Skip over navigation
PROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING (decorating textiles by metallising D06Q 1/04; manufacturing printed circuits by metal deposition H05K 3/18 ); APPARATUS THEREFOR
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroforming.

Electroplating, baths therefor.

Electroplating characterized by the process; pretreatment or after-treatment of workpieces.

Electroplating characterized by the article coated.

Electrolytic coating other than with metals.

Electrolytic coating by surface reaction, reforming conversion layers.

Electrophoretic coating.

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coating containing embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers, wires.

Constructional parts, or assemblies thereof, of cells for electrolytic coating.

Electrolytic coating plants.

Plants for servicing or operating cells for electrolyting coating.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

- Multi-step processes for surface treatment of metallic material involving at least one

process provided for in class C23 and at least one process provided for in class

C25 are classified in C23F 17/00.

- Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings by combination of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25D are classified in C23C 28/00.

- The electrolytic or electrophoretic purification of materials is classified according to the nature of the liquid in the relevant places, e.g. A01K 63/00, C02F 1/46, C25B 15/08, C25D 21/16, C25F 7/02.

- Electrolytic production or recovery of metals and alloys from solutions or melts is classified in C25C

- Processes and apparatuses for electrochemical removal of materials from object, e.g. etching, polishing, brightening are classified in C25F.

- An electrothermal treatment of ores or metallurgical products for obtaining metals or alloys is classified in C22B 4/00 and does not involve an electrolytic process.

Alloys as such, prepared by electrolytic methods are classified in C22C.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Laminating metals
Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemicalmeans, e.g. electrolysis
Compositions for electrophoretic coating of polymers
Inhibition of corrosion by anodic or cathodic protection
Single crystal growth

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Metallising textile
Decorating textiles by locally metallising
Manufacturing printed circuits by metal deposition
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lacquering
Apparatus for continuously conveying articles into bath
Nanostructures
Electroless plating
Electroless plating
Chemical conversion coating
Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C 2/00 to C23C 26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25D
Electrolytic etching, polishing, brightening
Electrolytic coating of blades, turbines
Measuring thickness
Electrochemical methods of analysis
Controlling or regulating
Magnetic heads
Cables, conductors, insulators
Capacitors
Semiconductors, wafers
Solar Cells
Installation of electrical cables or lines
Manufacturing of printed circuit board by metal deposition
Electroforming
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroforming processes, i.e. processes involving the reproduction or formation of objects by electrodeposition in which the deposit does not permanently remain with the base upon which deposition is made, e.g. :

- Electroforming of tubes, wires, moulds

- Electroforming of 3D-structures, 3D-systems

- Electroforming of nanostructures, like aluminum AAO templates or arrays

- Electroforming by electrophoresis

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Layered products comprising essentially metals
Single crystal growth
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nanostructures (AAO)
Controlling or regulating
Measuring thickness
Installation of electrical cables or lines
Cables, conductors, insulators
Special rules of classification within this group

AAO templates when they are used as moulds for forming nanoarrays are classified in C25D 1/10.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AAO
Aluminum Anodic Oxidation, for anodised aluminum templates or arrays, which may serve as moulds for manufacturing nanowires
Electroplating: Baths therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Baths for electroplating, e.g solutions, melts and also solid electrolytes used in the bath.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electroless plating baths
Electrolytic etching, polishing, brightening
from cyanide baths
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating solutions of copper cyanide baths, e.g. baths with Cu+.

of alloys
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquid electrolytic bath for plating alloys, e.g. alloys containing more than 50% by weight of iron, nickel or cobalt or more than 50% by weight of zinc or more than 50% by weight of platinum group metals or also NiP, CoP alloys

containing more than 50% by weight of tin
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquid electrolytic bath for tin alloys, also SnP alloys.

from melts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic bath from melts of fused baths, from ionic liquids,e.g. molten salt baths.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Melt
molten salt or ionic liquid or fused bath
Electroplating characterised by the process; Pretreatment or after treatment of workpieces
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes of electroplating, pretretament of surfaces to be electroplated or aftertreatment of electroplated surfaces, e.g.

- bath vibrations,

- electromagnetic influence (e.g. IR-light, UV-light),

- pressure influence,

- temperature influence

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective plating of , spraying of electrolyte for and regulating thickness of conveyed wires, strips or foils, e.g. using masks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling or regulating
Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C 2/00 to C23C 26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25D
Electrolytic etching, polishing, brightening
Special rules of classification within this group

The following Subgroups of IPC are not used in the CPC classification scheme. Subject matter covered by those groups is classified as the following:

C25D5/24 is covered by C25D 5/34.

C25D5/26 is covered by C25D 5/36.

C25D5/28 is covered by C25D 5/38 and C25D 5/40.

C25D5/30 is covered by C25D 5/42 and C25D 5/44.

C25D5/32 is covereb by C25D 5/46.

Electroplating with moving electrolyte, e.g. jet electroplating [N: (C25D 5/026 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating with moving electrolyte, e.g. for plating at high current densities.

Electroplating with layers of varying thickness
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating with layers of varying surfaces, e.g. roughened surfaces, e.g Hull cell

Electroplating of non-metallic surfaces (C25D 7/12 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating on non-metallic surfaces , e.g. carbon or carbon composites, not on a seed layer.

of plastics
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On plastics (when the plastic layer is thin, or the plastic is conductive).

Electroplating characterised by the article coated
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Articles coated by electroplating, e.g. magnets, bolts, nuts, jewels,clockworks, nanoparticles, solar cells, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Laminating metals
Electroplating wafers comprising a seed layer
Electroplating solar cells comprising a seed layer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Installation of electrical cables or lines
Cables, conductors, insulators
Printed circuit board
Semiconductors, wafers
Solar Cells
Capacitors
Magnetic heads
Electrolytic coating of blades, turbines
Wires; Strips; Foils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

wires strips or foils,

- plated in horizontal cells

- in vertical cells

- in radial cells

- characterised by the anode used,

- the diaphragms used,

- the conducting rolls used ,

- the isolating rolls used,

- selective plating (using masks),

- spraying of electrolyte,

- regulating the thickness of the coating

Special rules of classification within this subclass

Apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 subgroups only when relevant subgroups, e.g. radial cells, are available. If no relevant subgroups are available, then apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 or C25D 7/06 and C25D 17/00 subgroups

Bearings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bearings, any article for which tribological properties are importants, sliding members.

Semiconductors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only electroplating directly onto a semiconductor or wafer or solar cell.

Electrolytic coating other than with metals (C25D 11/00, C25D 15/00 take precedence; electrophoretic coating C25D 13/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic coating with other materials than metals, e.g. organic materials, inorganic materials e.g. plating with ZnO from a solution comprising Zn2+ ions and OH- ions and by varying the pH.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lacquering
Anodic or cathodic protection (inhibit corrosion)
Electrophoretic coating in general
Single crystal growth
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Plating of hydroxyapatite, for dental implants
Controlling or regulating
Measuring thickness
Electrolytic coating by surface reaction, i.e. forming conversion layers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic coating by surface reaction with formation of conversion layers, e.g.

Anodisation under spark discharge (ANOF), pulsed or modulated current or potential, formation of AAO templates or arrays, boridising

Phosphatising, chomatising

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface (chemical conversion), like phosphatising or chromatising
Inhibit corrosion of metals by anodic or cathodic protection
Electrolytic removal of materials (etching, polishing, cleaning
Electroplating with an oxide, not a conversion of the surface
Coating with an oxide by electromigration of charged particles
Manufacturing of printed circuit board by metal deposition
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling or regulating
Semiconductors, wafers
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AAO
Aluminum Anodic Oxidation
ANOF
Anodic oxidation by spark discharge

In patent documents the following expression/words "anodic oxidation", "anodisation", "electrochemical conversion coating" and "eloxieren" are often used as synonyms.

Pretreatment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pretreatment of the electrolytic coated surface, e.g. desmutting.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Desmutting
Removal of smut layer formed after etching a metal or an alloy
After-treatment, e.g. pore sealing (lacquering B44D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

After treatment of electrolytic coated surface, e.g., physical or chemical after treatment, e.g. using organic dyestuffs, for sealing layers.

Phosphatising
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Phosphating, NiP.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the substrate is transformed, e.g. conversion coating, it is classified in C25D 11/36

Coating of a substrate with phosphate is classified in C25D 9/04 subgroups..

In case of doubt, it is classified in both groups.

Electrophoretic coating (C25D 15/00 takes precedence; apparatus for continuously conveying articles into baths B65G, e.g. B65G 49/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrophoretic coatings that do not contain embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers or wires

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lacquering
Compositions for electrophoretic coating of polymers, , e.g. electrografting
Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coating containing embedded materials
Electrolytic coating other than with metals, by deposition of ions, not through electromigration
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for continuously conveying articles into bath
Measuring thickness
Controlling or regulating
Servicing or operating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Servicing and operating; apparatus and multistep processes.

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings containing embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers, wires
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coating containing embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers, wires.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lacquering comprising pigments
Compositions for electrophoretic coating of copolymers
Special rules of classification within this subclass

When the coating is a self-supporting article, it is classified only in C25D 1/00

Combined electrolytic and electrophoretic processes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combined electrolytic and electrophoretic processes for coatings containing embedded particles.

Constructional parts, or assemblies thereof, of cells for electrolytic coating (apparatus for continuously conveying articles into baths B65G, e.g. B65G 49/00 ; electric devices see the relevant classes, e.g. H01B, H02G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- Apparatuses for electroplating and electrolytic conversion plating of C25D 11/00

- Apparatuses for plating wafers

- Sealing device, cell separation, contacting devices, current directing device, current shielding device, indirect electrode contact.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for electroless plating
Apparatus for electroplating conveyed wires, strips or foils characterised by anodes, diaphragms, conducting rolls, isolating rolls
Apparatus for electrophoretic coating
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for continuously conveying articles into bath
Special rules of classification within this group

Electrolytic coating plants are classified in this group, C25D19/00 is not used.

Apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 subgroups only when relevant subgroups, e.g. radial cells, are available. If no relevant subgroups are available, then apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 or C25D 7/06 and C25D 17/00 subgroups

Apparatus for electroplating tubes, hollow bodies are classified in C25D 7/04

Racks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Racks, for supporting, not suspending.

Electrodes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrodes (composition, counter electrode).

Special rules of classification within this subclass

This group is the principal group for electrodes. If the electrode concerns an electrode for electroplating, electrolytic coating by surface reaction or electrophoretic coating, it is then also classified in those groups.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words " barrels " and " drums " are often used as synonyms.

Electrolytic coating plants
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not used anymore.

It’s covered by Apparatuses for electroplating, C25D 17/00.

Processes for servicing or operating cells for electrolytic coating
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Processes and apparatus for electrolytic production or recovery of metals and alloys from solutions or melts are classified in C25C

- Processes and apparatuses for electrochemical removal of materials from object, e.g. etching, polishing, brightening are classified in C25F.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring thickness of coating
Measuring thickness of coating with piezo, capacity, magnetically
Measuring thickness of coating with radiation
Measuring thickness of coating with sonic vibration
Arrangements for measuring current density
pH sensor or regulator
Process control or regulation in general
Removal of gases or vapours
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removal of gases or vapours and pressure control in general.

Filtering
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filtering particles, not ions.

Agitating of electrolytes; Moving of racks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Agitating of electrolytes, e.g. for dispersing particles, how to move the electrolyte.

Moving of racks.

Special rules of classification within this subclass

Electroplating with moving electrolyte is classified in C25D 5/08.

by ion-exchange
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regenerations of process solutions by ion exchange, filtering ions, not particles

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words " regeneration " and " replenish" are often used as synonyms.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013