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RESISTORS
Definition statement
This subclass covers:
  • Passive two-terminal electrical components per se that implement electrical resistance as a circuit element, thereby enabling typically a direct proportion between the current and the voltage across the component's terminals.
  • Non-adjustable metal resistors made of wire or ribbon, per se, e.g. iron-filament ballast resistors, or metallic glasses therefor, coiled, woven or formed as grids. Configurations thereof may include flexible or folding resistors, changes in dimensions or characteristics of the resistive element from one terminal to another, resistors having sinusoidal or zig-zag configurations or arranged for reducing self-induction, capacitance or variation with frequency.
  • Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material (excluding loose powder or granular material) with or without insulating material. Resistors whose effective value is varied non-mechanically such as by temperature (thermistors, e.g. exhibiting positive or negative temperature coefficient), voltage (varistors and overvoltage protection resistors) or current (including over-current protection resistors) and having a non-linear behaviour, e.g. typically a sharp change in resistance values upon reaching critical or threshold values of non-mechanical parameters. Compositions and arrangements thereof.
  • Non-adjustable resistors consisting of loose powdered or granular conducting, or powdered or granular semi-conducting material, e.g. coherers or like imperfect resistors for detecting electromagnetic waves; overvoltage protection resistors or arresters.
  • Non-adjustable liquid resistors.
  • Electrical resistors whose effective value is mechanically adjustable, including liquid resistors or adjustable resistors structurally comprising a plurality of resistors, with changing dimensions and/or forms of the resistors, arrangements of fixed resistors with intervening connector or structurally in combination with switching arrangements. Resistors whose resistance is adjustable by short-circuiting different amounts of the resistive element, by mechanical pressure or force, by auxiliary driving means, by resistor movement or by action of actuation means, e.g. contacts, said contacts rocking or rolling along resistive element or taps, sliding along resistive element, e.g. moving along a straight path, in an accurate path or along turns of a helical resistive element.
  • Resistors not provided for elsewhere, e.g. structural combinations of resistors excluding impedance networks.
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors adapted for manufacturing resistor chips, for manufacturing resistors with envelope or housing, for winding the resistive element or for coating resistive material on a base, e.g. by thick (including precursor compositions therefor) or thin film techniques (e.g. vapour or chemical deposition, sputtering or flame spraying) by pirolytic processes or by resistor foil bonding; adapted for trimming, for applying terminals or for baking.
  • Details common to two or more main types of devices or processes covered by this subclass, e.g. special adaption for mounting; housings, encapsulations; Arrangements for distinguishing marks (e.g. colour coding), electrostatic or electromagnetic shielding, cooling, heating and ventilating or of current collectors; Terminals or tapping points.
  • Variable resistors, the value of which is changed non-mechanically, e.g. by voltage, current or temperature.
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Selection of specified materials as dielectric

Trimming of resistors for integrated circuits

H01L21/66

Passive two-terminal components without a potential-jump or surface barrier for integrated circuits

Resistors with a potential-jump or surface barrier

Photoresistors and similar semiconductor devices in which radiation controls flow of current through the device

Magnetic-field-controlled resistors and similar devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects

Bulk negative resistance effect devices

Apparatus or processes for filling or compressing insulating material in heating element tubes

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Resistance strain gauges for measuring linear expansion or contraction

Measuring temperature using resistive elements

Measuring force or stress by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials

Resistors used for electric measuring electrical or magnetic variables

Thin- or thick-film integrated circuits; Resistors as components of an integrated circuit

Impedance networks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Powder metallurgy

Trimming by laser in general

Layered products

Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, thermistors, and based on titanium oxide or titanates

Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, thermistors, and based on zirconium oxides or zirconates

Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, thermistors, and based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, varistors and based on zinc oxides

Polymeric films or sheets

Indicating or measuring liquid level, or level of fluent solid material by measuring variations of resistance of resistors due to contact with conductor fluid

Investigating or analyzing material by investigating resistance

Arrangements for measuring resistance

Measuring dielectric properties, e.g. dielectric constants

Devices using superconductivity or hyperconductivity

Solid state devices for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier

Thin- or thick-film solid state devices

Terminals or tapping points in general

Overvoltage arresters using spark gaps

Emergency protective circuit arrangements responsive to excess current

Emergency protective circuit arrangements responsive to excess voltage

Ohmic-resistance heating

Printed circuits incorporating printed electric components, e.g. printed resistor, capacitor, inductor

Printed circuits structurally associated with non-printed electric components

Casings for electrical apparatus in general

Special rules of classification within this subclass

Variable resistors, the value of which is changed non-mechanically, e.g. by voltage or temperature, are classified in group H01C 7/00.

Electrodes and terminals for resistors in main group H01C 7/00 are covered by main group H01C 1/00, more specifically subgroups H01C 1/14 and lower.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Thermistor

Type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, typically as sharp or sudden change, when a threshold temperature value is reached.

Varistor

Also referred as Voltage Dependent Resistor is a resistor that conducts significantly increased current when voltage is excessive.

Adjustable

Mechanically adjustable

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms:

Varistor

Voltage dependent resistor

Details
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • Mounting, Supporting
  • Color coding
  • Shielding arrangements
  • Current collectors
  • Terminals
  • Resistor networks
the base extending along and imparting rigidity or reinforcement to the resistive element (H01C 1/016 takes precedence; the resistive element being formed in two or more coils or loops as a spiral, helical or toroidal winding H01C 3/18, H01C 3/20; the resistive element being formed as one or more layers or coatings on a base H01C 7/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Compensation for resistor expansion or contraction

Resistive elements being formed in two or more coils or loops as a spiral, helical or toroidal winding

Resistive elements being formed as one or more layers or coatings on a base

the resistor being suspended between and being supported by two supporting sections (H01C 1/016 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Compensation for resistor expansion or contraction

the housing or enclosure being hermetically sealed (H01C 1/028, H01C 1/032, H01C 1/034 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Resistive elements being embedded in insulation with outer enclosing sheath

Plural layers surrounding the resistive element

Housing or enclosure being formed as coating or mold without outer sheath

plural layers surrounding the resistive element (H01C 1/028 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Resistive elements being embedded in insulation with outer enclosing sheath

the housing or enclosure being formed as coating or mold without outer sheath (H01C 1/032 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Plural layers surrounding the resistive element

Terminals or tapping points {or electrodes} specially adapted for resistors (in general H01R); Arrangements of terminals or tapping points {or electrodes} on resistors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Terminals or tapping points in general

the terminals embracing or surrounding the resistive element (H01C 1/142 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Terminals or tapping points being coated on the resistive element

the resistive element being formed in two or more coils or loops continuously wound as a spiral, helical or toroidal winding (H01C 3/02 to H01C 3/12 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Resistors arranged or constructed for reducing self-induction, capacitance or variation with frequency

Iron-filament ballast resistors; Other resistors having variable temperature coefficient

Flexible or folding resistors, whereby such a resistor can be looped or collapsed upon itself

Dimension or characteristic of resistive element changing gradually or in discrete steps from one terminal to another

Resistive element having zig-zag or sinusoidal configuration

Lying in one plane

wound on a flat or ribbon base (H01C 3/16 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Resistive elements including two or more distinct wound elements or two or more winding patterns

wound on cylindrical or prismatic base (H01C 3/16 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Resistive elements including two or more distinct wound elements or two or more winding patterns

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material (consisting of loose powdered or granular material H01C 8/00; { measuring deformation in a solid state using the change in resistance formed by printed-circuit technique G01B 7/20; insulating materials H01B 3/00; passive thin-film or thick-film semiconductor or solid state devices H01L 27/00; resistors without a potential-jump or surface barrier specially adapted for integrated circuits, details thereof, multistep manufacturing processes therefor H01L 28/20}; resistors with a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. field effect resistors H01L 29/00; semiconductor devices sensitive to electro-magnetic or corpuscular radiation, e.g. photoresistors, H01L 31/00; devices using superconductivity H01L 39/00; devices using galvanomagnetic or similar magnetic effects, e.g. magnetic-field-controlled resistors, H01L 43/00; solid state devices for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier H01L 45/00; bulk negative resistance effect devices H01L 47/00; { ohmic resistance heating H05B 3/00; printed circuits H05K})
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Resistors consisting of loose powdered or granular material

Passive thin-film or thick-film semiconductor or solid state devices

Resistors without a potential-jump or surface barrier specially adapted for integrated circuits

Resistors with a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. field effect resistors

Semiconductor devices sensitive to electro-magnetic or corpuscular radiation, e.g. photoresistors

Devices using galvanomagnetic or similar magnetic effects, e.g. magnetic-field-controlled resistors

Bulk negative resistance effect devices

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring deformation in a solid state using the change in resistance formed by printed-circuit technique

Insulating materials

Devices using superconductivity

Solid state devices for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier

Ohmic resistance heating

Printed circuits

having negative temperature coefficient {(thermometers using resistive elements G01K 7/16)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Thermometers using resistive elements

Varistor boundary, e.g. surface layers (H01C 7/12 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Overvoltage protection resistors

Varistor cores (H01C 7/12 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Overvoltage protection resistors

Overvoltage protection resistors {(series resistors structurally associated with spark gaps H01T 1/16)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Series resistors structurally associated with spark gaps

current responsive
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups H01C 7/02 to H01C 7/13 take precedence over groups H01C 7/18 to H01C 7/22.

Adjustable resistors
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups H01C 10/02 to H01C 10/26 take precedence over groups H01C 10/28 to H01C 10/50.

resistive element dimensions changing gradually in one direction, e.g. tapered resistive element (H01C 10/04 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

With specified mathematical relationship between movement of resistor actuating means and value of resistance, other than direct proportional relationship

resistive element moving (H01C 10/16, H01C 10/24 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Plural resistive elements

Contacts moving along turns of a helical resistive element, or vice versa

the contact bridging and sliding along resistive element and parallel conducting bar or collector (H01C 10/42 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Contact bridging and sliding along resistive element and parallel conducting bar or collector

Arrangements of fixed resistors with intervening connectors, e.g. taps (H01C 10/28, H01C 10/30 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Contact rocking or rolling along resistive element or taps

Contact sliding along resistive element

structurally combined with switching arrangements (H01C 10/36 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Contact moving in an arcuate path structurally combined with switching arrangements

Structural combinations of resistors (impedance networks per se H03H)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Impedance networks per se

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors (providing fillings for housings or enclosures H01C 1/02; reducing insulation surrounding a resistor to powder H01C 1/03; manufacture of thermally variable resistors H01C 7/02, H01C 7/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Providing fillings for housings or enclosures

Reducing insulation surrounding a resistor to powder

Manufacture of thermally variable resistors

by removing or adding resistive material (H01C 17/23, H01C 17/232, H01C 17/235 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

By opening or closing resistor geometric tracks of predetermined resistive values, e.g. snapistors

Adjusting the temperature coefficient; Adjusting value of resistance by adjusting temperature coefficient of resistance

Initial adjustment of potentiometer parts for calibration

by laser {(trimming by laser in general B23K 26/0003)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Trimming by laser in general

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013