Skip over navigation
Printable version [PDF]
MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY (measuring dimensions or angles of objects G01B; measuring liquid level G01F; measuring intensity or direction of magnetic fields, other than the earth`s field, in general G01R; radio navigation, determining distance or velocity by use of propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effects, propagation time, of radio waves, analogous arrangements using other waves G01S; optical systems therefor G02B; maps, globes G09B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices, systems and methods for measuring distances, levels or bearings, for surveying, for photogrammety or videogrammetry, for navigation; Gyroscopes and other turn-sensitive devices used as sensors. The subclass coverage includes:

  • Compasses in general;
  • Gyroscopes and other turn-sensitive devices used as sensors, e.g. optical gyrometers using the Sagnac effect;
  • Optical rangefinders;
  • Instruments, systems and methods for tracing profiles, for photogrammetry, for surveying, for nautical, aeronautical, cosmonautical, or geodetical measuring of distances, levels, heights, angles, inclinations and bearings, for land, sea, air or cosmonautical navigation, for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed, acceleration;
  • Manufacturing, calibrating, maintaining the previously listed elements.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

The general subject matters of determining length, distance, height, level, direction, movement or angle is covered by several subclasses besides G01C:

  • G01B measuring length, thickness, or similar linear dimensions, measuring angles; measuring areas; measuring irregularities of surfaces or contours (of individual objects)
  • G01P measuring linear or angular speed, acceleration, deceleration, or shock; indicating presence, absence, or direction, of movement
  • G01S radio direction finding; radio navigation; determining distance or velocity by use of radio waves; locating or presence detecting by use of the reflection or reradiation of radio waves; analogous arrangements using other waves (by use of propagation effects - e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time -)
  • When propagation effects of waves are relevant for such measurements G01S is in general the appropriate subclass.

For measuring ground distance between points in geodesy, surveying, and navigation or for measuring distance traversed on the ground by any moving objects including e. g. vehicles, or persons G01C is the appropriate subclass when no radio waves are used or when propagation effects of waves other than radio waves are not relevant.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring liquid level

Traffic control systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements of nautical instruments or navigational aids for ships

Marking of navigation routes for ships other than with buoys

Arrangements or adaptations of instruments for aircrafts

Aiming means with range finders

Measuring speed by using the gyroscopic effect

Measuring acceleration, deceleration, shock by making use of gyroscopes

Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables (Measuring intensity or direction of magnetic fields, other than the earth’s field, in general)

Measuring magnetic field characteristics of the earth, e.g. declination, deviation for purposes other than navigation, surveying

Rangefinders coupled with focussing arrangements of cameras

Stereoscopic photography

Photographing extended surfaces, e.g. Surveying cameras

Taximeter

Registering or indicating the working of vehicles

Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle

Maps, globes

Models or demonstration devices for surveying

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Navigation

means determining the position and course of humans, land vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles

Propagation effects

are relevant if the outcome of a measurement depends on the actual value of a physical quantity characterising the propagation of the wave, i.e. its wavelength, frequency, velocity, or phase. The mere presence or direction of a wave are not considered a propagation effect or to contribute to a propagation effect. To put it in another way, propagation effects are irrelevant, if the radiation may be looked upon as a beam of radiation whose wave nature can be ignored. Examples of measurements where propagation effects are relevant include e.g. measurements of propagation time, phase difference, phase delay, measurements using the Doppler effect, or interference.

Measuring angles (in compasses G01C 17/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for measuring angles using theodolites and sextants, for surveying or navigation

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring angles or tapers of objects

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Measuring angles in compasses

Theodolites
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Imaging systems using optical elements for stabilisation of the lateral and angular position of the image, compensating for small deviations, e.g. due to vibration or shake, for automatically maintaining a reference alignment, e.g. in self-levelling surveying instruments

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Transit

Theodolite which has a telescope which can be rotated 180 degrees around the horizontal (trunnion) axis

Arrangements for reading scales (in general G01D)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for reading scales in general

including an artificial horizon (G01C 1/14 takes precedence; artificial horizons per se G01C 15/14)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Periscopic sextants

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial horizons per se

Measuring distances in line of sight; optical rangefinders (tapes, chains or wheels for measuring length G01B ; coupling rangefinders with operating parts of photographic apparatus G03B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for measuring distances in line of sight and optical rangefinders.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tapes, chains or wheels for measuring length

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Anti-slumber devices for car drivers

Inter car distance or car rail distance

Pulsed systems

Measuring distances using phase differences

Range finding by comparing magnitude of image of object to fiducial mark

Coupling rangefinders with operating parts of photographic apparatus

Range finding by image processing

G06F15/70

Adaptation of rangefinders for combination with telescopes or binoculars (rangefinders coupled with focussing arrangements of cameras G03B 13/20)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rangefinders coupled with focussing arrangements of cameras

{with electronic parallax measurement}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scene trackers using image correlation

Ranging using stereo images

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Parallax

the angle subtended at an observation point by the two ends of a line section

using a parallactic triangle with variable angles and a base of fixed length in the observation station, e.g. in the instrument (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

using a parallactic triangle with variable angles and a base of fixed length at, near, or formed by the object (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical viewing arrangements for vehicles

using a parallactic triangle with fixed angles and a base of variable length in the observation station, e.g. in the instrument (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

using a parallactic triangle with fixed angles and a base of variable length, at, near, or formed by the object (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

Measuring height; Measuring distances transverse to line of sight; Levelling between separated points; Surveyors` levels (G01C 3/20 , G01C 3/30 take precedence; tracing profiles G01C 7/00 ; levels indicating inclination at a single point G01C 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for measuring height, measuring distances transverse to line of sight, levelling between separated points and surveyor's levels for navigational or surveying purposes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring of distances to an object using a parallactic triangle with variable angles and a base of fixed length in the observation station, with adaptation to the measurement of the height of an object

Measuring of distances to an object using a parallactic triangle with fixed angles and a base of variable length at or near the object, with adaptation to the measurement of the height of an object, e.g. tacheometers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tracing profiles

Levels indicating inclination at a single point

{altimeters for aircraft (G01C 5/02 , G01C 5/06 take precedence)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ground Proximity Warning Systems

Devices characterised by the determination of the variation of atmospheric pressure with height to measure the vertical components of speed (variometer)

involving automatic stabilisation of the line of sight;(tilt compensation in general G12B ; regulation of direction in general G05D 3/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regulation of direction in general

Tilt compensation in general

by using barometric means (barometers per se G01L)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for measuring height or distances transverse to line of sight, levelling between separated points and surveyors' levels using barometric means, e.g. depth gauges for divers of e.g the wrist-watch type.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Divers' equipment in general

Wrist watches with external data detectors

G04G1/04

Barometers per se

Tracing profiles (by photogrammetry G01C 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for tracing profiles of large surfaces such as land surfaces or underground surfaces.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tracing profiles using photogrammetry

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring irregularity or unevenness of surfaces on a small scale

of land surfaces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Checking of the level of roads

of cavities, e.g. tunnels (survey of wells E21B 47/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Survey of wells

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring apparatus or devices for track building purposes

Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, using light beams for direction or position control

Measuring inclination, e.g. by clinometers, by levels{(switches operated by inclination or orientation H01H 35/02)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Switches operated by inclination or orientation

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for positioning picture hooks on a wall

Circuits for registering vehicle tilting or roll over

Inclinometers for ladders

Spirit levels combined with laser plumbing or levelling

by using rolling bodies {e.g. spheres, cylinders, mercury droplets (tilting mercury container switches H01H 29/20)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for measuring inclination by using rolling bodies, also including sliding bodies.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tilting mercury container switches

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for positioning picture hooks on a wall

Circuits for registering vehicle tilting or roll over

Tell tale tilt indicators for proving inversion of goods during transport

Inclinometers for ladders

Spirit levels combined with laser plumbing or levelling

by using a single pendulum (plumb lines G01C 15/10)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Plumb lines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicle anti theft means

Tell tale tilt indicators for proving inversion of goods during transport

the indication being based on the inclination of the surface of a liquid relative to its container
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Liquid level measurements

Mountings
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inclinometers mounted to golf clubs for driving or putting

Guiding hand tools by means of levels

Means for facilitating the observation of the position of the bubble, e.g. illuminating means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for facilitating the observation of the position of the bubble by human observers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inclinometers mounted to golf clubs for driving or putting

Guiding hand tools by means of levels

Photogrammetry or videogrammetry, e.g. stereogrammetry; Photographic surveying (cameras combined with surveying instruments, e.g. with theodolites, G01C 1/00 , G01C 3/00 , G01C 5/00 , G01C 9/00 ; surveying cameras G03B 37/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earth observation satellites

Cameras combined with surveying instruments

SAR imaging

Photographic aspects also

Surveying cameras

Mosaicking of surveyed images

3D Geographic Models

Depth or shape recovery using image analysis

Special rules of classification within this group

IPC group G01C11/36 is not used. Subject matter covered by this group is classified in G01C 11/00-G01C 11/34.

Picture taking arrangements specially adapted for photogrammetry or photographic surveying, e.g. controlling overlapping of pictures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special picture taking arrangements adapted to methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying, including orthorectification.

Interpretation of pictures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject-matter related to the interpretation of pictures in methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying, including means for interpretation, such as mensuration tables or reseaux.

by comparison of two or more pictures of the same area
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject-matter related to the interpretation of pictures by comparison of two or more pictures of the same area in methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying, e.g. stereo-photogrammetry

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ranging using stereo images

Depth from stereo vision

Surveying specially adapted to open water, e.g. sea, lake, river, canal (liquid level metering G01F ; measuring liquid velocity G01P ; determining existence of flow of underground water G01V)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kinds of surveying instruments or accessories which are not provided for in the preceding groups G01C 1/00 to G01C 13/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Liquid level metering

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Buoys

Measuring liquid velocity

Determining existence of flow of underground water

Oceanography

{measuring depth of open water}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring the distance between the water surface and the water bed.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring instantaneous depth of diver

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Buoys

Oceanography

surveying instruments or accessories not provided for in groups G01C 1/00 to G01C 13/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kinds of surveying instruments or accessories which are not provided for in the preceding groups G01C 1/00 to G01C 13/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring angles

Surveying specially adapted to open water, e.g. sea, lake, river, canal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking of work pieces

Surveying of railway tracks

Paving machines

Guiding the machines along a predetermined path

By laser or ultrasound

By reference lines placed along the road, e.g. wires

Finishing floors or ceilings

Holders for bricklayers' lines

Tripods

Models for surveying

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Optical plumbing

determining the vertical (plumb) using optical means

{Active optical surveying means (optical plumbing G01C 15/105)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Optical plumbing

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking of work pieces

Surveying of railway tracks

Paving machines

Guiding the machines along a predetermined path

By laser or ultrasound

By reference lines placed along the road, e.g. wires

Finishing floors or ceilings

Holders for bricklayers' lines

Tripods

Models for surveying

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Active optical surveying means

surveying means using at least one propagation property of at least one light source

Total stations

theodolites with an electronic distance measuring capability, usually in the form of a laser ranging device

{Reference lines, planes or sectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generating a reference line, plane or sector by active optical means.

Measuring or comparing shortest distance (i.e. along the perpendicular) to the reference line, plane or sector.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earth moving equipment using laser planes

Self levelling surveying instruments

Beam shaping

{combined with inclination sensor}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01C 15/008 covers surveying means whereby the inclination sensors are intended to be used as such; Surveying means having inclination sensors inside, merely to define the inclination of the reference plane, are covered by G01C 15/004.

Means for marking measuring points
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for positioning picture hooks on a wall

Means for marking work

Markings on roads, e.g. paint

Bollards

Transponders for markers

Surveyors` staffs; Movable markers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Surveyor's staffs or movable markers as means for marking measuring points in surveying methods.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tripods

Plumb lines
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chalk lines also

Cable pay-out

{Optical plumbing}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chalk lines also

Cable pay-out

Compasses; Devices for ascertaining true or magnetic north for navigation or surveying purposes (using gyroscopic effect G01C 19/00 ; for geophysical or prospecting purposes G01V 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compasses and devices for ascertaining true or magnetic North for the purpose of navigation or surveying, including magnetic compasses, sun and astro compasses, methods and arrangements for testing, calibrating or compensating of such compasses and devices and repeaters for remote indication of readings of a master compass.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for finding North using gyroscopic effect

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For geophysical or prospecting purposes

Electromagnetic compasses (with north seeking magnetic elements and having electric pick-offs G01C 17/26)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

With north seeking magnetic elements and having electric pick-offs

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

HALL effect sensors

Earth-inductor compasses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fluxgates, these being instruments in which a core is saturated by the strong flux of an ac driving coil, the bias of the saturation being set by the earth` s magnetic field.

Rotating induction coils.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prayer rugs

HALL effect sensors

Sun- and astro-compasses
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-pieces using the position of the sun, moon or stars

Gyroscopes; Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses; Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses; Measuring angular rate using gyroscopic effects
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gyroscopic sensors, i.e gyroscopes, turn-sensitive devices with or without vibrating/moving masses that are intended for sensing and outputting inertial rotation angles, angular velocity or bearings.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Gyroscopes for sensing are covered here.

Gyroscopes, used as actuators for stabilisation or movement purposes by means of their angular momentum are not covered in G01C 19/00 but in their particular fields, e.g:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gimbals, not especially for gyroscopes

Educational demonstration models of gyroscopes

{Special arrangements for gyros functioning during a short period}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about particular arrangements for rotary gyroscopes functioning during a short period, e.g. in guided missiles, torpedoes, etc., wherein the gyro rotor must be brought up to operational speed in a very short time.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Target seeking gyro F41G 7/2213.

{Measurement or control of angular velocity, specifically adapted to gyrorotors (measuring angular speed in general G01P ; controlling angular speed G05D 13/00 ; controlling electrical motors H02P)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about particular devices or methods for measuring and/or controlling the angular speed of rotors of rotary gyroscopes for specific purposes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring angular speed in general

Controlling angular speed

Controlling electrical motors

electrically driven (G01C 19/14 takes precedence; dynamoelectric machines H02K)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Fluid rotors

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dynamoelectric machines

Suspensions; Bearings (bearings in general F16C ; balancing rotors G01M)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bearings in general

Balancing rotors

torsional
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about suspensions of elements of rotary gyroscopes, wherein the suspensions are of the torsional type.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flexure pivots

Erection devices, i.e. devices for restoring rotor axis to a desired position (for instrument indicating the vertical G01C 19/46)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Erection devices for instruments indicating the vertical

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression/word "Torquer" is often used with the meaning erection devices, i.e. devices for restoring rotor axis to a desired position.

The term "Rebalance" is also often used instead of "Erection"

Indicating or recording means specially adapted for rotary gyroscopes (in general G01D)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring not specially adapted for a specific variable; arrangements for measuring two or more variables not covered in a single other subclass; tariff metering apparatus; measuring or testing not otherwise provided for

with north-seeking action by magnetic means, e.g. gyromagnetic compasses
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Meridian- seeking ", and " north-seeking " are often used as synonyms.

Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses, e.g. vibratory angular rate sensors based on Coriolis forces
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Turn-sensitive devices using one or more vibrating masses, e.g. vibrating gyros based on Coriolis forces, surface acoustic waves based gyros, sonic or acoustic gyros.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Micro-structural devices or systems

Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural devices or systems

Piezoelectric devices per se

Electromechanical resonators

using vibrating tuning forks (double-ended tuning forks using planar vibrating masses suspended at opposite ends G01C 19/5719)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Double-ended tuning forks using planar vibrating masses suspended at opposite ends

using vibrating bars or beams
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Turn-sensitive devices using one or more vibrating bars or beams undergoing deformations.

of essentially two-dimensional vibrators, e.g. ring-shaped vibrators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vibrators having their main extension in a plane, i.e with an essentially two-dimensional geometrical structure and using the phase shift of a vibration node or anti-node. The vibrations cover both deformations in the radial direction of the two-dimensional vibrator and deformations perpendicular to the plane of the two-dimensional vibrator.

using acoustic waves, e.g. surface acoustic wave gyros
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both bulk and surface acoustic wave gyros.

Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All the turn-sensitive devices that do not operate on the basis of vibrating or deforming elements, e.g. gyroscopes using matter-wave interferometers.

Electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance gyrometers (magnetic resonance arrangements in general G01R 33/20)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic resonance arrangements in general

Ring laser gyrometers (ring lasers in general H01S 3/083)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ring lasers in general

{signal readout; dither compensators}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ring laser gyrometers having special arrangements for the signal readout or the dither compensation (dither compensators).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Dither compensators

passive optical components placed on the body in a position where the dither signal is cancelled fortuitously

{means for removing the dither signal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electronic removal of the dither signal.

{control of the cavity (of lasers in general H01S 3/10)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ring laser gyrometers having special arrangements for controlling the cavity, e.g. by use of piezoelectric mirrors.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lasers in general

with counter-rotating light beams in a passive ring, e.g. fibre laser gyrometers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interferometers per se

Faraday effect Sagnac interferometers for measuring electrical current

Fibre laser emission sources for gyros

Brillouin lasers

{Details}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Amplified spontaneous emission sources

H01S3/06B2S

{of the mechanical construction}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General winding techniques

Bobbin-type optical phase modulators

Winding of electrical cable

{using nxn optical couplers, e.g. 3x3 couplers}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical couplers

{using a passive ring resonator}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

RFOG

Resonant Fibre Optical Gyroscope

Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups (measuring distance traversed on the ground by a vehicle G01C 22/00 ; measuring linear or angular speed or acceleration G01P ; control of position, course, altitude or attitude of vehicles G05D 1/00 ; traffic control systems G08G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Navigation devices, systems and methods

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Measuring distance traversed on the ground by a vehicle

Measuring linear or angular speed or acceleration

Control of position, course, altitude or attitude of vehicles

Traffic control systems

{with correlation of navigation data from several sources, e.g. map or contour matching (G01C 21/30 takes precedence)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Combined GPS/INS

Segmentation of images

by astronomical means (G01C 21/24 , G01C 21/26 take precedence; measuring time by using position of the sun, moon, or stars G04B 49/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-pieces using the position of the sun, moon or stars

by terrestrial means (G01C 21/24 , G01C 21/26 take precedence; marking of navigation route for ships B63B 51/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking of navigation route for ships

by using measurements of speed or acceleration (G01C 21/24 , G01C 21/26 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

by recording the course traversed by the object (G01C 21/16 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

By integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation

by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vibration damping or isolation

{combined with non-inertial navigation instruments}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Determining position by combining measurements of signals from the satellite radio beacon positioning system with an inertial measurement

Stabilised platforms, e.g. by gyroscope
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stabilisation of surveying instruments

Stabilisation of antennae

Instruments for performing navigational calculations (G01C 21/24 , G01C 21/26 take precedence; adaptations of digital computers to a specific function or application G06F 17/00 , G06F 19/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking of navigation route for ships

Adaptations of digital computers to a specific function or application

Hand manipulated computing devices for air or sea navigation

Hand-held measuring wheels for measuring distances on maps

Emergency signalling and personal security systems

{Specially adapted for sailing ships}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to water vehicles

Plotting boards (in general B43L)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plotting boards in general

specially adapted for navigation in a road network
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Navigation specially adapted for navigation in a road network, whereby the means of transportation is not relevant: the user may be moving on foot, on horseback, on a bicycle, or in or on a motor vehicle of any kind.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Precision agriculture

Navigation assistance for the blind or visually impaired

Display devices for vehicle air conditioning

Speed or cruise control depending on curves

Headlights adjustable depending on position, curves etc.

Parking assistance

Mechanical construction of the navigation device mounting in a vehicle

Circuits for registering vehicle tilting or roll over

Control of driving parameters

Adaptive cruise control

Estimation or calculation of driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems related to road conditions

Lane keeping

Gear shifting depending on position as determined by navigation system

Hand-held measuring wheels for measuring distances on maps

GIS Geographic 3D models

Hand manipulated computing devices for air or sea navigation

Taximeters

Toll collection

Service reminders

Data recorders

Emergency signalling and personal security systems

Emergency signalling and personal security systems

Traffic information including RDS/TMC

Locating mobile subscriber using cellular telephony

H04Q7/3855 H04W 64/00

Location based services in a mobile phone network

with correlation of data from several navigational instruments
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whereby the several navigational instruments may be similar (simple redundancy) or dissimilar.

Map- or contour-matching
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Contours" and "elevation data/profile" are often used as synonyms.

Structuring or formatting of map data
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic recognition/extraction of roads or features from maps

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases

Route searching; Route guidance
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optimisation of energy usage for electrical vehicles

Optimisation of routes, e.g. travelling salesman problem

{specially adapted for specific applications}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fleet management, taxi dispatching

{Dynamic re-routing, e.g. recalculating the route when the user deviates from calculated route or after detecting real-time traffic data or accidents}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The use of route searching in navigation devices, systems or methods for dynamic re-routing, including predictive systems in which alternative routes are calculated even before the user has actually deviated and also routing from a predicted future starting point.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

The complete route is dynamically recomputed based on new data

{Preferred or disfavoured areas, e.g. dangerous zones, toll or emission zones, intersections, manoeuvre types, segments such as motorways, toll roads, ferries}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Areas disfavoured because of weather conditions, (dis)favouring certain roads because of curves, e.g. for motorcycle (favoured) or towing vehicle (disfavoured), or because of physical requirements (e.g., weight, length, height, width) of non-standard vehicles.

Carpooling/High Occupancy Vehicle restrictions.

Also taking into account whether the user is entitled to use a road or road type (Vignette).

{using point of interest [POI] information, e.g. a route passing visible POIs}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

POI

point of interest

{Personalized, e.g. from learned user behaviour or user-defined profiles}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

User preferences are taken into account or the user selects one route out of a plurality

{employing speed data or traffic data, e.g. real-time or historical (traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle G08G 1/0968)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Employing traffic data whereby those traffic data may relate either to the vehicle traffic of the physical vehicle or to the data traffic in mobile communication networks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle

Input/output arrangements of navigation systems;{ Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer, and output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements G06F 3/00 ; pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks, and accessories therefor G06F 3/033 ; interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces, e.g. interaction with windows, icons or menus G06F 3/048 ; Manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics G06T 19/00}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements of vehicle instruments on dashboard

Mechanical construction of the display mounting in a vehicle

Electric circuits for voice control

Audible indication of meter readings

Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements

I/O for computers in general

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces, e.g. interaction with windows, icons or menus

Manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics

Voice analysis, synthesis

{Input other than that of destination using image analysis, e.g. detection of road signs, lanes, buildings, real preceding vehicles using a camera (image data processing per se G06T)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image data processing per se

{Destination input or retrieval}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gesture based interaction between user and computer

{using speech input, e.g. using speech recognition (speech recognition per se G10L 15/00)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speech recognition

{using character input or menus, e.g. menus of POIs (character input methods in general G06F 3/0233)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Character input methods

Input is assisted by the navigation device, i.e. the user does not type the complete name of the destination, e.g. using zip codes, telephone numbers, progressively selecting from initial letters

{using user history, behaviour, conditions or preferences, e.g. predicted or inferred from previous use or current movement}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input information is obtained using learning systems, e.g. history databases

{received from an external device or application, e.g. PDA, mobile phone or calendar application}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Destinations derived from radio or TV broadcasts.

Destination being the (dynamic) position of a mobile device and received therefrom.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input information is obtained using a mobile device, e.g. a mobile phone, a PDA

{Details of the output of route guidance instructions (Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle G08G 1/0968)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Instructions to assist the user to follow the calculated route as well as to warn the user in order to prevent the user from leaving the calculated route.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle

{Guidance using speech or audio output, e.g. text-to-speech (text to speech systems per se G10L 13/00)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instructions are given by voice

Speech systems per se

{Guidance using simplified or iconic instructions, e.g. using arrows (G01C 21/365 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein the guidance uses simplified or iconic instructions, e.g. directional arrows or other symbols, textual instructions.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Guidance using head up displays or projectors, e.g. virtual vehicles or arrows projected on the windscreen or on the road itself

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

The immediate route instructions are output to the driver, e.g. arrow signs for next turn

{including 3D objects and buildings (three dimensional [3D]) modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects G06T 17/00 ; geographic models G06T 17/05}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Three dimensional [3D] modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects

Geographic models

{Personalized guidance, e.g. limited guidance on previously travelled routes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein specific guidance adapted to the user is used, including user-defined guidance preferences relating to the manner of guidance, e.g. language, 2D/3D and guidance adapted to the instantaneous workload of the driver, considering also his mental and/or physical health.

{Guidance involving output of stored or live camera images or video streams}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein the guidance involves camera images, including images taken by a camera in the vehicle itself, by a camera in another vehicle, by a roadside camera, or by a camera in an aircraft or in a satellite.

{Lane guidance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein the guidance takes road lanes into account, including showing a representation of an upcoming intersection including the pattern of the lanes.

{Details of the user input interface, e.g. buttons, knobs or sliders, including those provided on a touch screen; remote controllers; input using gestures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details on the user-input interface in navigation devices, systems or methods, including e.g. touch-screen interfaces, remote controllers, gesture-based input, interfaces which disallow the driver to access certain functions, e.g. while driving, input using handwriting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gesture based interaction

Interaction techniques for image manipulation, e.g. dragging, rotation

Interaction techniques involving entering handwritten data on touch screens

{Display of a road map (G01C 21/3614 takes precedence; guidance using 3D or perspective road maps G01C 21/3635)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input/output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the display of a road map, including also simplified map representing connections between nodes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Through interaction with a road map, e.g. selecting a POI icon on a road map

Guidance using 3D or perspective road maps

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Map spot or coordinate position indicators or map reading aids, using electronic means

{Details, e.g. road map scale, orientation, zooming, illumination, level of detail, scrolling of road map or positioning of current position marker}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interaction techniques for image manipulation, e.g. dragging, rotation

{Labelling using text of road map data items, e.g. road names, POI names}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input/output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the labelling using text on road map displays, including also the displaying of house numbers.

{Overview of the route on the road map}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

The complete route is shown to the driver

{Retrieval, searching and output of POI information, e.g. hotels, restaurants, shops, filling stations, parking facilities (G01C 21/3611 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Destination input or retrieval

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Location based services in a mobile phone network

{output of POI information on a road map (G01C 21/3614 , G01C 21/3685 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Through interaction with a road map, e.g. selecting a POI icon on a road map

{Systems comprising multiple parts or multiple output devices (not client-server), e.g. detachable faceplates, key fobs or multiple output screens}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems where multiple parts show a functional relationship (cooperation, synergy) between the part which remains in the vehicle and the portable part; this is different from the mechanical mounting of a mobile part to some part of a vehicle. The portable part must perform some navigation-related function on its own when taken out of the vehicle.

{Retrieval, searching and output of information related to real-time traffic, weather, or environmental conditions (arrangements for giving variable traffic instructions G08G 1/09)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input/output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the processing of real-time traffic or weather information, including also traffic information sent from the vehicle to a server.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for giving variable traffic instructions

Arrangements for broadcast of traffic information

{output of additional, non-guidance related information, e.g. low fuel level, fuel efficient driving, gear change, speeding, dangerous curve ahead, slippery road, school zone, speed traps, driving behaviour feedback, advertising, virtual billboards or road signs (G01C 21/3679 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the output of specific information not related to guidance, e.g. low remaining fuel, fuel efficient driving, gear change, speeding, dangerous curve ahead, slippery road, traffic incident ahead, school zone, traffic cameras or road signs and including also advertisements displayed on maps or projected onto the landscape; providing information to the driver concerning his driving behaviour; warnings for speed traps.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Commerce, e.g. advertising

Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers (counting mechanisms per se G06M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using pedometers, odometers including mechanical odometers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Golf carts

Tyres

Indicating or recording positions or identities of vehicles or vehicle trains

Hand-held measuring wheels for measuring distances on maps

Resetting mechanisms

Measuring tyre performance on wheel stands

Anti tamper counters

Taximeters

Service reminders

Stepping motors

{for cycles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The cycles can be monocycles, bicycles, tricycles or motorcycles.

{for golf carts (wheeled carriers for golf bags A63B 55/08)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheeled carriers for golf bags

{Pedometers}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Footwear

Portable device for measuring pulse or heart rate

Electronic controls for exercising apparatus

{for skates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for measuring distance traversed on the ground, specially adapted for skates, including roller skates, in-line skates, ice skates, and skis.

by conversion into electric waveforms and subsequent integration, e.g. using tachometer generator{(G01C 22/002 , G01C 22/004 , G01C 22/006 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Odometers involving electrical or electronic components.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

For cycles

For golf carts

Pedometers

For skates

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheel hubs

{Differential odometers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems in which direction (orientation, azimuth) is determined by measuring the distances traversed by wheels on either side of the vehicle, and taking the difference of these distances.

Combined instruments indicating more than one navigational value, e.g. for aircraft; Combined measuring devices for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed, acceleration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices, systems and methods for indicating more than one navigational value, e.g position and azimuth, devices, systems and methods for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed and acceleration

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for passenger entertainment, including display of navigation data using TV screens

Flight simulators

Artificial horizons for aircraft

{Flight directors (indicating arrangements specially adapted for rotary gyroscopes G01C 19/32 ; indicating or recording in connection with measuring, in general G01D ; control of course of land or air vehicles by controlling or regulating non-electric variables G05D 1/00 ; arrangements or adaptations of instruments for aircraft B64D 43/00)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Flight directors, i.e. devices which provide visual steering cues to the pilot for e.g. pitch , roll, yaw attitude controls to allow a pilot to manipulate the aircraft controls in a manner to keep the steering cues aligned with corresponding fixed symbols, in order to satisfy the pitch and roll attitude control laws so that the aircraft is maintained on a predetermined flight path.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Indicating arrangements specially adapted for rotary gyroscopes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements or adaptations of instruments for aircraft

Indicating or recording in connection with measuring, in general

Control of course of land or air vehicles by controlling or regulating non-electric variables

Navigation or guidance aids for a single aircraft

Anti-collision systems for aircraft

Manufacturing, calibrating, cleaning, or repairing instruments and devices referred to in the preceding groups (testing, calibrating and compensating compasses G01C 17/38)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for manufacturing, calibrating, cleaning or repairing instruments and devices referred to in the preceding groups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Testing, calibrating and compensating compasses

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013