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CHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemistry-related aspects in the manufacture of artificial fibres, filaments and similar. It also covers - the chemical treatment of fibres and filaments during their production, e.g. before winding,

  • the produced fibres as such.

Apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture of carbon filaments is also covered.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Many documents in the field disclose features related to both the mechanical (D01D) and the chemical (D01F) aspect of fibre manufacture. Two cases can be envisaged:

a) When a document is concerned with mechanical aspects but mentions specific polymers, classification should always be given in D01D and classification may be added in D01F when the chemical aspects are relevant or non-usual polymers or additives are used. No D01F classification should be given when a long list of polymers is mentioned, even when in the claims.

b) When a document is concerned with chemical aspects but mentions specific techniques (e.g. melt-blowing, electrospinning) classification should always be given in D01F and classification may be added in D01D when the specific technique plays an important role. No D01D classification should be given when several unrelated techniques are mentioned, even when in the claims.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Production of metallic filaments
Production of glass fibres
Production of ceramic fibres
Processes starting from pre-made fibres or filaments, such as the production of yarns from single filaments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Medical devices
A61L (chemical), A61F (mechanical)
Yarns and their applications
Tyre yarns
Synthetic grass, lawns for playground or sports grounds
Artificial hair
Additives in general
Carbon nanotubes
Composite materials
C08J 5/00 (chemical aspects), B29C 70/00 (mechanical aspects)
Recycling or recovering of waste materials (in addition to D01F 13/00)
Chemical treatment of fibres after production(during production: D01F 11/00)
Dyeing of fibres
Filters
Cigarette filters
Strings for tennis rackets
Strings for musical instruments
Bristles
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Attention should be paid when blends or additives are used. These cases are classified in different subgroups and sometimes there is an overlap. As a general rule, additives are characterised by their function (e.g. stabilizer, pigment), whilst polymer blends have different properties compared to the single substances.

In the case where classification is given under D01F 1/00 a corresponding group under D01F 6/00 should be given when a specific polymer is used. However, no classification should be given under D01F 6/00 when a long list of polymers is mentioned.

The table below is an example concerning polyethylene:

PE homopolymer
PE copolymer
PE homopolymer with additives
D01F 6/04 and D01F1 /xx
PE copolymer with additives
D01F 6/30 and D01F1 /xx
Polymer blend (homo- or copolymer)
Polymer blend with additives (homo- or copolymer)
D01F 6/46 and D01F1 /xx

When a document also relates to a neighbouring field it should always be circulated to the corresponding classifiers. In the cases where many different applications of the invention are claimed, the document should only be circulated to the exemplified or the most relevant technical field.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Fibre
relatively short, elongated member of natural or artificial material
Filament
endless or quasi-endless, elongated member of natural or artificial material
Thread
assembly of yarns or filaments, usually produced by twisting
Yarn
unitary assembly of fibres, usually produced by spinning
General methods for the manufacture of artificial filaments or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Addition of additives to the spinning solution or melt.

D01F1 covers the chemical nature of the additive, whereas the method of adding the additive, that would be considered to be a mechanical feature, is classified in D01D 1/065.

Special rules of classification within this group

In the case where classification is given under D01F 1/00 a corresponding group under D01F 6/00 should be given when a specific polymer is used. However, no classification should be given under D01F 6/00 when a long list of polymers is mentioned.

When an additive is used in the spinning solution or in the melt, and this additive has none of the specific properties mentioned in the subgroups of D01F 1/00, then two cases are envisaged:

when the additive has an effect on the fibre production process (e.g. lubricant, viscosity modifier), the group D01F 1/02 should be given;

when the additive has an effect on the final properties of the fibre (e.g. additives for improving the tensile strength), the group D01F 1/10 should be given.

Please note that the composition of the spinning solution of viscose is dealt with in D01F 2/08 and subgroups.

Under D01F 1/09, when an intrinsically electrically conductive additive (e.g. carbon nanotubes) is added for a different purpose (e.g. tensile strength), only the classification related to the desired function should be allocated.

for making electroconductive or anti-static filaments
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also covers addition of additives to make antistatic fibres/filaments.

Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of cellulose or cellulose derivatives; Manufacture thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Artificial monocomponent fibres or the like of cellulose or its derivatives .

Relationship between large subject matter areas

D01F 2/00 only covers the production of cellulosic fibres. Fibres from other carbohydrates (e.g. starch, hemicellulose, chitosan, dextran, hyaluronan) are classified in D01F 9/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

Fibres spun from amine oxide solutions (e.g. lyocell) are classified in D01F 2/00.

from solutions of cellulose in acids, bases or salts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fibres spun from solutions of ionic liquids.

Addition to the spinning solution or spinning bath of substances which exert their effect equally well in either
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Addition of substances to the spinning solution or bath, these substances having an effect on the solution, on the bath or on the final fibre.

from cellulose derivatives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cellulose carbamate fibres.

Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of proteins; Manufacture thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monocomponent fibres or the like of proteins.

Special rules of classification within this group

When a polyaminoacid or a polypeptide is obtained synthetically, classification in D01F 6/68 should be given. Fibres from natural proteins are classified in D01F 4/00, even when the protein has been chemically modified.

Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of synthetic polymers; Manufacture thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monocomponent fibres or the like of synthetic polymers.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group is divided in two main sections based on the type of polymer used. The first part relates to polyaddition polymers and the second part to polycondensation polymers. In turn, for each type of polymers a distinction is made between homopolymers, copolymers and blended polymers. When a document covers both homo- and copolymers the homopolymer group is always allocated, and the copolymer group is only allocated when specific information is given about the copolymer (e.g. type and amount of comonomers).

All fibres comprising 35-85% of acrylonitrile are classified in D01F 6/40 even if the fibres are not defined as modacrylic. If an overlap exists on the amount of acrylonitrile both classifications should be allocated.

Although the polyurethanes used to make fibres are normally copolymers, elastic polyurethane fibres are always classified in this subgroup

from polyolefins
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polyolefins in general.

from polypropylene
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polypropene.

from polymers of cyclic compounds with one carbon-to-carbon double bond in the side chain
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polyvinylpyrrolidone fibres.

from polymers of aliphatic compounds with more than one carbon-to-carbon double bond
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polydienes

from copolymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polyketone fibres.

{derived from hydroxy-carboxylic acids, e.g. lactones}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Poly(lactic acid) fibres, including the polymers of racemic mixtures of D- and L-acid.

from polycondensates of cyclic compounds, e.g. polyimides, polybenzimidazoles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polybenzazole/polybenzoxazole fibres.

from other polycondensation products
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polyaniline fibres.

Conjugated, i.e. bi- or multi-component, artificial filaments or the like; Manufacture thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multicomponent, i.e. conjugated, fibres or the like such as core-sheath, side-by-side, islands-in the sea, etc.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Documents concerning multicomponent fibres should be classified under D01F 8/00 if the chemical aspects are important (e.g. the materials used) and in D01D 5/30 to D01D 5/36 when the mechanical aspects are important (e.g. the spinneret or the method used).

The coating of fibres or filaments is classified in D01F 13/00 (if the coating happens during production, covering chemical aspects), D01D 11/06 (if the coating happens during production, covering mechanical aspects), D06M (if the coating happens after production, covering chemical aspects), or D02J (if the coating happens after production, covering mechanical aspects).

Artificial filaments or the like of other substances; Manufacture thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture of carbon filaments
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Man-made filaments or the like of other substances that are not comprised in any of the above groups.

Also covers apparatus for manufacturing carbon fibres.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Carbon nanofibers vs nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes are classified in C01B 31/0206. However, sometimes a document uses the term "nanofiber" as a broad term including nanotubes. In these cases, the description should be checked, and classification under D01F should not be given if the document appears to actually relate to nanotubes only. Yarns of carbon nanotubes/nanofibres are classified under D01F 9/00 when the chemical aspects are important, and under D02G 3/00 when the mechanical aspects are important. In case of doubt, classification under both groups should be given.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
ovens in general
F27B in particular F27B 9/28
Apparatus therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for manufacturing vapor-grown carbon fibres.

Apparatus therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for manufacturing carbon fibres obtained by carbonization of organic filaments.

Chemical after-treatment of artificial filaments or the like during manufacture ( {of artificial filaments from softened glass, minerals or slags C03C; from ceramics C04B} ; finishing D06M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical treatment of filaments and the like during their manufacture, i.e. during a continuous production process before the filaments have been collected.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chemical treatment after production
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical aspects in coating with a spinning solution or melt during the manufacture
Special rules of classification within this group

Chemical treatment is not limited to reactive treatments, but is considered to encompass any treatment with a chemical substance, e.g. coating with a solution.

Recovery of starting material, waste material or solvents during the manufacture of artificial filaments or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery of starting material, waste material or solvents during the manufacture of artificial filaments or the like.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chemical aspects in the recycling of plastic
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013