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FOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS, EMBANKMENTS (specially adapted for hydraulic engineering E02B) ; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURE (tunnels, tunnelling, mining E21)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods, devices and machinery for making foundations;

Engineering with the ends of making foundations or underground structures involving the disturbance of the ground surface.

Investigation of foundation soil in situ;

Improving soil or rock;

Structural elements adapted to foundation engineering and equipment and methods of placing or removing them;

Preventing excavation walls or embankments from collapsing;

Keeping dry of foundation sites in the ground;

Caissons and the joining of caissons;

Testing, repairing, straightening, lowering or lifting foundation structures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E02F covers soil-shifting and dredging independent from the purpose of foundations;

E21B covers drilling of earth or rock in general and without the intent of making foundations;

G01N covers investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties;

G01V covers geophysics in general and prospecting;

E02B covers hydraulic engineering.

Investigation of foundation soil in situ (investigation involving boring or specially adapted to earth drilling E21B 25/00, E21B 49/00; investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties, in general G01N, e.g. sampling G01N 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any investigation of a soil with respect to envisaged activities of building foundations on surface of that soil or partially or completely embedded in that soil covered by the investigation.

The investigations may be carried out before or after work for making the foundation is being done.

Investigations may also be done while the foundation work is in progress.

The investigations may comprise evaluation of physical properties, e.g. Young's modulus, compressibility, density, water saturation, weight, bearing capacity, pore-water pressure, permeability etc.

The investigation may comprise evaluation of chemical properties e.g. ph value.

The investigation distinguishes between soil itself and the fluids circulating in it.

The investigation in situ.

Sampling of probes like soil or water for off-site investigation.

The group covers the devices for exerting the investigation work as well as the method.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E21B covers drilling of earth or rock in general;

G01N covers investigating or analysing materials by deteremining their chemical or physical properties.

G01V covers geophysics in general and prospecting.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for obtaining or removing undisturbed cores, e.g. core barrels, core extractors
Containers for collecting substances in boreholes or wells
Testing the nature of borehole walls; sampling of soil or fluids
Devices for testing in situ the hardness or other properties of minerals
Sampling involving an extraction tool, e.g. core bit
Suction devices for sampling of fluids, e.g. pumps
Investigating characteristics of particles or permeability, pore volume etc.
Investigating or analyzing materials by use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Prospecting using seismology
Prospecting using optical means
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Foundation soil
Soil wherein or whereon a foundation for e.g. a building will be erected on
In situ
At the place and in the state of the occurence of the soil
Improving or preserving soil or rock, e.g. preserving permafrost soil (securing of slopes or inclines E02D 17/20; damming or interrupting passage of underground water E02D 19/12; improving soil for agricultural purposes A01; soil stabilisation for road building or like purposes E01C 21/00, E01C 23/10; setting rock anchoring bolts E21D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Improving of soil by adding or mixing with materials such as fibres, filaments, open mesh, stones, lost bodies, water, sand, gravel, chemical agents like grout or cement.

Improving of soil by compacting using mechanical, thermal, electrical or electro-chemical means.

Mechanical means include rolling, tamping, vibrating etc. of the soil on its surface or by penetrating the soil.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A01 covers soil working in agriculture or forestry;

E01C covers paving of roadway surface;

E21D covers rock anchoring in tunnels or mining pits.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wheels or wheel attachments designed for increasing traction
Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving
Apparatus or processes for surface or soil stabilisation for road building or like purposes, e.g. mixing local aggregate with binder
Auxiliary devices or arrangements for constructing, repairing, reconditioning, or taking-up road or like surfaces
Securing of slopes or inclines
Placing or applying sealing substances
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Improving or preserving
Improving a foundation soil shall in this context be understood as increasing its load bearing capacity by excluding disadvantages such as high content of water or lack of compaction.
Trench roller
Compaction roller designed to be operated on the bottom of a trench
Slope roller
Compaction roller designed to be operated on a slope or on a largely non-limited area
To vibrate
To move or cause to move forth and back rapidly
To tamp
To force or pack down firmly by repeated blows
Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering (engineering elements in general F16)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sheet piles made of steel and their locking forms;

Sheet piles of concrete and their locking forms;

Bulkheads made of concrete in situ, of prefabricated parts and concrete in situ;

Piles made of timber, steel or concrete;

Prefabricated piles or piles cast in position, e.g. concrete piles;

Concrete piles cast in position with or without the use of mould-pipes or moulds;

Mould-pipes or moulds for making piles or bulkheads;

Pile shoes;

Means for anchoring piles or bulkheads.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
Foundation slots (made of concrete)
Drilling rods or pipes
Pegs, stakes or the like
Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Bulkhead
A Wall or partition built to hold back earth or water
In situ
Fabricated at the place of the intended use
Mould-pipe
A Pipe used as the mould for the pile, normally a concrete pile cast in situ
Methods or apparatus for placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds (for both placing and removing E02D 11/00; {accessories for coupling driver to piles or the like E02D 13/10; for trees or other plants A01G 17/16; placing posts E04H 17/26} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inserting sheet piles, piles or mould-pipes for purpose of foundation into a soil.

Specifying the process of placing the above elements which may be done by driving, by vibrating, by pressure or pulling power, by screwing down, by using fluid jets, by using several means simultaneously, by means arranged inside a hollow pipe or mould pipe.

Machines and equipment for exerting these operations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E21B covers earth drilling, e.g. deep drilling per se. In contrast, this class is aiming to insert a foundation element such as a pile or to inject e.g. grout in a soil to form a foundation element like a pile.

E04H covers sockets for posts and how to insert them in a ground.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For both placing and removing
Devices for erecting or removing fences
Sockets or holders for posts driven into the ground
Sockets or holders for posts driven into the ground by screwing
Earth drilling, e.g. deep drilling
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
To drive
To force or bring down a foundation element by means other than by vibrating, by pressure or pulling power, by screwing down, by fluid jets, or by means arragned inside the pile.
To vibrate
To move or cause to move forth and back rapidly
Removing sheet piles bulkheads, piles, mould-pipes or other moulds {or parts thereof} (for both placing and removing E02D 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removing the top section of piles,

Removing by withdrawing,

Removing by cutting-off an element under water

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E02D 7/00 covers the placing of sheet piles, piles, mould-pipes or other moulds;

E21B is about earth drilling including the withdrawal of the equipment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or apparatus for both placing and removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, or other mould-pipes
Devices for erecting or removing fences
Derricks or masts for drilling machines
Methods or apparatus {specially adapted} for both placing and removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, or mould-pipes (features relating to placing only E02D 7/00, to removing only E02D 9/00; {placing apparatus which without special provisions, can be operated to remove, e.g. vibrating drivers E02D 7/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods or apparatus equally suitable for placing and removing foundation elements such as sheet piles, piles or mould-pipes. In contrast, E02D 7/00 only covers the placing of foundation elements, E02D 9/00 only covers the removing of such elements.

Relationship between large subject matter areas
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or apparatus for only placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds
Methods or apparatus for only removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds
Accessories for placing or removing piles or bulkheads, {e.g. noise attenuating chambers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accessories adapted to remove bulkheads, enabling control during the process of placing, removing of obstacles, follow-blocks and guide devices assisting in placing foundation elements.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E21B covers earth drilling in general

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Accessories for drilling tools
Derricks; masts
Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations
Survey of boreholes or wells
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Components for drivers
Scaffolds (as components for drivers)
Handling building or like materials for hydraulic engineering or foundations ( {soil-shifting E02F;} conveying or working-up concrete or similar masses in general E04G 21/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Handling materials when used for hydraulic engineering or for foundations;

Handling of bulk concrete including filling into shuttering, mould-pipes, pile tubes, bore-holes or narrow shafts and under water;

Sinking workpieces into water;

Placing gravel or light material under water.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E02F 1/00 covers general working methods with dredgers or soil-shifting machines;

E04G 21/00 covers preparing, conveying, or working-up building materials or building elements in situ;

E02B covers hydraulic engineering.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for applying linings on banks or the water bottom
Banks of the bodies of water
Lining canals
Concrete piles cast in position by making use of mould-pipes or other mould
Concrete piles cast in position by making use of mould-pipes or other mould in open water
Placing of hollow pipes or mould pipes by means arranged inside the pile or pipe
Conveying or working-up concrete or similar masses in general
Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments (soil-shifting apparatus E02F; earth drilling E21)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pits for foundations and their borderings;

Narrow shafts or ditches and trenches for foundation;

Stiffening or bordering the sides of ditches or trenches by using travelling trench shores and shoring struts;

Covering and back-filling of those trenches;

Machines for making foundation slots, i.e. diaphragm walls;

Securing of slopes or inclines, e.g. to counter erosion, by flexible securing means e.g. geotextiles, prefabricated modular blocks or by sheet piles and piles.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

E02F covers general working methods with dredgers or soil-shifting machines;

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Soil shifting apparatus unless used for making foundations, e.g. diaphragm wall
Dredgers or soil shifting machines with equipment for back-filling trenches or ditches
Dredgers or soil shifting machinesfor making embankments
Stream regulation, e.g. breaking up subaqueous rock, cleaning the beds of waterways, directing the water flow and removing of sediment or solid rock
Concrete diaphragms per se
Foundations for dams
Protection like protecting fences against snowslide or avalanches
Keeping dry foundation sites or other areas in the ground (sheet piles or bulkheads E02D 5/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Protecting areas, particularly foundation areas like foundation pits, from the entry of water;

Water may arise as open water or underground water;

Lining sumps when in trenches, ditches or other foundation pits.

The methods comprising the building of coffer-dams, making open ditches or trenches, lowering the level of ground water, e.g. by pumping, interrupting the waters passage by freezing, damming, making sealing aprons or forcing out the water by e.g. compressed air.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Collecting drinking water
Sealing or joints in connection with hydraulic engineering when correcting rivers or streams
Pneumatic caissons to keep of the water
Permanent sheet piling boxes
Consolidating soil by placing solidifying or pore-filling substances in the soil
Sheet piles or sheet pile bulkheads
Freezing the soil when sinking shafts, e.g. mining shafts
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Sealing aprons
Diaphragms made from bituminous or clay material in contrast to diaphragm wall which is widely understood a concrete wall.
Caissons; Construction or placing of caissons (tunnels submerged into or built in open water E02D 29/063; {moles, piers, quays, breakwaters incorporating caissons E02B 3/06; foundation formed by caissons E02D 27/18 to E02D 27/22; caisson-like artificial islands E02B 17/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Caissons and pneumatic caissons, their use involving bringing materials and persons in there;

Particularities of the use of such caissons comprising lowering and sinking, increasing lowering, jointing caissons to the foundation soil, solving problems such as skin friction while lowering.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Foundation formed by caissons
Tunnels submerged into or built in open water
Breakwaters incorporating caissons
Caisson-like artificial islands
Sinking mine shaft
Air locks in mines
Joining caissons, sinkers, or other units to each other under water
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Underwater connection of elements used for foundation underwater such as caissons, sinkers, or other units

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Jointing caissons to (uneven) foundation soil
Foundations as substructures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Foundations when flat on the foundation soil, deeply embedded foundations such as pile foundations;

Foundations for special purposes, e.g. in earthquake territories, in frozen ground, in moors, for masts or machines;

special type of fixing the foundation to the ground such as anchoring or building underneath existing buildings for their recovery.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Equipment for dwelling or working under water
Tanks per se
Foundations for railway sleepers
Foundations for paving of roads
Bridges for supporting conduits
Dams per se
Elevated canals
Sinking worpieces into water or soil
Consolidating foundation soil in general
Arrangements or adaptations of tanks for water supply
Making of a new substructure subsequent to lifting or moving of buildings
Sockets or holders for poles or masts per se
Building constructions with protection arrangements against earthquakes
Special lay-out of foundations with respect to the particularities of the machines to be supported
{Independent} underground or underwater structures (underground tanks B65D 88/76; hydraulic engineering, e.g. sealings or joints, E02B; underground garages E04H 6/00; underground air-raid shelters E04H 9/12; burial vaults E04H 13/00) ; Retaining walls
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Underground or underwater structures as independent buildings or constructions, e.g. retaining or protecting walls, caverns, tunnels, siphons;

Tunnels for conduits;

Manhole shafts and covers therefore;

Joints in constructions and their arrangement;

Retaining walls

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shafts for underground tanks
Lifting devices for covers in general
Pontoons or floating bridges
Arrangements for absorbing or reflecting air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic
Arrangements for absorbing or reflecting air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic using gabions
Piers or quay walls
Joints for hydraulic engineering in general
Siphon weirs
Design and layout of power plants
Tunnels for pressure water conduits
Securing of slopes or inclines
Submerged foundations
Details of ground anchors
Shafts for sewerage
Gully gratings
Siphons for sewerage
Sealing of joints not restricted to foundation structures
Large underground chambers or caverns made only by underground methods
Layout of tunnels in general
Siphons in general
Tunnels for cables
Protective arrangements for foundations or foundation structures { (protective casings for piles E02D 5/60) } ; Ground foundation measures for protecting the soil or the subsoil water, e.g. preventing or counteracting oil pollution (spillage retaining means for tanks B65D 90/24)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Protecting foundations from harmful influence such as water, humidity, noxious gases, corrosion by soil or water, transmission of vibrations, soil pressure, upward hydraulic pressure or frost heave.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sealings for hydraulic engineering in general
Anchored foundations
Sealings for building structures in general
Testing foundations or foundation structures (testing methods and apparatus, see the relevant subclasses of class G01; testing structures or apparatus as regards function, in general, G01M; testing or determining chemical or physical properties, in general G01N)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing of foundation structures such as piles or other foundation structure

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
General testing of structures and apparatus with respect to their function
Testing or determining chemical or physical properties in general
Straightening, lifting, or lowering of foundation structures or of constructions erected on foundations { (foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement E02D 27/34; lifting or moving buildings E04G 23/06) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Altering the level of a foundation

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement
Straightening, lowering, lifting foundation structures
Repair of damaged foundations
Lifting or moving buildings
Repair of damaged foundations or foundation structures { (renewing piles E02D 5/64; roads E01C 11/005; bridges E01D 22/00; repairing buildings E04G 23/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Repairing improper foundations

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement
Straightening, lowering, lifting foundation structures
Lifting or moving buildings
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013