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ELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Devices, i.e. electric discharge tubes or discharge lamps, for producing, influencing, or using a flow of electrons or ions, and having a closed or substantially closed casing containing a chosen gas, vapour, or vacuum, upon the pressure and nature of which the characteristics of the device depend. Examples include devices for controlling, indicating, or switching electric current, counting electric pulses, producing light or other electromagnetic oscillations, such as X-rays, or for separating or analysing radiation or particles.
  • Details of electric discharge tubes or discharge lamps, including details applicable to both discharge devices and incandescent lamps.
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of electric discharge tubes, discharge lamps, or parts thereof, including apparatus and processes for manufacture applicable to both discharge devices and incandescent lamps.
  • Recovery of material from discharge tubes or discharge lamps.

In particular:

AC-PDP

DC-PDP

Vacuum tubes

Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling wave tubes, magnetrons

Ion beam tubes

Cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes, in particular electron emission (e.g. field emission) display panels

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel

X-ray tubes

Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge

Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of gas

Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas or for evacuation by diffusion of ions

Secondary emission tubes or electron-multiplier tubes

Discharge tubes functioning as thermionic generators

Tubes for determining the presence, intensity or energy or radiation or particles

Particle spectrometer or separator tubes

Gas- or vapour-discharge lamps

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel or with at least one main electrode outside the vessel

Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture thereof

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Emission spectrometry
Spark gaps, including gas-filled spark gaps
Arc lamps with consumable electrodes
Particle accelerators
Plasma discharge EUV light sources in which a gas is locally compressed to create a discharge space and then allowed to expand into a vacuum
Electrical connectors separable from the tube
Isotope separation using separate tubes
Investigating or analyzing surface structures in atomic ranges using scanning-probe techniques
Investigating or analyzing electrically excited material, e.g. electroluminescence
Analyzing materials by investigating the ionization of gases; by investigating electric discharges, e.g. emission of cathode
Mass spectrometers specially adapted for column chromatography
Contactless testing of electronic circuits using electron beams
Electrostatic dosimeters in general
Secondary-emission measurement of nuclear or X-radiation
Details of scanning-probe apparatus in general
Gas lasers pumped by electric discharges
Generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases
Tubes for generating potential differences by charges carried on a gas stream
Light sources using a combination of discharge and other kinds of light generation (other than those covered in group H01J 61/96)
Generating plasma in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric incandescent lamps
Liquid crystal displays (LCD)
Displays using organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
Special rules of classification within this subclass

In this subclass, groups H01J 1/00-H01J 7/00 relate only to:

  • Details of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or lamp, or
  • Details mentioned in a specification as applicable to two or more kinds of tubes or lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00-H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00-H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00-H01J 41/00, H01J 47/00-H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds.
  • A detail only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind is covered by the detail group appropriate to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of that basic kind, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

In this subclass, group H01J 9/00 relates to apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of electric discharge tubes, discharge lamps, or parts thereof.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Lamp
In this subclass, “lamp” includes tubes emitting visible, ultra-violet or infra-red light.
Spark Gap
A “spark gap” is an enclosed or non-enclosed discharge device having cold electrodes and used exclusively to discharge a quantity of electrical energy in a small time duration.
Spectrometer
An instrument used to disperse radiant energy or particles into a spectrum and measure properties such as wavelength, mass, energy, or index of refraction.
Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps (details of electron-optical arrangements or of ion traps H01J 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details of electrodes, or magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, e.g. a CNT-based field emission device, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind
Details of electron-optical arrangements or of ion traps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 1/00

Electrodes and electron emitters

Conductors or conductive bodies characterised by the conductive materials; Selection of materials as conductors
Metallurgy
C21, C22
Metal alloys
Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)
Metal coating of glasses
Multilayer metal coating of glasses
Photolithographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials therefor
Carbon and compounds thereof; manufacture thereof, e.g. carbon nanotubes [CNT] and manufacture thereof
Deposition of carbon by e.g. chemical vapour deposition
Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings, e.g of CNT and carbon fibres on a substrate
PZT (lead zirconate titanate) emitter materials and manufacture thereof
Micro-structural devices or systems and manufacture thereof
Nano-structures and manufacture thereof
Nanotechnology
Filaments for incandescent lamps
Secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

Luminescent screens

Luminescent materials or compositions
Special rules of classification within this main group
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED
field emission device / display
CNT
carbon nanotube(s)
Heating arrangements for discharge tubes with liquid-pool cathodes
Filaments for incandescent lamps
Heaters (filaments for incandescent lamps H01K 1/02)) Informative references
having an electric field perpendicular to the surface, e.g. tunnel-effect cathodes of Metal-Insulator-Metal [MIM] type [N: (H01J 1/304 to H01J 1/308 take predecence)])]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Field-emissive cathodes
Semiconductor cathodes, e.g. cathodes with PN junction layers
Secondary-electron-emitting electrodes (H01J 1/35 takes precedence; luminescent screens H01J 1/62; charge storage screens in general H01J 1/78; charge storage screens using secondary emission for image tubes H01J 29/41; dynodes for secondary emission tubes H01J 43/10; secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation G01T 1/28)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrodes exhibiting both secondary emission and photo-emission
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Luminescent screens
Charge storage screens in general
Charge storage screens using secondary emission for image tubes
Dynodes for secondary emission tubes
Secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation
Photo-emissive cathodes (H01J 1/35 takes precedence; photoelectric screens H01J 1/78)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrodes exhibiting both secondary emission and photo-emission
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photoelectric screens
Cooling of anodes (cooling rotary anodes H01J 1/44); Heating of anodes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cooling rotary anodes
Control electrodes, e.g. grid (for igniting arrangements H01J 7/30); Auxiliary electrodes (auxiliary anodes for maintaining a discharge H01J 1/36)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrodes for igniting arrangements
Auxiliary anodes for maintaining a discharge
Screens for shielding (screens acting as control electrodes H01J 1/46); Guides for influencing the discharge; Masks interposed in the electron stream
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Screens acting as control electrodes
Insulation between electrodes or supports within the vacuum space (leading-in conductors H01J 5/46)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Leading-in conductors
Mountings for individual electrodes (for directly-heated cathodes H01J 1/15)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mountings for directly-heated cathodes
Details of electron-optical or ion-optical arrangements or of ion traps common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details of electron-optical or ion-optical arrangements or of ion traps of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

In particular: Electron/ion guns of an unspecified electron/ion beam tube and control electrode structures of a field emission device.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 3/00
Arrangements for handling radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, moderating
Particle accelerators
Electron guns of - cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes - discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge
Ion guns of ion beam tubes
Circuit arrangements for producing sawtooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents
Special rules of classification within this main group
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED
field emission device / display
Electron guns [N: (electron guns for discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge H01J 37/06; for cathode ray tubes H01J 29/48)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron guns for discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge
Electron guns for cathode ray tubes
two or more guns being arranged in a single vacuum space, e.g. for plural-ray tubes (H01J 3/07 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for controlling convergence of a plurality of beams
Arrangements for controlling intensity of ray or beam (H01J 3/02, H01J 3/04 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron guns
Ion guns
Arrangements for centering ray or beam (H01J 3/02, H01J 3/04 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron guns
Ion guns
Arrangements for controlling cross-section of ray or beam; Arrangements for correcting aberration of beam, e.g. due to lenses (H01J 3/02, H01J 3/04 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron guns
Ion guns
Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam (H01J 3/02, H01J 3/04 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron guns
Ion guns
Arrangements for deflecting ray or beam (circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents H03K; [N: H01J 29/46 to H01J 29/84 and H01J 37/147 take precedence])
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements of electrodes and associated parts for generating or controlling the ray or beam, e.g. electron-optical arrangement
Arrangements for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents
Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 5/00

Vessels

Glass compositions
Glass ceramics
Ceramics
Surface treatment of glass ... by coating (e.g. with dielectric materials)
Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)... by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation
Fusion frit compositions
Joining glass to glass other than by fusing; Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material
Reforming and uniting glass sheets by fusing
Laminating glass layers
B32C17/10
Units comprising two or more parallel glass of like panes permanently secured together
E06B23/00
Soldering; welding; working by laser beamWorking by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring

Connecting or feeding means

Electric coupling devices comprising a holder adapted for supporting a tube or lamp and not forming part of the tube or lamp
Vessels of containers characterised by the material thereof (selection of the material of the coating H01J 5/08)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Selection of the material of the coating
provided with coatings on the walls therof; Selection of materials for the coatings (luminescent coatings H01J 1/62)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Luminescent coatings
Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel (luminescent coatings H01J 1/62)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Luminescent coatings
for an individual conductor (pinched-stem seals H01J 5/38; end-disc seals H01J 5/40; annular seals H01J 5/44)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pinched-stem seals
End-disc seals
Annular seals
Means forming part of the tube or lamp for the purpose of supporting it (associated with electrical connecting means H01J 5/50)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical connecting means
Details not provided for in the preceding groups and common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details not provided for in the preceding groups of an unspecified kind of discharge tube or discharge lamp, or of two or more kinds of discharge tubes or discharge lamps as defined by groups H01J 11/00, H01J 13/00, H01J 15/00, H01J 17/00, H01J 21/00, H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 35/00, H01J 37/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 43/00, H01J 45/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00, H01J 61/00, H01J 63/00 or H01J 65/00, hereinafter called basic kinds, wherein plasma display panels of H01J 11/00, H01J 17/00, electron emission display panels of H01J 31/00 and flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight of H01J 63/00 are considered as a single basic kind.

In particular: Selection of substances for gas fillings and specified operating pressure or temperature; means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel; cooling arrangements, heating arrangements and means for circulating gas or vapour within the discharge space; ignition arrangements

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details only described with reference to or clearly only applicable to discharge tubes or discharge lamps of a single basic kind
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 7/00
Getters in cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes
Getters in AC plasma display panels
Getters in DC plasma display panels
Control or maintenance of pressure in the vessel or discharge tubes or lamps
Circuit arrangements for igniting
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

NEG
non-evaporable getter
Selection of substances for gas fillings; Specified operating pressure or temperature (radioactive fillings H01J 7/40)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radioactive fillings
Cooling arrangements (for main electrodes H01J 1/02); Heating arrangements (for main electrodes H01J 1/02); Means for circulating gas or vapour within the discharge space
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling arrangements for main electrodes
Heating arrangements for main electrodes
Igniting arrangements (circuit arrangements H02M 1/02, H05B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuit arrangements
Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture, [N: installation, removal, maintenance] of electric discharge tubes, discharge lamps, or parts thereof (manufacture of vessels or containers from metal B21, e.g. B21D 51/00, from glass C03B); Recovery of material from discharge tubes or lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture, of electric discharge tubes and discharge lamps of H01J, or parts thereof; Repairing or regenerating used or defective discharge tubes or discharge lamps of H01J; Recovery of material from discharge tubes or discharge lamps of H01J

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes and electron emitters

Metallurgy
C21, C22
Metal alloys
Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)
Metal coating of glasses
Multilayer metal coating of glasses
Photolithographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials therefor
Carbon and compounds thereof; manufacture thereofCNT material and manufacture thereof
Deposition of carbon by e.g. chemical vapour deposition
Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatingse.g of CNT and carbon fibres on a substrate
PZT (lead zirconate titanate) emitter materials and manufacture thereof
Micro-structural technology
Nano-structures and manufacture or treatment thereof

Luminescent screens

Luminescent materials or compositions
Luminescent screens for X-ray purposes

Deflecting devices

Manufacturing coils for transformers, inductances, reactors or choke coils

Vessels

Manufacture of vessels or containers from metal
B21, e.g. B21D 51/00
Manufacture of vessels or containers from glass
Surface treatment of glass by coating (e.g. with dielectric materials)
Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials) by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantationby chemical vapour deposition
Fusion frit compositions
Joining glass to glass other than by fusing; Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material
Reforming and uniting glass sheets by fusing
Laminating glass layers
B32C17/10
Soldering; welding; working by laser beamWorking by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring
Coatings on or surface treatment of optical elementsAntireflection coatings in general
Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, e.g. by using adhesives Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin
Adhesives
Moulds
Cleaning devices or components

Classification is madein H01J 9/00 and additionally in H01J 2209/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

As to plasma display panels and electron emission display/flat panels:

  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of electrodes, dielectric layers or protection layers of plasma display panels are covered by H01J 9/02 (since being part of the manufacture of the electrode system).Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of control electrodes (gate electrodes, focusing electrodes) of electron emission flat panels are covered by H01J 9/148. Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of anode electrodes of electron emission flat panels are covered by H01J 9/148 if merely the anode electrode(s) is(are) concerned. The arrangement of luminescent material, the reflective layers or the black matrix is rather covered by H01J 9/227 and subgroups thereof. The manufacture of field emitters, like carbon nanotube emitters, is covered by H01J 9/025, the manufacture of CNT materials in general by C01B 31/022.
  • Methods of assembling together the component parts of electrode systems of the display panels are covered by H01J 9/185.

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for applying optical layers / coatings or shielding layers / coatings (e.g. filter layers, electromagnetic interference shielding layers, anti-reflection coatings, anti-glare coatings) integral with or directly attached to the display panel, e.g. to the front substrate, are covered by H01J 9/205. Apparatus or processes for applying luminescent material/coatings to the screen or vessel are covered by H01J 9/227 and subgroups thereof. H01J 9/2278 covers the application of light absorbing material (black matrix), e.g. between the luminescent material.

  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of the vessel of the display panels are covered by H01J 9/241 (regarding faceplate (front substrate); backplate (rear substrate); frame between the plates), H01J 9/242 (regarding spacers / barrier ribs between the faceplate and the backplate) or H01J 9/261 (regarding sealing together parts of the vessel).
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of leading-in conductors are covered by H01J 9/28 and those adapted to the sealing of leading-in conductors are covered by H01J 9/32.
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted to exhausting, degassing, filling, or cleaning the vessels are covered by H01J 9/38 (or subgroups thereof), those adapted to the closing of the vessels are covered by H01J 9/40.
  • Further, the subgroups H01J 9/42 (measuring or testing during manufacture), H01J 9/44, H01J 9/445 (factory adjustment), H01J 9/46, H01J 9/48 (machines having sequentially arranged operating stations), H01J 9/50, H01J 9/505 (repairing or regenerating), H01J 9/52 (recovery of material) also cover plasma display panels and electron emission display panels.
Manufacture of photo-electric screens or charge-storage screens [N: no documents, see H01J 29/36]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used, the subject matter is covered by H01J 29/36

Manufacture of magnetic deflecting devices for cathode-ray tubes (manufacturing coils for transformers, inductances, reactors or choke coils H01F 41/04)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacturing coils for transformers, inductances, reactors or choke coils
Recovery of material from discharge tubes or lamps (H01J 9/50 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Repairing or regenerating used or defective discharge tubes or lamps
Gas-filled discharge tubes with alternating current induction of the discharge, e.g. AC-PDPs [Alternating Current Plasma Display Panels]; Gas-filled discharge tubes without any main electrode inside the vessel; Gas-filled discharge tubes with at least one main electrode outside the vessel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

  • Plasma display panels having alternating current induction of the discharge as well as gas-filled discharge tubes with at least one main electrode outside the vessel. The main electrode is out of contact with the plasma.
  • Arrangements for plasma display panels such as cables, wiring, heat dissipating bodies, electromagnetic shielding arrangements that are inside the vessel, or partly inside the vessel, or directly attached to the vessel.
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for manufacturing AC-PDPs
Circuits or methods for driving AC-PDPs
Discharge lamps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid crystal displays [LCD]
Displays using organic light-emitting diodes
Light emitting diodes [LED]
Organic light-emitting diodes [OLED]
Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements
Cathode ray tubes [CRT]
Field emission displays [FED]
Direct current plasma display panels [DC-PDP]
Plasma addressed liquid crystal devices [PALC]
H01J 17/485, G02F1/133P
Touch screens
Electrophoretic displays
Casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus
Constructional details common to different types of electric apparatus
Modifications to facilitate cooling, ventilating, or heating in electrical apparatus
Electromagnetic shielding
Cooling arrangements being part of the tube, e.g. an heat dissipation sheet directly attached to the vessel
Special rules of classification within this main group

When classifying in this main group, classification is made in any appropriate place, i.e. multi-aspect classification is used. This means that, e.g., a document relating to a dielectric layer of an AC-PDP is classified in one of H01J10/00 to H01J18/00 (identifying the kind of structure of the PDP) and in H01J 11/38 (relating to dielectric and insulating layers).

In this main group documents are classified according to the reformed ECLA approach, i.e. important (invention-type) information is identified with ECLA symbols, e.g. H01J 11/12, additional (secondary) information with Indexing Code symbols, e.g. H01J 2211/12.

Classification of important information and additional information is obligatory in this main group.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this main group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Main electrode
sustain electrode, address electrode or scan electrode
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AC
Alternating Current
DC
Direct Current
PDP
Plasma Display Panel
EMI
ElectroMagnetic Interference
NIR
Near InfraRed
IR
InfraRed
PALC
Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystals
AC-PDPs with at least one main electrode being out of contact with the plasma
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The kind of structure of the AC plasma display panel.

Electrodes, e.g. special shape, material or configuration
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composition of metallic electrodes
Working metallic powder
Multilayer coating of glasses with metal
Joining glass to metal
Coating on polymers
Photolitographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • “discharge electrodes”, “maintenance electrodes”, “scan and sustain electrodes” and “display electrodes”
  • “address electrodes”, “write electrodes”, “column electrodes” and “data electrodes”.
Vessels, containers or parts thereof, e.g. substrates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vessels, containers or parts thereof, substrates for plasma displays, alignment marks on the substrate.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)
Glass compositions
Frits
Glass ceramics
Powdered glass
Glass composition containing a non glass component
Ceramics
Shaping of glass
Spacers, barriers, ribs, partitions or the like
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)
Glass compositions
Ceramics
Special rules of classification within this group

Further details are covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Cross section of the spacers
Pattern of the spacers
Dummy spacers
Dielectric or insulating layers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)
Glass compositions
Glass ceramics
Surface treatment of glass (e.g. coating, etching, ion exchange, etc.)
Ceramics
Layered products comprising glass
Insulating bodies characterized by the material
Layers for protecting or enhancing the electron emission, e.g. MgO layers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Glass compositions (flat glass, powders or frit, devitrified glass, fibres, etc.)
Glass compositions
Glass ceramics
Surface treatment of glass (e.g. coating, etching, ion exchange, etc.)
Ceramics
Layered products comprising glass
Fluorescent layers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluorescent materials per se
Special rules of classification within this group

Regarding fluorescent materials: in order to be classified in H01J 11/42, the invention has to refer to an AC plasma display panel, wherein the phosphor is composed of a particular material.

Optical arrangements or shielding arrangements, e.g. filters, black matrices, light reflecting means or electromagnetic shielding means.
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical arrangements or shielding arrangements. Also means to improve contrast.

For example, a document regarding an arrangement to improve contrast, like adding pigments of different colours in ribs, dielectric layer and substrate, is covered by H01J 11/44. Filters for AC-PDPs are covered by H01J 11/44 if they are inside or directly attached to the vessel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical elements other than lenses
Optical elements characterized by the material
Electromagnetic shielding
Layered products comprising resin
Layered products comprising glass
Production of optical devices by litographic processes; photosensitive materials
Materials of adhesive layers
C09J/00
Special rules of classification within this group

Further details are covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Light reflecting means; Anti-reflection means
Means for improving contrast or colour purity, e.g. black matrix or light shielding means
Electromagnetic shielding means; Antistatic means
Near infrared shielding means
Connecting or feeding means, e.g. leading-in conductors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for giving electricity to the electrodes of the AC-PDP. Such means are classified here only if at least part of said means is inside the vessel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connectors
H01R/00
Driving circuits
Printed circuits
Assembling printed circuits with other printed circuits
Casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus
Constructional details common to different types of electric apparatus
Sealing, e.g. seals specially adapted for leading-in conductors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composition of fusing seals
Means for exhausting the gas
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for exhausting the gas, e.g. vent pipes or ribs arrangements for exhausting the gas

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods of exhausting vessels
Gas-filled discharge tubes with liquid-pool cathodes, e.g. metal-vapour rectifying tubes (lamps H01J 61/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Gas filled discharge tubes with liquid pool cathodes. Metal-vapour rectifier. In particular, mercury-vapour rectifier for converting high-voltage or high-current alternating current into direct current.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discharge lamps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuit arrangements for discharge tubes in static converters
Anodes; Auxiliary anodes for maintaining the discharge (screens H01J 13/22)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screens
Control electrodes, e.g. grid (for igniting arrangements H01J 13/34)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control electrodes for igniting arrangements
Cooling arrangements; Heating arrangements (for cathodes H01J 13/14; for anodes H01J 13/18))
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling arrangements for cathodes
Cooling arrangements for anodes
Igniting arrangements (circuits arrangements H02M 1/02)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuits arrangements
Devices for preventing or eliminating arcing-back (screens therefor H01J 13/22)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screens therefor
Gas-filled discharge tubes with gaseous cathodes, e.g. plasma cathode (lamps H01J 61/62)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gas-filled discharge tubes with solid cathode (H01J 25/00, H01J 27/00, H01J 31/00 to H01J 41/00 [N: H01J 11/00] take precedence; gas or vapour discharge lamps H01J 61/00; gas filled spark gaps H01T; Marx converters H02M 7/26 ; tubes for generating potential differences by charges carried in a gas stream H02N)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Gas filled discharge tubes with solid cathode. Plasma display panels operated with direct current (DC PDPs) and their details. Plasma addressed liquid crystal displays (PALC). Thyratrons.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gas-filled discharge tubes with alternating current induction of the discharge, e.g. AC-PDPs
Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling wave tubes, magnetrons
Ion beam tubes
Cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes, in particular electron emission (e.g. field emission) display panels
Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas or for evacuation by diffusion of ions
Spark gaps, including gas-filled spark gaps
Marx converters
Discharge lamps
Tubes for generating potential differences by charges carried in a gas stream
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid crystal displays [LCD]
Displays using organic light-emitting diodes
Light emitting diodes [LED]
Organic light-emitting diodes [OLED]
Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements
Cathode ray tubes [CRT]
Field emission displays [FED]
Direct current plasma display panels [DC-PDP]
Plasma addressed liquid crystal devices [PALC]
H01J 17/485
,G02F1/133P
Touch screens
Electrophoretic displays
Special rules of classification within this main group

When classifying in this main group, classification is made in any appropriate place, i.e. multi-aspect classification is used. This means that, e.g., a document relating to an anode of a PALC should be classified in H01J 17/485 (relating to the PALC) and H01J 17/10 (relating to the anode).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DC
Direct Current
PDP
Plasma Display Panel
PALC
Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystals
Selection of substances for gas fillings; Specified operating pressure or temperature (radioactive fillings H01J 17/32)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radioactive fillings
Cold-cathode tubes (TR boxes H01J 17/64)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
TR boxes
with one cathode and one anode, e.g. glow tube, tuning-indicator glow tube, voltage-stabiliser tube, voltage-indicator tube, (cathode-glow lamps H01J 61/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cathode-glow lamps
Display panels, e.g. with crossed electrodes [N: e.g. making use of direct current] (gas discharge type indicating arrangements effected by the combination of a number of individual lamps G09F 9/313 [N: display panels making use of alternating current H01J 11/00])
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gas discharge type indicating arrangements effected by the combination of a number of individual lamps
Display panels making use of alternating current
Thermionic-cathode tubes (TR boxes H01J 17/64)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
TR boxes
Details of vacuum tubes of the types covered by group H01J 21/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details of tubes in which the electron stream is not altered in other ways than on/off.

Heaters (filaments for incandescent lamps H01K 1/02)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filaments for incandescent lamps
Screens for shielding (screens acting as control electrodes H01J 19/38)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screens acting as control electrodes
Insulation between electrodes or supports within the vacuum space (leading-in conductors H01J 19/62)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Leading-in conductors
Mountings for individual electrodes (for directly-heated cathodes H01J 19/12)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mountings for directly-heated cathodes
Means forming part of the tube for the purpose supporting it (associated with electrical connecting means H01J 19/66)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means associated with electrical connecting means
Means forming part of the tube for the purpose of providing electrical connection to it (construction of connectors H01R) [N: no documents, see H01J 5/46 to H01J 5/62]]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Construction of connectors
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used for classification, the subjet matter is covered by H01J 5/46 to H01J 5/62.

Cooling arrangements (cooling of anodes H01J 19/36))
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling of anodes
Vacuum tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Tubes in which the electron stream is not altered in other ways than on/off.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes
Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel
X-ray tubes
Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
Secondary-emission tubes; Electron-multiplier tubes
Cathode-ray or electron-stream lamps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of vacuum tubes
Tubes with more than one discharge path; Multiple tubes, e.g. double diode, triode-hexode (secondary-emission tubes, electron-multiplier tubes H01J 43/00))
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Secondary-emission tubes, electron-multiplier tubes
Tubes with electrode system arranged or dimensioned so as to eliminate transit-time effect (with flat electrodes H01J 21/36))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flat electrodes
Details of transit-time tubes of the types covered by group H01J 25/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details of tubes in which the electron stream is altered in other ways than on/off.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

TWT
traveling wave tube
TWTA
traveling wave tube amplifier
Vircator
virtual cathode oscillator
Electrodes; Magnetic control means; Screens (associated with resonator or delay system H01J 23/16)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means associated with resonator or delay system
producing a solid cylindrical beam (H01J 23/075 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Magnetron injection guns
producing a hollow cylindrical beam (H01J 23/075 takes precedence))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Magnetron injection guns
Electric system for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path, e.g. E-type (focusing arrangements H01J 23/08))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Focusing arrangements
Magnet systems for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path, e.g. a spiral path (magnetic focusing arrangements H01J 23/08)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Magnetic focusing arrangements
Means for reducing noise (in electron or ion gun H01J 23/06))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for reducing noise in electron or ion gun
the interaction circuit being a helix or a helix-derived slow-wave structure (H01J 23/44 to H01J 23/48 take precedence))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rod-type coupling devices
Loop coupling devices
Devices for linking interaction circuit with coaxial lines; Devices of the coupled helices type
Rod-type coupling devices (H01J 23/46, H01J 23/48, H01J 23/54 take precedence))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Loop coupling devices
Devices for linking interaction circuit with coaxial lines; Devices of the coupled helices type
Filtering devices preventing unwanted frequencies or modes to be coupled to, or out of, the interaction circuit; Prevention of high frequency leakage in the environment
for linking interaction circuit with coaxial lines; Devices of the coupled helices type (H01J 23/46 takes precedence))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Loop coupling devices
the interaction circuit being a helix or derived from a helix (H01J 23/52 takes precedence))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coupled helices being disposed coaxially around one another
Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Tubes in which the electron stream is altered in other ways than on/off.

Details of transit-time tubes
Particle accelerators
Tubes in which the electron stream is only switched on/off
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Common microwave oven magnetrons
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

TWT
traveling wave tube
TWTA
traveling wave tube amplifier
Vircator
virtual cathode oscillator
Tubes with electron stream modulated in velocity or density in a modulator zone and thereafter giving up energy in an inducing zone, the zones being associated with one or more resonators (tubes in which a travelling-wave is simulated at spaced gaps H01J 25/34)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes in which a travelling-wave is simulated at spaced gaps
Tubes in which an electron stream interacts with a wave travelling along a delay line or equivalent sequence of impedance elements, and with a magnet system producing an H-field crossing the E-field (with travelling wave moving completely around the electron space H01J 25/50)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes with travelling wave moving completely around the electron space
Magnetrons, i.e. tubes with a magnet system producing an H-field crossing the E-field (with travelling wave not moving completely around the electron space H01J 25/42; functioning with plural reflection or with reversed cyclotron action H01J 25/62, H01J 25/64)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetrons with travelling wave not moving completely around the electron space
Functioning with plural reflection or with reversed cyclotron action
having only one cavity or other resonator, e.g. neutrode tube (having a composite resonator H01J 25/58)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composite resonator
Tubes specially designed to act as oscillator with positive grid and retarding field, e.g. for Barkhausen-Kurz oscillators (with secondary emission H01J 25/76)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes with secondary emission
in which a standing wave or a considerable part thereof is produced along an electrode, e.g. Clavier tube (with resonator having distributed inductance and capacitance H01J 25/70)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes with resonator having distributed inductance and capacitance
Tubes specially designed to act as transit-time diode oscillators, e.g. monotron (with secondary emission H01J 25/76)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes with secondary emission
Ion beam tubes (H01J 25/00, H01J 33/00, H01J 37/00 take precedence; particle accelerators H05H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Electric discharge tubes generating a beam of ions

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion guns common to two or more basic types of discharges
Transit-time tubes, e.g. Klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel
Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
Devices providing for corona discharge
Apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases, e.g. into the atmosphere
Particle accelerators
Generating plasma

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Ion thrusters
Ion sources for discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for ion implanters or ion microscopes
Ion sources for particle spectrometers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for handling radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, moderating
Ion sources; Ion guns ([N: for examination or processing discharge tubes H01J 37/08; ion sources, ion guns for particle spectrometer or separator tubes H01J 49/10; ion propulsion F03H1/00B]; arrangements forhandling particles, e.g. focusing, [N: charge exchanging, polarising], G21K 1/00; generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases H01T 23/00; generating plasma H05H 1/24)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion guns for examination or processing discharge tubes
Ion sources, ion guns for particle spectrometer or separator tubes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ion propulsion
F03H1/00B
Arrangements forhandling particles, e.g. focusing charge exchanging, polarising
Generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases
Generating plasma
using reflex discharge, e.g. Penning ion sources [N: Electron bombardment ion sources H01J 27/08]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron bombardment ion sources
using surface ionisation, e.g. field effect ion sources, thermionic ion sources (H01J 27/20, H01J 27/24 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Particle beam bombardment, e.g. ionisers
Photo-ionisation, e.g. using laser beam
Details of cathode ray tubes or of electron beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J 31/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Details of cathode ray tubes or of electron beam tubes of the types covered by group H01J 31/00, as far as the details are an integral component of (structurally combined with) the tubes.

In particular: Electrodes; Screens (e.g. luminescent screens); Electron-optical arrangements (e.g. control electrodes, electron guns, focusing and deflection arrangements); Vessels; Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel; Leading-in arrangements; Seals; Means forming part of the tube for the purpose of providing electrical connection to it; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube; Selection of substances for gas fillings; Circuit elements structurally associated with the tube

Further information:

Generally only the following ECLA subgroups of H01J 29/00 cover electron emission display panels (e.g. field emission display panels):

H01J 29/006 (cooling means); H01J 29/02 (electrodes); H01J 29/04 (cathodes); H01J 29/085 (anode plates, in particular anode electrode(s)); H01J 29/20, H01J 29/22, H01J 29/28, H01J 29/30- H01J 29/327 (luminescent screens, including reflective layers and black matrix associated therewith); H01J 29/467, H01J 29/481 (control electrodes / control electrode structures, (gate electrodes; focusing electrodes; insulating layers between the cathode electrodes and the gate electrodes or between the gate electrodes and the focusing electrodes)); H01J 29/86, H01J 29/862, H01J 29/863, H01J 29/864, H01J 29/868, H01J 29/88, H01J 29/89, H01J 29/896, H01J 29/898 (vessels; including faceplate (front substrate), backplate (rear substrate), frame between the plates, spacers / barrier ribs between the faceplate and the backplate; sealings of the vessel; optical arrangements or shielding arrangements (e.g. filters) integral with or directly attached to the display panel, e.g. to the front substrate); H01J 29/90 (leading in arrangements; seals therefor); H01J 29/92, H01J 29/925 (means forming part of the display panel for the purpose of providing electrical connection to it, e.g. terminal arrangements); H01J 29/94 (means for exhausting the vessel or maintaining vacuum within the vessel); H01J 29/96 (circuit arrangements structurally associated with the display panels, e.g. resistive / capacitive circuit elements to adapt/control the applied electric potentials)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Printed circuit boards for electron emission display apparatus; arrangement and connection thereof (e.g. to the electrodes of the display panel) when not integral with the display panel
Electrical connectors not integral with the display panel
Casings or cabinets of display apparatus not integral with the display panelSupporting structures in these casings or cabinets for circuit boards not integral with the display panel
Stands or trestles as supports for display apparatus
Cooling or ventilating arrangements of display apparatus, when not integral with the display panel
EMI shielding filters of display panels when not integral with or directly attached to the display panel
Control circuits for electron emission display panels or methods of driving thereof
Control circuits for cathode ray tubes or methods of driving thereof
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of details of H01J 29/00

Electrodes

Conductors or conductive bodies characterised by the conductive materials; Selection of materials as conductors
Metallurgy
C21, C22
Metal alloys
Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials)
Metal coating of glasses
Multilayer metal coating of glasses
Photolithographic production of patterned surfaces; photosensitive materials therefor
Carbon and compounds thereof; manufacture thereofCNT material and manufacture thereof
Deposition of carbon by e.g. chemical vapour deposition
Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatingse.g of CNT and carbon fibres on a substrate
PZT (lead zirconate titanate) emitter materials and manufacture thereof
Micro-structural devices or systems and manufacture thereof
Nano-structures and manufacture thereof
Nanotechnology
Filaments for incandescent lamps
Secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

Luminescent screens

Luminescent materials or compositions
Luminescent screens for X-ray purposes

Vessels

Glass compositions
Glass ceramics
Ceramics
Surface treatment of glass by coating (e.g. with dielectric materials)
Coating (e.g. of metal or dielectric materials) by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantationby chemical vapour deposition
Fusion frit compositions
Joining glass to glass other than by fusing; Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material
Reforming and uniting glass sheets by fusing
Laminating glass layers
B32C17/10
Units comprising two or more parallel glass of like panes permanently secured together
E06B23/00
Soldering; welding; working by laser beamWorking by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring
Casings or cabinets of display apparatus not integral with the display panelSupporting structures in these casings or cabinets for circuit boards not integral with the display panel
Stands or trestles as supports for display apparatus
Screening against electric or magnetic fields
EMI shielding filters of display panels when not integral with or directly attached to the display panel
Optical filters in general
Coatings on or surface treatment of optical elementsAntireflection coatings in general
Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, e.g. by using adhesives Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin
Adhesives
Optical elements characterised by the materialother than lenses
Touch screens

Connecting or feeding means; control circuits / driving methods

Printed circuits / circuit boards (e.g. for display apparatus); arrangement and connection thereof Printed elements for providing electric connections to or between printed circuits Structural association of two or more printed circuits Printed circuits structurally associated with non-printed electric components Apparatus or processes for manufacturing of printed circuitsAssembling printed circuits with other printed circuits
Electrical connecting elements (e.g. connection terminals) for connection of / to printed circuits (e.g. printed circuit boards)
Control circuits for electron emission displays or methods of driving thereof
Control circuits for cathode ray tubes or methods of driving thereof

Cooling

Cooling or ventilating arrangements of display apparatus, when not integral with the display panel
Special rules of classification within this main group
  • Classification of the type of tube in H01J 31/00 and of the relevant details in H01J 29/00 is obligatory.
  • The Indexing Codes H01J 2329/00 are numbered in correspondence to subgroups of H01J 29/00, but in much more detail.
  • Groups H01J 29/48 to H01J 29/51 take precedence over groups H01J 29/52-H01J 29/68.
  • Details of electron emission display panels (e.g. field emission display panels) are classified obligatory in both H01J 29/00 and H01J 2329/00, even for details for which H01J 2329/00 does not provide a more detailed relevant subgroup than H01J 29/00.
  • Details of other tubes of H01J 31/00, in particular of classical cathode ray tubes, are classified in H01J 29/00 and - in case of a more detailed relevant Indexing Code subgroup - also in H01J 2229/00.
  • Details of cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular of flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight, are classified in H01J 63/00.
  • If an electron emission display panel and a flat panel electron emission lamp as LCD backlight is disclosed, classification in H01J 29/00, H01J 2329/00, H01J 31/127 and H01J 63/00 is provided.
  • When details are disclosed for different types of flat panel displays (e.g. plasma display panels, electron emission display panels, LCD display panels, OLED display panels), classification is provided for each type thereof.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED
Field emission display / device
CRT
Cathode ray tube
EMI (shielding)
Electromagnetic interference (shielding)
NIR (shielding)
Near infrared (shielding)
AR (film)
Antireflection (film)
Cathodes (electron guns H01J 29/48)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron guns
Electrodes intimately associated with a screen on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted, or stored, e.g. backing-plate for storage tube, for collecting secondary electrons (arrangements for colour switching H01J 29/80)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for colour switching
characterised by the luminescent material [N: for luminescent screens for X-ray purposes G21K 4/00]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Luminescent screens for X-ray purposes
not using charge storage, e.g. photo-emissive screen, extended cathode [N: (electrodes using photo-emission in general H01J 1/34)])]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrodes using photo-emission in general
Charge-storage screens [N: (H01J 29/395 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Charge-storage grids exhibiting triode effect
using secondary emission, e.g. for supericonoscope [N: (electrodes using secondary emission in general H01J 1/32; secondary emission tubes H01J 43/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrodes using secondary emission in general
Secondary emission tubes
exhibiting internal electric effects caused by particle radiation, e.g. bombardment-induced conductivity [N: (particle detectors exhibiting internal electric effects G01T 1/26)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Article detectors exhibiting internal electric effects
exhibiting internal electric effects caused by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. photo-conductive screen, photo-dielectric screen, photovoltaic screen [N: photoconductive layers for electrography G03G 5/00]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photoconductive layers for electrography
Arrangements of electrodes and associated parts for generating or controlling the ray or beam, e.g. electron-optical arrangement [N: (transit time tubes H01J 23/00, H01J 25/00; X-ray tubes H01J 35/00; beam tubes for examining ions, e.g. electron or ion microscopes, or processing of objects or materials e.g. electron or ion beam tubes H01J 37/04; electron multipliers H01J 43/04; handling of radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, deviating, not otherwise provided for G21K 1/00)])]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transit time tubes
X-ray tubes
Beam tubes for examining ions, e.g. electron or ion microscopes, or processing of objects or materials e.g. electron or ion beam tubes
Electron multipliers
Handling of radiation or particles, e.g. focusing, deviating, not otherwise provided for
Two or more guns in a single vacuum space, e.g. for plural-ray tube (H01J 29/51 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for controlling convergence of a plurality of beams by means of electric field
Arrangements for controlling intensity of ray or beam, e.g. for modulation [N: (H01J 29/467 takes precedence)])]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control electrodes for flat display tubes,
Arrangements for centering ray or beam [N: (H01J 29/467 takes precedence)])]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control electrodes for flat display tubes,
Arrangements for controlling cross-section of ray or beam; Arrangements for correcting aberration of beam, e.g. due to lenses [N: (H01J 29/467 takes precedence)])]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control electrodes for flat display tubes,
Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam [N: H01J 29/467, H01J 29/585 take precedence)])]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control electrodes for flat display tubes,
Arrangements for focusing or reflecting ray or beam in which the transit time of the electrons has to be taken into account
Arrangements for deflecting ray or beam ([N: H01J 29/467, H01J 29/525, H01J 29/701, H01J 29/708 take precedence]; circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents H03K) )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control electrodes for flat display tubes,
Digitally controlled systems, e.g. Digisplay
Systems for correcting deviation or convergence of a plurality of beams by means of magnetic fields at least
Arrangements in which the transit time of the electrons has to be taken into account
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuit arrangements for producing saw-tooth pulses or other deflecting voltages or currents
Arrangements for controlling the ray or beam after passing the main deflection system, e.g. for post-acceleration or post-concentration, for colour switching [N: (H01J 29/701 takes precedence)])]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems for correcting deviation or convergence of a plurality of beams by means of magnetic fields at least
using shadow masks (shadow masks per se H01J 29/07))
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Shadow masks per se
Traps for removing or diverting unwanted particles, e.g. negative ions, fringing electrons; Arrangements for velocity or mass selection (particle spectrometer or separator tubes H01J 49/00))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Particle spectrometer or separator tubes
provided with coatings on the walls thereof; Selection of materials for the coatings ([N: H01J 29/868 and H01J 29/89 take precedence]; luminescent screens H01J 29/18))
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Screens covering the input or output face of the vessel, e.g. transparent anti-static coatings, X-ray absorbing layers
Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined [N: or co-operating] with the vessel
Luminescent screens
Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined [N: or co-operating] with the vessel [N: (H01J 29/866 and H01J 29/868 take precedence)] )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for introducing a recording support into the vessel
Screens covering the input or output face of the vessel, e.g. transparent anti-static coatings, X-ray absorbing layers
Selection of substances for gas fillings; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube e.g. by gettering [N: (exhausting, degassing, gettering of electric discharge tubes in general H01J 9/38)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Exhausting, degassing, gettering of electric discharge tubes in general
Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Cathode ray tubes and electron beam tubes, as far as the tubes per se are concerned.

In particular: Electron emission display panels of the field emission type (field emission display panels, FED), semiconductor type, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type or thin film type (surface conduction emission type); classical cathode ray tubes for TV and monitor use; pick up tubes (input of electromagnetic radiation, e.g. visible light, and electric output); image-conversion and image-amplification tubes

Further information:

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight, are covered by H01J 63/00.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of tubes of H01J 31/00
Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight
Particle accelerators
H05H 3/00- H05K15/00
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatuses or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of tubes of H01J 31/00

Other types of displays

Liquid crystal displays (LCD)
Displays using organic light-emitting diodes (OLED)
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) per se
Alternating current plasma display panels (AC-PDP)
Direct current plasma display panels (DC-PDP)
Plasma addressed liquid crystal devices (PALC)
H01J 17/485, G02F1/133P
Electrophoretic displays
LED displays

General aspects regarding displays/displaying

Displaying; advertising; signsIndicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements
Touch screens

Lamps, e.g. flat panel lamps

Cathode-ray or electron stream lamps, in particular flat panel electron emission lamps as LCD backlight
Discharge lamps
Electric lamps using light emitting diode (LED)
F21K99/00S
Light emitting diodes (LED) per se
Electroluminescent light sources
Electric lamps using a combination of different types of light generation

Others

Telescopes, viewfinders, optical aiming devices with means for image conversion or intensification, e.g. night vision systems
Conversion screens for the conversion of the spatial distribution of X-rays or particle radiation into visible images
Solid state imager structures, e.g. CCD imagers
Special rules of classification within this main group
  • Classification of the type of tube in H01J 31/00 and of the relevant details in H01J 29/00 is obligatory.
  • Most electron emission display panels, comprising matrix-arrayed electron emission sources and pixels / pixel groups, are classified in H01J 31/127. If the arrangement of the electron emission sources and of the pixels / pixel groups is not indicated, e.g. in case of a front filter of a general electron emission display panel (with the filter being integral with the front substrate of the panel), H01J 31/123 is provided.
  • Indexing Code symbols H01J 2231/00 are assigned, in addition to ECLA classification symbols H01J 31/00, in case of a more detailed relevant Indexing Code subgroup, with the exception of electron emission display panels.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FED
field emission display / device
CRT
cathode ray tube
having one or more output electrodes which may be impacted selectively by the ray or beam, and onto, from, or over which the ray or beam may be deflected or de-focused [N: pulse counting circuits therewith H03K29/02]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulse counting circuits therewith
H03K29/02
Magic-eye or analogous tuning indicators [N: (mounting of visual indicators in a radio set H03J 1/04; circuits for timing indicators H03J 3/14)])]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting of visual indicators in a radio set
Circuits for timing indicators
with ray or beam selectively directed to luminescent anode segments [N: (printing by application of radiation B41J 2/447)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing by application of radiation
with mask carrying a number of selectively displayable signs, e.g. charactron, numeroscope [N: (tubes with a mask carrying a matrix of openings, a selection of which permits a sign to be displayed H01J31/12L)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes with a mask carrying a matrix of openings, a selection of which permits a sign to be displayed
H01J31/12L
with image written by a ray or beam on a grid-like charge-accumulating screen, and with a ray or beam passing through and influenced by this screen before striking the luminescent screen, e.g. direct-view storage tube [N: (charge storage grids exhibiting triode effect H01J 29/395)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Charge storage grids exhibiting triode effect
for displaying images or patterns in two or more colours [N: (circuits for colour television H04N 9/16 to H04N 9/28)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuits for colour television
with screen acting as light valve by shutter operation, e.g. eidophor [N: (projection arrangements for image reproduction, e.g. using eidophor H04N 5/74)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Projection arrangements for image reproduction, e.g. using eidophor
Image pick-up tubes having an input of visible light and electric output (tubes without defined electron beams and having a light ray scanning photo-emissive screen H01J 40/20)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes without defined electron beams and having a light ray scanning photo-emissive screen
with electron ray scanning the image screen [N: H01J 31/283, H01J 31/286 take precedence]
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image pick-up tubes having with electron ray scanning the image screen with a target comprising semiconductor junctions
Image pick-up tubes having with electron ray scanning the image screen
Tubes in which electrical output represents both intensity and colour of image [N: colour television cameras with only one tube H04N9/06]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Colour television cameras with only one tube
H04N9/06
Tubes for storage of image or information pattern or for conversion of definition of television or like image, i.e. having electrical input and electrical output [N: (electrostatic memories using electron beam tubes G11C11/329)])]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrostatic memories using electron beam tubes
G11C11/329
having means for deflecting, either selectively or sequentially, an electron ray on to separate surface elements of the screen (by circuitry alone H01J 29/08)
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Deflecting an electron ray on to separate surface elements of the screen by circuitry alone
Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel; Lenard tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel and Lenard tubes, as far as the tubes per se are concerned; and details thereof, as far as the details are an integral component of the tubes.

In particular: Electron beam permeable/transparent windows

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Irradiation devices
Particle accelerators
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatuses or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of tubes of H01J 33/00
Irradiation devices
Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge
Details [N: (vessels for operation at high tension H01J 5/06)])]
References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vessels for operation at high tension
X-ray tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vacuum tubes in which electrons hit a target (commonly termed “anode”) in order to produce electromagnetic radiation caused by the deceleration of electrons (Bremsstrahlung) or a recombination of inner core holes (characteristic radiation).

All technical details of x-ray tubes, as long as these are situated inside the vacuum housing or an integral part of the housing (e.g. radiation transmissive windows).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Producing x-rays from a hot plasma by recombinations inside the plasma
Other means of producing x-rays, e.g. Synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering etc.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
X-ray technique in general
Circuits providing power to x-ray tubes or otherwise driving it (“x-ray generators”)
X-ray lasers
Special rules of classification within this group

To this group, Indexing Codes

are obligatory to be attributed as invention information for further details.

Indexing Codes

may optionally be used for additional information.

Cathodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron guns in general
Field emission, photo emission or secondary emission cathodes
Special rules of classification within this group

Emissive structures consisting of carbon nanotubes [CNT] are additionally covered by Indexing Code H01J 2201/30446.

Anodes; Anti cathodes [N: (anti-cathodes serving as windows H01J 35/18)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrodes impacted by charged particles in order to produce X-rays.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Anti-cathodes serving as windows
Transmission Targets
Laminated Targets
Target substrate interlayers
Rotary anodes; Arrangements for rotating anodes; Cooling rotary anodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rotating anode tubes in general
Refractory alloys
Cooling characterized by the method
Arrangements for rotating anodes, e.g. supporting means; greasing; sealing the axle; shielding or protecting the driving means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dynamic pressure bearing
Rotating shafts per se
Active cooling, e.g. fluid flow, heat pipes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Techniques particularly adapted for cooling of a tube inside closed housing
Substrates for and bonding of emissive target, e.g. composite structures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Substrates for rotating anode, such that the substrate requires an additional target layer; Details relating to the bonding of target to substrate e.g. using metallic interlayers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Laminated Targets
Target substrate interlayers
Cooling non-rotary anodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting the tube within a closed housing, e.g. for cooling purposes
Arrangements for concentrating, focusing, or directing the cathode ray
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Focusing of the electron beam, e.g. by magnetic means; directing and deflecting of the beam e.g. by electrostatic means; microfocus X-ray tubes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
X-ray tubes with Electrodes for controlling the current of the cathode ray, e.g. control grids
Arrangements for concentrating, focusing, or directing the cathode ray for cathode ray tubes in general
Vessels; Containers; Shields associated therewith
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vessels for high tension operation in general
Mounting the tube within a closed housing
Shields against charged particles
Windows
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Structures transparent to X-rays but separating a space of certain properties, e.g. ambient pressure, from a space having different respective properties, e.g. low pressure, including windows acting as target anodes.

Further information:

Windows acting as target anodes are additionally covered by the Indexing Code H01J 2235/186.

Selection of substances for gas fillings; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube, e.g. by gettering [N: (for gas-discharge tubes in general H01J 7/02 to H01J 61/76; evacuating, filling, gettering in general H01J 9/38)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For gas-discharge tubes in general
Evacuating, filling, gettering in general
Tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray on the anode or anti-cathode is movable relative to the surface thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tubes in which said point of impact is movable, e.g.

to limit the local heat load on the anode by means of movement of the anode relative to the beam.

to obtain a variation in focal spot position, e.g. for oversampling.

by rotation of the anode or anti-cathode
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rotating anode tubes, i.e. tubes in which the anode rotates in operation, without affecting the position of the the x-ray source, in order to reduce the thermal load on the anode.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details on rotating anodes, cooling or mounting of rotating anodes
by using a rotating X-ray tube in conjunction therewith
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tubes in which the point of generation of X-rays is fixed with respect to the laboratory frame, but not with respect to the vacuum housing of the tube, e.g. because it rotates with the anode.

Further information:

These tubes have been termed “rotary piston radiator” (resulting from a technically wrong translation of the german “Drehkolbenstrahler”).

More recently, they are referred to as rotary bulb radiator or rotary envelope radiator.

Example: DE102004056110 (Fig 1)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tubes in which the anode rotates with respect to the vacuum envelope
Anodes which rotate with respect to the vacuum envelope and details related to such anodes
Tubes wherein the X-rays are produced at or near the end of the tube or a part thereof which tube or part has a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into a small hole or cavity
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radiation therapy
A61N5/10B3
Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof (H01J 33/00, H01J 40/00, H01J 41/00, H01J 47/00, H01J 49/00 take precedence; [N: scanning-probe techniques or apparatus G01Q]; contactless testing of electronic circuits using electron beams G01R 31/305; [N: particle accelerators H05H])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Discharge tubes or details thereof, in which a sample, workpiece or similar object can be placed and removed that is exposed to a discharge (in the following “tubes”) to be e.g. analysed or processed (in the following “analysis tubes” or “treatment tubes”, respectively)

Typical “discharge tubes” covered by this main group are

electron microscopes or ion microscopes

spot analysers (i.e. systems with relatively large (larger than about 50-100nm) beam spots for Auger or particle beam induced X-ray analysis)

focused ion beam instruments

ion implanters

electron or ion lithography systems (i.e. for producing latent images for future processing steps in resists)

systems for working materials with electron or ion beams (e.g. electron beam welding or cutting or drilling or machining, e-beam evaporation, etc.)

systems for plasma-treatment (e.g. plasma etching or deposition systems).

The “discharge” is usually in the form of a dedicated, possibly guided and/or focused beam (in the following “beam tubes”) of charged particles or in the form of a plasma (in the following “plasma tubes”) not forming a beam.

Typical energies of the particles in the discharge (e.g. electrons or ions in a beam) are in general below a few hundred keV.

Nevertheless, this group also covers ion implanters and ultra high energy electron microscopes (both with energies of up to several MeV).

Further information:

General Structure of the scheme H01J 37/00:

The scheme both for classes and indexing-codes is organised according to the following principle:

classes for details of the tube (sources, beam forming, sample holder etc.): H01J 37/02 to H01J 37/248 and H01J 2237/002 to H01J 2237/2487 (“details classes”)

particle beam processing: H01J 37/30 to H01J 37/3178 and H01J 2237/30 to H01J 2237/31747

processing with gas-filled tubes (plasma tubes): H01J 37/32 to H01J 37/36 and H01J 2237/32 to H01J 2237/339

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discharge tubes with provision for emergence of electrons or ions from the vessel; Lenard tubes
Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas
Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas or for detecting presence of gas; Discharge tubes for evacuation by diffusion of ions
Tubes for determining the presence, intensity, density or energy of radiation or particles
Particle spectrometer or separator tubes (in particular mass spectro​meters)
Scanning tunnelling microscopes
X-ray microscopes wherein a (sub)-nanometre sized x-ray source is generated in an SEM-like apparatus by focusing an electron probe onto an x-ray transmissive target (cf. e.g. EP1557864)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General purpose ion sources
Coating by physical vapour deposition (PVD) such as vacuum evaporation, sputtering or ion implantation of the coating forming material
Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes
Preparation of specimen for investigation
Determining chemical or physical properties of materials by investigating or analysing by the use of wave or particle radiation
Contactless testing using electron beams of electronic circuits and of individual semiconductor devices, respectively
Lithography
Holographic processes or apparatus using particles
Sensing record carriers by corpuscular radiation
Techniques for handling particles or ionising radiation not otherwise provided for
Manufacture of semiconductor devices by ion implantation
Testing of semiconductor devices during manufacture
H01L21/66
Modifying the pattern of conductors of semiconductor devices
Sterilising by irradiation (depending on the sterilised product)
Irradiation devices
Measuring i.a. length
Scanning probe techniques
Measurement of nuclear or x-radiation
Light optics
Light optical microscopes
Semiconductor devices
Pumping lasers i.a. by electron beams
Apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases, e.g. into the atmosphere
Plasma Technique and particle accelerators;in particular as indicated in the following:
Generating plasma; Handling plasma
Production or acceleration of neutral particle beams
Direct voltage accelerators; Accelerators using single pulses
Targets for producing nuclear reactions
Details of devices in H05H 9/00, H05H 11/00, H05H 13/00
Linear accelerators
Magnetic induction accelerators, e.g. betatrons
Magnetic resonance accelerators; Cyclotrons
Methods or devices for acceleration of charged particles not otherwise provided for
Targets, e.g. pellets for fusion reactions by i.a. charged particles beam injection
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should usually be classified in all applicable categories:

If a document concerns embodiments or elements in detail which are covered by several subgroups dependent on a higher hierarchy group, the relevant information is classified in all the respective subgroups (example: a document concerning both ion sources and lenses is classified in H01J 37/08 and in H01J 37/10, not in the higher group H01J 37/04).

The higher hierarchy group is to be used

if no respective subgroup exists

if the general idea is relevant for the higher hierarchy as well as all the respective subgroups (example: a specific construction valid for all types of beam deflection is not classified in all the lower subgroups of H01J 37/147 but in H01J 37/147, but Indexing Codes under H01J 2237/00 should be given for the (most important) embodiments)

If a document relates to a detail for which a group in H01J 37/02 - H01J 37/248 exists, this is classified there if none of the two following precedence rules applies :

  • generating/controlling the discharge is classified in H01J 37/04 and subgroups, unless [entire] optical systems of treatment tubes are concerned, which are classified in H01J 37/3007
  • specific details for plasma tubes are usually considerably different from those of beam tubes and are classified in the subgroups of H01J 37/32 - if they are not of general interest for H01J 37/00, e.g. if relevant for different types of tubes.

If the classified detail is specific for a certain type or for certain types of tubes, then this tube type(s) should be classified with the appropriate symbol in either H01J37 or H01J237, depending on the specificity.

For example:

A document discloses and claims a particular construction of an objective lens specifically in a scanning electron microscope and generally states that this lens could be employed also for all other types of charged particle beam instruments like transmission electron microscopes, focused ion beam systems and ion implanters. The document is classified in the appropriate subgroup in H01J 37/10 (lens) and in H01J 37/28 (SEM), it is however not classified in view of TEM, FIB or ion implanters because lenses for these systems are usually considerably different.

Invention information is classified in the respective symbol under H01J37; Indexing Codes under H01J237 are to be given where they provide additional aspects or provide for a more detailed subdivision.

For example:

A document concerns details of the construction of a gas field ion source specifically in a FIB-microworking device. This document is classified in H01J 37/08 (ion sources) and H01J 37/3056 (microworking). It is further classified in H01J 2237/061 (construction of source) and H01J 2237/0807 (gas field ion source).

Additional (non-invention information) is classified with symbol under H01J37 and/or Indexing Codes, if it is relevant for search:If a certain (non-claimed) feature is described in particular detail, it should be classified similar to invention information. If a combination of features is described which goes beyond what is implicit to a certain device or only minor but still search-relevant information is given on the particular feature, said features should be classified with respective Indexing Code(s).

For example: For the claimed construction of the gas field ion source in the FIB-system of the above example, in addition, also a known construction of a very fast beam blanker is described in detail which works particularly well with the inventive source. Then the symbol for the beam blanker H01J 37/045 and the Indexing Code H01J 2237/0432 (high speed beam blanking) should be given in addition.

Reminder in view of the structure of subclass H01J as a whole:

Rules for classification regarding H01J for general elements:

As it is the case in H01J in general, for elements of general type which may be found in other types of discharge tubes, a class corresponding to general schemes H01J 1/00 to H01J 7/00 is given, e.g. for cathodes, vessels, cooling means or the like. Same rules apply for manufacturing procedures (H01J 9/00), unless specific to the tube concerned (as however elements for the tubes covered by H01J 37/00 are usually very specific, this seldom applies).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SEM
scanning electron microscope
REM
Rasterelektronenmikrokop (German acronym for “SEM”)
TEM
transmission electron microsope
STEM
scanning transmission electron microscope
FIB
focused ion beam
LMIS
liquid metal ion source
GFIS
gas field ion source
Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details for all types of tubes in H01J 37/00; the respective documents regarding the tube, i.e. for analysis tubes and processing tubes, beam tubes, etc. and plasma tubes of general interest for H01J 37/00, are classified in the subgroup covering the respective detail.

Means for mechanically adjusting components not otherwise provided for
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanically adjusting from the outside of electron or ion-optical components
Positioning the object or material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vacuum locks, means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the tube
Other manipulating devices
H01L21/48G21F /00
Means for avoiding or neutralising unwanted electrical charges on tube components
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • means for avoiding or neutralising unwanted electrical charges on the sample or in the beam
Arrangements of electrodes and associated parts for generating or controlling the discharge, e.g. electron-optical arrangement, ion-optical arrangement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-optical systems only of tubes of the types in H01J 37/252-H01J 37/2955 (analysis/beam tubes) or details for which no class specific subclass is provided below

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron or ion-optical systems for localised treatment of materials
Discharge control means in gas filled discharge tubes
Electron or ion-optical arrangements for separating electrons or ions according to their energy or mass
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Particle separator tubes
Electron sources; Electron guns
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron sources in general
Electron guns in general
Geometrical arrangement of electrodes for beam-forming
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Schematic construction, arrangement of potential or fields or voltages; more related to the functioning of the source rather than the specific “hardware” construction

Construction of guns or parts thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical construction, “hardware oriented” (e.g. mechanical construction, contact arrangements)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Replacing parts of guns; Mutual adjustment of electrodes
Eliminating deleterious effects due to thermal effects or electric or magnetic fields
Electron guns using field emission, photo emission, or secondary emission electron sources
Electron guns using thermionic emission from cathodes heated by particle bombardment or by irradiation, e.g. by laser
Electron guns using discharge in gases or vapours as electron sources
Replacing parts of guns; Mutual adjustment of electrodes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron guns using field emission, photo emission, or secondary emission electron sources
Electron guns using thermionic emission from cathodes heated by particle bombardment or by irradiation, e.g. by laser
Electron guns using discharge in gases or vapours as electron sources
Vacuum locks
Eliminating deleterious effects due to thermal effects or electric or magnetic fields
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electron guns using field emission, photo emission, or secondary emission electron sources
Electron guns using thermionic emission from cathodes heated by particle bombardment or by irradiation, e.g. by laser
Electron guns using discharge in gases or vapours as electron sources
Lenses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

only the lenses themselves

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron/ion optical arrangements
Means for interchanging parts of the lens, e.g. pole pieces, within the tube
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanically adjusting electron (ion) optical components
Arrangements for directing or deflecting the discharge along a desired path
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Beam blanking or chopping, i.e. arrangements for momentarily interrupting exposure to the discharge
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
External mechanical adjustment of electron or ion optical components
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Replacing parts of guns; Mutual adjustment of electrodes
Means for supporting or positioning the objects or the material; Means for adjusting diaphragms or lenses associated with the support
Vacuum locks; Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

everything associated with generating, maintaining, etc., vacuum (e.g. pumps, valves) as long as in connection with the tube

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vacuum locks for electron-beam tubes in general
Means for supporting or positioning the objects or the material; Means for adjusting diaphragms or lenses associated with the support
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Introducing the objects
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparing specimens for investigation
Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electronic solid state devices or components
Means for adjusting the focus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and methods for automatic focusing

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adjusting the focus while observing the image by photographic or optical means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for observing the object or the point of impact on the object in tubes for the localised treatment of materials
Optical elements, systems or apparatus per se
Optical or photographic arrangements associated with the tube
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Using a CRT for the display of the image in a scanning electron microscope
Observing the object or the point of impact on the object in tubes for the localised treatment of materials
Optical elements, systems or apparatus per se
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Optical in this subgroup relates to light-optical

Image processing arrangements associated with the tube
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image data processing or generation, in general
Image data processing or generation specially adapted for particular applications, see the relevant subclass
Geometric image transformation for image mosaicing
High voltage power supply or regulation circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Components associated with high voltage supply
Filament heating power supply or regulation circuits
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
High voltage power supply or regulation circuits
Beam current control or regulation circuits
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
High voltage power supply or regulation circuits
Detectors; Associated components or circuits therefor
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detectors per se
Components associated with high voltage supply
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for measuring the high voltage per se
High voltage supply per se
Tubes for spot-analysing by electron or ion beams; Microanalysers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Beam tubes that do not deliver “spatial images” based on secondary and backscattered electrons, but based on other beam-induced information like e.g. Auger-electrons or X-rays - leading e.g. rather to material contrast (today mainly attachments or subsystems of electron microscopes rather than dedicated microanalysers)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating or analysing with tubes for spot-analysing by electron or ion beams
using scanning beams
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further information:

“Spot analysis” in scanning electron or ion microscopes (in contrast to dedicated spot- or microanalysers) is classified H01J 37/28 and should in respective situations in addition be classified in H01J 37/256 or a respective indexing-code depending on the degree of specific adaption of the overall system

Electron or ion microscopes; Electron or ion diffraction tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmission Electron Microscopes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scanning Electron Microscopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Scanning probe techniques
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Scanning Electron Microscopes are covered by in H01J 37/28, also Scanning Transmission Microscopes are covered by H01J 37/28 with Indexing Code H01J 2237/2802

Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details (not covered by the “Details”-classes H01J 37/02 and below) specific to electron or ion microscopes (both scanning and non-scanning)

Measurement of magnetic- or electric fields in the object; Lorentzmicroscopy
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Emission microscopes
Reflecting microscopes
Spot analysing
with scanning beams
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measurement of magnetic- or electric fields in the object; Lorentzmicroscopy with scanning beams
Reflection microscopes using scanning ray
Electron or ion diffraction tubes using scanning ray
Microanalysers using scanning beams
Emission microscopes, e.g. field-emission microscopes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

also so-called “atom probes”

Electron or ion diffraction tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

also spin analysers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron or ion-optical details
Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details (which are not covered by the “Details”-classes H01J 37/02 and below) specific to beam treatment tubes

Electron or ion-optical systems
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion optical systems for analysis tubes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron or ion-optical details
Controlling tubes by external information, e.g. programme control
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling tubes by information coming from the objects or from the beam, e.g. correction signals
for casting, melting, evaporating or etching
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for casting or melting of metals with electron beam or gas discharges
for evaporating or etching
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for evaporating or etching metals with electron or ion beams
for microworking, e.g. etching of gratings, trimming of electrical components
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

also for cutting / depositing by focussed ion beam, e.g. for fabrication of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems))

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Trimming of resistors
Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural devices or systems, e.g. MEMS
for cutting or drilling
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for cutting or drilling metals with electron beams
for welding
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for welding metals with electron beams
for changing properties of the objects or for applying thin layers thereon, e.g. for ion implantation
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gas-filled discharge tubes
for ion implantation
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plasma immersion ion implantation
Particle-beam lithography, e.g. electron beam lithography
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Masks, i.e. mask manufacture, inspection, cleaning, repair
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stereolithography, i.e. manufacturing of 3D objects
Hydrostatic bearings
Magnetic or electric bearings
Vibrations dampers
Measuring by electric or magnetic means
Interferometers
Measuring by optical means (e.g. for alignment)
Measuring optical phase differences
Inspection by optical means
Measuring electric or magnetic variables
Measuring ionising radiation
Microscopes
Originals (masks)
Lithography applications (e.g. holography, imprint)
Resists
Exposure
Photolithography, e.g. high resolution photolithography
G03F7/20T
Exposure strategies
Mask-workpiece alignment in photolithography
G03F9/00T
Control and regulating systems
Lithographic production of optical disks
Electron or ion microscopes
Apparatus for manufacturing or treating semiconductors not provided elsewhere
Testing of semiconductor devices during manufacture
H01L21/66
Workpiece handling
Marks on workpieces (e.g. alignment marks)
Linear motors
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

E
electron
E beam, e-beam
electron beam
Gas filled discharge tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gas filled discharge tubes for plasma processing.

The different aspects covered by this group are:

  • production of plasma; e.g. RF or microwave plasma sources;
  • constructional aspects (hardware) of the apparatus;
  • operating strategies, e.g. remote plasma generation, specific treatments such as localised processing or treating interior parts of workpieces;
  • testing and control of the apparatus; e.g. gas control, generation of magnetic or electrostatic fields for controlling the plasma, process monitoring;
  • arrangement, mounting, housing, environment, cleaning or maintenance of the apparatus;
  • cathodic sputtering systems;cleaning surfaces while plating with ions of materials introduced into the discharge.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plasma generation
Plasma generation using high frequency or microwaves
Plasma torches
Chemical coating processes using plasma
Treatment of semiconductors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for introducing or removing gases
Coating cavities or hollow spaces, e.g. interior of tubes
Substrate holders
Coating cavities or hollow spaces, e.g. interior of tubes
Surface treatment on the inside of the reaction chamber
Cleaning of reactor or parts inside the reactor by using reactive gases
Introducing gases into reaction chamber or for modifying gas flows in reaction chamber
Supporting substrates in the reaction chamber
Elements in the interior of the support, e.g. electrodes, heating or cooling device
Hydrostatic bearings
Magnetic or electric bearings
Vibrations dampers
Measuring by electric or magnetic means
Measuring by optical means
Measuring optical phase differences
Inspection by optical means
Measuring electric or magnetic variables
Measuring ionising radiation
Microscopes
Originals (masks)
Resists
Exposure
High resolution photolithography
G03F7/20T
Control and regulating systems
Impedance-matching networks
Matching of load impedance to source impedance
Plasma generation
Plasma generation using high frequency or microwaves
Plasma torches
Vacuum locks
Apparatus for manufacturing or treating semiconductors not provided elsewhere
H01L21/00S
Apparatus for etching
Apparatus with a plurality of work-stations
H01L21/00S2Z
Loadlocks
H01L21/00S2Z9
Plasma doping
Treatment of semiconductors
Testing or measuring during manufacturing of semiconductor devices
H01L21/66
Workpiece handling
Linear motors
Special rules of classification within this group

The documents related to plasma processing in general should be classified in the relevant H01J 37/32009-H01J 37/32917 subgroups and not in H01J 37/32.

The documents related to cathodic sputtering should be classified in the relevant H01J 37/3402-H01J 37/3476 subgroups and possibly also in H01J 37/34 if they relate to non-magnetron cathodic sputtering. General plasma processing aspects (e.g. gas control or material of the vessel) of documents related to cathodic sputtering should be classified in the relevant H01J 37/32009-H01J 37/32917 subgroups.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
AC
alternating current
DC
direct current
HF
high frequency
HIPIMS
high impulse power magnetron sputtering
RF
radio frequency
VHF
very high frequency
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ECR
electron cyclotron resonance
HIPIMS
high impulse power magnetron sputtering
PIII
plasma immersion ion implantation
PII
plasma ion implantation
PLAD
plasma doping
PSII
plasma source ion implantation
operating with cathodic sputtering (H01J 37/36 takes precedence; [N: methods of cathodic sputtering C23C 14/34])
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning surfaces while plating with ions of materials introduced into the discharge
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods of cathodic sputtering
for cleaning surfaces while plating with ions of materials introduced into the discharge, e.g. introduced by evaporation [N: (condensing of electrically charged vapour onto a surface for covering materials with metals C23C 14/32)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Condensing of electrically charged vapour onto a surface for covering materials with metals
Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas (H01J 49/00 takes precedence; cathode-ray or image-pick-up tubes H01J 31/26)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Electric discharge tubes comprising essentially only a photo-cathode and a detector

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Photo-emissive cathodes per se
Image pick-up cathode ray tubes having an input of visible light and electric output
Electron-multiplier tubes
Ionisation chamber tubes for determining the presence, intensity, density or energy of radiation or particles
Particle spectrometer or separator tubes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Solid-state photodiodes, i.e. semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
having photo- emissive cathode, e.g. alkaline photoelectric cell (operating with secondary emission H01J 43/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
photo- emissive cathode operating with secondary emission
with luminescent coatings for influencing the sensitivity of the tube, e.g. by converting the input wavelength (image-conversion or image-amplification tubes H01J 31/50)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image-conversion or image-amplification tubes
Discharge tubes for measuring pressure of introduced gas [N: or for detecting presence of gas]; Discharge tubes for evacuation by diffusion of ions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Electric discharge tubes wherein the discharge is used either for measuring the residual gas pressure (ionisation vacuum gauges), or for evacuating by diffusion of ions (ion pumps)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within gas-filled discharge tubes with solid cathode
Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical pumps for fluids
Vacuum gauges by making use of ionisation effects
Secondary-emission tubes; Electron-multiplier tubes (dynamic electron-multiplier tubes H01J 25/76; secondary-emission detectors for measurement of nuclear or X-radiation G01T 1/28)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Electric discharge tubes comprising secondary-electron emitting electrodes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring radiation intensity with secondary-emission detectors
Secondary-electron-emitting electrodes
Dynamic electron-multiplier tubes
Secondary-electron emitting electrode arrangements in cathode ray tubes
H01J29/023
Manufacture of secondary-emission electrodes
H01J9/125

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Image-conversion or image-amplification cathode ray tubes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Computerised tomographs
Avalanche photodiodes
Synonyms and Keywords
EMT
Electron Multiplier Tube
MCP
Microchannel Plate
PMT
Photomultiplier Tube
Discharge tubes functioning as thermionic generators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Electric discharge tubes where a heat source thermionically emits electrons, producing an electric power output

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Thermo-electric devices with a junction of dissimilar materials (Seebeeck or Peltier effect)
Thermo-electric devices without a junction of dissimilar materials (Nernst-Ettinghausen effect)
Generators in which termal or kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by ionisation of a fluid and removal of the charge therefrom

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Structural combination of nuclear reactor fuel element with thermionic device
Nuclear power plants using thermionic converters
Structural combination of a radioactive source with a thermionic converter (radioisotope batteries)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Refrigeration machines, plant, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects
Synonyms and Keywords
TIC
Thermionic Converter
Tubes for determining the presence, intensity, density or energy of radiation or particles ([N: discharge tubes using igniting by associated radioactive materials or fillings, e.g. current stabilising tubes H01J 17/32]; photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas H01J 40/00; [N: discharge tubes for measuring the pressure, partial pressure of introduced gas or for detecting presence of gas H01J 41/02; ionisation chambers using a solid dielectric G01T 3/008])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

Electric discharge tubes used for detecting high energy radiation or particles by ionisation of the gas in the tube

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring radiation intensity
Measuring neutron radiation using an ionisation chamber filled with a gas, liquid or solid, e.g. frozen liquid, dielectric
G01T3/008
Discharge tubes using igniting by associated radioactive materials or fillings, e.g. current stabilising tubes
Photoelectric discharge tubes not involving the ionisation of a gas
Discharge tubes for measuring the pressure, partial pressure of introduced gas or for detecting presence of gas
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radiation therapy
Fire alarms using an ionisation chamber for detecting smoke or gas
Particle spectrometer or separator tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers:

  • Instruments arranged to generate a spectrum of charged particles according to their mass-to-charge ratio (mass spectrometers) or according to their energy (energy spectrometers);
  • Details common to different types of spectrometers
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical spectrometry
Measuring spectral distribution of X-rays or of nuclear radiation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Isotope separation by mass spectrography
Leak detectors using mass spectrometer detection systems
G01M3/202
Analyzing materials by investigating the ionization of gases; by investigating electric discharges, e.g. emission of cathode
Mass spectrometers specially adapted for column chromatography
Methods of protein analysis involving mass spectrometry
G01N33/6848
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Containers for laboratory use, for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed
Electrostatic spraying apparatus
General methods for the preparation of peptides
Methods for sequencing involving nucleic acids
C12Q1/6869
Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means (infrared, visible, ultraviolet radiation)
Investigating materials by measuring secondary emission
Automatic analysis devices for supplying samples to flow-through analysers
G01N35/1095
Recognising patterns in signals and combinations thereof
G06K9/00496
Special rules of classification within this group

In classifying particle separators, no distinction is made between spectrometry and spectrography, the difference being only in the manner of detection which in the first case is electrical and in the second case is by means of a photographic film.

Classification codes "invention information" should be allocated only to features or aspects peculiar to the invention. Further elements described as conventional should not be classified.

Example: a particular combination of an electrospray ion source with a quadrupole ion guide should be classified in both H01J49/165 and H01J49/063. However, a particular electrospray ion source followed by either an ion guide, a capillary or a skimmer should be classified only in H01J49/165.

Classification codes "additional information" should be allocated for the documents where the use of a particle spectrometer is an essential feature of an invention, but where a conventional instrument is used. In this case allocation of a further code "invention information" (including circulation to other technical fields) is compulsory.

Example: if a method of protein analysis, classified in G01N33/6848, includes an essential step of analysis by a standard time-of-flight mass spectrometer, H01J 49/40 should be allocated as additional information.

Synonyms and Keywords
CID
collision induced dissociation
ESI
electrospray ionisation
FT
fourier transform
ICR
ion cyclotron resonance
IMS
ion mobility spectrometry
MALDI
matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionisation
MS
mass spectrometry
Q or q
quadrupole employed in a combination, Q=with mass filtering, q=collision cell, e.g. Qq-TOF
QIT
quadrupole ion trap
TOF
time-of-flight
Imaging particle spectrometry
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring secondary emission
Scanning probes
Image processing
Ion or electron microscope
Emission microscopes
Microminiaturised spectrometers, e. g. chip-integrated devices, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems [MEMS]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Micro-structural systems per se
Capillaries used for transferring samples or ions (electrospray nozzles H01J49/167)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP1225616

for laser desorption, e.g. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation [MALDI], surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation [SELDI] plates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO200706164

Ion deflecting means, e. g. ion gates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5696375

Multipole ion guides, e.g. quadrupoles, hexapoles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9938193

having stacked electrodes, e.g. ring stack, plate stack
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP1220291

Ion funnels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6107628

Ion lenses, apertures, skimmers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6703610

using a solid target which is not previously vapourised
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. GB2143673

with electrons, e.g. electron impact ionisation, electron attachment (H01J49/145 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6452167

Direct photo-ionisation, e.g. single photon or multi-photon ionisation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5763875

Laser desorption/ionisation, e.g. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation [MALDI] (sample holders H01J49/0418)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9963576

Electrospray ionisation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP0123552

Capillaries and nozzles specially adapted therefor (electrostatic spraying per se B05B5)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP0566022

using crossed electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the beam, e.g. Wien filter
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US4019989

with a magnetic sector of 90 degrees, e.g. Mattauch-Herzog type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US3622781

with a cycloidal trajectory by using crossed electric and magnetic fields, e.g. trochoidal type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5304799

Radio frequency spectrometers, e.g. Bennett-type spectrometers, Redhead-type spectrometers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US2955204

Omegatrons {Using ion cyclotron resonance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO03069651

characterised by orthogonal acceleration, e.g. focusing or selecting the ions, pusher electrode
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5763878

characterised by the reflectron, e. g. curved field, electrode shapes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. GB2402545

with multiple reflections (electrostatic traps H01J49/4245)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO2007044696

with multiple changes of direction, e.g. by using electric or magnetic sectors, closed-loop time-of-flight
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US7227131

Quadrupole mass filters (H01J49/4225 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP2299471

Multipole linear ion traps, e.g. quadrupoles, hexapoles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9707530

with radial ejection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP0684628

Stacked rings or stacked plates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. WO9214259

Three-dimensional ion traps, i.e. comprising end-cap and ring electrodes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US5654542

Electrostatic ion traps (H01J49/422 takes precedence; multi-reflection time of flight spectrometers H01J49/406)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. US6888130

with a logarithmic radial electric potential, e.g. orbitraps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass/group covers:

e.g. EP1371081

Gas- or vapour-discharge lamps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gas- or vapour-discharge lamps with main electrodes inside the vessel, and details thereof. In these lamps, the electrodes are not insulated from the discharge, e. g. by dielectric layers.

Examples of the discharge lamps covered here are:

  • Low pressure discharge lamps, e. g. fluorescent lamps; compact fluorescent lamps;
  • High pressure discharge lamps, e. g. high pressure mercury, sodium, xenon, or metal halide lamps;
  • Gas filled flash lamps.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Lamps may further have one (or more) outer envelopes (e.g. a reflector lamp comprising an integral assembly of lamp and reflector; a discharge lamp for a vehicle headlight with an outer envelope); these are classified in H01J61 as long as the lamp and outer envelope are integrally formed or connected with each other and form one single item which can be connected to the power supply connector. The combination of a reflector comprising a lamp socket and a corresponding (replaceable) lamp is considered as a lighting system and is classified in the appropriate classes in F21V or F21S.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
DC plasma displays
Cathode-ray or electron-stream lamps, a phosphor or a gas is brought to luminescence by an electron beam
Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel; Lamps with at least one main electrode outside the vessel, electrodeless lamps
Electric arc lamps with consumable electrodes
Electroluminescent light sources
Electric light sources using a combination of different types of light generation
Plasma discharge EUV light sources, in which a gas is locally compressed to create a discharge space and then allowed to expand into a vacuum
X-ray radiation generated from plasma, e. g. EUV light sources
Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps

Examples of places, where the subject-matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Details of lighting devices, of general application
Non-portable lighting devices or systems thereof
Use of discharge lamps for sterilising milk products
Use of discharge lamps for medical purposes, medical equipment using discharge lamps, tanning devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adapters and connectors
Luminaires or lighting devices containing a lamp
Use of discharge lamps for advertising, displays using discharge lamps
Use of discharge lamps for disinfecting water, disinfecting apparatus
Chemical, physical, or physico-chemical processes employing the direct application of incoherent waves, e. g. ultraviolet light
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should be classified in all appropriate classes, i. e. multi-aspect classification is used.

If a document concerns embodiments or elements in detail which are covered by several subgroups dependent on a higher hierarchy group, the relevant information is classified in all the respective subgroups.

The higher hierarchy group is to be used:

  • if no respective subgroup exists.
  • if the general idea is relevant for the higher hierarchy as well as all the respective subgroups.

Lamp details are classified in group H01J 61/02 and subgroups thereof, if the details are integral with the lamp or directly attached or applied to the lamp, so that these go with the lamp when the lamp is removed from the power supply connector.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
HID lamp
High intensity discharge lamp
HPS lamp
High pressure sodium lamp
MH lamp
High pressure metal halide lamp
CFL
Compact fluorescent lamp
CCFL
Cold cathode fluorescent lamp
CRI
Colour rendering index
Lamp
a lamp comprises the discharge vessel and all peripheral accessories which makes the lamp ready for being plugged in the appropriate power supply connector, i.e. the lamp “ends” with the first suitable connector which can be connected to a standardized or another suitable power supply connector.
Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of gas or vapour discharge lamps covered by H01J 61/68 to H01J 61/98 and H01J 65/00.

Optical elements have an influence on the light distribution, e.g. focusing or changing the light emission characteristic

Further information:

Details within this group particularly suited for one or more specific lamp types are additionally covered by the appropriate subgroups for the relevant lamp type(s) in H01J 61/58 to H01J 61/98 and H01J 65/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lamp bases or sockets integral with the discharge lamps
H01J5/48H01J5/50
Methods of manufacturing discharge lamps or discharge lamp details
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of incandescent lamps
Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Details relating to vessels or to leading-in conductors common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
Special rules of classification within this group

A subgroup for lamp sockets or bases is missing in H01J 61/00. These are classified in H01J 5/48 to H01J 61/62.

Associated optical elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical elements integrally associated with the discharge lamp for influencing the spatial distribution of the emitted light:

  • Refractive or reflective elements.
  • Shields for production of specific dark/bright patterns.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Envelopes, vessels for incandescent lamps incorporating lenses
Optical elements, systems or apparatus
Electrodes; Screens; Shields
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrodes for igniting the lamp or used as starting aids
Thermic screens or reflectors
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Heat-reflecting coatings on the wall of the vessel
Main electrodes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Main electrodes for discharge lamps of the types covered by H01J 61/58 to H01J 61/98 and in H01J 65/00.

Main electrodes for high pressure discharge lamps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Alloys based on tungsten or molybdenum
Shields, screens or guides arranged to extend the discharge path
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for influencing the discharge using magnetic means
Selection of substances of gas fillings; specified operating pressure or temperature
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Substances for gas fillings necessary for the operation of the discharge lamp, i. e. for

  • the generation of the initial discharge,
  • generating the voltage gradient,
  • light emission,
  • for establishing the desired spectral characteristics of the emitted light.

Gases added in small amounts, and which are not necessarily required for the operation of the lamp, are covered by the group reflecting the purpose of the gas filling, if available, otherwise in H01J 61/12.

Examples:

  • Gases inside the discharge tube used for gettering or for avoiding blackening of the envelope H01J 61/26.
  • Gas filled in the gap between outer envelope and discharge tube in a double-walled lamp H01J 61/34.
  • Gas filled in cavities which serve as starting aid H01J 61/54.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Main constituent orprincipal constituent
should be construed as that filling component which is mainly responsive for the light emission. In many cases, the lamp contains a buffer gas, e.g. argon or xenon, which is necessary for initiating the discharge, but the main part of the light emission is provided for example by mercury or sodium vapour, a metal halide or other chemical substances which emits light in the conditions prevailing in the buffer gas discharge.

Glossary of terms

Main constituent orprincipal constituent
should be construed as that filling component which is mainly responsive for the light emission. In many cases, the lamp contains a buffer gas, e.g. argon or xenon, which is necessary for initiating the discharge, but the main part of the light emission is provided for example by mercury or sodium vapour, a metal halide or other chemical substances which emits light in the conditions prevailing in the buffer gas discharge.
having helium, argon, neon, krypton, or xenon as the principle constituent
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps which exclusively are filled with rare gases

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Low pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp
mercury vapour
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composition of metal halide filling of metal halide lamps
Means for obtaining or maintaining the desired pressure within the vessel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for maintaining the desired pressure within the vessels of two or more basic types of discharge tubes
Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering; Means for preventing blackening of the envelope
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for absorbing or adsorbing gas, e.g. by gettering, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes
Means for producing, introducing, or replenishing gas or vapour during operation of the lamp
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for producing, introducing, or replenishing gas or vapour during operation of two or more the lamp
Vessels; Containers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Glass compositions
Compositions for glass with special properties
Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition
Coatings produced by application to, or surface treatment of, optical elements, e.g. anti-reflection coatings
Details of incandescent lamps
Special longitudinal shape, e.g. for advertising purposes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flat vessels or containers of gas discharge lamps
U-shaped lamps
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compact fluorescent lamps
“Compact”-lamps, i.e. lamps having a folded discharge path
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fluorescent lamps with folded discharge path and with integral driving circuit, e. g. within the lamp base or socket, such that the lamp can replace incandescent lamps in common lighting fixtures

Double-wall vessels or containers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examples:

  • Discharge tubes with two or more walls.
  • Lamps with a discharge tube enclosed in an outer envelope, e. g. high or low pressure discharge lamps with outer envelope.
  • Reflector lamps containing a discharge tube within a closed reflector.
  • Compact fluorescent lamps with outer envelope.
  • Shatterproof enclosures directly mounted on the lamp, e. g. fluorescent lamps with a solid sleeve having shatterproof properties.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lamps with open reflectors
H01J61/02B
provided with coatings on the walls thereof; Selection of materials for the coatings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coatings on the walls of discharge lamps.

Examples:

  • Coatings on the walls of discharge tubes or of the outer envelope of double-walled lamps covered by H01J 61/34.
  • Heat or UV-reflective coatings.
  • Protective coatings.
  • Shatterproof coatings applied to the external surface of the discharge lamp, e. g. by extrusion so as to directly adhere to the discharge tube.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coloured coatings in or on the envelope
Devices for influencing the colour or wavelength of the light by transforming the wavelength of the light by luminescence
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Envelopes, vessels of incandescent lamps provided with coatings on the walls
Devices for influencing the colour or wavelength of the light
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Light filters, coatings for influencing the wavelength or the colour of the emitted light, reflective or light diffusing coatings

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for influencing the colour or wavelength of the light may be applied on the surface or the discharge tube or on the surfaces of outer envelopes of the lamps
Special rules of classification within this group

Non-chemical aspects of luminescent materials are covered by T01J261/41, Examples:

Variable thickness profile of layers of luminescent material.

Spatial distribution of luminescent material on lamp surfaces.

by transforming the wavelength of the light by luminescence
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for transforming the wavelength of the light by luminescence:

Phosphor coatings characterized by non-chemical parameters, e.g. thickness profile, geometrical characteristics of the phosphor distribution on the vessel surface

Cooling arrangements; Heating arrangements; Means for circulating gas or vapour within the discharge space
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for cooling specific parts of discharge tube in the form of ribs or other structures integrally formed on or directly attached to the vessel in order to increase the surface of the vessel

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Heating or cooling arrangements to promote ionisation for starting
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangement of a lamp and an external cooling fan
One or more circuit elements structurally associated with the lamp
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • One or more circuit elements structurally associated with the lamp, the circuit elements must be structurally associated with the lamp. Many compact fluorescent lamps are characterized by an electronic ballast contained in the lamp base.
  • Specific arrangements of the components in the lamp base
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electronic ballasts or driving circuits per se
Cathode glow lamps
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cathode glow lamps designed as tuning or voltage indicators
having one or more specially shaped cathodes, e.g. for advertising purposes, alphanumeric
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Discharge lamps having one or more specially shaped cathodes

Examples:

  • for advertising purposes,
  • for displaying alphanumeric characters.
Lamps with low-pressure unconstricted discharge having a cold pressure < 400 Torr
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps with low-pressure unconstricted discharge.

Special rules of classification within this group

The cold pressure limit <400 Torr is disregarded.

A fluorescent lamp containing a specific xenon-argon mix as buffer gas, mercury, and a specific phosphor mix with a specific mass density yields a power saving lamp with a higher lumen output per foot arc length should be classified in H01J 61/72. Nevertheless, the document should also be given the group symbols H01J 61/20 and H01J 61/44.

Lamps with high-pressure unconstricted discharge having a cold pressure > 400 Torr
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps with high-pressure unconstricted discharge.

Special rules of classification within this group

The cold pressure limit >400 Torr is disregarded.

Lamps with more than one main discharge path
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Lamps with different discharge paths
  • Lamps with one discharge vessel with a plurality of electrode pairs which form a plurality of discharge paths; these can be separated from each other by walls.
  • Arrays of single path discharge lamps, if the array is contained in one common container which provides electrical connection to all single lamps. An example is an array of single fluorescent tubes in a parallel arrangement in a LCD backlight.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Incandescent lamps with a filament heated only by non-luminous discharge
Lamps with light-emitting discharge path and separately-heated incandescent body within a common envelope, e.g. for simulating daylight
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Incandescent lamps with a filament heated only by non-luminous discharge
Cathode-ray or electron-stream (flying-spot tubes H01J 31/10; magic-eye tuning indicators H01J 31/14; lamps with incandescent body heated by the ray or stream H01K)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps and details of lamps in which an electron beam excites a luminescent material or a gas to emit light:

  • Lamps in which an electron beam strikes a phosphor and excites the phosphor to luminescence
  • Lamps in which an electron beam excites a gas to luminescence

Further information:

Details of cathode ray lamps which are also mentioned in a document to be suitable for a display tube are also covered by H01J 29/00 and H01J 31/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flying-spot tubes
Magic-eye tuning indicators
Lamps with incandescent body heated by the ray or stream
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of display tubes
Display tubes
Field emissive cathodes
Electron guns using field emission
Methods for manufacturing details of cathode ray or electron stream lamps
Details, e.g. electrode, gas filling, shape of vessel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Field emission displays
Lamps with luminescent screen excited by the ray or stream
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Field emission displays
Special rules of classification within this group

The more recent lamps which are classified in H01J 63/06 are structurally very similar or identical to field emission displays (H01J 31/123). In order to be classified in H01J 63/06, the document should state or strongly imply the use as a lamp, e.g. a backlight for an LCD display - it is not sufficient that the document refer to a “light emitting element” or use a similar term which also would be applicable to a single pixel or to a whole field emitter display (FED). If both uses (FED and lamp) are mentioned, the document is classified in both subclasses

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel; Lamps with at least one main electrode outside the vessel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps without any electrode inside the vessel and electrodeless lamps, and details thereof:

  • Microwave excited lamps in which the discharge tube is located in a microwave cavity
  • Inductively coupled RF lamps in which the discharge tube is surrounded by an RF coil or antenna
  • Lamps with external electrodes only
  • Lamps with at least one main electrode outside the vessel
  • Lamps in which the main electrodes are inside the vessel, but are separated from the discharge by a dielectric layer
  • Lamps with a gas filling excited by internal or external corpuscular radiation
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plasma displays
Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the desired character or characters are formed by combining individual elements being gas discharge devices
Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of the lamps covered by H01J 65/00 are covered by the appropriate subgroup for lamp types in H01J 65/00 and, if available, also by the appropriate detail subgroups in H01J 61/00.

Main electrodes
Substances for gas fillings
Material of the discharge tubes
Ignition aids
Special rules of classification within this group

Means for coupling electromagnetic energy into the discharge tube are considered as a part of the lamp:

  • Microwave or RF cavities, resonators, and waveguides in which the discharge tube is arranged
  • RF coils or antennae surrounding or adjacent discharge tube
Lamps in which a screen or coating is excited to luminesce by radioactive material located inside the vessel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lamps in which a screen or coating is excited to luminesce by radioactive material located inside the vessel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Direct conversion of radiation energy from radioactive sources into light
X-ray tubes
Fluids, e.g. liquids, gases
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Targets which are in fluid state, including targets intended to melt during operation of the X-ray tube.

Transmission type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Anodes producing X-rays of which the fraction passing through the anode is suitable to be used.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Anodes which serve as vacuum window or are integrally attached to the vacuum window
Laminated targets, e.g. plurality of emitting layers of unique or differing materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Targets made of more than one layer of material intended to emit X-rays.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Targets with layered structure including a single emissive layer, the other layers serving to improve the mechanical properties, the thermal properties.
flow being via moving conduit or shaft
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examples:

Rotating, hollow anodes cooled by water passed along the axis,

Cooling conduits that must be rotated during operation

Rotation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Rotating the vessel for positioning purposes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rotation of X-ray vessel where vessel is fixedly joint to anode in order to spread the heat e.g. Straton tube:
against charged particles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shielding of X-ray vessels or other components of the tube e.g. against charged particles such as scattered or secondary electrons. Examples:

corona shields;

magnetic fields for shielding;

conductive layers

Windows, e.g. for X-ray transmission
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Structures transparent to x-rays but separating a space of certain properties e. g. ambient pressure from a space having different respective properties e. g. low pressure; including windows acting as target anodes.

used as target or X-ray converter, e.g. transmission type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

X-ray transparent windows used as target or targets integrally attached to a window and used in transmission mode

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission type target anodes not providing vacuum sealing
Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further information:

The codes in this main group are grouped according to the following principle: details common to gas or plasma discharge of the above mentioned tubes: H01J 2237/00 to T01J237/248D2IMAGING or analysing: H01J 2237/25 to T01J237/285FPARTICLE beam processing: H01J 2237/30 to T01J237/317G6PLASMA processing: H01J 2237/32 to H01J 2237/339

Codes in the scheme H01J 2237/00 and subgroups are usually marked with the month of their creation ([Nyymm] means “new in month mm of year yy”) and are generally not reclassified. These codes are thus are not complete, i.e. not all documents classified in subgroups of H01J 37/00, for which a respective code in subgroups of H01J 2237/00 would be adequate, have such a code.

Special rules of classification within this group

All limiting references or precedence rules within H01J 2237/00 and subgroups thereof apply only within H01J 2237/00 (and subgroups thereof) and in particular not in view of groups the scheme H01J 37/00 and subgroups thereof, if not a group in H01J 37/00 or below is explicitly referred to.

General Reminder:

For features of general interest which may be found in other types of discharge tubes, an indexing-code corresponding to general schemes H01J201 to H01J207 is given, e.g. for cathodes, vessels, cooling means or the like.

Same rules apply for manufacturing procedures (H01J 2209/00), unless really specific to the tube concerned.

Cooling arrangements
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cooling arrangements of objects being observed or treated
Details of gas supplies - e.g. in an ion source, to a beam line, to a specimen or to a workpiece
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gas supply means for processing objects by plasma generation
T01J237/32O2
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Environmental cells for electron microscopes
Microscopes with environmental specimen chamber
Moving components not otherwise provided for
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Moving components for diaphragms
Moving components for objects
Shields
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shields - both shielding the beam from influence thereon and shielding the environment from influence due to the tube

Lens systems
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Individual lenses
Arrangements for energy or mass analysis
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

analysis in H01J 2237/05 and subgroups relates to forming a spectrum; filtering relates to selecting mass or energy of (one) particular value(s)

Source emittance characteristics
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Beam diagnostics anywhere in beam
T01J237/248A1

Further information:

Diagnostics only for the source

Ion sources
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion sources for mass spectrometers
Liquid metal sources
Synonyms and Keywords

common acronym: LMIS

Gas field ion sources [GFIS]
Synonyms and Keywords

common acronym: GFIS

Ionized cluster beam [ICB] sources
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

gas cluster ion beam sources and other cluster beam ion sources (cluster in this respect means a group of similar atoms or molecules)

Synonyms and Keywords

acronym for gas cluster ion beam : GCIB

Coils
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Superconducting coils
Rotating beam around optical axis
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

What is called “scan rotation” in SEMs

Vessels
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Liner tubes
Obtaining or maintaining desired pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both means and methods

Differential pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Also specific arrangements for differential pressure of field emission guns

Maintaining constant desired temperature
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both heating and/or cooling

Controlling environment of sample
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Controlling the environment of the sample in view of e.g. gas pressure, specific types of gases or gas composition, etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Elevated pressure
Environmental microscopes
Vacuum seals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vacuum seals associated with the stage, e.g. seals for adjustment screws of the sample stage

Eucentric movement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Moving the sample such that it stays in focus

Temperature responsive devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Temperature dilation of positioning element used to move sample

Means for introducing and/or outputting objects
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vacuum locks
Temperature variations
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Maintaining constant desired temperature
Surface alteration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Surface alteration of samples to be analysed or inspected, e.g. ion bombardment to modify sample surface in an SEM

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Processing of objects per se
Focus adjustment
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Treatment of data
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image processing as such
Mixing signals
Charged particle holography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electron or ion microscopes for holography
Holographic processes or apparatus using particles or using waves
Intensity, dose or other characteristics of particle beams or electromagnetic radiation
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Beam diagnostics including respective control
T01J237/248A1
Beam diagnostics including control of the parameter or property diagnosed
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling the beam in electron or ion beam tubes for processing objects
Direction of beam or parts thereof in view of the optical axis, e.g. beam angle, angular distribution, beam divergence, beam convergence or beam landing angle on sample or workpiece
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for deflecting or directing discharge
Measurements of electric or magnetic variables, e.g. voltage, current, frequency
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Voltage contrast, charging of sample, leakage current in sample to sample holder, magnetic imaging of sample

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
When related to the tube
Optical means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Example:

Focus control by additional light-optical microscopes

using tunnel effects, e.g. STM, AFM
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Microprobes using tunnel effect only in combination with tubes of H01J 37/00, e.g. LEED or RHEED in combination with STM

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
STM, AFM, etc. per se
with environmental specimen chamber
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Environmental cells
Holography or phase contrast, phase related imaging in general, e.g. phase plates
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Treatment of data
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holographic processes or apparatus using particles
Comparison or superposition of transmission images; Moirè
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers

Example:

Methods for image compare

Calibration
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Calibration for object processing apparatus
System calibration
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
System calibration for microscopes
Deflection calibration
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Deflection calibration specific to material treating
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Deflecting in general
Detecting endpoint of process
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting endpoint of process for plasma apparatus
Detecting endpoint of process for plasma apparatus, for sputtering apparatus
Impurity or contaminant control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of contamination stemming from the ion source or beam line

Particle-beam lithography, e.g. electron beam lithography
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further Information:

This part of the scheme is currently not in use, reorganisation needed. See provisionally H01J 2237/3175

Depositing thin layers on selected microareas
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion plating
Lithography
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Further Information:

The use of this part of the scheme is continued until further revision, the scheme under H01J 2237/31715 is not used.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013