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RESISTORS
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Passive two-terminal electrical components per se that implement electrical resistance as a circuit element, thereby enabling typically a direct proportion between the current and the voltage across the component's terminals.
  • Non-adjustable metal resistors made of wire or ribbon, per se, e.g. iron-filament ballast resistors, or metallic glasses therefor, coiled, woven or formed as grids. Configurations thereof may include flexible or folding resistors, changes in dimensions or characteristics of the resistive element from one terminal to another, resistors having sinusoidal or zig-zag configurations or arranged for reducing self-induction, capacitance or variation with frequency.
  • Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material (excluding loose powder or granular material) with or without insulating material. Resistors whose effective value is varied non-mechanically such as by temperature (thermistors, e.g. exhibiting positive or negative temperature coefficient), voltage (varistors and overvoltage protection resistors) or current (including over-current protection resistors) and having a non-linear behaviour, e.g. typically a sharp change in resistance values upon reaching critical or threshold values of non-mechanical parameters. Compositions and arrangements thereof.
  • Non-adjustable resistors consisting of loose powdered or granular conducting, or powdered or granular semi-conducting material, e.g. coherers or like imperfect resistors for detecting electromagnetic waves; overvoltage protection resistors or arresters.
  • Non-adjustable liquid resistors.
  • Electrical resistors whose effective value is mechanically adjustable, including liquid resistors or adjustable resistors structurally comprising a plurality of resistors, with changing dimensions and/or forms of the resistors, arrangements of fixed resistors with intervening connector or structurally in combination with switching arrangements. Resistors whose resistance is adjustable by short-circuiting different amounts of the resistive element, by mechanical pressure or force, by auxiliary driving means, by resistor movement or by action of actuation means, e.g. contacts, said contacts rocking or rolling along resistive element or taps, sliding along resistive element, e.g. moving along a straight path, in an accurate path or along turns of a helical resistive element.
  • Resistors not provided for elsewhere, e.g. structural combinations of resistors excluding impedance networks.
  • Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors adapted for manufacturing resistor chips, for manufacturing resistors with envelope or housing, for winding the resistive element or for coating resistive material on a base, e.g. by thick (including precursor compositions therefor) or thin film techniques (e.g. vapour or chemical deposition, sputtering or flame spraying) by pirolytic processes or by resistor foil bonding; adapted for trimming, for applying terminals or for baking.
  • Details common to two or more main types of devices or processes covered by this subclass, e.g. special adaption for mounting; housings, encapsulations; Arrangements for distinguishing marks (e.g. colour coding), electrostatic or electromagnetic shielding, cooling, heating and ventilating or of current collectors; Terminals or tapping points.
  • Variable resistors, the value of which is changed non-mechanically, e.g. by voltage, current or temperature.
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selection of specified materials as dielectric
Trimming of resistors for integrated circuits
H01L21/66
Passive two-terminal components without a potential-jump or surface barrier for integrated circuits
Resistors with a potential-jump or surface barrier
Photoresistors and similar semiconductor devices in which radiation controls flow of current through the device
Magnetic-field-controlled resistors and similar devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects
Bulk negative resistance effect devices
Apparatus or processes for filling or compressing insulating material in heating element tubes

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Resistance strain gauges for measuring linear expansion or contraction
Measuring temperature using resistive elements
Measuring force or stress by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials
Resistors used for electric measuring electrical or magnetic variables
Thin- or thick-film integrated circuits; Resistors as components of an integrated circuit
Impedance networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Powder metallurgy
Trimming by laser in general
Layered products
Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, thermistors, and based on titanium oxide or titanates
Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, thermistors, and based on zirconium oxides or zirconates
Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, thermistors, and based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates
Compositions of ceramic materials, e.g. for resistors, varistors and based on zinc oxides
Polymeric films or sheets
Indicating or measuring liquid level, or level of fluent solid material by measuring variations of resistance of resistors due to contact with conductor fluid
Investigating or analyzing material by investigating resistance
Arrangements for measuring resistance
Measuring dielectric properties, e.g. dielectric constants
Devices using superconductivity or hyperconductivity
Solid state devices for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
Thin- or thick-film solid state devices
Terminals or tapping points in general
Overvoltage arresters using spark gaps
Emergency protective circuit arrangements responsive to excess current
Emergency protective circuit arrangements responsive to excess voltage
Ohmic-resistance heating
Printed circuits incorporating printed electric components, e.g. printed resistor, capacitor, inductor
Printed circuits structurally associated with non-printed electric components
Casings for electrical apparatus in general
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Variable resistors, the value of which is changed non-mechanically, e.g. by voltage or temperature, are classified in group H01C 7/00.

Electrodes and terminals for resistors in main group H01C 7/00 are covered by main group H01C 1/00, more specifically subgroups H01C 1/14 and lower.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Thermistor
Type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, typically as sharp or sudden change, when a threshold temperature value is reached.
Varistor
Also referred as Voltage Dependent Resistor is a resistor that conducts significantly increased current when voltage is excessive.
Adjustable
Mechanically adjustable
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms:

Varistor
Voltage dependent resistor
Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Mounting, Supporting
  • Color coding
  • Shielding arrangements
  • Current collectors
  • Terminals
  • Resistor networks
the base extending along and imparting rigidity or reinforcement to the resistive element (H01C 1/016 takes precedence; the resistive element being formed in two or more coils or loops as a spiral, helical or toroidal winding H01C 3/18, H01C 3/20; the resistive element being formed as one or more layers or coatings on a base H01C 7/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compensation for resistor expansion or contraction
Resistive elements being formed in two or more coils or loops as a spiral, helical or toroidal winding
Resistive elements being formed as one or more layers or coatings on a base
the resistor being suspended between and being supported by two supporting sections (H01C 1/016 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compensation for resistor expansion or contraction
the housing or enclosure being hermetically sealed (H01C 1/028, H01C 1/032, H01C 1/034 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistive elements being embedded in insulation with outer enclosing sheath
Plural layers surrounding the resistive element
Housing or enclosure being formed as coating or mold without outer sheath
plural layers surrounding the resistive element (H01C 1/028 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistive elements being embedded in insulation with outer enclosing sheath
the housing or enclosure being formed as coating or mold without outer sheath (H01C 1/032 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plural layers surrounding the resistive element
Terminals or tapping points {or electrodes} specially adapted for resistors (in general H01R) ; Arrangements of terminals or tapping points {or electrodes} on resistors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Terminals or tapping points in general
the terminals embracing or surrounding the resistive element (H01C 1/142 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Terminals or tapping points being coated on the resistive element
the resistive element being formed in two or more coils or loops continuously wound as a spiral, helical or toroidal winding (H01C 3/02 to H01C 3/12 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistors arranged or constructed for reducing self-induction, capacitance or variation with frequency
Iron-filament ballast resistors; Other resistors having variable temperature coefficient
Flexible or folding resistors, whereby such a resistor can be looped or collapsed upon itself
Dimension or characteristic of resistive element changing gradually or in discrete steps from one terminal to another
Resistive element having zig-zag or sinusoidal configuration
Lying in one plane
wound on a flat or ribbon base (H01C 3/16 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistive elements including two or more distinct wound elements or two or more winding patterns
wound on cylindrical or prismatic base (H01C 3/16 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistive elements including two or more distinct wound elements or two or more winding patterns
Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material (consisting of loose powdered or granular material H01C 8/00; { measuring deformation in a solid state using the change in resistance formed by printed-circuit technique G01B 7/20; insulating materials H01B 3/00; passive thin-film or thick-film semiconductor or solid state devices H01L 27/00; resistors without a potential-jump or surface barrier specially adapted for integrated circuits, details thereof, multistep manufacturing processes therefor H01L 28/20} ; resistors with a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. field effect resistors H01L 29/00; semiconductor devices sensitive to electro-magnetic or corpuscular radiation, e.g. photoresistors, H01L 31/00; devices using superconductivity H01L 39/00; devices using galvanomagnetic or similar magnetic effects, e.g. magnetic-field-controlled resistors, H01L 43/00; solid state devices for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier H01L 45/00; bulk negative resistance effect devices H01L 47/00; { ohmic resistance heating H05B 3/00; printed circuits H05K} ) [m1112]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Resistors consisting of loose powdered or granular material
Passive thin-film or thick-film semiconductor or solid state devices
Resistors without a potential-jump or surface barrier specially adapted for integrated circuits
Resistors with a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. field effect resistors
Semiconductor devices sensitive to electro-magnetic or corpuscular radiation, e.g. photoresistors
Devices using galvanomagnetic or similar magnetic effects, e.g. magnetic-field-controlled resistors
Bulk negative resistance effect devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring deformation in a solid state using the change in resistance formed by printed-circuit technique
Insulating materials
Devices using superconductivity
Solid state devices for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
Ohmic resistance heating
Printed circuits
having negative temperature coefficient { (thermometers using resistive elements G01K 7/16) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Thermometers using resistive elements
Varistor boundary, e.g. surface layers (H01C 7/12 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Overvoltage protection resistors
Varistor cores (H01C 7/12 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Overvoltage protection resistors
Overvoltage protection resistors { (series resistors structurally associated with spark gaps H01T 1/16) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Series resistors structurally associated with spark gaps
current responsive
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups H01C 7/02 to H01C 7/13 take precedence over groups H01C 7/18 to H01C 7/22.

Adjustable resistors
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups H01C 10/02 to H01C 10/26 take precedence over groups H01C 10/28 to H01C 10/50.

resistive element dimensions changing gradually in one direction, e.g. tapered resistive element (H01C 10/04 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With specified mathematical relationship between movement of resistor actuating means and value of resistance, other than direct proportional relationship
resistive element moving (H01C 10/16, H01C 10/24 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plural resistive elements
Contacts moving along turns of a helical resistive element, or vice versa
the contact bridging and sliding along resistive element and parallel conducting bar or collector (H01C 10/42 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Contact bridging and sliding along resistive element and parallel conducting bar or collector
Arrangements of fixed resistors with intervening connectors, e.g. taps (H01C 10/28, H01C 10/30 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Contact rocking or rolling along resistive element or taps
Contact sliding along resistive element
structurally combined with switching arrangements (H01C 10/36 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Contact moving in an arcuate path structurally combined with switching arrangements
Structural combinations of resistors (impedance networks per se H03H)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Impedance networks per se
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing resistors (providing fillings for housings or enclosures H01C 1/02; reducing insulation surrounding a resistor to powder H01C 1/03; manufacture of thermally variable resistors H01C 7/02, H01C 7/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Providing fillings for housings or enclosures
Reducing insulation surrounding a resistor to powder
Manufacture of thermally variable resistors
by removing or adding resistive material (H01C 17/23, H01C 17/232, H01C 17/235 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By opening or closing resistor geometric tracks of predetermined resistive values, e.g. snapistors
Adjusting the temperature coefficient; Adjusting value of resistance by adjusting temperature coefficient of resistance
Initial adjustment of potentiometer parts for calibration
by laser { (trimming by laser in general B23K 26/0003) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Trimming by laser in general
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013