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MAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL (weaving D03; knitting D04B; braiding [N: and lace-making] D04C; net-making [N: and making knotted carpets] D04G; sewing D05B; tufting D05C, [N: e.g. D05C 15/04]; finishing non-woven fabrics D06); FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING [N: Non-woven fabrics from staple fibres, filaments or yarns, bonded with at least one web-like material during their consolidation] (non-woven fabrics having an intermediate or external layer of a different kind, e.g. of woven fabric, B32B; [N: manufacturing hats A42C; filtering material B01D 39/00; making board or the like from wood fibre B27N; producing shaped articles from mixtures containing fibres B28B 1/52; making layered products from solid layers, at least one of which contains synthetic resin as an essential component B32B 27/00; making or treating glass wool and mineral wool C03B 37/00; compounding ingredients used as fillers for mortars and the like C04B 14/38, C04B 16/06, C04B 20/0048; sintering plastics particles C08J 9/24 ; manufacturing by extrusion of synthetic filaments and fibres in general D01D; paper D21C to D21H; making shaped articles from liquid suspensions of cellulose fibres D21J])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Felts, cotton wool and wadding;
  • Methods or apparatus for making these products;
  • Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres;
  • Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length;
  • Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length;
  • Non-woven pile fabrics;
  • Other non-woven fabrics;
  • Felting apparatus;
  • Needling machine.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Some of the non-woven fabrics can also be regarded as "layered products" within the meaning of subclass B32B, and further classification in that subclass should be considered in accordance with the notes thereto.

In cases where the making of non-woven fabrics involves the use of particular chemical compounds or compositions, e.g. for treating or bonding fibres, filaments, or yarns, further classification in other appropriate subclasses should also be considered.

By varying the proportions of fibers or threads, and the chemical compounds or compositions, the nonwoven may be given the appearance of paper, cardboard, leather or the like.

Some of the nonwoven fabrics can also be regarded as layered products with the meaning of the subclass B32B (laminates).

The following operations also make reference to nonwovens: sewing (D05B), tufting (D05C) and finishing nonwoven fabrics (D06).

Non-wovens can be found in a wide variety of applications:

  • in personal care : absorbent articles, cosmetic cleaning pads.
  • in clothing and footwear : shoes, industrial headwear and footwear, protective garments.
  • in household: wipes, vacuum cleaner bag.
  • in home furnishing : carpet underlay, wall coverings.
  • in the medical field: face masks, surgical drapes, sterilization aids,
  • in specific industrial applications : filtration, abrasives, insulating tapes, electronics, satellite dishes.
  • in buildings: insulation, roofing, covers for acoustic ceilings.
  • in civil engineering: road and rail building, drainage, geotextiles, soil stabilization, golf and sport surfaces.
  • in vehicles: insulation materials, battery separators, break discs, filters.
  • in the aviation industry: for protection or for having light structures with strength.
  • in agriculture and horticulture: crop and plant protection, capillary mats, greenhouse shading.
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manufacturing of hats
Filtering material
B01B39/00
Non-woven fabrics having an intermediate or external layer of a different kind, e.g. of woven fabric
Shaped articles from mixed fibers
Laminates in general
Layered product from solid layers
Making or treating glass wool or mineral wool
Compounding ingredients used as filler for mortars and like
Sintering plastic particles
Fiber reinforced materials
Manufacturing by extrusion of synthetic filaments and fibers
Manufacturing by extrusion of synthetic filaments and fibers
Impregnation of fibrous webs
Artificial leather
Paper
Making shaped products from liquid suspensions of cellulose
Filtering material for liquid or gaseous fluids
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wearing apparel
Laying carpeting or carpet tiles; Carpet underlay
Multilayer products
Roof coverings or underlay
Formation of filaments, threads, or the like
Carding
Lap-forming devices
Curling or crimpling of fibres, filaments, or yarns
Weaving
Knitting
Braiding
Net-making
Sewing
Tufting
Finishing non-woven fabrics
Paper web-making by wet methods
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Carded thermal bonded and resin bonded staples
fabrics formed by processing textile staple fibers over a card and bonding by resin or thermal means.
Air laid
fabrics formed by air laying and bonding pulp or staple fibers.
Wet laid
fabrics that contain long (longer than pulp) fibers and are made by papermaking techniques.
Needle punched staples
fabrics formed by processing staple fibers over a card or other web forming device and entangling them by penetrating the fabric with multiple barbed needles.
Spun laced or hydro entangled
fabrics formed by carding, air laying or other web forming techniques and consolidated by hydraulic needling.spun bonded: fabrics formed by in-line melt extrusion spinning of filaments of conventional textile denier.
Spun bonded
fabrics formed by in-line melt extrusion spinning of filaments of conventional textile denier.
Melt blown
fabrics formed by in-line melt extrusion spinning of very fine fiber diameter, less than one denier.
Non-woven fabrics
fabrics formed wholly or partly of textile material by processes comprising operations other than the weaving, knitting, braiding, lacing, or knotting of yarns, threads, or filaments for which provision is made in other subclasses of Section D. This expression includes felts, cotton-wool, and wadding.
Composite fibres
Conjugated fibres that are manufactured by composite spinning of two or more kinds of immiscible resins, of which the resins form such phase structures as side-by-side, sheath-core, sea-island, wood grain pattern, multi-layered, radial or mosaic in the cross section surface vertical to the fibre axis.
Mixed fibres
Mixture of two or more kinds of fibres made of different substances.
Fleece
Fabric composed of a foundation layer with a thick, soft nap or pile, in which any type of fabric, including a knit or a woven fabric, can be incorporated as a foundation layer. A fleece should be treated as a single layer, not as a layered product.
Pile
Upright loop or nap raised from the surface of fabrics.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SMS
spunbond-meltblown-spunbond

In patent documents the following words "spun lace", "hydro entangling" "hydro needling" "hydro enhancement" hydro bonding" and "water needling" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the word "filament" is often used interchangeably with "fiber".

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed from fibres or filaments which have been specifically cut to a length less than continuous.

Cotton wool; Wadding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics of short fibers are composed of cotton-wool or wadding (could be useful to look at carding D01G) and are used to make cosmetic pads, absorbent pads, quilting materials etc.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Wadding
A heap of voluminous and low-density fibre for use as fillers in furniture or quilting.
from fleeces or layers composed of fibres having existing or potential cohesive properties, e.g. natural fibres, prestretched or fibrillated artificial fibres (felting apparatus D04H 17/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are composed of fibers having existing or potential cohesive properties and are consolidated by mechanical means such as natural fibers like wool or fibrillated artificial fibers. The fibers are crimped or crinkly and will entangle easily with each other (could be useful to look at felting apparatus D04H 17/00).

by treatment to produce shrinking, swelling, crimping or curling of fibres
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Producing crimped or curled fibres, filaments, yarns, or threads, giving them latent characteristics
Regenerated cellulose series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers of regenerated cellulose.

Acrylonitrile series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers from the acrylonitrile series.

and hardened by felting; Felts or felted products
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, hardened by a felting technique including also felts and products made from felts.

Silk
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, hardened by a felting technique including also felts and products made from felts and the fibers are made of silk.

Felts made from mixtures of fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of felts made from a mixture of different types of fibres.

and incorporating artificial organic fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of felts made from a mixture of different types of fibres and incorporate artificial organic fibres.

and incorporating inorganic fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of felts made from a mixture of different types of fibers and incorporate inorganic fibers.

Wood pulp
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics of short fibers having existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties are fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made of wood pulp.

Regenerated cellulose series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics of short fibers having existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties are fleeces and webs or layers of these, made of regenerated cellulose series.

Collagen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics of short fibers having existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties are fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made of fibers of collagen.

Synthetic pulp
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics of short fibers having existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties are fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made of synthetic pulp.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Synthetic pulp
typically comprised of a thermoplastic polymer such as polyolefins or some polyamides and having a structure resembling wood pulp. That is, the synthetic pulp has a micro-fibrillar structure comprised of micro-fibrils exhibiting a high surface area as contrasted with the smooth, rod-like morphology of synthetic short staple fibers
from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties.

containing absorbing substances, e.g. activated carbon
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties containing absorbing substances, e.g. activated carbon.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Absorbing substances
water-absorbing agents such as water-absorbing polymer, deodorant or humidity absorbing agents such as activated carbon
containing granules other than absorbent substances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties containing granules other than absorbent substances.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Granules
for example, those having antibiotic properties or granular substances with flame retardant properties.
characterised by the use of certain kinds of fibres insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs or layers of these composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties characterized by the use of certain kinds of fibers insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece.

Inorganic fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are inorganic fibers.

Glass fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs or layers of these are inorganic glass fibers.

characterised by the apparatus for manufacturing the glass fleece
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are inorganic glass fibers and are characterized by the apparatus for manufacturing the glass fleece.

Metal fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs or layers of these are inorganic metal fibres.

Carbon fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are inorganic carbon fibres.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Carbon fibres
a kind of inorganic fibre. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) -based, pitch-based or rayon-based Carbon fibers are included.
Cellulose series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are fibers belonging to the cellulose series egg. cotton, kapok, linen, jute, flax, ramie, sisal, hemp, kenaf, industrial hemp, rattan, vine fibers, fique, banana and agave.

Regenerated cellulose series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are fibers belonging to the regenerated cellulose series egg. rayon, acetate, triacetate, bamboo fibers, rayon, lyocell, Tencel, Modal and Viscose.

Natural fibres not provided for in group D04H 1/425
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are natural fibers not provided for in group D04H 1/425 e.g. wool, silk (and other protein fibers).

Rags; Fabric scraps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics which are composed of the fibres obtained and reused by cutting or fibreizing wastes or garnets, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres and formed from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece. Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from rags; Fabric scraps.

Addition polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from fibers made from addition polymers. (e.g. PVC)

Olefin series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from fibers made from addition polymers from the olefin series.

Acrylonitrile series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from fibers made from addition polymers from the acrylonitrile series.

Polyvinyl alcohol
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from fibers made from addition polymers of polyvinyl alcohol.

Fluorine series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from fibers made from addition polymers from the fluorine series.

Condensation or reaction polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from fibers made from condensation or reaction polymers.

Polyamides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

These condensation polymers being polyamides.

Aromatic polyamides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Condensation polymers being aromatic polyamides.

Polyesters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Condensation polymers being polyesters.

Polyurethanes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reaction polymers being polyurethanes.

Phenol series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reaction polymers belonging to the phenol series.

using different kinds of webs, e.g. by layering webs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics which are composed of mixture of different kind of webs, including multi-layered non-woven fabrics in which layers are made continuously and each layer is composed of different kind of fibres, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres and formed from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece. Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made using different kinds of webs, e.g. by layering webs.

Stretched reticular film fibres; Composite fibres; Mixed fibres; Ultrafine fibres; Fibres for artificial leather
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, made from stretched reticular film fibers, composite fibers, mixed ffibres, ultrafine fibres (inc. splittable fibres) or fibers for artificial leather.

characterized by the shape of the fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics characterized by the shape of used fibres, for example, modified cross-section fibres or crimped fibres on which specific crimps are given, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres and formed from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties insofar as this use has no preponderant influence on the consolidation of the fleece. Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are made from fibers which are characterized by their shape.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Attention is drwan to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Characterised by the shape of yarns or filaments
the fleeces or layers being consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties and are consolidated by mechanical means, e.g. by rolling.

by forming intermeshing loops or stitches from some of the fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by forming intermeshing loops or stitches from some of the fibers. Fibers are pulled out from the structure of the web and then pushed back into it to bind the web. No additional yarn material is added to the web. (Is not related to knitting D04B; or sewing D05B)

by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibres (D04H 1/45 takes precedence; needling machines D04H 18/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers. The needling is done by stabbing or punching with barbed needles which pull out and push in the fibers of the web many consecutive times. (Needling machines D04H 18/00)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Forming intermeshing loops or stitches from some of the fibres
in combination with at least one other method of consolidation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers in combination with at least one other method of consolidation.

in combination with shrinkage
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers in combination with shrinkage.

in combination with weld-bonding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers in combination with weld-bonding.

in combination with bonding agents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers in combination with bonding agents.

entanglement by fluid jet in combination with another consolidation means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers in combination with entanglement by fluid jet, e.g. by hydro entangling/ hydro needling/ spun lace methods with water jets).

by fluid jet (D04H 1/49 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are mechanically consolidated only by fluid jet (usually this is with water e.g. by hydro entangling/ hydro needling/ spun lace methods or can be gas/air).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Entanglement by fluid jet in combination with another consolidation means
for formation of patterns, e.g. drilling or rearrangement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated only by fluid jet for the formation of patterns, e.g. drilling or rearrangement of the fibers.

entanglement of layered webs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multi-layered non-woven fabrics which are entangled by needling or like operations, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres and formed from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties. Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, mechanically consolidated by needling or like operations to cause entanglement of fibers. Specifically for the entanglement of layered webs.

by treatment to produce shrinking, swelling, crimping or curling of fibres (in combination with needling D04H 1/482)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties and are consolidated by mechanical means by using a treatment to produce shrinking, swelling, crimping, or curling of fibers (curling or crimping of fibers, filaments, or yarns D02G 1/00).

by applying or inserting filamentary binding elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, composed of fibers without existing or potential mechanical cohesive properties and are consolidated by mechanical means by applying or inserting filamentary binding elements, e.g. threads or yarns are used as an extra stitching element. (Knitting D04B; Sewing D05B)

by welding together the fibres, e.g. by partially melting or dissolving (in combination with needling D04H 1/485)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, are composed of fibers having existing or potential cohesive properties and are consolidated by welding together the fibers, e.g. by partially melting or dissolving (if in combination with needling then D04H 1/48).

Composite fibres e.g. sheath-core, sea-island or side-by-side; Mixed fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these are welded together and are composite fibers e.g. sheath-core, sea-island or side-by-side; Mixed fibers.

Adhesive fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these welded together and are adhesive fibers i.e thermoplastic.

Olefin series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers belong to the olefin series.

Polyvinyl alcohol
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers are polyvinyl alcohol.

Polyvinyl acetate
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers are polyvinyl acetate.

Acrylonitrile series
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers belong to the acrylonitrile series.

Polyamides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers are polyamides.

Polyesters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers are polyesters.

Resins thereof not provided for in groups D04H 1/544-D04H 1/55
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the adhesive fibers are resins not provided for in groups D04H 1/544-D04H 1/55.

by applying solvents or auxiliary agents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, welded together by applying solvents or auxiliary agents.

by radio-frequency heating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, welded together by radio-frequency heating.

by ultrasonic heating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, welded together by ultrasonic heating.

by infrared heating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, welded together by infrared heating.

in combination with mechanical or physical treatments other than embossing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs, or layers of these, welded together in combination with mechanical or physical treatments other than embossing.

the fibres being within layered webs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multi-layered non-woven fabrics using bonding fibres in which layers are made continuously, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres and formed from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties. Fleeces and webs welded together the fibers being within layered webs.

in association with fibre formation, e.g. immediately following extrusion of staple fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are welded together in association with fiber formation, e.g. immediately following extrusion of staple fibers.

characterised by the bonding agents used
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents characterized by the bonding agents used.

to layered webs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multi-layered non-woven fabrics using chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents in which layers are made continuously, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of staple fibres or like relatively short fibres and formed from fleeces or layers composed of fibres without existing or potential cohesive properties. Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents in layered webs.

the bonding agent being applied in dry state, e.g. thermo-activatable agents in solid or molten state, and heat being applied subsequently
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in a dry state, e.g. thermo-activatable agents in solid or molten state, and heat being applied subsequently.

at spaced points or locations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in a dry state at spaced points or locations.

the bonding agent being applied in wet state, e.g. chemical agents in dispersions or solutions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in wet state, e.g. chemical agents in dispersions or solutions

Impregnation followed by a solidification process
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in wet state i.e impregnation and is then followed by a solidification process.

using mixed or composite fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in wet state i.e impregnation and is then followed by a solidification process and using mixed or composite fibres.

characterised by the apparatus for applying bonding agents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in a wet state characterised by the apparatus for applying bonding agents.

at spaced points or locations (D04H 1/68 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The bonding agent being applied in the form of foam
the bonding agent being applied in the form of foam
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the fleeces and webs are consolidated by applying, incorporating, or activating chemical or thermoplastic bonding agents the bonding agent being applied in a wet state in the form of foam.

characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of yarns or filaments
the fibres being randomly arranged
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forming non-woven fleeces or webs, or layers of these, causing the fibres to be randomly arranged i.e. isotropic fleeces.

forming webs during fibre formation, e.g. flash-spinning
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forming non-woven fleeces or webs, or layers of these, where

the fibres are randomly arranged during fibre formation, e.g. flash-spinning.

by fluid current, e.g. air-lay
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forming non-woven fleeces or webs, or layers of these, where the fibers are randomly arranged by fluid current, e.g. air-lay

characterised by the apparatus for arranging fibres (D04H 1/728, D04H 1/732 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forming non-woven fleeces or webs, or layers of these, where the fibers are randomly arranged and characterized by the apparatus for randomly arranging the fibres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By electro-spinning
By fluid current
the fibres being orientated, e.g. in parallel [N: (anisotropic fleeces)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forming non-woven fleeces or webs, or layers of these, where the fibers are orientated, e.g. in parallel as in anisotropic fleeces.

otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forming non-woven fleeces or webs, or layers of these, where the fibers are orientated otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of yarns or filaments, otherwise than in a plane
Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length. The term continuous filament is used.

Inorganic yarns or filaments
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length i.e continuous filament.

Glass yarns or filaments
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous inorganic filament is made of glass.

Synthetic yarns or filaments (D04H 3/013 takes precedence)
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is synthetic.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Regenerated cellulose series
Addition polymers
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is synthetic made from addition polymers e.g. olefin series, acrylonitrile series, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), fluorine series, PVC.

Condensation or reaction polymers
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is synthetic formed from condensation or reaction polymers e.g. PLA, PGlycolicA, polyacetals, polyamides.

Polyesters
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is formed from a condensation polymer specifically from polyesters.

Regenerated cellulose series
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is made from the regenerated cellulose series e.g. rayon, acetate, triacetate, bamboo fibres, rayon, lyocell, Tencel, Modal and Viscose.

Natural yarns or filaments
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is made natural yarns or filaments e.g. silk.

characterised by the fineness
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the web of continuous filament is characterized by its fineness.

characterised by the shape
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics characterized by the shape of used yarns or like filamentary material, for example, modified cross-section yarns or like filamentary material or crimped yarns or like filamentary material on which specific crimps are given, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length. Where the web of continuous filament is characterized by its shape.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Characterised by the shape of fibres
characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of yarns or filaments
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the non-woven fabric formed of continuous filament is characterized by the method of forming fleeces, webs or layers of these e.g. reorientation of yarns or filaments (lap-forming devices D01G 25/00; paper web-making by wet methods D21F, D21H).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres
at random
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs of randomly laid continuous filaments.

reorientation immediately after yarn or filament formation
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics to which the means for changing the orientation of yarns or like filamentary material are given after the formation of yarns or like filamentary material, and which are also included in the scope of the upper group, namely, formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length. Where the method forms webs or layers of webs and lays the continuous filaments at random and reorientation takes place immediately after yarn or filament formation.

reorientation by liquid
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs by randomly laying continuous filaments and reorientation is achieved by liquid.

in rectilinear paths, e.g. crossing at right angles
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms forms webs or layers of webs of continuous filaments laid in rectilinear paths, e.g. crossing at right angles.

for net manufacturing
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs of continuous filaments laid in rectilinear paths, crossing at right angles for net manufacturing.

in another pattern, e.g. zig-zag, sinusoidal [N: (D04H 3/04 takes precedence)]
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs of continuous filaments laid in another pattern, e.g. zigzag, sinusoidal, and wavy.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers in rectilinear paths
otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs of continuous filaments laid in otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres, otherwise than in a plane
Hollow cylinder shaped
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs of continuous filaments laid otherwise than in a plane so that they are hollow and cylindrically shaped.

Stick, rod or solid cylinder shaped
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Where the method forms webs or layers of webs of continuous filaments laid otherwise than in a plane so that the web is formed as a stick, rod or a solid cylinder.

characterised by the method of strengthening or consolidating
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length i.e. continuous filaments characterized by the method of strengthening or consolidating the web.

with bonds between yarns or filaments made mechanically
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds made mechanically.

by needling (needling machines D04H 18/00)
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made mechanically (needling machines D04H 18/00; knitting D04B; sewing D05B).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Needling machines
by fluid jet
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by fluid jet.

by applying or inserting filamentary binding elements
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by applying or inserting filamentary binding elements i.e. by stitching.

with filaments or yarns secured together by chemical or thermo-activatable bonding agents, e.g. adhesives, applied or incorporated in liquid or solid form
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by filaments or yarns secured together by chemical or thermo-activatable bonding agents, e.g. adhesives, applied or incorporated in liquid or solid form.

with bonds between thermoplastic yarns or filaments produced by welding
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by filaments or yarns secured together by bonds between thermoplastic yarns or filaments produced by welding.

Composite yarns or filaments
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by filaments or yarns secured together by bonds between thermoplastic yarns or filaments produced by welding using composite yarns or filaments i.e. bicomponent, multicomponent filaments.

Mixed yarns or filaments
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by filaments or yarns secured together by bonds between thermoplastic yarns or filaments produced by welding using mixed yarns or filaments i.e. where some of the filaments are thermoplast and some are not.

with bonds between thermoplastic filaments produced in association with filament formation, e.g. immediately following extrusion
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed wholly or mainly of continuous filaments with bonds between yarns or filaments made by filaments or yarns secured together by bonds between thermoplastic yarns or filaments produced in association with filament formation, e.g. immediately following extrusion i.e. melt spinning.

Non woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively short fibres and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibers and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length

strengthened or consolidated by mechanical methods, e.g. needling (needling machines D04H 18/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Needling machines
strengthened or consolidated by applying or incorporating chemical or thermo-activatable bonding agents in solid or liquid form
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibers and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length and strengthened or consolidated by applying or incorporating chemical or thermo-activatable bonding agents in solid or liquid form.

strengthened or consolidated by welding-together thermoplastic fibres, filaments, or yarns
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibers and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length and strengthened or consolidated by welding-together thermoplastic fibers, filaments, or yarns.

characterised by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibres or yarns
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibers and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterized by the method of forming fleeces or layers, e.g. reorientation of fibers or yarns (lap-forming devices D01G 25/00; paper web-making by wet methods D21F, D21H).

otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibers and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length characterized by the method of forming fleeces or layers otherwise than in a plane, e.g. in a tubular way.

Glass fibres
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven fabrics formed of mixtures of relatively-short fibers and yarns or like filamentary material of substantial length using glass fibers.

Non-woven pile fabrics (layered products forming non-woven pile fabrics B32B)
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven pile fabrics - the pile is formed from upstanding fibers. (Layered products forming non-woven pile fabrics are classified in B32B; woven pile fabrics D03D; tufting D05C, e.g.D05C 15/04; made by knotting D04G 3/00; by knitting D04B 1/00, D04B 21/00)

formed by zig-zag folding of a fleece or layer of staple fibres, filaments, or yarns, strengthened or consolidated at the folds
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven pile fabrics formed by zigzag folding of a fleece or layer of staple fibers, filaments, or yarns, strengthened or consolidated at the folds.

formed by creation of a pile on at least one surface of a non-woven fabric without addition of pile-forming material, e.g. by needling, by differential shrinking (needling machines D04H 18/00)
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-woven pile fabrics formed by the creation of a pile on at least one surface of a non-woven fabric without the addition of pile-forming material, e.g. by needling, by differential shrinking (needling machines D04H 18/00)

Other non-woven fabrics
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other non-woven fabrics not accounted for in the previous groups.

Production of non-woven fabrics by partial defibrillation of oriented thermoplastics films
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other non-woven fabrics produced by partial defibrillation of oriented thermoplastics films.

Felting apparatus
Needling machines
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Needling machines e.g. needle punching machines.

with needles
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Needling machines with barbed needles.

with water jets
Definition Statement
This subclass/group covers:

Needling machines using water jets e.g. spunlace machines.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013