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TESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR{( devices for testing the performance of portable percussive tools with fluid-pressure drive B25D 9/005 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The scope of the subclass G01M is so broad that a detailed description of the subject matter appropriate for this place is correctly possible only at the main group level.

The user is referred to the CPC definitions for the individual main groups of G01M which follow hereinafter. The following list is intended to assist the user:

Testing characterised by the objects investigated:

Machines or machine parts – see definitions for G01M 1/00, G01M 9/00, G01M 10/00, G01M 13/00, G01M 15/00, G01M 17/00

Structures – see definitions for G01M 1/00, G01M 3/00, G01M 5/00, G01M 7/00

Apparatus not provided elsewhere – see definitions for G01M 11/00, G01M 99/00

Testing characterised by the properties investigated:

Balance – see definition for G01M 1/00

Fluid tightness – see definition for G01M 3/00

Elasticity, deflection – see definition for G01M 5/00

Vibration resistance – see definition for G01M 7/00

Aerodynamic properties – see definition for G01M 9/00

Hydrodynamic properties – see definition for G01M 10/00

Optical properties – see definition for G01M 11/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01N covers investigating, i.e. testing or determining, the properties of materials, as opposed to testing or determining the properties of structures or apparatus, machine parts, which is covered by G01M.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for testing the performance of portable percussive tools with fluid-pressure drive

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meanings indicated:

Calibrating means

ascertaining the quality of a measuring or testing device, or checking, adjusting graduations of measuring or testing device.

Monitoring means

maintain a continuous or periodical watch (human or instrumental) on, to enable action to be taken or initiated, or a signal to be given, if undesired conditions occur.

Investigating means

testing or determining.

Testing means

determination of the presence, quality, or genuineness of object to be tested.

Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures( balancing rotary bowls of centrifuges B04B 9/14 ; apparatus characterised by the means for holding wheels or parts thereof B60B 30/00 ; determining the stability factors of ships B63B; stabilising of aircraft B64C 17/00 ; control systems for balancing automatically in operation G05; balancing rotors of dynamo-electric machines H02K 15/16 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for:

Determining the moment of inertia of machines.

Static balancing of machines.

Determining position of center of gravity of machines.

Devices for determining unbalance of machines.

Devices for correcting unbalance of machines.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01H covers the combination of generation and measurement of mechanical and other vibrations while subclass G01M 1/00 covers determining unbalance by oscillating or rotating the body to be tested.

H04R covers vibration transducers while G01M 1/00 covers determining unbalance by evaluating measured vibrations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Example of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Balancing rotary bowls of centrifuges

Means for holding wheels or parts thereof

Determining vessel properties with respect to stability or balance

Equipment to decrease pitch, roll, or like unwanted vessel movements

Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude

Aircraft stabilization not otherwise provided for

Centring the rotor within the stator; Balancing the rotor

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tools for wheel weight mounting or removing

Balancing rotors of turbines

Counterweights; Attaching or mounting same

Correcting- or balancing-weights or equivalents means for balancing rotating bodies, e.g. vehicle wheels, for vibration suppression

Control of mechanical oscillations

Special rules of classification within this group

The sub-group G01M/38 is not used anymore: classify in the correspondent classes in G01M 1/14 and G01M 1/30.

Adaptation of bearing support assemblies for receiving the body to be tested{( tyre chucks in general G01M 17/021 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Test of wheels

Uniformity test of tyre

Tyre chucks for testing purposes

Uniformity test of tyre and surface correction

Static balancing; Determining position of centre of gravity( by determining unbalance G01M 1/14 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Determining unbalance by dynamic methods

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Levelling, stabilizing of vehicles transporting loads

and converting vibrations due to unbalance into electric variables( measuring vibrations in general G01H ; microphones or like acoustic electromechanical transducers H04R )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Measuring vibration in general

Vibration transducers per se

Compensating unbalance( G01M1/38 takes precedence; counterweights F16F 15/28 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Counterweights; Attaching or mounting same

by adding material to the body to be tested, e.g. by correcting-weights( correcting-weights per se F16F 15/32 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Correcting means for balancing rotating bodies for vibration suppression

by removing material from the body to be tested, e.g. from the tread of tyres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for compensating unbalance by removing by grinding or drilling.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Uniformity test of tyre and surface correction

by adjusting position of masses built-in the body to be tested
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for:

Hydraulic positioning of balancing weights.

Electric, magnetic positioning, like solenoids, motors.

Mechanical positioning.

Balancing with free moving parts, like balls,

Balancing by using eccentric discs.

Investigating fluid-tightness of structures( investigating permeability of porous material, investigating the presence of flaws in general G01N ){ membrane leak detection in blood dialysis A61M 1/1692 ; detecting infusion flow leakage A61M 5/16831 }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Investigating fluid-tightness of structures:

Like cables, tubes, pipes, welds, pipe joints, seals, valves, containers, radiators.

By using thermal means, pigs or moles, fluid or vacuum, tracer materials, infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic vibrations, pressure or flow or level detector, light or by using other electric means, e.g. by observing electric discharges.

With leakage calibration devices and standard leak

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Detection of leak in washing machines

Membrane leak detection in blood dialysis

Detecting medical infusion flow leakage

Leak detection in membrane

Leakage-indicating devices for large containers

Locating fluid leaks in boreholes or wells

Leak detection in pumps

Means for stopping flow from pipes

Preventing, monitoring or locating loss in the pipe-line and networks

Leak detection in steam boilers

Leakage detection in pressure sensors

Investigating the presence of flaws or irregularities of material by mechanical methods

Investigating the presence of flaws, defects or contamination by the use of optical means

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of microwaves

Investigating the presence of flaws by wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of thermal means

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of electric, electro-chemical or magnetic means

Investigating the presence of flaws in solids by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Investigating material strength by pressure test

Investigating the permeability, pore volume, or surface area of porous materials

Mass spectrometers per se

Leak testing of cell or batteries

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detecting or repairing leaks in apparatus using semi-permeable membranes

Testing for leaks in apparatus for blow-molding

Monitoring, testing or servicing air conditioning in vehicles

Leakage detectors for rocket-engine plants

Leakage detection for insulated conductors or cables characterized by their form

{using pigs or moles( G01M 3/246 , G01M 3/2823 take precedence )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Leak detection using sonic vibration in pipe using pigs moles

Leak detection using pressure, flow or level detector in pipe using pigs moles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pig moles per se

General pipeline inspection

{Leak detector calibration, standard leaks( G01M 3/207 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dummy leakage generators for sensitivity check.

Standard volume tanks for leakage test.

Changing means of fine volume for calibration.

Fine leakage bulb.

Standard leak bodies controlling probe gas flow.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Calibration of leak detection using tracermaterials

{Test plugs for closing off the end of a pipe( means for stopping flow from pipes F16L 55/10 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for stopping flow from pipes

{Details with respect to the testing of engines or engine parts}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Failures in purge control systems

{mass spectrometer detection systems( mass spectrometers H01J 49/26)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Mass spectrometer per se

{accessories and associated equipment, pump constructions( pumps F04 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multistage pump, specially adapted to production of high vacuum, like molecular pumps

using infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic vibrations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for:

Locating leak in underground pipes.

Signal processing in the time and frequency domain.

Signal processing using correlation techniques.

Passive detection (no active source is used).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Leak detection using pig-moles

{for underground fuel dispensing systems( G01M 3/30 takes precedence )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Leakage-indicating devices for large containers

{Details, e.g. container closure devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also container closure devices.

{by monitoring the interior space of the containers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tightness of tanks, bottles, cans and methods or apparatus:

Using introduction of overpressure into interior space;

Using vacuum pump and controlling vacuum pressure and also by measuring on/off of vacuum pump or by measuring pressure change while pump cycles have predetermined on/off cycles.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Leak testing of cell or batteries

{removably mounted in a test cell}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Test cells, testing pockets, test chambers, seal chambers, testing bells.

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, air-craft wings( G01M 9/00 takes precedence; strain gauges G01B )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, aircraft wings or blades, elongated object, like pipe, masts, tower or railways, e.g. testing elastic properties of bodies or chassis, e.g. torsion-testing:

by determining damage, crack or wear.

by determining deflection or stress.

by using vibration or acceleration excitation or detection.

by using an external apparatus, like a test bench.

by measuring a variation of impedance (resistance, inductance or capacitance).

by using electromagnetic excitation or detection.

Further details of subgroups

G01M 5/0066; This sub-group has some overlap with G01M 7/00 (vibration testing of structure): it is possible to classify in both main groups (G01M 7/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 are suited for documents making the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents making emphasis on the vibration testing are to be classified in G01M 7/00.

This subgroup also covers documents where there is a vibration or acceleration detection without specific vibration detection (for instance a bridge with acceleration detector whereas the signature of vehicle passage are measured and analysed: in this specific case also classify in G01M 5/0008).

G01M 5/0075; This sub-group has some overlap with G01M 11/08 (testing of mechanical properties with optical methods). It is possible to classify in both main group (G01M 11/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 are suited for documents making the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents making emphasis on the optical testing are suited to be classified in G01M 11/00.

This sub group does not cover the investigating of the properties of solids material by the use of optical means (G01N 21/00).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01B covers apparatus, which can be used for investigating the elasticity of structures but not specially adapted for this purposes, e.g. strain gauges.

G01H covers apparatus or methods for the measurement, or measurement in combination with generation, of mechanical vibrations or the like, and particularly for the measurement of:

Mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves by using radiation-sensitive means, e.g. Optical means.

Mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves by detecting changes in electric or magnetic properties.

Mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves by other means;

Vibrations in solids by using direct conduction to the detector.

Vibrations in fluids by using a detector in a fluid.

Propagation velocity of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves.

Reverberation time.

Resonant frequency.

Mechanical or acoustic impedance.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing of nuclear power plants

Aerodynamic testing

Testing of machine parts

Testing a vehicles

Mechanical testing of complete machine

Testing a structure by applying load

Earthquake detection

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Investigating the properties of solids material by application of mechanical stress

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing of foundations or foundations structures

Vibration-testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures( G01M 9/00 takes precedence; { generating vibrations B06, G10, H04R; vibration measurement G01H; material testing G01N 3/00 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vibration testing or shock testing of structures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01B covers Instruments and methods for measuring

linear dimensions of objects such as length, thickness, width, height, depth, diameter, coordinates of points of objects, distance or clearance between spaced objects or spaced apertures,

angles or tapers,

alignment of axes,

areas,

contours, curvatures, or profiles,

roughness or irregularities of surfaces,

deformation in a solid.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing of gearings and transmission mechanisms using acoustic or vibration analysis

Testing of bearings using acoustic or vibration analysis

Testing of internal combustion engine using acoustic or vibration analysis

Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels

Testing the effect of speed or acceleration

Investigating the properties of material by the use of ultra sonic, sonic or infra sonic waves

Investigating the presence of flaws in solids by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Investigating the properties of solids material by application of a single impulsive force

Investigating the properties of solids material by application of a repeated or pulsating force

Earthquake detection

Testing of nuclear power plants

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generating and transmitting of mechanical vibrations.

Testing of foundations or foundations structures

Measurement of mechanical vibrations in general.

Musical instruments and acoustics.

G10

Loudspeakers, microphones and similar devices.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group has some overlap with G01M 5/0066 (testing of structure using vibration or acceleration detection or excitation): it is possible to classify in both main group (G01M 7/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 are suited for documents making the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents making emphasis on the vibration testing are suited to be classified in G01M 7/00.

Vibration-testing{by means of a shake table}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also environmental testing.

{Vibration control arrangements, e.g. for generating random vibrations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also overload protection.

{Measuring arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also measurement data analysis of vibration testing.

{Specimen mounting arrangements, e.g. table head adapters}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Producing shaped articles by using vibration

Producing shaped articles by using vibration tables

B28B1/087B2

Details of apparatus for testing material with sonic waves

Shock-testing
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Shock testing of vehicles

Shock-testing of solid materials

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring force due to impact

Anatomic models

Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels( building aspects Section E; investigating properties of materials in general G01N )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aerodynamic testing and arrangements therefore.

Also covered is parachute canopy testing, testing using infrared camera, chimney testing, space conditions, simulation, testing of autopilots, heat conversion, balancing of propellers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, aircraft wings

Vibration testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures

Investigating properties of materials in general

Measuring speed of fluids, e.g. of air stream; Measuring speed of bodies relative to fluids, e.g. of ship, of aircraft

Wind tunnels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Complete arrangements as well as simulations.

Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Partial details of wind tunnels, measurements arrangements, investigation properties, like acoustic or wind distribution, wall arrangements, wind or smoke or hot gas production, production of environmental conditions, supersonic flow generators, high speed plasma generators, holding or support devices of the object under test, vibration absorbers, isolation, high pressure wave generator.

Measuring arrangements specially adapted for aerodynamic testing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Theoretical arrangements for aerodynamic measuring, constructions in combination with visualisation methods of flow profiles, simulation, space conditions, turbulators on airfoils for transient simulation, balances incorporated in test object.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring multiple component of the force

Measuring volume flow, flow rate

Aerodynamic models
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Theoretical models and model construction for aerodynamic measurements or observing or form creation.

Hydrodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on ship-testing tanks or water tunnels(building aspects Section E; investigating properties of materials in general G01N;{ methods for designing, building, maintaining, converting, refitting, repairing or determining properties of vessels, not otherwise provided for and using towing tanks or model basins for designing B63B 9/02 ; for determining vessel properties with respect to stability or balance B63B 9/08 ; apparatus for indicating vessel attitude, e.g. inclination or duration of roll B63B 39/00 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hydrodynamic testing and arrangements therefore, e.g. means for studying the flow of fluid about the object to be tested.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Building aspects

E

Investigating properties of materials in general

Method for design, building or repairing or determining properties using towing tanks or model basins

Determining vessel properties with respect stability or balance

Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude

Testing of optical apparatus; Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing of optical apparatus, e.g. testing of fiber, testing of mirror, testing of optical properties of lenses (measuring refractive power, geometrical properties or aberrations, material or chromatic transmission properties, the optical modulation transfer function of optical apparatus and etc.) or mechanical properties. Testing of headlights. Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for.

This group also covers theoretical articles, calibration arrangements not otherwise provided, parts of testing systems, like power meters, testing resistance to radiation, end face monitoring, photo acoustic methods.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This group is residual place for classifying testing of optical devices or apparatus not provided for in any other subclass of the CPC. Testing of particular optical devices or apparatus is often covered by the respective subclass provided for that optical devices or apparatus.

Testing of optical devices or apparatus is classified in G01M 11/00 only if there is no appropriate place for that subject matter elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Informative Calibrating optical contour or curvature measuring devices

Photometry

Testing electrical properties of solar cells

Testing electrical properties of light emitting diodes, laser diodes or photodiodes

Testing electrical properties of lamps

Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating

Repairing of testing liquid crystal displays

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus

Testing and control of apparatus for microlithography

G03F7/22T22

Inspection of images for flow detection

Electronic inspection or testing of displays, like LED or LCD

Monitoring or testing of lasers

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television cameras

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Devices for testing or checking weapon sighting devices

Devices for testing or checking aiming and laying means

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interferometers

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means

Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means

Optical elements, systems or apparatus

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FBG

Fibre Bragg Grating

LCD

Liquid Crystal display

LED

Light Emitting Diode

OFDR

Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

OTDR

Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

PDL

Polarisation Dispersion Loss

PMD

Polarisation Mode Dispersion

{Testing of reflective surfaces, e.g. mirrors}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optical means to measure roughness of a surface

{by determining the optical axis or position of lenses}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing the alignment of axes using optical means

{by measuring geometrical properties or aberrations}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring contours or curvatures by optical means

Measuring geometric parameters required to locate ophtalmic lenses in spectacles frames

{Detecting defects of the object to be tested, e.g. scratches or dust( investigating the presence of flaws or contamination on materials by optical means G01N 21/88 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group also covers the detection of marks on lenses

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination on materials by optical means

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inspecting transparent materials

Testing of alignment of vehicle head-light devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems mainly projecting the light beam on a surface.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Arrangements for automatically correcting headlights in vehicle

Testing of mechanical properties{( G01M 11/005 takes precedence )}
Special rules of classification within this group

This sub-group has some overlap with G01M 5/00 (testing of mechanical properties of structures). It is possible to classify in both main group (G01M 11/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 is suited for documents having the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents having the emphasis on the optical testing should be classified in G01M 11/00.

{of optical fibres; Mechanical features associated with the optical testing of optical fibres( material testing in general G01N )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also thermal testing, in flight testing, testing pay-out of a canister.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Mechanical testing of thin elongated materials, like filament, web, tape or non optical fibers

G01N3/08B

{Testing of optical devices, constituted by fibre optics or optical waveguides( measuring a given physical parameter of optical fibres, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. G01B, G01N; equipment for monitoring, testing or fault measuring in optical transmission systems H04B 10/07 )}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring force with an optical fiber

Measuring a length, thickness, angle with an optical fiber

G01B 9/00- G01B9/0011

Measuring a non specific physical parameter with an optical fiber

In general this group cover the testing of optical by measuring one or more given physical parameter, however if it concerns the use of fiber for determining one or more physical parameter see the coresponding fields (for instance G01L for force measurement, G01K for temperature measurement ...)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring or testing optical transmission line

H04B10/08

Monitoring or testing optical transmission line in use

H04B10/08A

Monitoring or testing optical amplifier

H04B10/08C1

Optical multiplexing system

Special rules of classification within this group

There is an overlap between G01M 11/30 and H04B10/08 (testing of optical transmission line) and double classification is possible. document for G01M 11/30 should have an emphasis on the default detection method.

{with a light emitter and a light receiver being disposed at the same side of a fibre or waveguide end-face, e.g. reflectometers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing of light fibers with light source and detector on the same end, measuring connectors, optical switches, splitter in optical transmission lines, measuring end shape of fiber backscatter of cw for power measurements.

For localisation of faults, local monitoring of fibers see subgroups of G01M 11/31.

{Reflectometers detecting the back-scattered light in the time-domain, e.g. OTDR}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Localisation of attenuation or faults by use of single pulses and direct detection of delay-time and intensity, like OTDR, averaging, box-car, references fibers, dummy fibers, photon counting.

{using coded light-pulse sequences}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices using pseudo-random signals, correlation techniques, Golay-code.

{Reflectometers detecting the back-scattered light in the frequency-domain, e.g. OFDR, FMCW, heterodyne detection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Local oscillators, frequency shifting interferometers.

{Reflectometers dealing with polarisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements or compensation of polarisation backscatter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Polarization Mode Dispersion measurement in transmission

Polarization Dependent Loss measurement in transmission

{Reflectometers using stimulated back-scatter, e.g. Raman or fibre amplifiers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements on doped fibers, measurements using stimulated Raman or Brillouin scattering, or using laserloops or ringlasers for generating stimulated backscatter.

{in which light is transversely coupled into or out of the fibre or waveguide, e.g. using integrating spheres( G01M 11/31 takes precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also light injection by microbending.

{in which light is projected perpendicularly to the axis of the fibre or waveguide for monitoring a section thereof}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also refractive index profile measurements of fibers, fiber core diameter or shape or excentricity measurements, and also transversal camera monitoring.

Testing of machine parts( investigating the cutting power of tools, G01N, e.g. G01N 3/58 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing of machine parts, such as: sealing rings, gearings, power-transmitting couplings or clutches, power-transmitting endless, e.g. belts, chains, bearings.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01L covers instruments which can be used for testing of machine parts (gearing, transmission mechanisms), of steering or rolling behavior of vehicles, e.g. measuring efficiency, steering angles, steering forces, but not specially adapted for this purposes.

G01N covers investigating, i.e. testing or determining, the properties of materials, as opposed to testing machine parts, which is covered by G01M 13/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Apparatus for testing, tuning or synchronising carburettors, e.g. carburettor flow stands

Testing fuel-injection apparatus

Testing of ignition installations peculiar to internal-combustion engines

Testing of valves

Testing brakes

Pressure-testing of materials

Investigating machinability by cutting tools; Investigating the cutting ability of tools

Testing of gearing or of transmission mechanisms( measuring efficiency G01L )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also testing of power transmitting rotating elements, like gearings, driveshaft, differentials, vehicle power transmissions, coupling, belt drives, temperature or pressure or other adaptation means, gear shifting, control tests of automatic transmission, life usage, shaft adjustments, rotation angle measurements, tests of synchronizers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission coupling, clutches in general

Transmission means using belt, cables, ropes in general

Contour measurements on gear teeth with mechanical means

Distance measurements on gear teeth

Contour measurements on gear teeth with electrical or magnetic means

{Test-benches using a rotational drive and loading means; Load/drive simulation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also devices with electrical or hydraulic drive means, simulation of combustion engines, brake and inertial forces, measuring power transmitting characteristics, of vehicle transmission, driveshaft.

{of the mechanical closed-loop type}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also devices with power circulation type, ring connected multiple gearbox driveshaft.

{Test-benches using force applying means, e.g. loading of drive shafts along several directions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also devices with application or measurement of different component measuring steering forces on drive, steering trains, radial or vertical forces on vehicle axels, driveshaft.

Testing of bearings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also devices for monitoring bearing with temperature sensor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bearing with rolling contact in general

Force sensor associated with a bearing

Vibration testing of structures in general

Testing of engines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing of engines, e.g. by monitoring different engine parameters: pressure, temperature, velocity, vibration, and power, detecting misfire, exhaust gases, combustion flame.

Further details of subgroups

No document should be classified in this sub-group but in:

G01M 15/042 if the devices monitors with fuel consumption, ignition, compression, load, multiple diagnostic stations, test station in series;

G01M 15/044 if the devices monitors power, for instance with dynamometers;

G01M 15/046 if the devices monitors revolutions, by speed or speed variations, deriving torque, cylinder pressure therefrom, and for cylinder detection by flywheel tooth measurements see also G01M 15/06;

G01M 15/048 if the devices monitors temperature (Temperature per se, see G01K);

G01M 15/06 if the devices monitors positions of pistons or crank angle;

G01M 15/08 if the devices monitors pressure (Pressure measurement per see se, G01L);

G01M 15/08 if the devices monitors pressure in fluid ducts (Pressure measurement per see se, G01L);

G01M 15/10 if the device monitors exhaust gas (Analysis of gas per se, see G01N; details of exhaust gas measuring device see G01M 15/02; regulating catalytic converters, see F01N 3/18; electrical control of supply of combustion mixture, see F02D 41/14):

G01M 15/11 by detecting misfire (control arrangements in order to prevent misfire see F02D and F02P);

G01M 15/12 by monitoring vibration (vibration testing of structure see G01M 7/00).

And if several parameter are monitored at the same time:

G01M 15/05 (see also G07C 5/0808, diagnosing performance data of vehicles).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing positive displacement machines for liquids, pumps, pumping installation

Knock detection in internal combustion engines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lubrication of combustion engines

Monitoring or diagnostic devices for exhaust-gas treatment apparatus

Indicating or supervising devices of internal-combustion engines

Running-in of internal-combustion engines

Controlling combustion engines

Rocket-engine plants characterised by specially adapted arrangements for testing or measuring

Apparatus for testing, tuning or synchronising carburettors, e.g. carburettor flow stands

Testing fuel-injection apparatus

Testing of ignition installations peculiar to internal-combustion engines

Testing of valves

Testing of ignition installations of combustion apparatus

Devices for detecting or indicating knocks in internal-combustion engines

Devices for measuring pressure in inlet or exhaust ducts of internal- combustion engines

Means for indicating positions of pistons or cranks of internal-combustion engines by measuring pressure

Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring force, torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency

Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring fluid pressure

Devices for determining the value of power, e.g. by measuring and simultaneously multiplying the values of torque and revolutions per unit of time, by multiplying the values of tractive or propulsive force and velocity

Measuring wheel side-thrust

Measuring the force applied to control members, e.g. control members of vehicles, triggers

Determining the characteristic of torque in relation to revolutions per unit of time

Testing brakes

Pressure-testing

Testing of vehicles( G01M 15/00 takes precedence; testing fluid tightness G01M 3/00 ; testing elastic properties of bodies or chassis, e.g. torsion testing G01M 5/00 ; testing alignment of vehicle head-lighting devices G01M 11/06 ; { testing brakes G01L 5/28 })
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing of vehicles and also different parts of vehicles, e.g. wheels, tyres, endless-tracks, suspension, or of damping as a part of wheeled or endless-traced vehicles or suspension, axles, wheels suspension, or of axles as a part of railway vehicles.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing of electric installation on transport means

G01L23/22T

Testing brakes

Testing alignment of vehicle head-lighting devices

Testing of engine

Testing fluid tightness

Testing elastic properties of bodies or chassis, e.g. torsion testing

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for measuring, signalling, controlling, or distributing tyre pressure or temperature, specially adapted for mounting on vehicles

Devices or apparatus for measuring tyre pressure or the pressure in other inflated bodies

Measuring wheel side-thrust

Measuring the force applied to control members, e.g. control members of vehicles, triggers

{the wheels of the vehicle co-operating with rotatable rolls( G01M 17/022 , G01M 17/045 , G01M 17/065 take precedence )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices with dynamometers, associated flywheel assemblies, constructions (for search see also G01L 3/16, rotary absorption dynamometers), roller assemblies (without specific roller construction), measuring or calculation arrangements, endless belts, flat belts, dynamometer control arrangements, like system using feedback.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

The tyre co-operates with rotatable rolls

The vehicle wheels co-operating with rotatable rollers

The vehicle wheels co-operating with rotatable rolls

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rotary-absorption dynamometers, e.g. of brake type

{Details, e.g. roller construction, vehicle restraining devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Automatic shifters of gears, brake, gas pedal, devices for applying a variable load on the vehicle, safety arrangements, vehicle lifting devices, vibrators (for search see also G01M 7/04) and special applications, like testing of remote controlled toy car.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monodirectional test stands

{Shock-testing of vehicles( shock-testing of structures in general G01M 7/08 , G01N 3/30 )}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring force due to impact

Shock testing of structure

Anatomic models

of wheels
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing of wheel alignment by optical means

Railway wheel testing

of tyres
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tire thread bands and tread patterns

Tire thread bands and tread patterns wear indicating arrangements

Measuring profile depth

{Tyre supporting devices, e.g. chucks( for balancing G01M 1/04 )}
Special rules of classification within this group

Wheel testing is not to be classified in this group but mainly testing tires with adjustable chucks, two rims, etc.

{the tyre co-operates with rotatable rolls}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring uniformity, concentricity, tread problems, radial forces, elastic deformation, rolling resistance, cornering resistance, yaw attitude, drag force, side-wall deformation, tire air pressure, impact resistance, conicity, with a flat belt, single roller, multiple rollers, hydraulic motor, endless belt, dynamic load, grooved drum, suspension simulation, vibration exciters, setting means for slip, camber angle, rubber removing brush, water jets.

{combined with tyre surface correcting or marking means( compensating unbalance G01M 1/30 ; marking location of unbalance G01M 1/26 )}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compensation by grinding the shoulders, by grinding the tire tread, by compensating radial, lateral or tangential forces.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compensating balance by removing material

of steering behaviour; of rolling behaviour( measuring steering angles G01B ; measuring steering forces G01L )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicle diagnostic devices, side slip, axel vibrations, toe-angle, wheel alignment, tire tread, caster trail, cornering.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring steering forces

of railway vehicles
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing of railways brake system

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures

Investigating fluid tightness of structures

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, aircraft wings

Vibration testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures

Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels

Hydrodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on ship-testing tanks or water tunnels

Testing of optical apparatus

Testing of machine parts

Testing of engines

Testing of vehicles

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing instrument for artificial joints

Testing of non-implantable prostheses

Testing the effectiveness of sterilization

Measuring golf clubs, bats or rackets

Filter condition indicators

Testing of membranes or membrane apparatus

Controlling or analyzing typewriter or other selective printing mechanism

Testing or monitoring air-conditioning of vehicles

Testing of parachutes

Testing foundations or foundations structures

Testing characteristics of the spark in internal combustion engine ignition

Calibrating optical contour or curvature measuring devices

Calibration of coordinate measuring apparatus

Testing, calibrating, or compensating of compasses

Calibrating of sensor per se

Detection of malfunction of sensor per se

Testing or calibrating apparatus for measuring volume, volume flow or liquid level or for metering by volume

Testing or calibrating of weighing apparatus

Testing or calibrating of thermometers

Testing or calibrating calorimeters

Testing or calibrating force, work or torque apparatus testing and calibrating fluid pressure sensorArrangements for testing electric properties;

Arrangements for locating electric faults;

Arrangements for electrical testing characterized by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere

Testing of electrical properties of sparking plugs

G01R31/38

Testing or calibrating meteorological apparatus

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof

Quality surveillance of production

Testing or monitoring of control systems

Registering or indicating the condition or the working of machines or other apparatus

Checking or monitoring of signalling or alarm systems

Monitoring; Testing of fusion reactors

Testing or measuring during manufacture or treatment ofsemiconductor devices

H01L21/66

Calibration or testing of analogue/digital or digital/analogue converters

Monitoring; Testing of relay systems

Monitoring; Testing of line transmission systems

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details

Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements of acoustic electromechanical transducers

Special rules of classification within this group

This group is residual place for classifying testing of structures or of apparatus, not provided for elsewhere.

Testing of particular devices or apparatus is often covered by the respective subclass provided for that devices or apparatus. Testing of particular devices or apparatus is classified in G01M19/00 only if there is no appropriate place for that subject matter elsewhere.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013