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PRODUCING OR USE OF HEAT NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (materials therefor C09K 5/00; engines or other mechanisms for producing mechanical power from heat, see the relevant classes, e.g. F03G for using natural heat)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or devices using heat produced by exothermal chemical reactions, use of solar heat, e.g. solar collectors and other production or use of heat not derived from combustion, e.g. geothermal heat.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Domestic stoves or ranges are classified in F24B or F24C.

Domestic- or space heating systems are classified in F24D.

Fluid heaters having heat-generating means are classified in F24H.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Materials for the production of heat by chemical reaction other than by combustion

Engines or other mechanisms for producing mechanical power from heat

Apparatus or devices using heat produced by exothermal chemical reactions other than by combustion (for cooking-vessels A47J 36/28; self-heating compresses A61F {A61F 7/03}; materials for the production of heat or cold involving non-reversible chemical reactions, other than by combustion, when used C09K 5/18)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus wherein an exothermal chemical reaction takes place and wherein the heat produced is further used, e.g. heat packs.

Details of heat generating devices, e.g. mountings, means for initiating the exothermal reaction, e.g. ignition devices, control means.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Footwear with heating arrangements

Warming devices for cooking vessels generating the heat by exothermic reactions, e.g. heat released by the contact of unslaked lime with water

Self-heating compresses

Warming pads

Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air

Chemical processes with heating of the reactor

Using heat from a specified chemical reaction in plants characterised by the use of steam or heat accumulators

Heat storage apparatus using thermochemical reactions

Initiators for triggering crystallisation in latent heat storage apparatus

Thermonuclear fusion reactors

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

Packages having self-contained heating means

Explosives or thermic compositions

Materials undergoing chemical reactions when used

Use of solar heat, e.g. solar heat collectors (distillation or evaporation of water using solar energy C02F 1/14; devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy F03G 6/00; semiconductor devices specially adapted for converting solar energy into electrical energy H01L 31/00; photovoltaic [PV] cells including means directly associated with the PV cell to utilise heat energy H01L 31/0525; PV modules including means associated with the PV module to utilise heat energy H02S 40/44)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal solar collectors, e.g. solar stoves, solar heat collectors having working fluid conveyed through collector, thermal solar collectors integrated into a building, solar collectors using pools or ponds, solar collectors comprising a heat-exchanger.

Solar concentrators, e.g. systems that use lenses or mirrors to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area; solar receivers, e.g. energy conversion devices that convert the concentrated solar energy into useful heat.

Solar collectors having particular type of channels for the working fluid, e.g. plate-like solar collectors, tubular solar collectors, trickle solar collectors.

Heat-pipe solar collectors; heat storage integrated to solar collectors, e.g. solar hot water storage.

Solar tracking means, solar position control means, integration of sensors into supports, means for calibrating solar concentrators.

Control arrangements, e.g. temperature control, controlling transmission of solar heat; safety means, e.g. responsive to wind.

Component parts, details of solar collectors, e.g. flow guiding means, protective covers, casings, means for cleaning, means for interconnecting solar collectors, sealing means, means for preventing corrosion or protecting against contaminants, means for overtemperature protection, means for protection against freezing, means for draining, means for allowing thermal expansion.

Particular absorber materials, particular absorber coatings.

Transparent coverings.

Thermal insulation.

Arrangements of supports or mountings, e.g. stationary supports, profiles or rails for mounting solar modules, stands; supports adapted for reciprocating movement; waterborne solar collectors, airborne solar collectors, supports specially adapted for rotary movement.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Roof covering aspects of solar energy are classified in subgroups of F24J 2/00, not in E04D.

Solar heat systems not otherwise provided for are classified in F24J 2/42, e.g. solar collectors having natural or thermosiphonic circulation.

Hybrid systems, e.g. solar modules including both thermal and photovoltaic energy recovery are classified in H02S 40/44, not in F24J.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Distillation or evaporation of water using solar energy

Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy

Solar chimneys producing an updraft of heated gas, e.g. air driving an engine

Water or air heating systems combined with solar energy

Heat pump systems combined with solar energy

Semiconductor devices adapted for converting solar energy into electrical energy

Semiconductor devices including means to utilise heat energy directly associated with the PV cell

PV modules including means to utilise heat energy directly associated with the PV module

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Collecting solar energy for greenhouses

Footwear with heating arrangements

Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air

Chemical processes with heating of the reactor

Chemical reactors using sunlight

Protection against solar radiation in cosmonautics

Coating of glass

Joining glass to metal

Materials undergoing chemical reactions when used

Coating metallic materials

Coating by spraying

Coating by vacuum evaporation, by physical vapour deposition

Electrolytic coating

Three-dimensional framework structures

E04D1/19

Thermal insulation for buildings

E04D1/74

Vacuum insulating panels

Thin building elements with heating or cooling conduits

Fasteners for roof coverings

Roof coverings

Roof metal glazing bars

Corrugated roofs

Roof walkways

Systems for heating the water content of swimming pools

Towers, masts, poles

Windows

Protective devices against sunshine for buildings

Using heat from a specified chemical reaction in steam plants

Gas-turbine plants using solar energy

Wind motors combined with solar conversion means

Fasteners in general

Domestic hot water supply systems or recuperated waste heat systems or conventional heaters, combined with solar energy

Drying by using solar heat

Generators in which light radiation is directly converted into electrical energy

Clamps

Joining plates to one another

Connection of rods or tubes mutually

Connection of rods or tubes to flat surfaces

Valves

Pipes

Frames, casings or beds for engines, machines; Stands or supports

Lighting devices using daylight

Reflectors for lighting devices

Steam generators using solar energy

Air conditioning using solar energy

Refrigeration systems using solar energy

Heat exchange apparatus

Details of heat transfer

Direction finders for determining the direction from which electromagnetic waves are being received

Optics

Reflective coatings

Antireflection coatings

Simple or compound lenses

Mirrors

Light guides

Mountings for mirrors

Mounting adapted for very large mirrors

Systems with reflecting surfaces, with or without refracting elements

Electro-optical glazing

Supports for aerials

Orientation of aerials

Supporting structures for photovoltaic devices

Photovoltaic devices specially adapted for house roof structures, e.g. roof tile elements

Light concentrating means for photovoltaic devices

Light concentrating means for photovoltaic modules

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Supporting structures also intended for use with photovoltaic modules should further be classified in subclass H02S

employing tracking means (F24J 2/02, F24J 2/06 take precedence; rotary supports or mountings therefor F24J 2/54; supporting structures of photovoltaic modules for generation of electric power specially adapted for solar tracking systems H02S 20/32)
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Solar heat collectors with support for article heated, e.g. stoves, ranges, crucibles, furnaces or ovens using solar heat

Solar heat collectors having concentrating elements

Rotary supports or mountings therefor

Supporting structures of photovoltaic modules for generation of electric power specially adapted for solar tracking systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Direction-finders for determining the direction from which electromagnetic waves are being received

Control of position or direction

Other production or use of heat, not derived from combustion (use of solar heat F24J 2/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular heat generators not classified elsewhere, e.g. using heat resulting from internal friction of a moving fluid or from friction between a fluid and a moving body, e.g. viscous fluid heat generators with internal rotor.

Use of natural heat, e.g. thermal energy recovered from the sea.

Use of geothermal heat, e.g. geothermal probes.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Devices for producing mechanical power from geothermal energy are classified either in F03G (if details about the mechanical-power-producing-mechanisms) or in F24J 3/08 (if details about the geothermal heat exchanger) or in both.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Heat recuperation means in installations for fermenting manure

Adding or removing heat to or from composting process

Fermentation plants with heat exchange means

Mechanical power producing mechanisms using pressure differences or thermal differences occuring in nature

Ocean thermal energy conversion, i.e. OTEC

Pulse tube cycles

Fusion reactors

Use of effects of cosmic radiation

Thermoelectric devices

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drilling

Steam generation by transformation of mechanical energy into heat energy

Heat pump characterized by the source of potential heat

Use of the ground or aquifers for heat storage

Heating by electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013