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RADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES ( {for special applications, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. A61B, G01F, G01N, G02B; measuring dimensions or angles of objects G01B; navigation in general G01C; measuring infrasonic, sonic or ultrasonic vibrations in general G01H; measuring infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet radiation in general G01J; transducers per se, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. G01L, H01L, H04R; measuring direction or velocity of flowing fluids by reception or emission of radiowaves or other waves and based on propagation effects caused in the fluid itself G01P; measuring electric or magnetic variables in general G01R} ; detecting masses or objects by methods not involving reflection or radiation of radio, acoustic or other waves G01V; {time-interval measuring G04F} ; aerials H01Q)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining or measuring the position or change of position in space, and also the physical presence within a predetermined space, of objects which interact with propagating electromagnetic and analogous waves (e.g. sound waves).

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring dimensions or angles of objects
Navigation in general
Measuring infrasonic, sonic or ultrasonic vibrations in general
Measuring infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet radiation in general
Transducers per se, see the following relevant subclasses
Measuring direction or velocity of flowing fluids by reception or emission of radio waves or other waves and based on propagation effects caused in the fluid itself
Measuring electric or magnetic variables in general
Detecting masses or objects by methods not involving reflection or radiation of radio, acoustic or other waves
time-interval measuring
Aerials
Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith ( position fixing by co-ordinating a plurality of determinations of direction or position lines G01S 5/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Beacons (transmitters) which are dedicated to transmit signals from which a position, direction or direction line can be derived. It also covers dedicated receivers for these beacons. Marker beacons, i.e. beacons, the reception of whose signal indicates a location, are also found in G01S 1/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmitters which, although they might be used in the determination of position, were not designed for such, e.g. telecommunications base stations
Am/fm radio broadcast transmitters
Transmitters which are known widely as beacons but which are not intended to aid in the positioning of the receiver but rather to locate the beacon (e.g. emergency beacons). Details of such transmitters which are pertinent to a prior art search in G01S are found in G01S 5/0226.
Satellite Radio Positioning Beacon Systems
{Simulation means, e.g. of beacon signals therefor ( for teaching or training purposes G09B 9/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Simulation means for teaching or training purposes
Systems for determining direction or position line { aerial arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern H01Q 3/00 ; combinations of different interacting units for giving a desired directional characteristic H01Q 21/29 ; aerials or aerial systems providing at least two radiation patterns H01Q 25/00}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combinations of different interacting units for giving a desired directional characteristic
Aerials or aerial systems providing at least two radiation patterns
Aerial arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern
using a comparison of transit time of synchronised signals transmitted from non-directional aerials or aerial systems spaced apart, i.e. path-difference systems { synchronisation in general H03L 7/00}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synchronisation in general
the synchronised signals being pulses or equivalent modulations on carrier waves and the transit times being compared by measuring the difference in arrival time of a significant part of the modulations, {e.g. LORAN systems}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
LORAN
(LOng RAnge Navigation) is a terrestrial radio navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters in multiple deployment (multilateration) to determine the location and speed of the receiver.
{Details of receivers cooperating therewith, e.g. determining positive zero crossing of third cycle in LORAN-C}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
LORAN-C
Version of LORAN which operates in the low frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from 90 to 110 Kilohertz
{Analogous systems in which a beat frequency, obtained by heterodyning the signals, is compared in phase with a reference signal obtained by heterodyning the signals in a fixed reference point and transmitted therefrom, e.g. LORAC (long range accuracy) or TORAN systems}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
LORAC
Long range accuracy
{Analogous systems in which frequency-related signals (harmonics) are compared in phase, e.g. DECCA systems}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
DECCA
The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic low frequency radio navigation system
{particularly adapted to Omega systems}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Omega
Radio navigation operating in the 10kHz-14kHz range employing hyperbolic techniques
wherein the phase angle of the direction-dependent envelope signal is a multiple of the direction angle, e.g. for "fine" bearing indication {TACAN}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
TACAN
TACtical Air Navigation system which provides the user with bearing and distance (slant-range) to a ground or ship-borne station.
wherein the phase angle of the direction-dependent envelope signal is compared with a non-direction-dependent reference signal, {e.g. VOR}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
VOR
VHF Omnidirectional Radio range is a radio navigation system for aircraft in which a navigation signal allows the airborne receiving equipment to determine a magnetic bearing from the station to the aircraft
using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Beacons or beacon systems using electromagnetic waves, notably in the optical frequencies, other than radio waves.

Systems for determining direction or position line ( sound focusing or directing using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering, in general G10K 11/34)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sound focusing or directing using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering, in general
Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received ( position fixing by co-ordinating a plurality of determinations of direction or position lines G01S 5/00 ; for geophysical measurement G01C ; telescope mountings G02B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves (including light), or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems for regulating electric or magnetic variables
Acoustic beam-steering
Aerials
Closed circuit television systems

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Monopulse radar
Supporting structures of photovoltaic modules for generation of electric power specially adapted for solar tracking systems
H02S20/24
Special rules of classification within this group

Algorithms employing MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification), ESPRIT (estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariant techniques) and other subspace decomposition algorithms to determine the angle of arrival are classified in G01S 3/74 and G01S 3/8006 respectively.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Adcock aerial system
array consisting of four equidistant vertical elements which can be used to transmit or receive directional radio waves.
Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations { ( using active systems G01S 13/00 , G01S 15/00 , G01S 17/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determination of position using radio, optical (including infrared) and acoustic waves by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations. Position fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations; Radio Fingerprinting, e.g. correlating positions with signal measurements in a database such that the position of a receiver or a transmitter can be determined by database query.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Special rules of classification within this group

Passive, as distinct from active - involving reflection or reradiation - found in G01S 13/00, G01S 15/00, G01S 17/00, form the vast bulk of inventions found in the G01S 5/00. However, inventions involving re-radiation (G01S 13/74, G01S 13/876, G01S 13/878) in which the underlying principle is akin to a passive system, with the initial illumination of a target acting like a trigger for transmission may also be classified here.

The schemes relating to the different wave types (i.e. radio, optical, acoustic) should mirror each other. For practical reasons, subgroups analogous to each of the subclasses of G01S 5/02 have not been created in G01S 5/16 or G01S 5/18. Classification of documents related to G01S 5/16 and G01S 5/18 will be carried out in a manner analogous to G01S 5/02, i.e. where a document refers to generic details of acoustic positioning, then G01S 5/18 should be allocated (as no equivalent of G01S 5/0205 exists) and not merely one of the classes G01S 5/20 - G01S 5/30. Similarly, where interference mitigation, etc. is the inventive disclosure, G01S 5/18 should be allocated, as no equivalent of G01S 5/0215 exists.

Where combinations of signals between acoustic or optical with radio comprise the invention, these inventions should be classified in G01S 5/0257.

Relating to G01S 5/02 and G01S 5/0273:

G01S 5/0215 and G01S 5/0273 both relate to multipath issues. Matter in G01S 5/0215 relates principally to identification and mitigation of multipath effects. G01S 5/0273 contains matter in which the multipath signals are deliberately taken into account to calculate position.

{Transmission of position information to remote stations ( transmission of measured values in general, G08C; services making use of location of users or terminals, H04W 4/02) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission of measured values
Service making use of the location of users or terminals
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

G01S 5/0009 and its subgroups relate to transmission of position information between a remote station and reference station or between remote stations or reference stations. However, inventions are classified in these subgroups only where the transmission of information is related to the calculation of position. It is not intended to cover transmission of positioning data or position related data in applications in which the positioning arrangement is merely a black box. Inventions should be assigned a G01S 5/0009 code only if the invention would also have warranted a G01S 5/00 code outside of G01S 5/0009 and its subgroups.

using radio waves (G01S 19/00 takes precedence )
Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01S 5/02 covers algorithmic steps of positioning determination while H04W 64/00 covers more the network specific aspects thereof, e.g. scheduling, server aspects. H04W 64/00 refers more to established technologies

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Locating users or terminals [N: or network equipment] for network management purposes, e.g. mobility management
{Details}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of receivers, e.g. signal acquisition, interference cancellation; details of transmitters, e.g. transmission signal, constructional details; and other aspects which do not relate directly to the positioning algorithm used.

{Calibration, monitoring or correction (G01S 5/0252 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining position by comparing measured values with pre-stored measured or simulated values
{interference or multipath issues related to signal reception}
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using multipath or indirect path propagation signals in position determination
{of transmitters or network of transmitters ( wireless system synchronisation per se H04B 7/2662) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wireless system synchronisation per se
{locating transmitters to be used for positioning (G01S 5/0289 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining the position of a transmitter which will later be used in positioning. Examples of such are: determining the location of an FM broadcasting station using triangulation in a mobile receiver, the position of the FM receiver is then stored and signals from the FM transmitter may later be used in position determination.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multiple transceivers, e.g. in ad hoc networks
{Determination of attitude ( using inertial means G01C 9/00 ; control of attitude G05D 1/08) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Using inertial means
Control of attitude
{Hybrid positioning solutions ( by coordinating position lines of different shape G01S 5/12) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combining different signals to compute a position or combining computed positions from different positioning systems to arrive at a final position. The other positioning systems may include non-radio wave signals, e.g. inertial signals, barometer signals, optical signals, acoustics signals.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
By coordinating position lines of different shape
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Inertial navigation
{employing positioning solutions derived from a single positioning system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining position by choosing one possible solution out of several possible solutions deliverable by a positioning signal system, e.g. to combining a position solution derived using a TDOA algorithm with one using an angle of arrival algorithm all derived from signals in a single system; also included are instances where different combinations of signals from different transmitters are combined to arrive at an optimal position solution.

{involving statistical or probabilistic considerations (G01S 5/0252 , G01S 5/0294 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Comparing measured values with pre-stored measured or simulated values
Tracking, e.g. using Kalman filters
Position of source determined by co-ordinating a plurality of position lines defined by path-difference measurements (G01S 5/12 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
By co-ordinating position lines of different shape, e.g. hyperbolic, circular, elliptical, radial
Position of receiver fixed by co-ordinating a plurality of position lines defined by path-difference measurements {,e.g. omega or decca systems} (G01S 5/12 takes precedence; { beacons and receivers cooperating therewith G01S 1/306 , G01S 1/308} )
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
By co-ordinating position lines of different shape, e.g. hyperbolic, circular, elliptical, radial
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Beacons and receivers cooperating therewith
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Omega
Radio navigation operating in the 10kHz-14kHz employing hyperbolic techniques
DECCA
The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic low frequency radio navigation system
by co-ordinating position lines of different shape, e.g. hyperbolic, circular, elliptical, radial ( radar indicators providing co-ordinated display of direction and distance G01S 7/10)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Position determination by co-ordinating position lines of different shapes where all signals received are radio signals.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combinations of radio with acoustic of optical signals
using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using radio waves
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Opto-electronic arrangements for converting position into coded form for input into a computer
Optical Communications
{Determination of attitude ( using inertial means G01C 9/00 ; control of attitude G05D 1/08) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining attitude using inertial means G01C 9/00
Control of attitude
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Attitude control of satellites
Satellite docking
using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

G01S 5/02 takes precedence

{Determination of attitude ( using inertial means G01C 9/00 ; control of attitude G05D 1/08) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining attitude using inertial means G01C 9/00
Control of attitude
Details of systems according to groups G01S 13/00 , G01S 15/00 , G01S 17/00 { ( apparatus for measuring unknown time-intervals by electronic means, e.g. Vernier method G04F 10/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosures which are directly concerned with details or functionality of sub-systems or component parts of systems according to G01S 13/00, G01S 15/00 or G01S 17/00.

Details common to systems of all groups G01S 13/00, G01S 15/00 and G01S 17/00 are covered by G01S 7/00

Details of systems according to groups G01S 13/00 are covered by G01S 7/02.

Details of systems according to groups G01S 15/00 are covered by G01S 7/52.

Details of systems according to groups G01S 17/00 are covered by G01S 7/48.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures which concern the functioning of the full system should go in G01S 13/00, G01S 15/00 or G01S 17/00 respectively;

however details which form an important or technically non-trivial part of a system should also be classified in G01S 7/02, G01S 7/52 or G01S 7/48 respectively.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
2D
two dimensional
Synonyms and Keywords
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
{Transmission of data between radar, sonar or lidar systems and remote stations ( in general G08C) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. radar/sonar/lidar apparatuses using a communication link (cable or wireless) to transmit data to or exchange data with remote stations.

It does not cover data transferred inside the radar apparatus or data transfer between receivers.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Data transfer inside the radar apparatus
Data transfer between radars reradiating radio waves, e.g. secondary radar
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems using reradiation of radio waves
{using shared front-end circuitry, e.g. antennas (G01S 13/765 , G01S 13/825 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • E.g. radar/sonar/lidar apparatuses using their beam / antenna to communicate (wirelessly) with a remote station.
  • Communication equipment using the communication signals for distance determination, e.g. via time-of-flight.
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Data transfer between radars reradiating radio waves, e.g. secondary radar
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems using reradiation of radio waves
of systems according to group G01S 13/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosures which are directly concerned with details or functionality of sub-systems or component parts of systems according to G01S 13/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures which concern the functioning of the full system should go in G01S 13/00; however details which form an important or technically non-trivial part of a system should also be classified in G01S 7/02.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radio wave modulation schemes
Beam-forming
Tracking
Specific radar applications
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

The subgroup G01S 7/28 covers details of pulse systems whereas the subgroup G01S 7/35 covers details of non-pulse systems. This distinction is made in accordance with the subgroups of G01S 13/08 and G01S 13/58. All other subgroups of G01S 7/02 are applicable to both pulse and non-pulse systems.

{Auxiliary means for detecting or identifying radar signals or the like, e.g. radar jamming signals ( multi-channel PRF-analysers, per se G01R 23/155) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection or identification of

  • radar signals or
  • other signals in the context of radar, e.g. radar jamming signals.

The use of said information e.g. for anti-jamming or EMI reduction measures is covered by other classes (see below).

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for anti-jamming, e.g. ECCM, i.e. electronic counter-counter measures.
Jamming means, e.g. producing false echoes
Radar using EMI (electro-magnetic interference) reduction techniques
S01S13/02S6
{Road traffic radar detectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Vehicle based detectors for detecting police roadside radars, fixed overhead radars etc.
  • The use of said information e.g. jamming the police radar or other measures is covered by other classes (see below).
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Jamming means, e.g. producing false echoes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radar or analogous systems, designed for traffic control
For velocity measurement
Traffic control systems for road vehicles
Detecting movement of traffic to be counted or controlled
Details of HF subsystems specially adapted therefor, e.g. common to transmitter and receiver ( TR boxes H01J 17/64 ; waveguides or resonators or other devices of the waveguide type H01P ; aerials H01Q ; basic electronic circuitry, e.g. generation of oscillations, modulation, demodulation, amplification, pulse technique H03 ; impedance networks, resonators H03H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radar-related constructional details of HF (i.e. high frequency)-subsystems.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Details of waveguides, waveguide transitions, couplers (like hybrid couplers etc.) should be classified additionally in H01P, details of antennas should be classified additionally in H01Q, details of oscillators (e.g. VCO, i.e. voltage controlled oscillator, DRO, i.e. dielectric resonator oscillator), resonators, modulators/demodulators (like mixers, switches etc.), amplifiers, impedance matching networks etc. should be classified additionally in H03.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Schematics of pulsed transmitters
Schematics of non-pulsed transmitters
Details of HF(i.e. high frequency)-components per se, not related to radar
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of HF(i.e. high frequency)-components per se
{Constructional details for solid-state radar subsystems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. solid state Tx/Rx-modules, single-chip radar sensors etc.

{Feedthrough nulling circuits}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits or measures to suppress Tx-Rx-crosstalk.

Display arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All details of radar displays and the respective data processing.

Cathode-ray tube displays {or other two-dimensional or three-dimensional displays ( cathode ray oscilloscopes in general G01R 13/20) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not only details of cathode-ray tube displays (old technique from the days of generating this IPC class) but details of all kind of displays; such details are e.g. the use of different colours, cursor lines, symbols, plan-position indicators etc.

Displays using electroluminescent panels [N: (in general G01R 13/408, G09G 3/00); (video storage therefore G01S 7/046) (Not used, see G01S 7/06)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group is not used any more, since modern displays are not restricted to electroluminescent panels (see head up displays or liquid crystal displays) and further details are given only in parallel class G01S 7/06 (former cathode-ray tube displays). Since the field of radar displays is not very active, all display details are commonly classified in G01S 7/06.

Details of pulse systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The respective details (e.g. schematics) of radars using a pulsed carrier wave

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of the pulsed radar (like a certain waveguide type used etc.)
{Means providing a modification of the radiation pattern for cancelling noise, clutter or interfering signals, e.g. side lobe suppression, side lobe blanking, null-steering arrays ( specially adapted to secondary radar systems G01S 13/762 ; aerials or aerials systems H01Q 21/29 , H01Q 25/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods or means for a pulsed radar system providing a modification of the radiation pattern for cancelling noise, clutter or interfering signals, e.g. side lobe suppression, side lobe blanking, null-steering arrays.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Modification of radiation pattern specially adapted to secondary radar systems
By using shape of radiation pattern
Aerials or aerials systems as such
Null steering specially adapted to phased arrays in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
See also "simultaneous measurement of distance and other coordinates"
Modification of radiation pattern specially adapted to secondary radar systems
See also "extracting wanted echo signals based on data belonging to a number of consecutive radar periods in pulsed radar by using the shape of the radiation pattern"
Aerials or aerials systems as such
Null steering specially adapted to phased arrays in general
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

These features may likewise apply to non-pulse systems, i.e. G01S 7/35. In the case of non-pulse systems having said features, give both classes, G01S 7/35 and G01S 7/2813.

Transmitters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Schematics, circuit details of pulsed radar transmitters

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Circuits for generating electric pulses per se (for all applications, not only radar) are in H03K 3/00

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of the transmitter (like a certain waveguide type used etc.)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulse technique
Extracting wanted echo-signals ( Doppler systems G01S 13/50)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of echo extraction in pulsed radars.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulsed radars discriminating between fixed and moving objects (e.g. with moving target indication (MTI), adaptive clutter cancellation, etc.)
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Pulsed systems measuring target Doppler but also containing disclosure pertaining to extracting wanted targets from noise are classified in both G01S 13/52 and G01S 7/292.

{based on data belonging to one radar period}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of echo extraction based on data belonging to single radar period in pulsed radars.

{by using a controlled threshold}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. CFAR

{by using shape of radiation pattern}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of echo extraction based on data belonging to a number of consecutive radar periods in pulsed radars using the shape of radiation pattern.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Modification of radiation pattern specially adapted to secondary radar systems
Aerials or aerials systems as such
Null steering specially adapted to phased arrays in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
See also "simultaneous measurement of distance and other coordinates"
Modification of radiation pattern specially adapted to secondary radar systems
See also "means for a pulsed radar system providing a modification of the radiation pattern for cancelling noise, clutter or interfering signals, e.g. side lobe suppression, side lobe blanking, null-steering arrays"
Aerials or aerials systems as such
Null steering specially adapted to phased arrays in general
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

These features may likewise apply to non-pulse systems, i.e. G01S 7/35. In that case give both classes, G01S 7/35 and G01S 7/2925.

{by deriving and controlling a threshold value}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. CFAR

Means for transforming co-ordinates or for evaluating data, e.g. using computers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g., converting polar to Cartesian coordinates, details of computer implemented receivers.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for processing data to evaluate functions by calculation per se
Scan converters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Scan converters for sonar receivers
Gain of receiver varied automatically during pulse-recurrence period, e.g. anti-clutter gain control
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Amplifiers per se
Automatic gain control in amplifiers per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gain control in sonar receivers
Details of non-pulse systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details (e.g. of schematics) of non-pulsed radar systems, e.g. FMCW or CW radar systems.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of the non-pulsed radar (like a certain waveguide type used etc.)
Means for anti-jamming ( in general H04K 3/00) , {e.g. ECCM, i.e. electronic counter-counter measures ( for irregular PRF see also G01S 13/22 , G01S 13/528 ; for frequency agility of carrier wave see also G01S 13/24 ; G01S 7/2813 takes precedence ) ; random interference pulse cancellers G01S 7/2928 ; identification of radar jamming signals G01S 7/021}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and measures to counter a jamming attack on the radar.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detection of jamming signals
Electromagnetic interference reduction techniques between two radars (e.g. between 2 automotive radar sensors heading towards each other)
S01S13/02S6
Jamming means, e.g. producing false echoes ( in general H04K 3/00) { reflecting surfaces comprising a plurality of reflecting particles, e.g. chaff, H01Q 15/145 ; identification of radar signals G01S 7/021}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radar jammers (active and passive) and similar means

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chaff (passive)
Means for monitoring or calibrating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and measures to

  • monitor the (correct) operating status of the radar, e.g. detection of failure, malfunction etc. of Tx- and/or Rx-modules or detection of obstruction of the antenna e.g. by ice, dirt etc., or
  • calibrating the radar system e.g. in separate calibration cycles or during operation, intermittently or for each echo, manually or automatically, by internal or external reference; e.g. an internal reference line or an external reflector of known location.
{of parts of a radar system ( see provisionally also G01S 7/40) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring and calibrating parts of the radar system.

Since monitoring and calibrating of a radar (G01S 7/40) inevitably involves the monitoring and calibrating of the parts of the radar system, this class (G01S 7/4004) is regarded as ill-conceived and has to be reformulated/deleted in the near future. To ensure that all documents are found, see also G01S 7/40 and the classes G01S 7/4008 to G01S 7/4026).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
To ensure that all documents are found, see also:
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

This class is not used, and is awaiting revision.

{of transmitters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring and calibrating the transmitter of the radar system.

Since monitoring and calibrating of the parts of the radar system (G01S 7/4004) inevitably involves the monitoring and calibrating of the transmitter of the radar system, it is recommended to consult also G01S 7/4004 for a complete search. The same applies to G01S 7/4017 (HF systems) in which also some documents with transmitter monitoring/calibrating may be hidden.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
To ensure that all documents are found, see also:
{of HF systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring and calibrating the HF systems of the radar system.

Since monitoring and calibrating of the HF systems of the radar system inevitably overlaps with the monitoring and calibrating of the transmitter (G01S 7/4008) and / or the receiver (G01S 7/4021) of the radar system, it is recommended to consult also these classes for a complete search.

This class (G01S 7/4017) is regarded as ill-conceived and has to be reformulated/deleted in the near future.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
To ensure that all documents are found, see also:
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

This class is not used, and is awaiting revision.

{of receivers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring and calibrating the receiver of the radar system.

Since monitoring and calibrating of the parts of the radar system (G01S 7/4004) inevitably involves the monitoring and calibrating of the receiver of the radar system, it is recommended to consult also G01S 7/4004 for a complete search. The same applies to G01S 7/4017 (HF systems) in which also some document with transmitter monitoring/calibrating may be hidden.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
To ensure that all documents are found, see also:
{Antenna boresight}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • The monitoring and (re-)adjusting of the antenna boresight.
  • The monitoring / checking of the antenna boresight is done e.g. either by observing the history/speed/vector etc. of targets during operation (i.e. adaptively) or by manually checking the boresight in a calibration environment.
  • The adjustment is done e.g. either by steering the antenna or the antenna beam in the correct pointing position (mechanically, electronically etc.) or by re-calculating the target positions in the post-processing.
{by simulation of echoes ( analogue simulators in general G06G 7/78) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kinds of radar echo simulation, be it by an internal reference line, be it by external reflectors, e.g. passive of active reflectors, being e.g. either moved or modulated respectively for Doppler-simulation etc.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems in general using reradiation of radio waves
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Example:

An internal reference/delay line in the receiver for generating a distance calibration, e.g. for each echo, would be classified not only in G01S 7/4052 but also in G01S 7/4021 (calibrating the receiver).

{specially adapted to FMCW}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Simulation of echoes in or for FMCW radars, e.g. internal reference/delay lines for distance calibration or external frequency modulated active reflectors etc.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Example:

An internal reference/delay line in the receiver for generating a distance calibration, e.g. for each echo, would be classified not only in G01S 7/4052 but also in G01S 7/4021 (calibrating the receiver)

{Discriminating targets with respect to background clutter}
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulsed radars discriminating between fixed and moving objects and having adaptive clutter cancellation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulsed radars discriminating between fixed and moving objects and having adaptive clutter cancellation
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

G01S 13/5244 takes precedence

{Identification of targets based on measurements of movement associated with the target}
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulsed radars discriminating between fixed and moving objects and having moving target indicator (MTI)
--- based upon the phase or frequency shift resulting from movement of objects, with reference to the transmitted signals, e.g. coherent MT
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulsed radars discriminating between fixed and moving objects and having moving target indicator (MTI)
{Theoretical aspects}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The theoretical aspects (e.g. equations etc.) involved in target characterisation.

Diversity systems specially adapted for radar
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diversity means redundancy, e.g. of components or features: For example a plurality of redundant Tx/Rx-modules, antennas, beams, tilt angles or frequency ranges to be used to ensure target detection (e.g. under jamming, interference or combat conditions).

of systems according to group G01S 17/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of systems which do not have a specific entry in lower groups, but which are included in the inventive concept of the disclosure, or which do have a specific entry in lower groups but are combinations of such details features, and where classification of each feature individually is inappropriate, should be classified here. disclosures which are directly concerned with details or functionality of sub-systems or component parts of systems according to G01S 17/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures which concern the functioning of the full system should go in G01S 17/00; however details of systems which form an important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure of a system should also be classified in G01S 7/48.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ammunition fuzes operated by light or similar radiation
(constructional) details of optical interferometers
Measuring polarisation of light
Optical scanners per se
Optical fibres per se
Optical lenses and objectives per se
(constructional) features of semiconductor devices
(constructional) features of lasers

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems per se are classified in
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical signalling in vehicles
Vehicle fittings
Optical interferometers
Optical arrangements
(acousto-)optical modulators
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Details of disclosures of systems which form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/48, as well as the appropriate system group in G01S 17/00, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
2D
means two dimensional
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
{Auxiliary means for detecting or identifying lidar signals or the like, e.g. laser illuminators}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection or identification of

  • lidar signals or
  • other signals in the context of lidar, e.g. laser jamming, laser designator, or high power destructive light beams.
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for jamming, anti-jamming, e.g. ECM, i.e. electronic counter-measures: ECCM, i.e. electronic counter-counter-measures: electro-optical counter-(counter)-measures.
{Road traffic laser detectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicle based detectors for detecting police roadside lidars, fixed overhead lidars etc.

The use of said information e.g. jamming the police lidar or other measures is covered by other classes (see below).

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Jamming means, e.g. producing false echoes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radar or analogous systems, designed for traffic control
For velocity measurement
Traffic control systems for road vehicles
Detecting movement of traffic to be counted or controlled
Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects of mechanical features, of physical layouts and component details where these are relevant, and which do not have a specific entry in lower groups, but which are included in the inventive concept of the disclosure, or which do have a specific entry in lower groups but are combinations of such details features, and where classification of each feature individually is inappropriate.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements of lenses and optical elements per se
Optical scanners per se
{common to transmitter and receiver}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects of mechanical features, of physical layouts involving both transmitter and receiver, where these are non-trivial, and which do not have a specific entry in lower groups, but which are included in the inventive concept of the disclosure, or which do have a specific entry in lower groups but are combinations of such details features, and where classification of each feature individually is inappropriate.

{transmitted and received beams following a coaxial path}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements where at least a part of the measurement beam is guided coaxially for transmission and reception.

{Housing arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Enclosing means, structural and supporting means both internal and external.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Printed circuits; casings or constructional details of electric apparatus; manufacture of assemblages of electrical components, per se.
{of transmitters alone}
Relationship between large subject matter areas
Constructional details of sources of illumination per se
Constructional details of lasers; devices using stimulated emission, per se
{of receivers alone}
Relationship between large subject matter areas
Constructional details of photo sensitive detectors per se
Constructional details of photo-sensitive semiconductor devices per se
Constructional details of imaging devices, e.g. CCD's, per se
{using optical fibres}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transmitting lidar signals at least partially through optically conducting light guides e.g., optical fibres.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Light guides per se
Details of pulse systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details including circuit details (circuit diagrams) of lidars, ladars, optical rangefinders using pulsed carrier waves.

Transmitters
Relationship between large subject matter areas
Sources of optical illumination per se
Devices using stimulated emission, per se
Circuits for generating electric pulses per se
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of the transmitter (like a certain optical arrangement or type used etc.)
Receivers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details including circuit details (circuit diagrams) of receiving devices used in lidars, ladars, optical rangefinders using pulsed carrier waves.

Relationship between large subject matter areas
Details of photo sensitive detectors including semiconductor devices per se
Image intensifiers
Light transforming elements per se
Imaging devices, e.g. CCD's,
Extracting wanted echo signals, {e.g. pulse detection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of echo extraction in pulsed lidars (ladars).

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulsed lidars (ladars) discriminating between fixed and moving objects (e.g. with moving target indication, adaptive clutter cancellation, etc.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulsed lidars (ladars) discriminating between fixed and moving objects etc.
Gain of receiver varied automatically during pulse-recurrence period
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gain control of amplifiers per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gain control of radar receivers
Details of non-pulse systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details including circuit details (circuit diagrams) of lidars, ladars, optical rangefinders using non-pulsed carrier waves.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulsed lidars (ladars) discriminating between fixed and moving objects (e.g. with moving target indication, adaptive clutter cancellation, etc
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulsed lidars (ladars) discriminating between fixed and moving objects etc.
Extracting wanted echo signals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of echo extraction and signal information relating to distance between transmitter and receiver in non-pulsed lidars (ladars).

Counter-measures or counter-counter-measures {using electronic or electro-optical means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and measures to carry out OR to counter a jamming attack.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detection of jamming signals
Means for monitoring or calibrating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and measures to:

  • Monitor the (correct) operating status of the lidar, e.g. detection of failure, malfunction etc. of Tx- and/or Rx-modules or detection of obstruction of the beam path, e.g. by ice, dirt etc., or to:
  • Calibrate the lidar system (e.g. in separate calibration cycles or during operation, intermittently or for each echo, manually or automatically, by internal or external reference; e.g. an internal reference line, an internal optical waveguide, or an external reflector of known location.
{Alignment of sensor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The monitoring and (re-)adjusting of the transmitted and/or received beam direction.

Display arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All forms of visual, audible or tactile display.

of systems according to group G01S 15/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Disclosures which are directly concerned with details or functionality of sub-systems or component parts of systems according to G01S 15/00.
  • Details of short range imaging systems and echography are put in G01S 7/52017; this short range imaging area is dealt with in a separate definition statement.
  • Details of systems which do not have a specific entry in lower groups, but which are included in the inventive concept of the disclosure, or which do have a specific entry in lower groups but are combinations of such details features, and where classification of each feature individually is inappropriate, should be classified here.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures which concern the functioning of the full system should go in G01S 15/00; however details of systems which form an important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure of a system should also be classified in G01S 7/52.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
(constructional) details of (ultra)sound transducers
Measuring properties of acoustic signals per se
Passive acoustic presence detection
Acoustic lenses and objectives per se
Acoustic beamformers per se
Analysing information e.g. speech in acoustic signals

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems per se are classified in
Acoustic well logging
Towed fish
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ultrasound transducers per se
Measuring properties of acoustic signals
Analysing materials using the information in acoustic signals
Recognising patterns in signals in general
Using acoustic lenses
Acoustic beamformers per se
Loudspeakers
Microphones (i.e. transducers producing electrical signal determined by the frequency/amplitude of the exciting acoustic signal)
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Details of disclosures of systems which form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/52, as well as the appropriate system group in G01S 15/00, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents and the literature the expression/word "sonar" is often used with the meaning of a "purely passive listening device", which may make measurements or estimates of range and/or position. Such passive systems are not classified here. However details where it is not important whether the measurement/detection is carried out actively or passively, and are applicable to active sonar receivers, are classified here.

{Auxiliary means for detecting or identifying sonar signals or the like, e.g. sonar jamming signals ( multi-channel PRF-analysers per se G01R 23/155) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

detection or identification of

  • sonar signals or
  • other signals in the context of sonar, e.g. sonar jamming signals.

The use of said information e.g. for anti-jamming measures is covered by other classes (see below).

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for anti-jamming, e.g. acoustic counter-counter measures.
Jamming means, e.g. producing false echoes
{Techniques for enhancing spatial resolution of targets ( beam formers in general G10K 11/34 ; G01S 7/52046 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods or means for a sonar system providing a modification of the beam pattern for cancelling noise, clutter or interfering signals.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Acoustic beam forming per se
{Means for monitoring or calibrating (short-range imaging G01S 7/5205) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and measures to:

  • monitor the (correct) operating status of the sonar, e.g. detection of failure, malfunction etc. of Tx- and/or Rx components or detection of obstruction of the beam path (e.g. by ice, dirt etc.), or to
  • calibrate the sonar system (e.g. before installation, in separate calibration cycles or during operation, or for each echo, manually or automatically, by internal or external reference
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Taking into account temperature effects
{with provision for compensating the effects of temperature}
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring acoustic properties of acoustic transmission media related to temperature
{Diversity systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diversity means redundancy, e.g. of components or features: For example a plurality of redundant Tx/Rx-modules, transducers, beams, tilt angles or frequency ranges to be used to ensure target detection (e.g. under jamming, interference or combat conditions).

{particularly adapted to short-range imaging (G01S 7/53 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosures which are directly concerned with details or functionality of sub-systems or component parts of systems according to G01S 15/8906, i.e. short range imaging systems; acoustic microscope systems using pulse-echo techniques.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures which concern the functioning of the full system should go in G01S 15/8906; however details of systems which form an important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure of a system should also be classified in G01S 7/52017.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ultrasound transducers per se
Measuring properties of acoustic signals
Analysing materials using the information in acoustic signals
Generic details for imaging systems where the type of system is not explicitly mentioned
Means for transforming coordinates in sonar systems
Recognising patterns in signals in general
Using acoustic lenses
Acoustic beamformers per se
Loudspeakers
Microphones(i.e. transducers producing electrical signal determined by the frequency/amplitude of the exciting acoustic signal)

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems per se are classified in
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Details of disclosures of acoustic short range imaging systems which form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/52017, as well as the appropriate system subgroup in G01S 15/8906, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

As a general rule G01S 7/52017 classes should not be given simultaneously with other G01S 7/00 classes (exceptions: G01S 7/003 and G01S 7/521).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ARFI
Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse:uses brief, high energy focused acoustic pulses to generate radiation force in remote locations in tissue and conventional diagnostic ultrasound methods to detect the resulting tissue displacements in order to provide information about mechanical properties of tissue (e.g. shear wave modulus)
ASAE
Acoustically Stimulated Acoustic Emission: A contrast phenomenon which involves microbubble destruction and enables imaging of small vessel flow (also LOC: loss of correlation; Transient disruption; SAE: Stimulated Acoustic Emission;)
CDE
Colour Doppler Energy, synonym of Colour Power Doppler
CPA
Colour Power Angio, synonym to Colour Power Doppler
DGC
Depth Gain Compensation, synonyms: AGC: Automated Gain Compensation; TGC: Time gain compensation; STC: Sensitivity time control; FGC: Focal Gain Compensation; other forms of compensation: LGC: lateral gain compensation (azimuth);axial gain compensation ; EGC: elevation gain compensation- in ultrasonic flaw detection also called DAC: distance amplitude correction
XFOV
eXtended Field Of View (see EFOV)
EFOV
Extended Field Of View imaging is marketed under at least five different names (see G01S 7/52065 ) - Siescape, - LOGIQView, - FreeStyle extended imaging, - ApliClear- Panoramic imaging
LOC
Loss of correlation: Contrast agent imaging method. A high MI pulse destroys the microbubbles of the contrast agent, which leads to a sudden increase of the scattered signal. Later, weaker pulses image the region. Synonyms: - SEA: stimulated acoustic emission, - ASEA: Acoustically Stimulated Acoustic Emission - intermittent imaging - sonoscintigraphy, - flash echo imaging - flashing - transient disruption- transient imaging
MI
Mechanical Index: An indicator of nonthermal mechanism activity; equal to the peak rarefactional pressure divided by the square root of the center frequency of the pulse bandwidth.
MLA
Multi-Line-Acquisition (a special case would be: Fat Beam Transmission)
MPR (also called I-scan: inclined)
Multi-Planar-Reslicingarbitrary cut plane in a 3D ultrasonic imaging data block
RGC
Rationalised Gain Control (in contrast to TGC): the gain control depends on and is derived from the image itself rather than from a user--entered time relationship. Some of these determine a compensating gain function from an analysis of the echo intensities or the amplitude distribution of the picture elements ("pixels") in the image. In these methods, the gain compensation is thus indirect and does not result from a direct estimate of the attenuation
TGC
see DGC
STC
Sensitivity Time Control (see DGC)
SAE
Stimulated Acoustic Emission (see LOC)
SRI
Strain Rate Imaging
Strain rate
Synonyms: - rate-of-deformation, - stretching, - strain velocity, - velocity strain, - strain Doppler, - sonoelastography, - velocity gradient
TDI
Tissue Doppler Imaging DTV: Doppler Tissue Velocity DTI: Doppler Tissue Imaging, (but also tachycardia detection interval)
{for pulse systems (G01S 7/52034 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Data rate converters
{Extracting wanted echo signals ( Doppler systems G01S 15/50 ; Doppler short range imaging systems G01S 15/8979) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulse detection and extraction in pulsed acoustic short range receivers using e.g. thresholding. Complementary to G01S 7/52077.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting the response signal in analysing materials
Unspecified Doppler sonar systems
Doppler short range imaging systems
If the inventive concept resides in the elimination of unwanted signals such as speckle or artefacts
Biomedical image inspection, from bit-mapped image to non bit-mapped feature
{using digital techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulsed acoustic short range receivers with digital techniques for signal extraction, such as digital beamforming, delta sigma converters, synthetic focusing

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Programmable filters per se
Analogue/digital conversion per se
Delta sigma converters per se
{for non-pulse systems, e.g. CW systems (G01S 7/52034 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Data rate converters
{Gain control of receivers ( for seismic signals G01V 1/245) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting the response signal by gain control in analysing materials
Distance amplitude correction in analysing materials
Gain control of receivers for unspecified pulse sonar systems
Gain control of receivers for unspecified non-pulse sonar systems
Amplitude control for seismic recording
Amplifiers per se
Automatic gain control in amplifiers per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gain control of pulsed sonar receivers
Gain control of non-pulse sonar systems
{Data rate converters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Data rate converters for acoustic short range imaging systems. This comprises in particular ultrasound imaging scan converters.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Scan converters for unspecified pulse sonar systems
Data rate converters for unspecified pulse sonar systems
Control of visual indicators by using colour palettes, e.g. look-up tables
Beamforming using different frequencies
{using analysis of echo signal for target characterisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Analyzing the echo signal in acoustic short range imaging systems in order to characterize the reflecting target or the propagation medium. (e.g. determination of varying sound propagation velocity or frequency dependent attenuation of the propagation medium).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Generic details about analysis of echo signal for target characterisation for acoustic imaging should be classified in G01S 7/539.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Classification of defects in analyzing materials using ultrasonic waves
Classification of features based on pattern recognition
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Imaging strain for diagnostic purposes
see Indexing Codes of A61B
{involving non-linear properties of the propagation medium or of the reflective target}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of acoustic short range imaging systems relating to non-linear interaction of the propagating acoustic wave with the propagation medium and/or the reflecting target. Covers (sub)harmonic imaging.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indexing Codes of
{Techniques for image enhancement involving transmitter or receiver ( image enhancement by image data processing G06T 5/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of disclosures of acoustic short range imaging systems relating to the transmit or receive channel in order to enhance the output image. Examples are modifications of the transducer diagram such as limited diffraction beams.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures of generic details for enhancing spatial resolution of targets in acoustic imaging systems where the type of system is not explicitly mentioned, go in G01S 7/52003

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image enhancement by image data processing
Beamforming per se
G10K 11/341 and subgroups
{for elimination of side lobes or of grating lobes; for increasing resolving power ( beam formers in general G10K 11/34) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of acoustic short range imaging systems, relating to the receiver or transmitter aiming at eliminating side or grating lobes and at increasing the resolving power of the resulting system.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Enhancing the spatial resolution in sonar systems
Beam formers in general
Apodisation per se
{using correction of medium-induced phase aberration}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of short range imaging systems relating to the correction of the phase aberration due to inhomogeneous sound velocities in the propagation medium. Also called adaptive imaging.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Phase aberration
A phased array system assumes a certain acoustic velocity to calculate the focal and steering delays to ensure that all transmitted or received signals are in phase at the focal point. Inhomogeneous acoustic propagation velocities change the effective acoustic path length thereby producing a broadening of the focal point.
{Means for monitoring or calibrating}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of short range imaging systems relating to the monitoring during use of the system or calibration prior to the use of the system.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Disclosures of generic details for monitoring and calibrating in acoustic imaging systems where the type of system is not explicitly mentioned
Ultrasound phantoms
Phased array checking or checking devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Calibration or testing of ultrasound probes, simulators for testing probes
see Indexing Codes of A61B
Calibration phantoms/bodies for testing ultrasound probes
see Indexing Codes of A61B
{with simulation of echoes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of monitoring and calibrating devices wherein the user has complete control of the reflected signal which is used for monitoring or calibration. Covers in particular computer simulation of the echo signal.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Calibrating or correcting the measurement of coordinates of points
{Display arrangements}
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for displaying electric variables in general
Disclosures of generic details for display arrangements in acoustic imaging systems where the type of system is not explicitly mentioned
{in association with ancillary recording equipment}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Ancillary recording equipment
supplementary or auxiliary devices, for supplementary recording during imaging, such as VCR, data storage, external memory
{Cathode ray tube displays ( cathode ray oscilloscopes in general G01R 13/20) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of short range imaging systems relating to the display of the image.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Display representation in the analysis of materials (A-, B- or C-Scan)
Cathode ray oscilloscopes in general
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Cathode ray tube
any type of display or screen device. In particular modern LCD, OLED
{Two-dimensional coordinated display of distance and direction; B-scan display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of acoustic short range imaging relating to a 2D display.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
2D
two-dimensional
{Plan position indication (PPI display) ; C-scan display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display of constant (or arbitrary) depth images of acoustic short range imaging wherein the image plane does not correspond to the acquisition plane.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Imaging apparatus producing slice/tomographic images in user-selectable planes, not corresponding to acquisition planes. Often combined with 3D imaging
see Indexing Codes of A61B
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
C-scan display
Constant depth scan;However, exists as well as arbitrary orientation scan
{Sector scan display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosure relating to the display of parts of an image, such as a particular region of interest, a zoom, a magnifying lens effect.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Operator selection of a ROI on an ultrasound image
see Indexing Codes of A61B
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
2D
region of interest
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ROI
region of interest
{Compound scan display, e.g. panoramic imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display of images covering a larger area than what the transducer could cover without movement. Examples are 2D or 3D panoramic imaging, extended field of view imaging.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spatial or frequency compounding
Acoustic short range imaging systems using a dynamic transducer configuration
Sound steering by moving the transducer with arcuate movement
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
3D
three-dimensional
2D
two-dimensional
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Extended field of view imaging (EFOV, XFOV)
EXtended Field Of View imaging is marketed under at least five different names - Siescape, - LOGIQView, - FreeStyle extended imaging, - ApliClear- Panoramic imaging
{Time-position or time-motion displays}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display of a variable over time in acoustic short range imaging. This covers in particular spectral Doppler imaging, M-mode imaging.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring blood flow for medical diagnosis
Detecting organic movements or changes for medical diagnosis
M-mode imaging for diagnosis
see Indexing Codes of A61B
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indexing Codes of
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
M mode
(time) Motion mode. B-mode presentation of changing reflector position (motion) versus time (used in echocardiography).
{Stereoscopic displays; Three-dimensional displays; Pseudo 3D displays (G01S 15/8993 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Displays of acoustic short range imaging producing a stereoscopic effect when looked at. Disclosures related exclusively to the displaying of 3D images.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Acoustic short range imaging systems acquiring and producing 3D data sets which are rendered for displaying an image should be classified in G01S 15/8993.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Three dimensional short range imaging
Stereoscopic television systems and details thereof
H04N13/00S and subgroups
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
3D imaging for medical diagnosis
see Indexing Codes of A61B
{Multicolour displays; using colour coding; Optimising colour or information content in displays, e.g. parametric imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosures of acoustic short range imaging systems colour coding and mapping information; optimising the colour and/or information display; parametric imaging.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Colour displays in material analysis
Control of visual indicators by using colour palettes, e.g. look-up tables
{Production of cursor lines, markers or indicia by electronic means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosure of acoustic short range systems overlaying non-alphanumeric information on top of an image.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Display of alphanumeric information together with an image
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indexing Codes of
{Composite displays, e.g. split-screen displays; Combination of multiple images or of images and alphanumeric tabular information}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indexing Codes of
{Luminous indicators}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disclosures of any kind of visual indicator in acoustic short range imaging systems, such as LED for information or warning.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LED
Light Emitting Device
{with means for elimination of unwanted signals, e.g. noise or interference}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of disclosures of acoustic short range imaging systems relating to noise or interference reduction or elimination: speckle reduction, elimination of artefacts such as aliasing, multiline. Complementary to G01S 7/52026.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discriminating between fixed and moving objects or between objects moving at different speeds in combined Doppler and pulse-echo short range imaging systems
Signal extraction
Image enhancement by deblurring, restoration or noise filtering
{Constructional features ( constructional features of transducers B06B; mounting transducers G10K 11/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects of mechanical features, of physical layouts involving both transmitter and/or receiver, where these are non-trivial.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transducers, singly, in pairs or in arrays, where there is no further non-trivial disclosure of sonar operation
Transmitters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Schematics, circuit details, circuit diagrams of pulsed sonar transmitters

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting or directing sound in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic wave for investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Extracting wanted echo signals { ( Doppler systems G01S 15/50) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulse detection and extraction in pulsed acoustic receivers using e.g. thresholding.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting the response signal in analysing materials
{using digital techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulsed acoustic receivers with digital techniques for signal extraction.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Analogue/digital conversion per se
{using analogue techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulsed acoustic receivers using analogue techniques such as analogue sampling, pulse level thresholds.

Gain of receiver varied automatically during pulse-recurrence period { ( for seismic signals G01V 1/245) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gain control of amplifiers per se
For seismic signals
Means for transforming coordinates or for evaluating data, e.g. using computers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g., converting polar to Cartesian coordinates, details of computer implemented receivers.

Scan converters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ultrasound imaging scan converters
Radar display scan converters
Data rate converters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Data rate converters for acoustic short range imaging systems
Details of non-pulse systems { ( short-range imaging G01S 7/52 S ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details including circuit details (circuit diagrams) of sonar using non-pulsed carrier waves.

{Gain control of receivers ( for seismic signals G01V 1/245) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gain control of amplifiers per se
For seismic signals
Counter-measures or counter-counter-measures, e.g. jamming, anti-jamming { ( in general H04K) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and measures to carry out OR to counter a jamming attack.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detection of jamming signals
with receivers spaced apart
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Receiver arrangements primarily to aid in measuring the distance to the target.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Receivers spaced apart measuring the bearing of the incoming acoustic signal
Display arrangements { ( short-range imaging G01S 7/52053) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All details of sonar displays and the respective data processing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Display systems for visualising the interior of objects using sonic, ultrasonic, and infrasonic waves
Display systems for short range ultrasonic imaging,
for providing variable ranges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

User or automatic selection of e.g. different depth ranges.

for providing a permanent recording
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. arrangements for storing sonar display data for later use.

Cathode-ray tube displays {or other two-dimensional or three-dimensional displays ( cathode ray oscilloscopes in general G01R 13/20) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not only details of cathode-ray tube displays (old technique now superseded by newer technologies, e.g. LCD) but details of all kind of displays; such details being e.g. the use of different colours, cursor lines, symbols, plan-position indicators etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cathode ray oscilloscopes in general
{providing display of one measured variable}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. displaying, either graphically or not a single variable, e.g. range to target.

Systems for determining distance or velocity not using reflection or reradiation ( direction-finders G01S 3/00 ; position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations G01S 5/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for determining distance or velocity not using reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves. The exemption does not preclude reflected sunlight, thus cameras operating on images received from reflected sunlight, are classified here.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Direction Finders
Position fixing
Special rules of classification within this group

G01S 11/16 takes precedence over G01S 11/02, G01S 11/12 and G01S 11/14.

using radio waves (G01S 19/00 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using difference in transit time between electrical and acoustic signals.
Satellite radio beacon positioning systems including receivers and elements cooperating therewith. Determination of position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems.
using synchronised clocks ( synchronisation of electronic clocks G04G 7/02)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synchronisation of electrical clocks
using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Systems for determining distance or velocity not using reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves, notably in the optical range, other than radio waves.
  • Vehicle anti-collision systems employing optical signals which have neither been reflected nor reradiated are classified in this subgroup. Anti-collision systems involving video signals are also included.
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring distance in line of sight using parallax, i.e. stereo cameras
Using difference in transit time between electrical and acoustic signals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lidar systems specially adapted for anti-collision purposes:
using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using difference in transit time between electrical and acoustic signals
using difference in transit time between electrical and acoustic signals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using difference in transit time between electrical and acoustic signals to determine distance and velocity. Electromagnetic signals, including optical signals are considered as electrical signals.

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified ( using acoustic waves G01S 15/00 ; using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves G01S 17/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for detecting the presence of an object, e.g. by reflection or reradiation (G01S 13/74) from the object itself, or from a transponder associated with the object, for determining the distance or relative velocity of an object, for providing a co-ordinated display of the distance and direction of an object or for obtaining an image thereof; - systems arranged for mounting on a moving craft or vehicle and using the reflection of waves from an extended surface external to the craft, e.g. the surface of the earth, to determine the velocity and direction of motion of the craft relative to the surface.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosure of analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves go in G01S 15/00; using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves go in G01S 17/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Systems for determining the direction of an object by means not employing reflection or reradiation, which are covered by groups
Systems for determining distance or velocity of an object by means not employing reflection or reradiation, which are covered by group
Using forward scattering and measuring material property

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Measuring liquid levels
Special rules of classification within this group

Details of disclosures of systems which conceptually form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/02, as well as the appropriate system group in G01S 13/00, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

where a disclosure specifies alternative methods of measuring distance, for example, both time of flight of a transmitted and received radio pulse, as well as a difference measured in a transmitted and reflected continuous wave radio signal, and if these are described in detail, then the disclosure is classified in both G01S 13/10 and G01S 13/32.

{Bistatic radar systems; Multistatic radar systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radar systems having a transmitting antenna which is dislocated from the receiving antenna; radar systems without a transmitter antenna that use illuminators of opportunity, e.g. ambient radio signals, satellite signals, TV-station signals.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monostatic radar systems having a separate transmit and receive antenna, as typically used in FMCW radar.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combination of radar systems
{Systems with very large relative bandwidth, i.e. larger than 10 %, e.g. baseband, pulse, carrier-free, ultrawideband}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

UWB
Ultra Wideband
{Very long range radars, e.g. surface wave radar, over-the-horizon or ionospheric propagation systems ( for meteorological use G01S 13/95) }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

OTH
Over-The-Horizon
Systems determining the presence of a target ( based on relative movement of target G01S 13/56)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where only the detection of the existence or not of a signal reflected from a target to the receiver is important.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Systems based on relative movement of the target, see G01S 13/56.

Systems determining position data of a target
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where an own position at a measuring point is unknown within a given reference system, and is measured using active radio rangefinding, as well as systems where position of a target relative to a measuring point is determined using non-defined measurements of a signal reflected from the target and received at that measuring point.

Systems for measuring distance only ( indirect measurement G01S 13/46)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where a disclosure specifies alternative methods of measuring distance, for example, both time of flight of a transmitted and received radio pulse, as well as a difference measured in a transmitted and reflected continuous wave radio signal, and if these are described in detail, then the disclosure is classified in both G01S 13/10 and G01S 13/32.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Indirect measurement
{particularities of the measurement of the distance (G01S 13/12 , G01S 13/14 , G01S 13/16 , G01S 13/18 and G01S 13/20 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particularities relating to measurement method involving transmission and reception; details as such are put in G01S 7/02.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup
{using transmission of pulses having some particular characteristics (G01S 13/12 , G01S 13/22 , G01S 13/24 , G01S 13/26 , G01S 13/28 and G01S 13/30 take precedence ) }
Special rules of classification within this subgroup
wherein range gates are used
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "range gate", "range bin" and "range cell" are often used as synonyms.

wherein more than one modulation frequency is used
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems using the simultaneous transmission of dual- or multi-frequency signals.

Simultaneous measurement of distance and other co-ordinates ( indirect measurement G01S 13/46)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems using other coordinates that include Cartesian or polar spatial coordinates of target

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bearing and direction finders per se
Indirect measurement
Monopulse radar, i.e. simultaneous lobing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monopulse in direction finding
{HF sub-systems particularly adapted therefor, e.g. circuits for signal combination ( multi-lobing aerials or aerial systems H01Q 25/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Waveguide couplers
Multilobing aerials or aerial systems
Indirect determination of position data
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques not involving the measurement of the time of flight of the measurement signal between transmitter and receiver.

using multiple beams at emission or reception
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stacked beam radar systems
based upon the phase or frequency shift resulting from movement of objects, with reference to the transmitted signals, e.g. coherent MTI ( coherent receivers G01S 7/288)
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

This subgroup does not cover clutter analysis for stationary targets:

Coherent receivers
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
MTI
moving target indicator
{Adaptive clutter cancellation ( specially adapted for airborne MTI, G01S 13/5242) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Clutter analysis for stationary targets:

Discriminating targets with respect to background clutter
Specially adapted for MTI
{IF cancellers, e.g. TACCAR systems}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
TACCAR
Time-Averaged Clutter-Coherent Airborne Radar
Velocity or trajectory determination systems; Sense-of-movement determination systems { ( systems applied to the controlling of traffic G01S 13/92) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems that measure properties of the reflected signal which contain information allowing the velocity of a moving target to be derived, where the moving target has a surface which causes reflection of the impinging radio measurement beam e.g. solid objects, particles suspended in a moving fluid: Note: the velocity of the moving fluid may be inferred from the measured velocity of the particles.

using transponders powered from received waves, e.g. using passive transponders, {or using passive reflectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transponders which are operable in the context of determining position, range, or velocity.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Record carriers comprising integrated circuit chips: G06K 19/07

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transponders that are used for the mere exchange of data.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used as synonyms:

RFID
Radio Frequency Identification
{using a signal generator for modifying the reflectivity of the reflector (G01S 13/758 takes precedence ) }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "modifying reflectivity for data transmission" and “backscatter modulation" are often used as synonyms.

for distance determination by phase measurement
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Phase measurement using reflection
Combinations of radar systems, e.g. primary radar and secondary radar
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission of data between radar systems
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

This subgroup relates to combination of radar systems, meaning that separate, independently operating radar systems are combined into one overall system, in particular by combining measurement data. Radar systems that for example comprise two transmitters are not considered a combination of radar systems.

{Combination of several spaced transmitters or receivers of known location for determining the position of a transponder or a reflector (G01S 13/874 takes precedence ) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Determining absolute distances from a plurality of spaced points of known location
{for ground probing ( prospecting or detecting using electromagnetic waves G01V 3/12) }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

GPR
ground penetrating radar
{for detection of concealed objects, e.g. contraband or weapons}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Prospecting using millimetre waves
for traffic control (G01S 13/93 takes precedence )
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Traffic control system per se: G08G.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monitoring traffic from ground station
for velocity measurement
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Traffic control systems measuring speed
{between aircraft or spacecraft in flight, e.g. secant ( terrain-avoidance systems G01S 13/94) }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

TCAS
Traffic Collision Avoidance System
for meteorological use
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Meteorology per se: G01W 1/00

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves, e.g. sonar systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for detecting presence, distance, position, movement and velocity of objects in space using the reflection of propagating acoustic waves or re-radiation (G01S 15/74) of acoustic waves. Systems for acoustic imaging are also covered, but are divided between long range (far field systems): G01S 15/89, and short range imaging and echography G01S 15/8906; this short range imaging area is dealt with in a separate definition statement.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures of generic systems for detecting presence, distance, position, movement and velocity of objects in space using the reflection of propagating waves or re-radiation of waves where the type of waves are not explicitly mentioned, go in G01S 13/00; but if these systems include features which are identifiable as relating to acoustic systems, then a class is also given in G01S 15/00.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Acoustic beamformers

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Towed fish
Acoustic well logging
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Seismic prospecting, acoustic detecting
Special rules of classification within this group

Details of disclosures of systems which conceptually form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/52, as well as the appropriate system group in G01S 15/00, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

where a disclosure specifies alternative methods of measuring distance, for example, both time of flight of a transmitted and received sound pulse, as well as a difference measured in a transmitted and reflected continuous wave acoustic signal, and if these are described in detail, then the disclosure is classified in both G01S 15/10 and G01S 15/32.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
2D
two dimensional
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the word "sonar" is often used with the meaning "passive acoustic receiving/listening system".

Therefore the keyword "sonar" should be used with caution.

Systems determining presence of a target
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where only the detection of the existence or not of a signal reflected from a target to the receiver is important.

Systems determining the position data of a target
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where an own position at a measuring point is unknown within a given reference system, and is measured using active acoustic rangefinding, are put here; as well as systems where position of a target relative to a measuring point is determined using non-defined measurements of a signal reflected from the target and received at that measuring point.

Systems for measuring distance only ( indirect measurement G01S 15/46)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where a disclosure specifies alternative methods of measuring distance, for example, both time of flight of a transmitted and received acoustic pulse, as well as a difference measured in a transmitted and reflected continuous wave acoustic signal, and if these are described in detail, then the disclosure is classified in both G01S 15/10 and G01S 15/32.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Indirect measurement
{Particularities of the measurement of distance (G01S 15/12 , G01S 15/14 , and G01S 15/18 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particularities relating to measurement method involving transmission and reception; details as such are put in G01S 7/52.

Simultaneous measurement of distance and other co-ordinates ( indirect measurement G01S 15/46)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other coordinates include Cartesian or polar spatial coordinates of target.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bearing and direction finders per se
Indirect determination of position data
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques not involving the measurement of the time of flight of the measurement signal between transmitter and receiver.

Velocity or trajectory determination systems; Sense-of-movement determination systems { ( velocity measurement in imaging systems G01S 15/8979) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring properties of the reflected signal which contain information allowing the velocity of a moving target to be derived, where the moving target has a surface which causes reflection of the impinging acoustic measurement beam e.g. solid objects, particles suspended in a moving fluid: Note: the velocity of the moving fluid may be inferred from the measured velocity of the particles.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Determining velocities by acoustic means when propagation effects are not relevant, e.g. acoustically measuring the velocity of moving fluids per se, G01P 5/24, acoustically measuring fluid flow per se; G01F 1/66, measuring blood flow per se A61B 8/00.

{Meteorological systems}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring wind speed
{Short-range imaging systems; Acoustic microscope systems using pulse-echo techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for short range imaging using reflection of propagating acoustic waves, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures which concern the functioning of the full system should go in G01S 15/8906.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Medical diagnosis by ultrasounds
Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations of ultrasonic frequency
Thickness measurement by ultrasonic waves
Flow measurements by ultrasonic waves
Measuring or indicating of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves in general
Analysing solids by imaging using ultrasonic waves
Details of systems which form an important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure of a system
Seismic or acoustic prospecting or detecting
Obtaining records by techniques analogous to photography using ultrasonic waves
Models for scanning techniques in medical ultrasonics
Wiring or connecting of acoustic transducers per se
Sound-focusing or directing, e.g. scanning
G10K 11/26 and subgroups
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Medical diagnostic ultrasound applications
Transducers per se
B06B1/01
Investigating solids using ultrasound
Image processing per se
Beamforming of ultrasound waves
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

For systems transmitting data to a remote station G01S 7/003 should be given

Details of disclosures of systems which conceptually form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/52017, as well as the appropriate system subgroup in G01S 15/8906, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation are often used:

ARFI
Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse:uses brief, high energy focused acoustic pulses to generate radiation force in remote locations in tissue and conventional diagnostic ultrasound methods to detect the resulting tissue displacements in order to provide information about mechanical properties of tissue (e.g. shear wave modulus)
ASAE
Acoustically Stimulated Acoustic Emission: A contrast phenomenon which involves microbubble destruction and enables imaging of small vessel flow (also LOC: loss of correlation; Transient disruption; SAE: Stimulated Acoustic Emission)
CDE
Colour Doppler Energy, synonym of Colour Power Doppler
CPA
Colour Power Angio, synonym to Colour Power Doppler
DGC
Depth Gain Compensation, synonyms: AGC: Automated Gain Compensation; TGC: Time gain compensation; STC: Sensitivity time control; FGC: Focal Gain Compensation; other forms of compensation: LGC: lateral gain compensation (azimuth);axial gain compensation ; EGC: elevation gain compensation- in ultrasonic flaw detection also called DAC: distance amplitude correction
XFOV
eXtended Field Of View (see EFOV)
EFOV
Extended Field Of View imaging is marketed under at least five different names (see G01S 7/52065 ) - Siescape, - LOGIQView, - FreeStyle extended imaging, - ApliClear- Panoramic imaging
LOC
Loss of correlation: Contrast agent imaging method. A high MI pulse destroys the microbubbles of the contrast agent, which leads to a sudden increase of the scattered signal. Later, weaker pulses image the region. Synonyms: - SEA: stimulated acoustic emission, - ASEA: Acoustically Stimulated Acoustic Emission - intermittent imaging - sonoscintigraphy, - flash echo imaging - flashing - transient disruption- transient imaging
MI
Mechanical Index: An indicator of nonthermal mechanism activity; equal to the peak rarefactional pressure divided by the square root of the center frequency of the pulse bandwidth.
MLA
Multi-Line-Acquisition (a special case would be: Fat Beam Transmission)
MPR (also called I-scan: inclined)
Multi-Planar-Reslicingarbitrary cut plane in a 3D ultrasonic imaging data block
RGC
Rationalised Gain Control (in contrast to TGC): the gain control depends on and is derived from the image itself rather than from a user--entered time relationship. Some of these determine a compensating gain function from an analysis of the echo intensities or the amplitude distribution of the picture elements ("pixels") in the image. In these methods, the gain compensation is thus indirect and does not result from a direct estimate of the attenuation
TGC
see DGC
STC
Sensitivity Time Control (see DGC)
SAE
Stimulated Acoustic Emission (see LOC)
SRI
Strain Rate Imaging
Strain rate
Synonyms: - rate-of-deformation, - stretching, - strain velocity, - velocity strain, - strain Doppler, - sonoelastography, - velocity gradient
TDI
Tissue Doppler Imaging DTV: Doppler Tissue Velocity DTI: Doppler Tissue Imaging, (but also tachycardia detection interval)
{using a static transducer configuration ( sound-focusing or directing per se G10K 11/26) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, wherein the fact that the imaging transducers are static is essential.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional aspects of transducers
Piezoelectric probes for analysing materials
Analysing materials using electronic focusing, e.g. phased arrays
Sound-focusing or directing per se
Aspects related to the shape of the transducer
Phased arrays and beamforming per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transducers per se
Sound-focusing using acoustic lenses
{using a dynamic transducer configuration ( mounting transducers, e.g. provided with mechanical moving or orienting device per se G10K 11/004) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, wherein the fact that the imaging transducers can be moved or wherein movable parts inside a transducer probe are essential.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Analysing materials using a sensor moving relative to a stationary material
Mounting transducers per se, e.g. provided with mechanical moving or orienting device
G10K 11/004 and subgroups
Sound directing per se using mechanical steering by moving the transducer
Sound directing per se by moving a reflector
{characterised by the transmitted frequency spectrum}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, wherein the transmitted frequency spectrum is essential for the invention.

example for G01S 15/895:

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(from WO2010004333)

e.g. a parametric source with a non-linear medium to transform a high-frequency electric driving signal into a low frequency collimated beam.

frequency switching on transmit

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Investigating or analysing materials generating the ultrasonic waves with frequency characteristics, e.g. single frequency, chirps
Different forms of pulses
G01S 15/10 and subgroups
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

High frequency, i.e. above 20 MHz, ultrasound imaging should be classified here

G01S 15/8952 should be given for several Dirac peaks in the frequency spectrum

G01S 15/8954 should be given in case of a spread spectrum and of chirps. However, only when using ultrashort (and hence broadband) pulses

In case the two possibilities, G01S 15/8952 and G01S 15/8954, are relevant the main subgroup should be given, not both sub-groups

{using coded signals for correlation purposes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, using coded signals for pulse compression (coding by e.g. Golay codes, Barker codes or chirps), differentiating multiple transmit beams using coded signals.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PED
Pulse Elongation and Deconvolution
{using acousto-optical or acousto-electronic conversion techniques}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, with an optical-acoustic transducer structure using an absorbed pump light pulse in the transducer probe to generate a sound pulse;

Systems comprising two acoustic arrays with circuitry between them in order to work after the manner of a lens; Interferometric detection of reflected ultrasound waves for imaging purposes.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optoacoustic imaging, i.e. imaging of tissue using ultrasound waves generated in the tissue by a laser pulse
A61B 5/0073 and related transversal Indexing Codes
Investigating materials with probes using optoacoustic interaction with the material, e.g. laser radiation
Devices for manipulating acoustic surface waves
Sound-production using optical excitation per se, e.g. laser bundle
{using acoustical modulation of a light beam ( acousto-optical light control devices G02F 1/11 , G02F 1/33) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Interferometric detection of reflected acoustic waves for imaging purposes using the acoustical modulation of a light beam

media2.png

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(from EP1298450, published 2003)

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring ultrasonic waves using mechanical fibre optic sensors
Investigating materials whereby incident light is modified using opto-acoustic detection
Control of amplitude or phase of light based on acousto-optical elements
Control the position or direction of light beams using acousto-optical deflection devices
{using application of holographic techniques (holography per se G03H) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

example:

media4.png

(from WO03032817)

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Analysing solids using the imaging of the interior by acoustic holography
Holography per se
Acoustic holography per se
G03H 3/00 and subgroups
{using acoustical image/electron beam converter tubes ( tubes therefor H01J 31/495) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using e.g. Sokolov tubes for ultrasound detection (obsolete: technique from the 1980s)

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(from GB2066957, published 1981)

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tubes for acoustical image/electron beam converters
{using special techniques for image reconstruction, e.g. FFT, geometrical transformations, spatial deconvolution, time deconvolution ( digital image processing per se G06T 1/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, using special techniques on the already acquired set of acoustic data to (re)construct an image from these data.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Analysing materials by processing the detected response signal using
Statistical methods
Spectral analysis (e.g. FFT)
Auto- or cross-correlation techniques
Digital image processing per se
{Combined Doppler and pulse-echo imaging systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, using duplex imaging, i.e. colour coded flow velocity information extracted using Doppler signals overlaid as parametric information on B-mode images. General Doppler system should be classified in G01S 15/8979

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring blood flow for medical diagnosis
Blood flow in combination with B-scan for diagnosis
A61B8/06F
Detecting organic movements using Doppler signals for diagnosis
A61B8/08B
Measuring of volume flow using ultrasound
Measuring speed of fluids in general
Systems relating to spectral Doppler only
Determining the velocity vector for example of the blood flow
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For the principle underlying wall filters (i.e. G01S 15/8981)
Determining the velocity vector
{Combination of imaging systems with ancillary equipment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, wherein the ancillary equipment has a direct and important influence on the acoustic imaging itself.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ultrasound lithotripsy
Measuring for diagnostic purposes
Medical image archiving
G06F19/00M5I
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Ancillary equipment
supplementary or auxiliary devices, for supplementary sensing or monitoring during imaging, such as temperature sensors, cooling systems, tracking systems, docking units, ECG systems, high intensity focused ultrasound probes used for or during imaging, or combinations thereof
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ECG
Electrocardiogram
PPG
photoplenthysmography, e.g. a pulse oximeter
{Three dimensional imaging systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acoustic short range imaging systems, in particular medical ultrasound imaging systems, using the acquisition of a three-dimensional set of data to produce via per se well-known rendering techniques a three-dimensional image.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Three-dimensional stereoscopic images
3D image rendering
Ray tracing per se
Volume rendering per se
3D modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects
Manipulating 3D images
G06T17/40
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diagnosis using ultrasound 3D
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

3D
three-dimensional
{Combining images from different aspect angles, e.g. spatial compounding}
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image enhancement per se using more than one image, e.g. averaging, subtraction
Registration of images
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Spatial Compounding
Averaging of frames that view anatomy from different imaging angles.
Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems ( photogrammetry or videogrammetry G01C 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group covers systems for detecting presence, distance, position, movement and velocity of objects in space using the reflection of propagating electromagnetic waves or re-radiation (G01S 17/74) of electromagnetic waves where the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is shorter than the range of electromagnetic wavelengths including millimetric waves.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Disclosures of generic systems for detecting presence, distance, position, movement and velocity of objects in space using the reflection of propagating electromagnetic waves or re-radiation of electromagnetic waves where the range of wavelengths are not explicitly mentioned, go in G01S 13/00; but if these systems include features which are identifiable as relating to optical systems, then a class is also given in G01S 17/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lasers per se
(photogrammetry or videogrammetry
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring linear dimensions, e.g. length, thickness, and distances between spaced objects
Measuring distances, levels, bearings; surveying; navigation
Measuring light per se
Investigating materials by optical radiation, microwaves or acoustic waves
Measuring linear or angular speed, indicating presence, absence, or direction of movement
Detecting masses or objects by methods not involving reflection or reradiation of radio, acoustic, or other waves; prospecting
Optical systems
Control of position, course, altitude or attitude
Detecting the presence of objects for the purpose of counting them
Traffic control systems; anti-collision systems
Special rules of classification within this group

Details of disclosures of systems which conceptually form a technically important or technically non-trivial part of a disclosure should be classified in G01S 7/48, as well as the appropriate system group in G01S 17/00, especially if these details form a significant part of the disclosure, and do not concern well-known and widely retrievable subject-matter.

Systems for optically measuring the velocity of particles suspended in fluids by reflection are put in G01S 17/58

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Triangulation
identifying an unknown location by calculating the length of one side of a triangle based on distance and angle measurements to known reference points
Trilateration
identifying an unknown location by using the geometry of triangles and spheres.
Multilateration
identifying an unknown location using a process similar to triangulation and trilateration using three or more known reference points.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Lidar", "Ladar" and "Laser Radar" are often used as synonyms.

{for detecting the presence of an object}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where only the detection of the existence or not of a signal reflected from a target to the receiver is important

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prospecting by optical means; detecting the presence of objects or masses by optical means, e.g. by interruption of beams, i.e. light barriers, G01V 8/00.

Systems determining position data of a target
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where an own position at a measuring point is unknown within a given reference system, and is measured using active optical rangefinding, are put here; as well as systems where position of a target relative to a measuring point is determined using non-defined measurements of a signal reflected from the target and received at that measuring point.

for measuring distance only ( indirect measurement G01S 17/46 ; active triangulation systems G01S 17/48 ; passive systems using a parallactic triangle G01C 3/10 , G01C 3/22 , G01C 3/24 , G01C 3/26)
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Where a disclosure specifies alternative methods of measuring distance, for example, both time of flight of a transmitted and received optical pulse, as well as a time of flight measured with a transmitted and reflected continuous wave optical signal, and if these are described in detail, then the disclosure is classified in both G01S 17/10 and G01S 17/32.

using transmission of continuous unmodulated waves, amplitude-, frequency-, or phase-modulated waves
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Interferometers per se; G01B 9/00: optically measuring length, width or thickness by measuring distance to an object; G01B 11/026.

Simultaneous measurement of distance and other co-ordinates ( indirect measurement G01S 17/46)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other coordinates include Cartesian or polar spatial coordinates of target.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bearing and direction finders per se
Indirect determination of position data
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques not involving the measurement of the time of flight of the measurement signal between transmitter and receiver.

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves ( passive systems using a parallactic triangle G01C 3/10 , G01C 3/22 , G01C 3/24 , G01C 3/26 ; active systems for automatic generation of focusing signals G02B 7/32)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Passive systems using a parallactic triangle
Active systems for automatic generation of focusing signals
Velocity or trajectory determination systems; Sense-of-movement determination systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring properties of the reflected signal which contain information allowing the velocity of a moving target to be derived, where the moving target has a surface which causes reflection of the impinging optical measurement beam e.g. solid objects, particles suspended in a moving fluid: Note: the velocity of the moving fluid may be inferred from the measured velocity of the particles.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Determining velocities by optical means when propagation effects are not relevant, e.g. optically measuring the velocity of moving fluids per se; G01P 3/36, optically measuring fluid flow per se; G01F 1/66.

for mapping or imaging
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical imaging systems which are active, i.e. a dedicated illuminator/transmitter whether coherent or not is present, and the depth and/or range to objects within the illuminated space is measured

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Optically measuring length, width or thickness using tv-camera scanning; G01B 11/022: television/imaging systems not having range measurement per se; H04N: surveying systems per se; G01S 15/00.

Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Satellite radio beacon positioning systems including receivers and elements cooperating therewith.
  • Determination of position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems.
Special rules of classification within this group

The distinction made between the use of subgroups of G01S 19/03 and subgroups with similar sounding names, such as G01S 19/25, G01S 19/41, G01S 19/43, G01S 19/45 is according to where the invention lies. Taking G01S 19/07 and G01S 19/41 an example: publications relating to differential GPS often mention both the reference station which creates the differential corrections and the act of correcting the position in the receiver. Usually, the inventive information present in a publication will relate either to the act of correction, or to reference station and method of sending the correction data to the receiver. Should the subject matter relate to carrying out correction, G01S 19/41 should be allocated; in the case of creating the differential data in the reference station or transferring it to the receiver, G01S 19/07 should be allocated. It is not uncommon for cooperating elements to provide all or some of the set of acquisition data, differential correction data, integrity data, ranging signals. Classification symbols should be given only to a document for those elements of the list which are part of the inventive disclosure of the document. Additional classification symbols may then be given to indicate the presence of the other information.

Relating to G01S 19/13 and G01S 19/39.

Subject matter related to the carrying out of processing not in the receiver itself, but at a remote station, should - in the absence of a dedicated subgroup in G01S 19/13 or G01S 19/42 - be allocated G01S 19/09.

Subgroups – are "application-places for (GPS) receivers" insofar as they cover special characteristics of the (GPS) receivers, or specific constraints imposed on the receivers, so that they can adapt to the specific application. These subgroups do not cover the mere indication of the possible uses of a general GPS receiver.

The decision as to whether to classify in these groups will depend on the extent to which the invention relates to the core subject of these groups. Patent documents which deal with GPS merely as a "black box" to provide positioning information for use by the application would not normally be classified in these groups.

These subgroups are also intended as an aid in making search in other G01S 19/00 groups more efficient, as the application may suggest particular restrictions on the function of the receiver, e.g. a military application may imply a harsh electromagnetic environment and use of higher spec. components.

Should the matter in hand disclose constructional feature or software or hardware implementation issues, allocation of a G01S 19/35 code may be appropriate.

Matter relating to the determination of position, velocity and attitude should be classified in G01S 19/00, however, should matter be disclosed which would warrant classification and which relates to other parameters such as angular velocity, altitude, meteorological properties etc, such matter should be allocated to G01S 19/39.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Cooperating elements
designates additional elements or subsystems, including receivers of other users, which interact or communicate with the receiver to assist in acquisition or position determination. It does not refer to the ground control segments of the satellite systems.
Time-stamped message
designates a message encoded with time of transmission for use in determining the signal travel time
Relative Positioning
designates that position (angle + range) is calculated relative to another measured position.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AGPS
Assisted (or aided) GPS
DGPS
Differential GPS
GLONASS
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System
GPS
Global Positioning System
IMU
Inertial Measurement Unit
INS
Inertial Navigation System
LAMBDA
Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment
Cooperating elements; Interaction or communication between different cooperating elements or between cooperating elements and receivers
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Services making use of the location of users or terminals, i.e. position related information.
providing dedicated supplementary positioning signals
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Where the matter refers to a transmitter having more general application than merely GPS related, classification in G01S 1/00 should also be considered.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Beacons transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and definition direction, positions, or position lines
Receivers
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Receivers present in cooperating elements, in so far as they would not be susceptible of more general application, should be classified in the relevant subclass of:
specially adapted for specific applications
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subgroup is covered when used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Fire Fighting
Apparatus for physical training, sports
Vehicle fittings for preventing or indicating unauthorised use or theft of vehicles
Surveying
Navigation
Electronic time-pieces for aspects of time-setting or synchronization
Alarms responsive to a single specified undesired or abnormal operating condition
Alarm systems in which the location of the alarm condition is signalled to a central station, e.g. fire or police telegraphic systems
Traffic control systems for road vehicles
Locating users or terminals for network management purposes
interference related issues; {Issues related to cross-correlation, spoofing or other methods of denial of service ( interference-related aspects in spread spectrum receivers per se H04B 1/7097) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spoofers, jammers etc.
Interference related aspects in spread spectrum receivers
Multipath-related issues
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multipath detection and mitigation is often tightly bound to the signal acquisition. Where the subject matter related to signal acquisition is more generally applicable, classification in G01S 19/30 may also be desirable.

G01S 19/22 and G01S 19/428 both relate to multipath issues. Matter in G01S 19/22 relates principally to identification and mitigation of multipath effects. G01S 19/428 contains matter in which the multipath signals are deliberately taken into account to calculate position.

Testing, monitoring, correcting or calibrating of receiver elements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Automatic control of frequency or phase; synchronisation
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

The decision to classify in G01S 19/23 or G01S 19/235 relates to the interpretation of the term "calibration". In GPS, it is foreseen that the oscillator used for signal acquisition and tracking operates well - any procedure to bring to oscillator into alignment with its correct operating frequency is considered calibration. A receiver, however, is not expected to maintain exact time, as this is a by-product of position calculation. Thus, time is not calibrated.

Acquisition or tracking {or demodulation} of signals transmitted by the system { ( synchronisation aspects of direct sequence spread spectrum modulation H04B 1/7073) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spread spectrum techniques in general using direct sequence modulation (DSM)
Synchronisation aspects of direct sequence spread spectrum modulation
Power consumption
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Reduced energy consumption due to an improved acquisition paradigm or apparatus, e.g. reduced time to first fix due to acquisition aiding. Improvement in acquisition etc which necessarily result in improved power consumption should not be classified here.

Constructional details or hardware or software details of the signal processing chain
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printed circuits; casing or constructional details of electric apparatus
relating to the receiver frond end
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details relating to the front end; also positioning of the front end, if separated from the processing navigation processor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Aerials
Hardware or software details of the signal processing chain
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

G01S 19/30 takes precedence. Should the hardware details be so specific that they have no application outside of G01S 19/30, then there is no need to classify these aspects in G01S 19/37

the satellite radio beacon positioning system transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Although matter relating to the determination of position, velocity and attitude should only by classified in G01S 19/00; however, should it be necessary to indicate that another parameter is being measured, e.g. angular velocity, altitude, meteorological properties, such matter should be allocated G01S 19/39.

{using multipath or indirect path propagation signals in position determination}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Position determination where multipath or indirect path signals are deliberately taken into account to calculate position.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Identification and mitigation of multipath effects; these are classified in:
the supplementary measurement being an inertial measurement, e.g. tightly coupled inertial
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Positioning solutions where measurements are combined to arrive as a position involving inertial measurement.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Progressing forward in time by integration of inertial measurements a position solution derived from GPS signals, i.e. this subgroup does not cover the combination of positions with measurements. Such positioning algorithms are found in:
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013