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PULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C or D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulp compositions for paper manufacturing, papers obtained therefrom, coated papers and impregnated paper. It also covers the processes for adding materials to pulp or papers and after-treatments of papers as well as special papers.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The groups D21H 11/00 and D21H 13/00 relate to the pulp per se (or paper obtained therefrom). The mechanical part of pulp preparation is classified in D21B or D21D. Chemical processes of pulp preparation are classified in D21C. Chemo-mechanical and thermo-mechanical processes of pulp preparation are classified in D21B.

The main groups D21H 17/00 and D21H 19/00 relateto paper impregnated/coated with a composition of chemical compounds. D21H 17/00 also includes addition of chemicals to the pulp before paper forming. Where said composition of compounds is also claimed per se, subclasses addressing the preparation of said compounds and/or composition per se, in the form of e.g. coatings or adhesives, might become relevant for the classification (see below in details the informative references given for D21H 17/00 and D21H 19/00).

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating methods and machines (general)
Treatment of wood or similar materials
Manufacture by dry process of articles, with or without organic binding agent, made from particles or fibres of wood or other lingo-cellulosic or like organic materials
Forming of paper tubes or pipes
Mechanical working or deformation of paper or cardboard
Organic composites (resin + fibres)
Laminates
Pulping processes, preparation or after-treatment of pulp
Papermaking methods and machines per se
Calenders; accessories for papermaking machines
Fibre-board
Special rules of classification within this subclass

The main aspect(s) of the invention is/are given a class according to the classification scheme. The invention per se should be classified in the last appropriate class(es). Ideally, one class should be given for covering the main aspect of the invention per se. Exceptionally, the core of the invention may also be classified by using up to three classes.

In this subclass, it is highly desirable to add Indexing Codes for secondary aspects of the invention (e.g. the features of the dependent claims) or for

additional information, which is not considered to form the claimed invention per se, but which might be of interest for the search. For the Indexing Codes the “D” is replaced with an “N”, e.g. to classify the additional information that the pulp or paper is treated by enzymes (or micro-organisms) should read D21H 17/005 (instead of D21H 17/005).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subclass the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Pulp
a dispersion [N: e.g. an aqueous suspension] comprising paper-making fibres and optional additives, which is to be processed, and covers the term "stock"; it also means dry paper-making fibres which are to be made into paper by either wet or dry processes.
Paper
paper, cardboard or wet-laid non-woven. Note also that there is e.g. a class for multi-ply paper comprising dry-laid paper (D21H 27/42) and that the paper e.g. can consist of 100% non-cellulosic fibres (D21H 13/00).
Binder or binding agent
usually a macromolecular product used to bind the paper-making fibres together in order to give cohesion to the final paper sheet [e.g. starchy materials, latexes, etc.].
Fibres
under paper-making fibres are meant short fibres (maximum length in the range of the mm). Papers also comprising long fibres or filaments are classified in D21H 15/00.
Filler or pigment
usually designating fine particles added to the pulp (very often inorganic materials such as talc, kaolin, silica, calcium carbonate, etc.).
Sizing agent or hydrophobizing agent
agent added in order to increase the hydrophobicity of the paper
Coating
layer of material applied to the paper substrate. Although part of this material may penetrate through the substrate, a coated paper is characterized by the presence of said layer on its surface.
Impregnation
application of a liquid material to a paper substrate wherein the liquid material penetrates substantially the substrate [e.g. by submerging the substrate into a bath containing the liquid material].
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression/word "fibres" is often used with the meaning "fibers"

Paper; Cardboard (fibreboard D21J)
Paper or cardboard prepared by adding substances to the pulp or to the formed web on the paper-making machine (processes for adding substances D21D3/00) [N: and by applying substances to finished paper or cardboard (on the paper-making machine), also when the intention is to impregnate at least a part of the paper body]
Special paper or cardboard not otherwise provided for (duplicating or recording paper B41M)
Pulp or paper, comprising cellulose or lingo-cellulose fibres of natural origin only
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulp or paper containing any kind of synthetic fibres
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pulp manufacturing
Pulp comprising secondary fibres
Pulp or paper, comprising synthetic cellulose or non-cellulose fibres or web-forming material (chemical features in the manufacture of artificial fibres D01F)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Paper comprising synthetic fibres (possibly up to 100% synthetic fibres) may be used for different purposes. Such paper claimed per se is classified in this group.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filters, particle separators, etc
Glass fibres; manufacture of fibres from mineral materials
Synthetic fibres
Insulating papers; electrical papers
Batteries (separators, spacing elements)
Pulp or paper, comprising fibers or web-forming material characterized by features other than their chemical constitution
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Paper comprising long fibres, filaments, flakes or special fibres, being defined by their configuration (geometry, curled fibres, filaments, etc) or by specific properties (e.g. composite fibres).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture/treatment of fibres, filaments, flake from glass, mineral or slags
Fibres or filament composition
Use of fibres or whiskers characterized by shape
Synthetic fibres
Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterized by its constitution; Paper-impregnating material characterized by its constitution
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Substances added to the pulp or to the paper by impregnation, characterized by their nature. Macromolecular or non-macromolecular compounds, material of vegetable origin, inorganic materials, etc.

In principle substances to be added by coating are to be found in D21H19, unless both groups are possible.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Other metals (beryllium, magnesium, aluminium, calcium, etc.)
Compounds containing metal
Polysaccharides; derivatives thereof (preparations of cellulose, starch, amylose, etc.)
Use of inorganic ingredients
Use of prepared ingredients
Compositions of macromolecular compounds
Inorganic materials
Coating/impregnating compositions per se
Inks
Micro-organisms or enzymes
Particles morphology
Physical properties of inorganic compounds
Coated paper; (coated fibreboard D21J 1/08); Coating material (recording sheets characterised by the coating used to improve ink, dye or pigment receptivity B41M 5/50)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers paper which have been coated (i.e. by means of a coated process per se) as well as the coating material per se.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recording sheets characterised by the coating used to improve ink, dye or pigment receptivity
Polysaccharides; derivatives thereof (preparations of cellulose, starch, amylose, etc.)
Coating/impregnating compositions per se
Compositions of macromolecular compounds
Inks
Coated fibreboard

Where the coating is characterized by the filler/pigment used:

Other metals (beryllium, magnesium, aluminium, calcium, etc.)
Compounds containing metal
Use of inorganic ingredients
Use of prepared ingredients
Inorganic materials
Particles morphology
Physical properties of inorganic compounds
Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterized by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterized by its function, form or properties
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In this group the substances added to the paper are classified according to the function (hydrophobic agents, biocidal agents, ignifugeants, agents improving the absorbency of the formed paper, wet-strength agents, etc.) or specific properties (size, geometry, etc.) of the substance.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

As to security paper:

Making microcapsules
Printing plates
Watermarking
Security printing
Banknotes, cheques, shares, bonds:
B42D15/0013
With moiré effects
B42D15/002
With security threads
B42D15/0026
Identity card, cheque, etc
B42D 15/10, B42D15/105
Watermarking devices
Testing paper currency or valuable paper for genuineness

Additives defined by length or shape: see references given in D21H 15/00, D21H 17/00, D21H 19/00 regarding the fillers/pigments or other additional materials

Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials
Fire extinguishing compositions
Organic dyes or closely-related compounds for producing dyes; mordants; lakes
Treatment of inorganic materials
Inks
Fire proof paints
Modification of pulp properties
D21C9/001
Removal of fats, resins, pitch or waxes from the pulp
Processes or apparatus for adding material to the pulp or to the paper (applying liquids or other fluent material to surfaces, in general B05; processes for making continuous lengths of paper D21F 11/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for adding a substance to the pulp (D21H 23/04 to D21H 23/20) or to the formed paper (D21H 23/22 to D21H 23/74).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General coating processes (i.e. applying liquids or other fluent material to surfaces)
B05
Papermaking per se: machines and methods
Calenders and accessories for papermaking
After-treatment of paper not provided for in groups D21H 17/00 to D21H 23/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group is concerned with treatment of the formed/finished paper (e.g. mechanical treatments, chemical treatments, physical treatments, etc.). Coating processes per se do not fall within the scope of this group.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General coating processes (i.e. applying liquids or other fluent material to surfaces)
Papermaking per se: machines and methods
Calenders and accessories for papermaking
Special paper not otherwise provided for, e.g. made by multi-step processes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Paper materials for a special use (release paper, tissue paper, packing paper, wallpaper, etc.) or having a multi-ply structure.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Layered products per se are classified in the subclass B32B.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cigarette papers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Medals or badges
Paper filter inlays for filters/strainers for coffee or tea makers
Toilet paper; paper towels
Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towel, swab or tampon
Cosmetic
Filter paper (see also informative ref. given for D21H 13/00); made on papermaking machine
Attaching together paper or cardboard sheets
Layered products comprising a layer of paper
Printed wallpapers
Sheets temporarily attached together
Decorative sheet/papers
B44C5/0469
Paperhanging
Labelling
Packing; packaging; containers
Paper support for adhesive film / pre-gummed wallpaper
By adhesive means
Embossed/patterned papers:
On the papermaking machine
D21F11/006
Embossing
Creping
Non-woven
Multi-ply papers made on papermaking machines
D21F9/006
Anti-coil photographic support
Labels, tag ticket
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013