, e. g. EUV light sources

Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps

Examples of places, where the subject-matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Details of lighting devices, of general application

Non-portable lighting devices or systems thereof

Use of discharge lamps for sterilising milk products

Use of discharge lamps for medical purposes, medical equipment using discharge lamps, tanning devices

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adapters and connectors

Luminaires or lighting devices containing a lamp

Use of discharge lamps for advertising, displays using discharge lamps

Use of discharge lamps for disinfecting water, disinfecting apparatus

Chemical, physical, or physico-chemical processes employing the direct application of incoherent waves, e. g. ultraviolet light

Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should be classified in all appropriate classes, i. e. multi-aspect classification is used.

If a document concerns embodiments or elements in detail which are covered by several subgroups dependent on a higher hierarchy group, the relevant information is classified in all the respective subgroups.

The higher hierarchy group is to be used:

  • if no respective subgroup exists.
  • if the general idea is relevant for the higher hierarchy as well as all the respective subgroups.

Lamp details are classified in group H01J 61/02 and subgroups thereof, if the details are integral with the lamp or directly attached or applied to the lamp, so that these go with the lamp when the lamp is removed from the power supply connector.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

HID lamp

High intensity discharge lamp

HPS lamp

High pressure sodium lamp

MH lamp

High pressure metal halide lamp

CFL

Compact fluorescent lamp

CCFL

Cold cathode fluorescent lamp

CRI

Colour rendering index

Lamp

a lamp comprises the discharge vessel and all peripheral accessories which makes the lamp ready for being plugged in the appropriate power supply connector, i.e. the lamp "ends" with the first suitable connector which can be connected to a standardized or another suitable power supply connector.

Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of gas or vapour discharge lamps covered by H01J 61/68 to H01J 61/98 and H01J 65/00.

Optical elements have an influence on the light distribution, e.g. focusing or changing the light emission characteristic

Further information:

Details within this group particularly suited for one or more specific lamp types are additionally covered by the appropriate subgroups for the relevant lamp type(s) in H01J 61/58 to H01J 61/98 and H01J 65/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lamp bases or sockets integral with the discharge lamps

Methods of manufacturing discharge lamps or discharge lamp details

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of incandescent lamps

Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps

Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps

Special rules of classification within this group

A subgroup for lamp sockets or bases is missing in H01J 61/00. These are classified in H01J 5/48 to H01J 61/62.

{Associated optical elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical elements integrally associated with the discharge lamp for influencing the spatial distribution of the emitted light:

  • Refractive or reflective elements.
  • Shields for production of specific dark/bright patterns.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Envelopes, vessels for incandescent lamps incorporating lenses

Optical elements, systems or apparatus

Electrodes( for igniting H01J 61/54 ); Screens; Shields
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrodes for igniting the lamp or used as starting aids

{Thermic screens or reflectors( heat-reflecting coatings on the wall of the vessel H01J 61/35 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Heat-reflecting coatings on the wall of the vessel

Main electrodes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Main electrodes for discharge lamps of the types covered by H01J 61/58 to H01J 61/98 and in H01J 65/00.

for high-pressure discharge lamps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alloys based on tungsten or molybdenum

{Shields, screens or guides arranged to extend the discharge path( H01J 61/106 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for influencing the discharge using magnetic means

Selection of substances for gas fillings; Specified operating pressure or temperature
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Substances for gas fillings necessary for the operation of the discharge lamp, i. e. for

  • the generation of the initial discharge,
  • generating the voltage gradient,
  • light emission,
  • for establishing the desired spectral characteristics of the emitted light.

Gases added in small amounts, and which are not necessarily required for the operation of the lamp, are covered by the group reflecting the purpose of the gas filling, if available, otherwise in H01J 61/12.

Examples:

  • Gases inside the discharge tube used for gettering or for avoiding blackening of the envelope H01J 61/26.
  • Gas filled in the gap between outer envelope and discharge tube in a double-walled lamp H01J 61/34.
  • Gas filled in cavities which serve as starting aid H01J 61/54.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Main constituent or principal constituent

should be construed as that filling component which is mainly responsive for the light emission. In many cases, the lamp contains a buffer gas, e.g. argon or xenon, which is necessary for initiating the discharge, but the main part of the light emission is provided for example by mercury or sodium vapour, a metal halide or other chemical substances which emits light in the conditions prevailing in the buffer gas discharge.

Glossary of terms

Main constituent orprincipal constituent

should be construed as that filling component which is mainly responsive for the light emission. In many cases, the lamp contains a buffer gas, e.g. argon or xenon, which is necessary for initiating the discharge, but the main part of the light emission is provided for example by mercury or sodium vapour, a metal halide or other chemical substances which emits light in the conditions prevailing in the buffer gas discharge.

having helium, argon, neon, krypton, or xenon as the principle constituent
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps which exclusively are filled with rare gases

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Low pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp

mercury vapour
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composition of metal halide filling of metal halide lamps

Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for maintaining the desired pressure within the vessels of two or more basic types of discharge tubes

Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering; Means for preventing blackening of the envelope
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes

Means for producing, introducing, or replenishing gas or vapour during operation of the lamp
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for producing, introducing, or replenishing gas or vapour during operation of two or more the lamp

Vessels; Containers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass compositions

Compositions for glass with special properties

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition

Coatings produced by application to, or surface treatment of, optical elements, e.g. anti-reflection coatings

Details of incandescent lamps

Special longitudinal shape, e.g. for advertising purposes{( H01J 61/305 takes precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Flat vessels or containers of gas discharge lamps

{U-shaped lamps}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Compact fluorescent lamps

{"Compact"-lamps, i.e. lamps having a folded discharge path}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fluorescent lamps with folded discharge path and with integral driving circuit, e. g. within the lamp base or socket, such that the lamp can replace incandescent lamps in common lighting fixtures

Double-wall vessels or containers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examples:

  • Discharge tubes with two or more walls.
  • Lamps with a discharge tube enclosed in an outer envelope, e. g. high or low pressure discharge lamps with outer envelope.
  • Reflector lamps containing a discharge tube within a closed reflector.
  • Compact fluorescent lamps with outer envelope.
  • Shatterproof enclosures directly mounted on the lamp, e. g. fluorescent lamps with a solid sleeve having shatterproof properties.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lamps with open reflectors

H01J61/02B

provided with coatings on the walls thereof; Selection of materials for the coatings( using coloured coatings H01J 61/40 ; using luminescent coatings H01J 61/42 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coatings on the walls of discharge lamps.

Examples:

  • Coatings on the walls of discharge tubes or of the outer envelope of double-walled lamps covered by H01J 61/34.
  • Heat or UV-reflective coatings.
  • Protective coatings.
  • Shatterproof coatings applied to the external surface of the discharge lamp, e. g. by extrusion so as to directly adhere to the discharge tube.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Coloured coatings in or on the envelope

Devices for influencing the colour or wavelength of the light by transforming the wavelength of the light by luminescence

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Envelopes, vessels of incandescent lamps provided with coatings on the walls

Devices for influencing the colour or wavelength of the light
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Light filters, coatings for influencing the wavelength or the colour of the emitted light, reflective or light diffusing coatings

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for influencing the colour or wavelength of the light may be applied on the surface or the discharge tube or on the surfaces of outer envelopes of the lamps

Special rules of classification within this group

Non-chemical aspects of luminescent materials are covered by T01J261/41, Examples:

Variable thickness profile of layers of luminescent material.

Spatial distribution of luminescent material on lamp surfaces.

by transforming the wavelength of the light by luminescence
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for transforming the wavelength of the light by luminescence:

Phosphor coatings characterized by non-chemical parameters, e.g. thickness profile, geometrical characteristics of the phosphor distribution on the vessel surface

Cooling arrangements; Heating arrangements; Means for circulating gas or vapour within the discharge space{( heating or cooling arrangements to promote ionisation for starting H01J 61/54 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for cooling specific parts of discharge tube in the form of ribs or other structures integrally formed on or directly attached to the vessel in order to increase the surface of the vessel

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Heating or cooling arrangements to promote ionisation for starting

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of a lamp and an external cooling fan

One or more circuit elements structurally associated with the lamp
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • One or more circuit elements structurally associated with the lamp, the circuit elements must be structurally associated with the lamp. Many compact fluorescent lamps are characterized by an electronic ballast contained in the lamp base.
  • Specific arrangements of the components in the lamp base
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electronic ballasts or driving circuits per se

Cathode glow lamps( designed as tuning or voltage indicators H01J 17/40 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Cathode glow lamps designed as tuning or voltage indicators

having one or more specially shaped cathodes, e.g. for advertising purposes{alphanumeric}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Discharge lamps having one or more specially shaped cathodes

Examples:

  • for advertising purposes,
  • for displaying alphanumeric characters.
having a main light-emitting filling of easily vaporisable metal vapour, e.g. mercury
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps with low-pressure unconstricted discharge.

Special rules of classification within this group

The cold pressure limit <400 Torr is disregarded.

A fluorescent lamp containing a specific xenon-argon mix as buffer gas, mercury, and a specific phosphor mix with a specific mass density yields a power saving lamp with a higher lumen output per foot arc length should be classified in H01J 61/72. Nevertheless, the document should also be given the group symbols H01J 61/20 and H01J 61/44.

Lamps with high-pressure unconstricted discharge{having a cold pressure > 400 Torr}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps with high-pressure unconstricted discharge.

Special rules of classification within this group

The cold pressure limit >400 Torr is disregarded.

Lamps with more than one main discharge path
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Lamps with different discharge paths
  • Lamps with one discharge vessel with a plurality of electrode pairs which form a plurality of discharge paths; these can be separated from each other by walls.
  • Arrays of single path discharge lamps, if the array is contained in one common container which provides electrical connection to all single lamps. An example is an array of single fluorescent tubes in a parallel arrangement in a LCD backlight.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Incandescent lamps with a filament heated only by non-luminous discharge

Lamps with light-emitting discharge path and separately-heated incandescent body within a common envelope, e.g. for simulating daylight( lamps with filament heated only by non-luminous discharge H01K )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Incandescent lamps with a filament heated only by non-luminous discharge

Cathode-ray or electron-stream lamps( flying-spot tubes H01J 31/10 ; magic-eye tuning indicators H01J 31/14 ; lamps with incandescent body heated by the ray or stream H01K ){ see also H01J 29/00 }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps and details of lamps in which an electron beam excites a luminescent material or a gas to emit light:

  • Lamps in which an electron beam strikes a phosphor and excites the phosphor to luminescence
  • Lamps in which an electron beam excites a gas to luminescence

Further information:

Details of cathode ray lamps which are also mentioned in a document to be suitable for a display tube are also covered by H01J 29/00 and H01J 31/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Flying-spot tubes

Magic-eye tuning indicators

Lamps with incandescent body heated by the ray or stream

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of display tubes

Display tubes

Field emissive cathodes

Electron guns using field emission

Methods for manufacturing details of cathode ray or electron stream lamps

Details, e.g. electrode, gas filling, shape of vessel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Field emission displays

Lamps with luminescent screen excited by the ray or stream
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Field emission displays

Special rules of classification within this group

The more recent lamps which are classified in H01J 63/06 are structurally very similar or identical to field emission displays (H01J 31/123). In order to be classified in H01J 63/06, the document should state or strongly imply the use as a lamp, e.g. a backlight for an LCD display - it is not sufficient that the document refer to a "light emitting element" or use a similar term which also would be applicable to a single pixel or to a whole field emitter display (FED). If both uses (FED and lamp) are mentioned, the document is classified in both subclasses

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel; Lamps with at least one main electrode outside the vessel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel and electrodeless lamps, and details thereof:

  • Microwave excited lamps in which the discharge tube is located in a microwave cavity
  • Inductively coupled RF lamps in which the discharge tube is surrounded by an RF coil or antenna
  • Lamps with external electrodes only
  • Lamps with at least one main electrode outside the vessel
  • Lamps in which the main electrodes are inside the vessel, but are separated from the discharge by a dielectric layer
  • Lamps with a gas filling excited by internal or external corpuscular radiation
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Plasma displays

Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the desired character or characters are formed by combining individual elements being gas discharge devices

Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of the lamps covered by H01J 65/00 are covered by the appropriate subgroup for lamp types in H01J 65/00 and, if available, also by the appropriate detail subgroups in H01J 61/00.

Main electrodes

Substances for gas fillings

Material of the discharge tubes

Ignition aids

Special rules of classification within this group

Means for coupling electromagnetic energy into the discharge tube are considered as a part of the lamp:

  • Microwave or RF cavities, resonators, and waveguides in which the discharge tube is arranged
  • RF coils or antennae surrounding or adjacent discharge tube
Lamps in which a screen or coating is excited to luminesce by radioactive material located inside the vessel{( direct conversion of radiation energy from radioactive sources into light G21H 3/02 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps in which a screen or coating is excited to luminesce by radioactive material located inside the vessel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Direct conversion of radiation energy from radioactive sources into light

Fluids, e.g. liquids, gases
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Targets which are in fluid state, including targets intended to melt during operation of the X-ray tube.

Transmission type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Anodes producing X-rays of which the fraction passing through the anode is suitable to be used.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Anodes which serve as vacuum window or are integrally attached to the vacuum window

Laminated targets, e.g. plurality of emitting layers of unique or differing materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Targets made of more than one layer of material intended to emit X-rays.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Targets with layered structure including a single emissive layer, the other layers serving to improve the mechanical properties, the thermal properties.

flow being via moving conduit or shaft
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examples:

Rotating, hollow anodes cooled by water passed along the axis,

Cooling conduits that must be rotated during operation

Rotation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Rotating the vessel for positioning purposes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Rotation of X-ray vessel where vessel is fixedly joint to anode in order to spread the heat e.g. Straton tube:

against charged particles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shielding of X-ray vessels or other components of the tube e.g. against charged particles such as scattered or secondary electrons. Examples:

corona shields;

magnetic fields for shielding;

conductive layers

Windows, e.g. for X-ray transmission
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Structures transparent to x-rays but separating a space of certain properties e. g. ambient pressure from a space having different respective properties e. g. low pressure; including windows acting as target anodes.

used as target or X-ray converter, e.g. transmission type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

X-ray transparent windows used as target or targets integrally attached to a window and used in transmission mode

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Transmission type target anodes not providing vacuum sealing

Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further information:

The codes in this main group are grouped according to the following principle:

details common to gas or plasma discharge of the above mentioned tubes: H01J 2237/00 to H01J 2237/2487

imaging

or analysing: H01J 2237/25 to H01J 2237/2857

particlebeam processing: H01J 2237/30 to H01J 2237/31747

plasma processing: H01J 2237/32 to H01J 2237/339

Codes in the scheme H01J 2237/00 and subgroups are usually marked with the month of their creation ([Nyymm] means "new in month mm of year yy") and are generally not reclassified. These codes are thus are not complete, i.e. not all documents classified in subgroups of H01J 37/00, for which a respective code in subgroups of H01J 2237/00 would be adequate, have such a code.

Special rules of classification within this group

All limiting references or precedence rules within H01J 2237/00 and subgroups thereof apply only within H01J 2237/00 (and subgroups thereof) and in particular not in view of groups the scheme H01J 37/00 and subgroups thereof, if not a group in H01J 37/00 or below is explicitly referred to.

General Reminder:

For features of general interest which may be found in other types of discharge tubes, an indexing-code corresponding to general schemes H01J201/00 to H01J207/00 is given, e.g. for cathodes, vessels, cooling means or the like.

Same rules apply for manufacturing procedures (H01J 2209/00), unless really specific to the tube concerned.

Cooling arrangements( of objects being observed or treated H01J 2237/2001 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Cooling arrangements of objects being observed or treated

Details of gas supplies - e.g. in an ion source, to a beam line, to a specimen or to a workpiece,( H01J 37/3244 takes precedence; environmental cells for electron microscopes H01J 2237/2003 ; microscopes with environmental specimen chamber H01J 2237/2608 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Gas supply means for processing objects by plasma generation

T01J237/32O2

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Environmental cells for electron microscopes

Microscopes with environmental specimen chamber

Moving components not otherwise provided for( diaphragms H01J 2237/0458 ; objects H01J 2237/202 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Moving components for diaphragms

Moving components for objects

Shields
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shields - both shielding the beam from influence thereon and shielding the environment from influence due to the tube

Lens systems( individual lenses H01J 2237/10 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Individual lenses

Arrangements for energy or mass analysis
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

analysis in H01J 2237/05 and subgroups relates to forming a spectrum; filtering relates to selecting mass or energy of (one) particular value(s)

Source emittance characteristics
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Beam diagnostics anywhere in beam

T01J237/248A1

Further information:

Diagnostics only for the source

Ion sources
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ion sources for mass spectrometers

Liquid metal sources
Synonyms and Keywords

common acronym: LMIS

Gas field ion sources [GFIS]
Synonyms and Keywords

common acronym: GFIS

Ionized cluster beam [ICB] sources
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

gas cluster ion beam sources and other cluster beam ion sources (cluster in this respect means a group of similar atoms or molecules)

Synonyms and Keywords

acronym for gas cluster ion beam : GCIB

Coils( superconducting H01J 2237/142 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Superconducting coils

Rotating beam around optical axis
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

What is called "scan rotation" in SEMs

Vessels( liner tubes H01J 2237/0268 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Liner tubes

Obtaining or maintaining desired pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both means and methods

Differential pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Also specific arrangements for differential pressure of field emission guns

Maintaining constant desired temperature
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both heating and/or cooling

Controlling environment of sample
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Controlling the environment of the sample in view of e.g. gas pressure, specific types of gases or gas composition, etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Elevated pressure

Environmental microscopes

Vacuum seals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vacuum seals associated with the stage, e.g. seals for adjustment screws of the sample stage

Eucentric movement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Moving the sample such that it stays in focus

Temperature responsive devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Temperature dilation of positioning element used to move sample

Means for introducing and/or outputting objects( locks H01J 2237/184 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Vacuum locks

Temperature variations( maintaining constant desired temperature H01J 2237/2001 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Maintaining constant desired temperature

Surface alteration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Surface alteration of samples to be analysed or inspected, e.g. ion bombardment to modify sample surface in an SEM

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Processing of objects per se

Focus adjustment( lenses H01J 2237/10 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lenses

Treatment of data( mixing signals H01J 2237/24495 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Image processing as such

Mixing signals

Charged particle holography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron or ion microscopes for holography

Holographic processes or apparatus using particles or using waves

Intensity, dose or other characteristics of particle beams or electromagnetic radiation
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Beam diagnostics including respective control

T01J237/248A1

Beam diagnostics including control of the parameter or property diagnosed( H01J 2237/30472 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Controlling the beam in electron or ion beam tubes for processing objects

Direction of beam or parts thereof in view of the optical axis, e.g. beam angle, angular distribution, beam divergence, beam convergence or beam landing angle on sample or workpiece( means for deflecting or directing discharge H01J 2237/15 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for deflecting or directing discharge

Measurements of electric or magnetic variables, e.g. voltage, current, frequency
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Voltage contrast, charging of sample, leakage current in sample to sample holder, magnetic imaging of sample

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

When related to the tube

Optical means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Focus control by additional light-optical microscopes

using tunnel effects, e.g. STM, AFM
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Microprobes using tunnel effect only in combination with tubes of H01J 37/00, e.g. LEED or RHEED in combination with STM

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

STM, AFM, etc. per se

with environmental specimen chamber( environmental cells H01J 2237/2003 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Environmental cells

Holography or phase contrast, phase related imaging in general, e.g. phase plates
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Treatment of data

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Holographic processes or apparatus using particles

Comparison or superposition of transmission images; Moirè
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Methods for image compare

Calibration( for object processing apparatus H01J 2237/30433 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Calibration for object processing apparatus

System calibration( for microscopes H01J 2237/2826 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

System calibration for microscopes

Deflection calibration( deflecting in general H01J 2237/15 ; specific to material treating H01J 2237/30483 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Deflection calibration specific to material treating

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Deflecting in general

Detecting endpoint of process( for plasma apparatus H01J 37/32963 , for sputtering apparatus H01J 37/3479 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Detecting endpoint of process for plasma apparatus

Detecting endpoint of process for plasma apparatus, for sputtering apparatus

Impurity or contaminant control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of contamination stemming from the ion source or beam line

Particle-beam lithography, e.g. electron beam lithographyWARNING This group and subgroups thereof are not complete, see provisionally H01J 2237/3175 and subgroups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further Information:

This part of the scheme is currently not in use, reorganisation needed. See provisionally H01J 2237/3175

Depositing thin layers on selected microareas( ion plating H01J 2237/3142 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ion plating

Lithography
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further Information:

The use of this part of the scheme is continued until further revision, the scheme under H01J 2237/31715 is not used.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013