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PRODUCING OR USE OF HEAT NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (materials therefor C09K 5/00; engines or other mechanisms for producing mechanical power from heat, see the relevant classes, e.g. F03G for using natural heat)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or devices using heat produced by exothermal chemical reactions, use of solar heat, e.g. solar collectors and other production or use of heat not derived from combustion, e.g. geothermal heat.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Domestic stoves or ranges are classified in F24B or F24C.

Domestic- or space heating systems are classified in F24D.

Fluid heaters having heat-generating means are classified in F24H.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Materials for the production of heat by chemical reaction other than by combustion
Engines or other mechanisms for producing mechanical power from heat
Apparatus or devices using heat produced by exothermal chemical reactions other than by combustion (for cooking-vessels A47J 36/28; self-heating compresses A61F {A61F7/04C} ; materials for the production of heat or cold involving non-reversible chemical reactions, other than by combustion, when used C09K 5/18)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus wherein an exothermal chemical reaction takes place and wherein the heat produced is further used, e.g. heat packs.

Details of heat generating devices, e.g. mountings, means for initiating the exothermal reaction, e.g. ignition devices, control means.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Footwear with heating arrangements
Warming devices for cooking vessels generating the heat by exothermic reactions, e.g. heat released by the contact of unslaked lime with water
Self-heating compresses
Warming pads
Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air
Chemical processes with heating of the reactor
Using heat from a specified chemical reaction in plants characterised by the use of steam or heat accumulators
Heat storage apparatus using thermochemical reactions
Initiators for triggering crystallisation in latent heat storage apparatus
Thermonuclear fusion reactors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products
Packages having self-contained heating means
Explosives or thermic compositions
Materials undergoing chemical reactions when used
Use of solar heat, e.g. solar heat collectors (distillation or evaporation of water using solar energy C02F 1/14; devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy F03G 6/00; semiconductor devices adapted for converting solar energy into electrical energy H01L 25/00, H01L 31/04; semiconductor devices including arrays of solar cells using heat energy H01L 31/058; generators in which light radiation is directly converted into electrical energy H02N 6/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal solar collectors, e.g. solar stoves, solar heat collectors having working fluid conveyed through collector, thermal solar collectors integrated into a building, solar collectors using pools or ponds, solar collectors comprising a heat-exchanger.

Solar concentrators, e.g. systems that use lenses or mirrors to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area; solar receivers, e.g. energy conversion devices that convert the concentrated solar energy into useful heat.

Solar collectors having particular type of channels for the working fluid, e.g. plate-like solar collectors, tubular solar collectors, trickle solar collectors.

Heat-pipe solar collectors; heat storage integrated to solar collectors, e.g. solar hot water storage.

Solar tracking means, solar position control means, integration of sensors into supports, means for calibrating solar concentrators.

Control arrangements, e.g. temperature control, controlling transmission of solar heat; safety means, e.g. responsive to wind.

Component parts, details of solar collectors, e.g. flow guiding means, protective covers, casings, means for cleaning, means for interconnecting solar collectors, sealing means, means for preventing corrosion or protecting against contaminants, means for overtemperature protection, means for protection against freezing, means for draining, means for allowing thermal expansion.

Particular absorber materials, particular absorber coatings.

Transparent coverings.

Thermal insulation.

Arrangements of supports or mountings, e.g. stationary supports, profiles or rails for mounting solar modules, stands; supports adapted for reciprocating movement; waterborne solar collectors, airborne solar collectors, supports specially adapted for rotary movement.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Roof covering aspects of solar energy are classified in subgroups of F24J 2/00, not in E04D.

Solar heat systems not otherwise provided for are classified in F24J 2/42, e.g. solar collectors having natural or thermosiphonic circulation.

Hybrid systems, e.g. solar modules including both thermal and photovoltaic energy recovery are classified in H01L 31/058, not in F24J.

Supports for solar modules of any type (thermal or photovoltaic or both) are classified in F24J 2/52.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Protection against solar radiation in cosmonautics
Distillation or evaporation of water using solar heat
Protective devices against sunshine for buildings
Gas-turbine plants using solar energy
Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy
Solar chimneys producing an updraft of heated gas, e.g. air driving an engine
Water or air heating systems combined with solar energy
Heat pump systems combined with solar energy
Domestic hot water supply systems or recuperated waste heat systems or conventional heaters, combined with solar energy
Drying by using solar heat
Semiconductor devices adapted for converting solar energy into electrical energy
Thermophotovoltaic systems
Semiconductor devices including arrays of solar cells using heat energy
Generators in which light radiation is directly converted into electrical energy
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Collecting solar energy for greenhouses
Footwear with heating arrangements
Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air
Chemical processes with heating of the reactor
Chemical reactors using sunlight
Packages having self-contained heating means
Coating of glass
Joining glass to metal
Materials undergoing chemical reactions when used
Coating metallic materials
Coating by spraying
Coating by vacuum evaporation, by physical vapour deposition
Electrolytic coating
Three-dimensional framework structures
E04D1/19
Thermal insulation for buildings
E04D1/74
Vacuum insulating panels
Thin building elements with heating or cooling conduits
Fasteners for roof coverings
Roof coverings
Roof metal glazing bars
Corrugated roofs
Roof walkways
Systems for heating the water content of swimming pools
Towers, masts, poles
Windows
Using heat from a specified chemical reaction in steam plants
Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy with means for concentrating solar rays
Wind motors combined with solar conversion means
Fasteners in general
Clamps
Joining plates to one another
Connection of rods or tubes mutually
Connection of rods or tubes to flat surfaces
Valves
Pipes
Frames, casings or beds for engines, machines; Stands or supports
Lighting devices using daylight
Reflectors for lighting devices
Steam generators using solar energy
Air conditioning using solar energy
Refrigeration systems using solar energy
Heat exchange apparatus
Details of heat transfer
Direction finders for determining the direction from which electromagnetic waves are being received
Optics
Reflective coatings
Antireflection coatings
Simple or compound lenses
Mirrors
Light guides
Mountings for mirrors
Mounting adapted for very large mirrors
Systems with reflecting surfaces, with or without refracting elements
Electro-optical glazing
Supports for aerials
Orientation of aerials
Supporting frames for photovoltaic devices
Photovoltaic devices specially adapted for house roof structures, e.g. roof tile elements
Light concentrating means for photovoltaic devices
Other production or use of heat, not derived from combustion (use of solar heat F24J 2/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular heat generators not classified elsewhere, e.g. using heat resulting from internal friction of a moving fluid or from friction between a fluid and a moving body, e.g. viscous fluid heat generators with internal rotor.

Use of natural heat, e.g. thermal energy recovered from the sea.

Use of geothermal heat, e.g. geothermal probes.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Devices for producing mechanical power from geothermal energy are classified either in F03G (if details about the mechanical-power-producing-mechanisms) or in F24J 3/08 (if details about the geothermal heat exchanger) or in both.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Heat recuperation means in installations for fermenting manure
Adding or removing heat to or from composting process
Fermentation plants with heat exchange means
Mechanical power producing mechanisms using pressure differences or thermal differences occuring in nature
Ocean thermal energy conversion, i.e. OTEC
Pulse tube cycles
Fusion reactors
Use of effects of cosmic radiation
Thermoelectric devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Drilling
Steam generation by transformation of mechanical energy into heat energy
Heat pump characterized by the source of potential heat
Use of the ground or aquifers for heat storage
Heating by electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013