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HOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS (holograms, e.g. point holograms, used as ordinary optical elements G02B 5/32; producing stereoscopic or other three-dimensional effects G02B 27/22; diffraction-grating systems G02B 27/44; systems using moirè fringes G02B 27/60; optical logic elements G02F 3/00; stereo-photography G03B 35/00; photosensitive materials or processes for photographic purposes G03C; { stereo-photographic or similar processes G03C 9/00} ; apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials G03D; analogue computers performing mathematical operations with the aid of optical elements G06E 3/00; authentication by radiation, of concealed information carried by holograms or diffraction gratings G06K 19/16; holographic storage G11B 7/0065, G11C 13/04; { stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects in television systems H04N 13/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Means for and process of producing a numerical or analogical record of the phase and amplitude information of an object wave-front, e.g. by recording the interference pattern between a reference wavefront and the object wavefront;
  • Hologram produced by the above process;
  • Means for and process of reconstructing a holobject wave-front by optical or numerical diffraction from a hologram.
  • The three main groups G03H 1/00, G03H 3/00, G03H 5/00 relate each to different kind of waves : visible and near visible waves in G03H 1/00; acoustic waves in G03H 3/00 and other waves in G03H 5/00;

Main groups G03H 3/00 and G03H 5/00 are considered as marker for tagging the wave used, whatever the wave, detailed classes are given under subgroups of G03H 1/00.

  • The large majority of application being limited to the field of optical holography, applications of holography are classified under G03H 1/00.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Holography is a basic technology which developed in numerous application areas. A primary advantage of processing phase and amplitude information of an object wavefront is the ability of holography to reconstruct a 3D holobject from a recorded 3D object.

Whatever the application, G03H classification symbols are given for remaining pertinent holographic aspects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

in advertising, decorative arts

in acousto-photonic systems

G01N29/06B

in alignment or positioning systems

for authentication and security as covert or overt features

in correlator systems

as holographic diffractive optical elements

as holographic optical element in head up displays

in holographic storage systems

for information processing

in interferometry systems

in lithography systems

B23K 26/06, G03F7/20T16

in manipulation systems. e.g. Holographic tweezer

for metrology

in microscopy systems

for particle velocimetry

for recording or reconstructing three dimensional information

restoring distorted objects

for routing

in scanner systems

in haptic computer interfaces

in video-holography

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

Holobject

Object issued from the wavefront diffractively reconstructed (to be opposed to the object generating the wavefront holographically recorded)

Parallactic

Related to parallax e.g. parallactic decomposition stands for : decomposition of a 3D object into a set of 2D pictures obtained with various recording angle or line of sight

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CGH

Computer Generated Hologram

HOT

Holographic Optical Tweezer

SLM

Spatial Light Modulator

Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Holography using optical waves i.e. electromagnetic radiations within the range of visible or near to visible (i.e. infra-red, ultra-violet);

Applications wherein holography is an appropriate solution to a particular problem;

Systems for obtaining speckle reduction at recording or reconstruction; also applies to speckle reduction involved in numerical holography;

Systems for reducing the "space" x "spatial bandwidth" product; wherein the "space" measures the size of the hologram, the "spatial bandwidth" measures the "density" of holographic element, and the product reflects the total number of holographic elements forming the hologram; example : "horizontal parallax only" holograms comprise quasi-1D pertinent holographic information.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Interferometers using holographic techniques

Holograms used as optical elements

Holographic scanners

Holographic optical element in head up displays

Arrangements for recognition printed or written characters using holographic masks

Recording, reproducing or erasing by using optical interference patterns, e.g. holograms

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Information-bearing cards with holograms

Cleaning vehicle's windows using holographic sensor

Refractor for light source using hologram

Measuring deformation in a solid by holographic interferometry

Testing tyres using holography

Holography used to investigate particles

Holographic interferometry used to investigate materials

Flow measurement of fluid

Coupling light guides with holograms

Systems using moiré fringes

Analogue computers performing mathematical operations with the aid of optical elements

Optical sensing of record carrier using holographic scanner

Machine authentication of record carrier comprising hologram marking

Testing holographic security marking

Television using holographic recording

Shaping the laser beam for laser beam working

Security printing

Security printed matter on banknotes

Designs or pictures characterised by special or unusual light effects

Secret pictures

Designs imitating three-dimensional effects

Container closure with temper indication

Watermarking on paper

Security element added to paper

Arrangement of road signs or traffic signals

Measuring arrangements using optical means

Sensing comprising diffraction grating

Investigating or analysing materials by optical diffraction

Spatially resolving object in scattering medium

Diffraction gratings

Microscopes

Micromanipulators structurally combined with microscopes

Systems for producing stereoscopic or 3D effects

Diffraction optics

Optical logic element

Imaging mask onto workpiece in microlithography

G03F7/20T16

Registration or positioning

Haptic computer interface

image acquisition of printed or written character or pattern

Ciphering of e.g. graphic data

Luminous advertising illuminated in front of the insignia

Luminous advertising illuminated behind the insignia

Miscellaneous advertising or display means

Arrangements for handling particles

secret communication

Optical switching systems

micromanipulation of neutral particle beams

Special rules of classification within this group

Holographic optical elements (HOEs, DOEs) are particular holograms wherein the holobject is a simple optical function (e.g. lens, mirror). Per se, HOEs are classified in G02B 5/32, however, their production is classified under G03H 1/04 (analogical record) or G03H 1/08 (digital record).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Hologrametry

Dimensional and /or index measurement performed on the (optically or numerically) reconstructed holobject

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DOE

Diffractive Optical Element

HDG

Holographic Diffraction Grating

HOE

Holographic Optical Element

HPO

Horizontal parallax only

Details { of features involved during the holographic process; Replication of holograms without interference recording}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Isolated features involved during the holographic process (recording or reconstruction):

Recording material adapted to record holographic information :

organic material (e.g. Photopolymer, dichromated gelatine, Photoresists, Silver halide);

inorganic material (e.g. photorefractive crystal)

other recording means (e.g. CCD);

Details associated with the holographic record :

physical distribution storing in the hologram a print of the recorded interference pattern (variations of size, density, strength, charge, ...);

physical parameter affected when a reconstruction wave interacts with the hologram (amplitude, phase or polarization variations);

nature of the holographic medium (e.g. thin, thick, volume holograms); dynamic of the variations (binary, discrete, continuous);

ageing and resistance of the material;

non uniform thickness;

compound included into actinic material;

Mechanical aspect when related to holograms :

production line;

portable or mobile device;

moving component;

Involving specific optical component

phase mask; Diffuser;

optical filter;

amplitude, phase, or colour filter

particular location (e.g. in Fourier, holobject or image plane)

SLM as specific optical component

amplitude , signed amplitude , phase, polarization, complex , amplitude/phase coupled or colour modulation;

EASLM, OASLM, XASLM, Acousto-optic modulator;

having movable pixels

1D, 2D, 3D modulation;

multiple SLMs (e.g for multicolour processing):

having optical element in registration;

Object types :

diffusing, translucent and phase object;

2D (e.g. 2D SLM), 3D (e.g. 2D/3D) object;

holographic object

moving, coloured object;

numerical object (e.g. computer modeled or digitized real object);

decomposed object (e.g. 2D parallactic decomposition);

Laminate comprising hologram :

special arrangement of layers (e.g. printed layer);

functional layer (e.g. antireflective, colour tuning, enhancement, colour active, protective layer, polarization , opaque or reflective layer);

Substrate aspect :

integrated surface relief hologram;

shape of the substrate (e.g. disc, ribbon, non planar shapes)

kind of substrate (flexible, fibrous, metallic, plastic, crystalline or glass substrate);

Patterned hologram;

Light characteristics;

  • Surface relief holograms ;
  • Copying holograms without interference recording, including embossing, moulding, casting, electroplating, masking.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Material deformation using laser beam

Moulds with particular shape of the moulding surface

Moulding article

Injection moulding

Layered product

Embossing decorations or marks

Pressing or stamping ornamental designs on surfaces

Manufacturing diffraction gratings using mechanical means

SLM having movable pixels

Photorefractive material per se

Electro-optic SLM

Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals

Optically addressed SLM

G02F1/133L

Photographic contact printing apparatus

Photosensitive recording materials per se

Package for films

Bleaching

Preparation of phase shift mask

Photoresist material for photolithography

Photopolymer material for photolithography

Dichromated gelatine for photolithography

Recording members for recording by exposure

SLM for holographic storage

G11B7/125M

Inorganic recording material per se

Photopolymer material for holographic storage

Producing master for CD/DVD

Magneto-optical recording material per se

Photorefractive, electro-optical recording material per se

Photochromic recording material per se

Other recording material per se

Lasers

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

2D/3D object

Object formed of a stack of parallel 2D cross-sections of the object with a set of parallel 2D planes

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

EASLM

Electrically addressed SLM

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

OASLM

Optically addressed SLM

SLM

Spatial Light Modulator

Processes or apparatus for producing holograms (G03H 1/26 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Optical recording geometry : in-line, off-axis, non-orthogonal; transmission or reflection; image plane, Fourier transform, Lippmann;
  • Recording arrangement involving particular optical element (e.g. a diffuser for recording coded-beam hologram); particular beam shape or geometry;
  • Recording arrangement adapted to compensate or suppress aberration, distortions or unwanted interference fringes ;
  • Recording arrangement adapted to record HOE;
  • Coded beam holography (wherein at least one of the object and reference beams is optically coded (e.g. with a diffuser) during recording);
  • Coherence gated holography;
  • Polarization preserving holography;
  • Pseudo-deep holography;
  • Total internal reflection, waveguide, substrate-mode holography;
  • Harmonic holography;
  • Monitoring the hologram formation;

Particular processing of hologram record carrier, including

  • pre-exposure processing e.g. hypersensitization, partial deactivation, trimming;
  • Post-exposure processing including
  • chemical processing e.g. latensification, bleaching, fixing, trimming;
  • physical processing e.g. shaping, delaminating, de-metalization;
  • fringe deformation (swelling or shrinking processes) e.g. for tuning reconstruction wavelength or measuring substrate deformation;
  • erasing the holographic information, including coherent erasure by superimposing pi shifted information;

Copying holograms by holographic means including :

  • Contact copy
  • Copying wherein the H1 and H2 holograms are separated such that the reference beam exposing the H2 does not interact with the H1;
  • Copying using conjugate waves;
  • Copying with category transfer;
  • Subdivided copy.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Processes or apparatus specially adapted to produce multiple holograms

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

H1/H2 process

Transferring holographic information from master H1 to recording material H2

TIR

Total Internal Reflection

Synthesising holograms, { i.e. holograms synthesized from objects or objects from holograms} (using electric digital computers G06F; G06T)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- Holograms synthesized from objects or objects from holograms.

In this sub-group, a digital representation of the hologram is mandatory.

- Hologram synthesis per se, comprising a numerical transform simulating light propagation (e.g. Fresnel or Fourier transforms) between object and hologram domains (for Computer Generated Hologram, CGH) or between holographic data and holobject (in digital holography).

- The main processing steps that may be involved are:

  • Numerical processing of object including object description such as geometrical, parallactic decomposition, slicing, rendering;
  • Methods of numerical synthesis including Fresnel and Fourier transforms,
  • convolution and iterative algorithm (e.g. IFTA), direct design (e.g. DBS, simulated annealing), Diffraction specific, Coherent ray tracing ;
  • Numerical processing in hologram domain including noise reduction, linear
  • combination of holograms, numerical padding;
  • Encoding aspect including cell or point oriented coding, amplitude, phase or
  • complex encoding, quantization;
  • Synthesis adapted to generate holographic optical element;
  • Synthesis adapted to generate holobjects from hologram, including solving phase ambiguity (phase unwrapping), recovering complex amplitude in hologram plane (using phase shifting, spatial heterodyning), synthetic aperturing;
  • Adapted hardware (for computation or transmission);
  • Materializing the synthetic hologram including serial or parallel printing, forming amplitude, phase or complex transmittance .
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital computing or data processing, specially adapted for specific functions or applications

General purpose image data processing

Data description and modelling of 3D objects

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Digital holography

digital recording of holograms and subsequent numerical processing

Complex hologram

CGH encoding amplitude and phase (i.e. complex values : Amplitude exp(i phase))

Gerchberg - Saxton algorithm

a IFTA algorithm

Kinoform

CGH encoding phase only

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CGH

Computer Generated Hologram

DBS

Direct Binary Search

IFTA

Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm

Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from holograms (G03H 1/26 to G03H 1/34 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes or apparatus for obtaining a holobject from an analogical or numerical hologram;

Particular reconstruction arrangement including :

  • Mechanical support holding the holographic record;
  • Optical arrangement and orientation between light source, hologram and detector (e.g. transmission reflection or edge lit reconstruction);
  • Eliminating certain diffraction orders;
  • Downstream optical component (e.g. diffusing surface revealing the holobject);
  • Particular reconstruction light (white light G03H 1/24);

Dynamic of the holobject

  • static;
  • pseudo-dynamic wherein a dynamic effect is produced from a single hologram;
  • dynamic wherein a time varying sequence of holograms is displayed;
  • dynamic wherein a time varying sequence of holographic fringes information is addressed to a SLM;

Particular holobject including 2D, 3D, 2D+3D holobjects, rescaled or polarized holobjects;

Superposing or matching the holobject with other visual information;

Holobject having particular colour including achromatic, RGB, rainbow-like;

Particular location of the holobject with respect to the hologram, including in-plane, real, virtual or straddling holobject.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Processes or apparatus specially adapted to reconstruct holobject(s) from multiple holograms

Systems for obtaining speckle elimination

Systems for reducing the space-spatial bandwidth product

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grating image

Stereoscopic microscopes

Systems for producing stereoscopic or 3D effects

Stereoscopic photography

Stereo photographic or similar process

Display per se

Stereoscopic television system

Special rules of classification within this group

Details and isolated features involved during the reconstruction process are also classified under G03H 1/02.

Processes or apparatus specially adapted to produce multiple { sub-} holograms or to obtain images from them, e.g. multicolour technique
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Angle multiplexing (multichannel holography);
  • Coherence multiplexing wherein different holobjects are perceived under incoherent and coherent illumination;
  • Phase code multiplexing ;
  • Polarization multiplexing;
  • Temporal multiplexing :

Frame or time sequential multiplexing wherein a plurality of sub-holograms or holographic sub-frames are time multiplexed to reconstruct one holobject;

Double or multiple exposure recording process;

  • Superimposed holograms (G03H 1/28) wherein the sub-holograms are superimposed in the same recording layer;
  • Spatial multiplexing (G03H 1/30) wherein the sub-holograms are spatially multiplexed in a single material layer; including:

in-plane or depth multiplexing;

shape of the sub-hologram;

interleaved sub-holograms;

tiled identical holograms;

dot matrix holograms;

  • Holographic stereogram wherein a collection of parallactic 2D pictures views of a 3D object are multiplexed into a holographic record thereby allowing to reconstruct the 3D holobject due to stereoscopic perception;

one steps and two steps holographic stereograms;

  • Arrangement comprising multiple holograms in spatially separated supports

mechanically separated or in contact;

optically separated or in contact (optical contact in the sense that a reconstruction beam crosses the holograms);

made of different materials;

for spectral broadening (e.g. multicolour holobject);

comprising a HOE;

mixed volume/surface hologram;

superposed surface relief;

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Double exposure interferometry

Stacked holographic layers

Special rules of classification within this group

Details of the recording/reconstruction arrangement are also classified in respective classes in G03H 1/00.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Multichannel holography

Angle multiplexed holography wherein the holobject change when orientation varies

Holographic stereogram

Hologram multiplexing a collection of parallactic (2D) pictures views of a (3D) object; replays 3D holobject

Holographic processes or apparatus using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves for obtaining holograms; Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from them (G03H 1/22 takes precedence; { acoustic non-destructive testing using holographic methods G01N 29/0663; seismology using acoustic vibrations G01V 1/00; non-holographic methods for visualizing acoustic waves G10K 15/00} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Acousto-photonic imaging

G01N29/06B

Details of holographic recording and reconstruction process

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Producing, transmitting, directing, suppressing sound waves

Non destructive holographic visualisation and testing

Seismic or acoustic prospecting or detecting

Holographic processes or apparatus using particles or using waves other than those covered by groups G03H 1/00 or G03H 3/00 for obtaining holograms; Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from them (G03H 1/22 takes precedence; construction of electron microscopes H01J 37/26; { investigating or analysing materials by the use of microwaves G01N 22/00, by the use of particles wave or X-rays G01N 23/00, G21K 7/00} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Details of holographic recording and reconstruction process

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron microscope

Investigating or analysing materials by the use of microwaves

Investigating and forming a picture of materials by the use of other wave or particle radiation e.g. X-rays or electron or neutrons

Investigating and forming a picture of materials by the use of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance or other spin effects

G01N24/04

Gamma- or X-ray microscopes

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013