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MEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS { ( measuring human body, see the relevant places, where such exist, e.g. A41H 1/00 , A43D 1/02 , A61B 5/103 ; measuring appliances combined with walking-sticks A45B 3/08 ; sorting according to dimensions B07; tool-setting or drawing instruments not specially modified for measuring B23B 49/00 , B23Q 15/00 to B23Q 17/00 , B43L; combinations of measuring devices with writing-appliances B43K 29/08 ; geodetical, nautical or aeronautical measuring, surveying, rangefinding G01C; photogrammetry G01C 11/00 ; measuring force or stress, in general G01L 1/00 ; investigating or analysing particle size, investigating or analysing surface area of porous material G01N; measuring position, distance or direction, in general, by reception or emission of radiowaves or other waves and based on propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, direction of propagation G01S; geophysical measuring G01V; measuring length or roll diameter of film in cameras or projectors G03B 1/60 ; combinations of measuring devices with means for controlling or regulating G05; methods or arrangements for converting the position of a manually-operated writing or tracing member into an electrical signal G06K 11/00 ; measuring elapsed travel of recording medium in recording and playback equipment, sensing diameter of record in autochange gramophones G11B; means structurally associated with electric rotary current collectors for indicating brush wear H01R 39/58 ; indicating consumption of electrodes in arc lamps H05B 31/34) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods of measuring geometrical parameters of objects (e.g. shape or surface configuration, measurement of volume, coordinates, height, length, width, thickness, contours, surface roughness or evenness, diameters, roundness, eccentricity, angles, alignment, deformation, displacement), devices for carrying out these methods and related calibration aspects.

Classification within G01B into the main groups is to a large extent based on the underlying measurement principle:

Optical
Using fluid
Use of radiation
Use of subsonic, sonic, ultrasonic vibrations
If no particular measurement principle prevails or if more than one of the above mentioned underlying measurement principles equally apply
Mechanical
Electric or magnetic

An exception is G01B 1/00, where documents should be classified which have aspects related to the material selected for the geometrical parameter measuring instrument.

Another exception is G01B 9/00, which is a hardware group mainly containing interferometers. Only when a distance or displacement measurement is concerned (or a related measurement, such as an orientation measurement based on distance measurements to various locations on the object), then an interferometer should be classified in G01B 9/00.

Small, hand-held mechanical devices (such as those available in hardware stores) are classified in G01B 3/00, whereas large mechanical set-ups (industrial machines, such as coordinate measuring machines) are classified in G01B 5/00.

Starting at the low-frequency end of the electro-magnetic spectrum, the electromagnetic spectrum is covered by the main groups as follows:

Up to approximately 100 MHz
Far infrared - ultraviolet
Approximately 100 MHz - far infrared as well as frequencies higher than ultraviolet
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Only documents with the emphasis on details of the actual geometrical measurement method, measurement apparatus and/or calibration aspects are to be classified in G01B. Documents covering devices or methods which themselves do not belong in G01B, but which use or incorporate geometrical measuring devices or steps should normally not be classified in G01B, but rather in the respective field of their application. A drill, for example, in combination with a device for measuring the distance from the drill to the object being drilled should not be classified as a distance measuring device, as long as the actual way of distance measuring is not presented as the invention. Similarly, a document about a machine for sorting articles according to their diameter should not be classified with diameter determination as long as details of the diameter determination are not the invention.

If investigating or analysing an object is concerned (e.g. determination of material properties or defect analysis for quality control purposes), then G01N has to be considered for classification.

If testing an object or apparatus is concerned, then G01M has to be considered for classification.

The general subject matters of measuring linear dimensions, distances, or angles is covered by several subclasses besides G01B:

G01C: measuring distances, levels, or bearings; surveying; navigation; gyroscopic instruments; photogrammetry or videogrammetry.

G01S: radio direction finding; radio navigation; determining distance or velocity by use of radio waves; locating or presence detecting by use of the reflection or reradiation of radio waves; analogous arrangements using other waves.

When propagation effects of waves are relevant for such measurements G01S is in general the appropriate subclass.

For measuring ground distance between points in geodesy, surveying, and navigation G01C is the appropriate subclass when no radio waves are used or when propagation effects of waves other than radio waves are not relevant.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machine tools
Robotics
Micro mechanical devices (MEMS)
Nano-technology
Measuring in boreholes or wells
Range finders, inclinometers, photogrammetry, surveying, gyroscopes
Linear and rotary encoders
Measuring volume flow or level of fluids or fluent solid material
Spectroscopy
Measuring force, stress, torque, pressure
Speed, acceleration
Scanning probe microscopy
Measuring electric or magnetic variables
Radio direction-finding, determining distance or velocity and locating or detecting by use of radio waves
Geophysics, detecting, prospecting
Optical microscopes
Lithography (incl. interferometric stage position measurement)
Holography
Joysticks
Computer input devices (such as mice, touch pads)
Image analysis
Electron/ion microscopes
Interferometer aspects not relating to distance or displacement measurements (e.g signal modulation or control)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Human body, dentistry
Ball games
Gears
Writing, drawing
Vehicles
Yarns
Paper webs, currency
Building
Turbines
Bearings
Pigs, moles
Testing
Investigating/analysing
Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
Trackers
Optical elements
Scales (e.g. Vernier)
Spectacle frames
Cameras
Numerical control
Commerce
Wafers and semiconductors
Special rules of classification within this subclass

One or more G01B 3/00 breakup Indexing Codes should be given when information is concerned which is more detailed than the corresponding G01B 3/00 or when assigning a G01B 3/00 is not appropriate (i.e. in cases where the geometrical measurement information is only of additional nature).

At least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code is compulsory for wheel alignment (G01B 2210/10), calliper-like sensors (G01B 2210/40) as well as in the following cases:

Using chromatic effects to achieve wavelength-dependent depth resolution
Combining partially overlapping images to an overall image
Measuring geometric parameters of semiconductor structures, such as for example profile, critical dimensions (CD) or trench depth
Wireless transmission of information between a sensor or probe and a control or evaluation unit
Unique sensor ID to enable sensors to be recognised and appropriate amplification or error compensation or calibration curves etc. to be used (e.g. by resistor value across connector terminals)
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Measuring areas
quantifying, by measurement, the size of areas (not: the act of measuring in certain spatial regions or the spatial regions where measurements are taken)
Irregularities of surfaces
smaller-scale surface textures
Contour
envelope-like description of (part of) the shape of an object
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CMM
Coordinate Measuring Machine

In patent documents the following expressions/words "warp", "warpage", "waviness" and "evenness" are often used as synonyms.

Measuring instruments characterised by the selection of material therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors which are characterised only or in part by the material from which they are made.

Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of mechanical measuring means ( arrangements for measuring particular parameters G01B 5/00 ; devices of general interest specially adapted or mounted for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of material B65H 75/34)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Small, hand-held mechanical devices, such as those available in retail stores.

Machines operating on similar principles to the hand-held devices specified in this group are also classified here with these devices. For example, arrangements for controlling a measuring force are classified in G01B 3/008, even if they are not hand-held.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means, usually (aspects of) large mechanical set-ups (industrial machines, such as coordinate measuring machines)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Marking or setting out work
Straightedges, triangles
Winding/unwinding
Templates for mounting doors or windows
Protractors for use in geodesy
Special rules of classification within this group

One or more G01B 3/00 Indexing Codes should only be given when information is concerned which is more detailed than the corresponding G01B 3/00 or when assigning a G01B 3/00 is not appropriate (i.e. in cases where the geometrical measurement information is only of additional nature).

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means ( instruments of the types covered by group G01B 3/00 per se G01B 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Large mechanical set-ups, such as industrial machines or coordinate measuring machines, and aspects of the large mechanical set-ups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of mechanical measuring means, usually small, hand-held mechanical devices, such as those available in hardware stores.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machine tools, probe magazines
Robotics, manipulators
Supports in general
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given when G01B 5/255 is given.

G01B 5/0011, G01B 5/0018, G01B 5/0023, G01B 5/0025, G01B 5/003, G01B 5/0035 and G01B 5/0037 also contain methods and devices other than mechanical methods and devices.

G01B 5/0035 also contains measurements of plants. Measuring of logs is not included.

G01B 5/016 covers constructional details of contacts, which are meant to refer to the actual switch contacts within the probe head (not: the probe tip for contacting an object to be measured).

G01B 5/255 also contains vehicle frame and ride height measurement.

When classifying in this group at least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given.

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric, magnetic and electro-magnetic (e.g. using eddy-currents) measuring principles. Frequencies up to approximately 100 MHz.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Angle or position sensing
Measuring electric or magnetic variables
Radio direction-finding, determining distance or velocity and locating or detecting by use of radio waves
Electric or magnetic detecting or prospecting
Measuring thickness during the manufacture of coatings
Manufacture of piezo-electric or electrostrictive resonators for obtaining desired frequency
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given when G01B 7/315 is given.

G01B 7/001 and G01B 7/002 concern measuring heads which are not for coordinate measuring machines, whereas G01B 7/012 is for heads for coordinate measuring machines.

G01B 7/003 and G01B 7/30 should not be assigned to linear and rotary encoders or transducers, respectively. Encoders and transducers are in G01D.

G01B 7/016 covers constructional details of contacts, which are meant to refer to the actual switch contacts within the probe head (not: the probe tip for contacting an object to be measured).

If "height" is specifically mentioned as parameter being measured, then G01B 7/082 and G01B 7/102 take precedence over G01B 7/023.

G01B 7/315 also contains vehicle frame and ride height measurement.

When classifying in this group at least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given.

With roughness or irregularity (G01B 7/34) smaller-scale surface textures are meant, whereas with evenness (G01B 7/345) a larger-scale surface structure is meant.

Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means ( arrangements for measuring particular parameters G01B 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Interferometers, measuring microscopes, optical projection comparators and goniometers for measuring angles between surfaces.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for measuring particular parameters other than displacement
Diffraction gratings in sensors for measuring physical entities
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Interferometers for medical use
Interferometers for spectral analysis
Interferometers for optical coherence tomography
Microscopes in general
Telescopes in general
Interferometers for lithography
Holography in general
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in G01B 9/10, also G01B 11/26 has to be considered for classification.

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means ( instruments of the types covered by group G01B 9/00 per se G01B 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical measuring principles operating between far infrared (inclusive) and ultraviolet (inclusive), e.g. for volume measurement.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Instruments of the types covered by group G01B 9/00 per se
Investigating, analysing materials by the use of optical means
Image analysis for depth or shape recovery
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given when G01B 11/275 or G01B 11/2755 is given.

"Pose" measurements (i.e. position plus orientation) go into G01B 11/002.

G01B 11/0625 - G01B 11/0683 should be given when the pertinent measurement principle applies, even when the object being measured is not a coating (G01B 11/0616), but, for example, a pipe wall.

G01B 11/26 should not be assigned to encoders or transducers, which are in G01D.

G01B 11/275 and G01B 11/2755 also contain vehicle frame and ride height measurement. When classifying in this group at least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given.

The expressions "using interferometry" G01B 11/0675, "by interferometric means" in G01B 11/161 and "using interferometry" in G01B 11/2441 are meant to refer to using an interferometric measurement arrangement, i.e. with a measurement and reference path that combine into one path to a detector (not: measuring interfering reflections from different reflectors within an object being measured). To be used if no emphasis on particular interferometer details.

G01B 11/0658 contains measurement of emissivity or reradiation, which is meant to cover fluorescence and Raman scattering.

G01B 11/0666 is meant to cover measuring thickness by exciting an object with a laser beam that generates an ultrasonic beam into the object. Reflections of the ultrasonic beam are then analysed, often using an interferometer.

G01B 11/165 contains deformation measurement by means of a grating deformed by the object. This is meant to refer to a grating being arranged on the object and its optical properties being measured as a function of deformation of the object (not: fiber Bragg gratings in general).

G01B 11/18 contains Bragg gratings in general being used for measuring deformation.

The expression "contours or curvatures" in G01B 11/24 is meant to refer to an envelope-like description of the shape or part of the shape of an object.

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of fluids { ( pressure regulation G05D 16/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring principles using fluids.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lithography
Volume measurement
Pressure regulation
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given when G01B 13/195 is given.

The expression "contours or curvatures" in G01B 13/16 is meant to refer to an envelope-like description of the shape or part of the shape of an object.

When classifying in G01B 13/195 at least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given

With roughness or irregularity (G01B 13/22) smaller-scale surface textures are meant.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Fluid
liquid or gas
Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of wave or particle radiation (G01B 9/00 , G01B 11/00 take precedence; { by radar technique G01S} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring principles using wave or particle radiation, such as e- (beta), e+ (positron), gamma, X-ray, neutron, radar, microwaves, millimeter waves. Anything from about 100 MHz to far infrared as well as with a frequency higher than ultraviolet.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring arrangements by acoustic radiation
Measuring arrangements by optical means
Radar
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating, analysing
Scanning electron microscopes
Electron microscopes
Special rules of classification within this group

In case of measuring a distance or clearance between spaced objects or apertures, G01B 15/00 as well as G01B 7/14 should be assigned.

The expression "contours or curvatures" in G01B 15/04 is meant to refer to an envelope-like description of the shape or part of the shape of an object.

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of subsonic, sonic or ultrasonic vibrations { ( by sonar technique G01S 15/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring principles using acoustic energy, e.g. for short range distance measurement.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring object thickness (e.g. pipe wall) by exciting an object with a laser beam that generates an ultrasonic beam into the object. Reflections of the ultrasonic beam are then analysed, often using an interferometer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating, analysing materials by the use of subsonic, sonic or ultrasonic vibrations
Sonar or long range distance measurements
Special rules of classification within this group

The expression "contours or curvatures" in G01B 17/06 is meant to refer to an envelope-like description of the shape or part of the shape of an object.

Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements based on unspecified measurement principles or on principles covered by two or more of groups G01B 3/00 to G01B 17/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machine tools
Unwinding or rewinding apparatus incorporating length measuring devices
Internal diameters of boreholes or wells
Numerical control
Digital computing, data processing
Three-dimensional modelling
Special rules of classification within this group

At least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given when G01B 21/26 is given.

G01B 21/04 covers processing of measurement data, e.g. outlier processing.

G01B 21/042 covers calibration and calibration artifacts, which are meant as artifacts and methods used or applied before actual measurement of the workpiece.

G01B 21/045 covers correction of measurements, which is meant as artifacts and methods used or applied during or after actual measurement of the workpiece.

When classifying in G01B 21/26 at least one G01B 2210/00 Indexing Code has to be given.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013