Skip over navigation
CRIMPING OR CURLING FIBRES, FILAMENTS, THREADS, OR YARNS; YARNS OR THREADS
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The post treatment of fibres and filaments (usually synthetic) to give them a structure more like natural fibres i.e. crimped or curled to make them easier to work with during further processing.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

D02G 3/00 covers the making of yarns or threads, e.g. fancy yarns; processes or apparatus for the production. D02G concerns treatments before this stage.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Unwinding, paying-out, forwarding, winding or coilingfilamentary material not intimately associated with spinning or twisting
Cores, formers, supports or holders for coiled or wound material, e.g. bobbins
Mechanical methods or apparatus in the manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles, or ribbons
Chemical features in the manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles, or ribbons; apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture of carbon filaments
Twisting oakum
Spinning or twisting
Yarns or threads, e.g. fancy yarns; Processes or apparatus for the productionthereof
Making chenille
General aspects of chemical treatment
Testing yarns, rovings, slivers, fibres, or fibre webs
Special rules of classification within this subclass

The "common rule" applies in each of the subgroups

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Fibre
a relatively-short, elongated member of natural or artificial material.
Filament
an endless or quasi-endless, elongated member of natural or artificial material.
Yarn
a unitary assembly of fibres, usually produced by spinning.
Thread
an assembly of yarns or filaments, usually produced by twisting.
False twisting
synthetic filaments are twisted, heat set while twisted and then untwisted to form a crimp
Texturing or texturizing
curling and crimping
Stuffer box
a confined space where yarns or filaments are compressed and deformed
Yarns or threads, e.g. fancy yarns; Processes or apparatus for the production thereof, not otherwise provided for (for producing crimped or curled yarns D02G 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Yarns or threads characterised by the material or by the materials from which they are made. These aspects are covered by D02G 3/02.

Yarns or threads characterised by constructional features. These aspects are covered by D02G 3/22.

Yarns or threads characterised by the purpose for which they are designed. These aspects are covered by D02G 3/44.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shoe laces
Dental floss
Ropes and strands for ropes
Warp knitted yarns
Braided cords, lines or tows
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Selection of special materials for outerwear
Woven materials characterised by the material or construction of the yarn
Weft knitting processes characterised primarily by the use of particular thread materials
Warp knitting processes characterised by the incorporation by knitting, in one or more thread, fleece, or fabric layers, of reinforcing, binding, or decorative threads
Wearing apparel
Yarns or threads characterised by the material or by the materials from which they are made
Special rules of classification within this group

The classification is desirably complemented by a classification in the indexing scheme D10B 2101/00 to D10B 2331/301 for identifying the thread composition.

{all components being made from artificial or synthetic material}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blended or other yarns or threads containing components including aramid fibres and similar high performance fibres.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent document the following expressions/word "Aromatic polyamide" is often used with the meaning "aramid".

In patent document the following expressions/word "Para aramid" is often used with the meaning "terephthalamide (PPTA)".

In patent document the following expressions/word "Meta aramid" is often used with the meaning "poly-metaphenylene isophthalamide (MPIA)".

In patent document the following expressions/word "Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)" is often used with the meaning "poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole".

Paper yarns or threads
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics characterised by using paper threads
Threads containing metallic filaments or strips
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics characterised by the warp or weft elements being of stiff material, e.g. wire
Gloves made of wire-mesh
Resistance heating devices in seats specially adapted for vehicles
Yarns or threads made from mineral substances
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Artificial filaments or the like of other substances, manufacture thereof, apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture of carbon filaments
Woven fabrics characterised by using threads comprising a mineral
Special rules of classification within this group

The classification is desirably complemented by a classification in the Indexing Codes D10B 2101/00 to D10B 2101/16 for identifying the thread composition.

from glass or the like
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics using glass fibres
Glass fibre or filament
Fibreglass strands extruded from spinnerets
Doubled, plied, or cabled threads { (D02G 3/32, D02G 3/36 take precedence; effect yarns D02G 3/34; details of spindles, e.g. bearings D01H 7/86) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media0.jpg

US-A-2004/0065072

media1.jpg

US-A-2005/0009430

media2.jpg

US-A-3 690 056

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Doubled yarns
yarns consisting of two or more strands treated as one in the weaving process. The strands are not twisted together. The doubled yarn must not be confused with ply yarns, which are stronger because they are twisted.
Plied or folded yarns
yarns comprising two or more strands or yarns twisted together. They are termed two-ply, three-ply, and so on, according to the number used in their construction. Ply yarns are preferred where durability is all-important.
Cabled or cord yarns
yarns comprising two or more plied yarns twisted together. In general they are constructed by twisting the plied yarns around each other successively in the opposite direction of the preceding twist, i.e. S/Z/S or Z/S/Z. As a result, the opposite twist directions cause the plies to grip each other and maintain adherence. These yarns are hard, rough and strong.
{using one drawing frame for two slivers and twisting of the slivers to a single yarn, i.e. spin-twisting (guides having associated actuators with mutual action D01H 13/1658) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media3.jpg

EP-A-0 038 143

{using hollow spindles through which one yarn is running}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media4.png

EP-A-0 593 919

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple twist arrangements
{one yarn running over the feeding spool of another yarn}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media5.jpg

US-A-6 098 392

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple twist arrangements
Spinning or twisting machines for imparting multiple twist, e.g. two-for-one twisting
{with alternatively "S" and "Z" direction of twist, e.g. Self-twist process}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media6.jpg

US-A-4 246 750

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Self-twist yarn
yarn that comprises two or more strands that have areas of twist in what is known as the Z-direction and areas of twist in what is known as the S-direction. The twisted areas in the strands are each separated by non-twisted areas. Torque is trapped in the twisted strand and is otherwise known as residual twist. When two or more twisted strands are brought together, the torque or residual twist causes the strands to twist around each other naturally, without interference, to form a self twisted yarn.
{with same direction of twist, but with an amount of twist varying along the thread}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media7.png

US-A-2 961 010

Crêped or other highly-twisted yarns or threads
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Crêped yarns or hard twist
yarns with a number of twist per unit of length higher than ordinary yarn.
Elastic yarns or threads; {Production of plied or cored yarns, one of which is elastic}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics using stretchable or elastic threads
Abrics or articles defined by weft knitting using elastic threads
Fabrics or articles defined by warp knitting incorporating elastic threads
{using hollow spindles (details of spindles, e.g. bearings D01H 7/86) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media8.jpg

WO-A-2010/064647

{using a drawing frame}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media9.jpg

EP-A-0 548 474

Yarns or threads having slubs, knops, spirals, loops, tufts, or other irregular or decorative effects, i.e. effect yarns { (carding machines for producing decorative or fancy effects in products D01G; drafting machines with varying draft according to a pre-arranged pattern D01H 5/36) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media10.jpg

US-A-4 304 092

media11.jpg

FR-A-2 315 554

media12.jpg

US-A-3 945 189

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filamentary material with threaded or stringed pearls or beads
{with coloured effects, i.e. by differential dyeing process}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics characterised by using coloured threads
Passing of textile materials through liquids, gases or vapours to effect treatment of yarns, threads or filaments
Cored or coated yarns or threads ( {D02G 3/34, D02G 3/40 take precedence} ; elastic yarns or threads D02G 3/32)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media13.jpg

WO-A-01/98572

media14.jpg

DE-U-202006008644

media15.jpg

US-A-4 056 924

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cored yarns or threads with an elastic core and/or sheath
{around which a reel supporting feeding spool rotates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media16.jpg

CH-A-607 246

Threads in which fibres, filaments, or yarns are wound with other yarns or filaments, {e.g. wrap yarns, i.e. strands of filaments or staple fibres are wrapped by a helically wound binder yarn; (D02G 3/32 takes precedence) } ; (covering endless core threads with fibres by using open-end spinning techniques D01H 4/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media17.jpg

WO-A-2009037631

media18.jpg

EP-A-1 964 952

media19.jpg

WO-A-2009/131149

Yarns in which fibres are united by adhesives; Impregnated yarns or threads
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Passing of yarns, threads or filaments through liquids, gases or vapours to effect treatment
{Yarns or threads coated with polymeric solutions}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Modifying the surface of filaments, yarns or threads by treating with particulate, semi-solid, or solid substances
{where the polymeric solution is removable at a later stage, e.g. by washing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Yarns or threads coated with polymeric solutions removable at a later stage. The polymeric solution can also be in the form of a yarn, e.g. twisted or blended with other components of the yarn.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics using scaffolding threads, i.e. threads removed after weaving
Chenille threads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media20.jpg

EP-A-0 620 185

media21.jpg

DE 3 445 138

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chenille fabrics
Chenille trimmings
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Chenille yarn
is manufactured by placing short lengths of yarn, called the "pile", between two core yarns and then twisting the yarn together. The edges of these piles then stand at right angles from the yarn's core, giving the chenille both its softness and its characteristic look. Chenille will look different in one direction compared to another, as the fibres catch the light differently.
Yarns or threads characterised by the purpose for which they are designed { (protective gloves A41D 19/00; protective clothing A62B 17/00; ropes D07B 1/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Professional, industrial or sporting protective garments
Woven fabrics characterised by the material of the yarn
Selection of special materials for outerwear
Fabrics or articles defined by weft knitting characterised by the thread material
Fabrics or articles defined by warp knitting characterised by the thread material
{Yarns or threads with antistatic, conductive or radiation-shielding properties (electroconductive, anti-static or radiation-shielding filaments D01F 1/09, D01F 1/106; anti-static fabrics D03D 15/0005; conducting, insulating or anti-static layers for floor coverings D06N 7/0042) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Threads containing metallic filaments or strips
Antistatic fabrics
Flexible ohmic-resistance heating
Electromagnetic shielding materials comprising electro-conductive fibres
Car seat heating
Special materials for outerwear against electric shocks or static electricity
{Cut or abrasion resistant yarns or threads}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special materials for outerwear resistant to mechanical aggressions, e.g. pierceproof materials
Protective gloves resistant to mechanical aggressions, e.g. cutting, piercing
{Heat-resistant, fireproof or flame-retardant yarns or threads (fire- or flame-proof filaments D01F 1/07; woven fabrics using heat-resistant or fireproof threads D03D 15/12) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Woven fabrics using heat-resistant or fireproof threads
Special materials for outerwear against fire and heat
Protective gloves with fire protection
Fire resistant clothes
{Yarns or threads for use in sports applications (strings for tennis rackets A63B 51/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Yarns or threads for sport applications, including fishing lines and tennis racket strings made up of yarns.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fishing lines
Strings for tennis rackets
{Yarns or threads for use in floor fabrics (floor fabrics A47G 27/00; floor coverings on textile basis D06N 7/0005) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Yarns or threads for use in floor fabrics, e.g. carpets, floor mats, artificial lawn.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Artificial grass
Tufted carpets
Woven carpets
{Yarns or threads for specific use in general industrial applications, e.g. as filters or reinforcement}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Extile reinforcements in driving belts
Textile reinforcement in V-belts
Packing materials shaped as strands, ropes, threads, ribbons or the like
Screen cloths and wire cloths in papermaking machines
{Yarns or threads with antibacterial properties (filaments containing agents inhibiting growth of micro-organisms D01F 1/103) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special materials for outerwear with antibacterial or antimicrobial materials
Filaments containing agents inhibiting growth of micro-organisms
Tyre cords { (tyre reinforcements B60C 9/00; metal cords for reinforcing rubber or plastic articles D07B 1/0606) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Textile tyre cords and hybrid tyre cords.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Metal tyre cords
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reinforcements or ply arrangement of pneumatic tyres
Driving belts made of fibrous material, e.g. textiles, whether rubber-covered or not
V-belts made of rubber with textile reinforcement
Special rules of classification within this group

Hybrid cords (i.e. comprising metal wires and filaments or yarns within the same rope or strand) have to be classified in both D02G 3/48 and D07B 1/0606 or lower hierarchy.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013