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PROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING (decorating textiles by metallising D06Q 1/04; manufacturing printed circuits by metal deposition H05K 3/18); APPARATUS THEREFOR
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroforming.

Electroplating, baths therefor.

Electroplating characterized by the process; pretreatment or after-treatment of workpieces.

Electroplating characterized by the article coated.

Electrolytic coating other than with metals.

Electrolytic coating by surface reaction, reforming conversion layers.

Electrophoretic coating.

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coating containing embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers, wires.

Constructional parts, or assemblies thereof, of cells for electrolytic coating.

Electrolytic coating plants.

Plants for servicing or operating cells for electrolyting coating.

Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • Multi-step processes for surface treatment of metallic material involving at least one process provided for in class C23 and at least one process provided for in class C25 are classified in C23F 17/00.
  • Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings by combination of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25D are classified in C23C 28/00.
  • The electrolytic or electrophoretic purification of materials is classified according to the nature of the liquid in the relevant places, e.g. A01K 63/00, C02F 1/46, C25B 15/08, C25D 21/16, C25F 7/02.
  • Electrolytic production or recovery of metals and alloys from solutions or melts is classified in C25C
  • Processes and apparatuses for electrochemical removal of materials from object, e.g. etching, polishing, brightening are classified in C25F.
  • An electrothermal treatment of ores or metallurgical products for obtaining metals or alloys is classified in C22B 4/00 and does not involve an electrolytic process. Alloys as such, prepared by electrolytic methods are classified in C22C
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Laminating metals

Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemicalmeans, e.g. electrolysis

Compositions for electrophoretic coating of polymers

Inhibition of corrosion by anodic or cathodic protection

Single crystal growth

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Metallising textile

Decorating textiles by locally metallising

Manufacturing printed circuits by metal deposition

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lacquering

Apparatus for continuously conveying articles into bath

Nanostructures

Electroless plating

Electroless plating

Chemical conversion coating

Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C 2/00 to C23C 26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25D

Electrolytic etching, polishing, brightening

Electrolytic coating of blades, turbines

Measuring thickness

Electrochemical methods of analysis

Controlling or regulating

Magnetic heads

Cables, conductors, insulators

Capacitors

Semiconductors, wafers

Solar Cells

Installation of electrical cables or lines

Manufacturing of printed circuit board by metal deposition

Electroforming
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroforming processes, i.e. processes involving the reproduction or formation of objects by electrodeposition in which the deposit does not permanently remain with the base upon which deposition is made, e.g.:

  • Electroforming of tubes, wires, moulds
  • Electroforming of 3D-structures, 3D-systems
  • Electroforming of nanostructures, like aluminum AAO templates or arrays
  • Electroforming by electrophoresis
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Layered products comprising essentially metals

Single crystal growth

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nanostructures (AAO)

Controlling or regulating

Measuring thickness

Installation of electrical cables or lines

Cables, conductors, insulators

Special rules of classification within this group

AAO templates when they are used as moulds for electroforming nanostructures are considered as devices for electroforming and are classified in C25D 1/00. The electroformed nanostructures are classified in C25D 1/006.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AAO

Aluminum Anodic Oxidation, for anodised aluminum templates or arrays, which may serve as moulds for manufacturing nanowires

Electroplating: Baths therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Baths for electroplating, e.g solutions, melts and also solid electrolytes used in the bath.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electroless plating baths

Electrolytic etching, polishing, brightening

from cyanide baths { , e.g. with Cu+}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating solutions of copper cyanide baths.

of alloys
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquid electrolytic bath for plating alloys, e.g. alloys containing more than 50% by weight of iron, nickel or cobalt or more than 50% by weight of zinc or more than 50% by weight of platinum group metals or also NiP, CoP alloys

containing more than 50% by weight of of tin { ; SnP}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquid electrolytic bath for tin alloys, also SnP alloys.

from melts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic bath from melts of fused baths, from ionic liquids, e.g. molten salt baths.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Melt

molten salt or ionic liquid or fused bath

Electroplating characterised by the process; Pretreatment or after-treatment of work-pieces
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects of the electroplating process, including preparation of workpiece for electroplating and further work after electroplating. However, certain aspects are directly classified in the relevant subgroup C25D 5/003-C25D 5/56, e.g. the pretreatment of metallic surfaces directly classified in C25D 5/34

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Selective plating of , spraying of electrolyte for and regulating thickness of conveyed wires, strips or foils, e.g. using masks

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling or regulating

Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C 2/00 to C23C 26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25D

Electrolytic etching, polishing, brightening

Special rules of classification within this group

The following Subgroups of IPC are not used in the CPC classification scheme. Subject matter covered by those groups is classified as the following:

C25D5/24 is covered by C25D 5/34.

C25D5/26 is covered by C25D 5/36.

C25D5/28 is covered by C25D 5/38 and C25D 5/40.

C25D5/30 is covered by C25D 5/42 and C25D 5/44.

C25D5/32 is covereb by C25D 5/46.

Electroplating with moving electrolyte {, characterised by electrolyte flow}, e.g. jet electroplating {(spraying of electrolyte on wires strip or foils C25D 7/0642, means or devices for moving the electrolyte C25D 21/10, C25D 5/026 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating with moving electrolyte, e.g. for plating at high current densities.

Electroplating with layers of varying thickness {, e.g. rough surfaces}{ ; Hull cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Electroplating processes wherein the thickness of the deposit obtained is purposely not uniform all over the substrate (e.g. thickness increasing in one direction, like in a Hull cell)
  • Electroplating processes wherein the rough aspect of the deposit obtained is purposive.
Electroplating {on } non-metallic surfaces { ,e.g. on carbon or carbon composites}(C25D 7/12 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electroplating on non-metallic surfaces , e.g. carbon or carbon composites, not on a seed layer.

on { thin or conductive} plastics {(coating metallic material C23C)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On plastics (when the plastic layer is thin, or the plastic is conductive).

Electroplating characterised by the article coated
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Articles coated by electroplating. However, certain articles are directly classified in the relevant subgroups C25D 7/001-C25D 7/126, e.g. mirrors, reflectors are classified in C25D 7/08.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Laminating metals

Electroplating wafers comprising a seed layer

Electroplating solar cells comprising a seed layer

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Installation of electrical cables or lines

Cables, conductors, insulators

Printed circuit board

Semiconductors, wafers

Solar Cells

Capacitors

Magnetic heads

Electrolytic coating of blades, turbines

Wires; Strips; Foils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

wires strips or foils,

  • plated in horizontal cells
  • in vertical cells
  • in radial cells
  • characterised by the anode used,
  • the diaphragms used,
  • the conducting rolls used ,
  • the isolating rolls used,
  • selective plating (using masks),
  • spraying of electrolyte,
  • regulating the thickness of the coating
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 subgroups only when relevant subgroups, e.g. radial cells, are available. If no relevant subgroups are available, then apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 or C25D 7/06 and C25D 17/00 subgroups

Bearings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Antifriction means, as balls, or rollers, designed to receive a rotating shaft, or to be used in connection with a pivoted, sliding, or rotary element.

Semiconductors { without seed layer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only electroplating directly onto a semiconductor or wafer or solar cell.

Electrolytic coating other than with metals (C25D 11/00, C25D 15/00 take precedence; electrophoretic coating C25D 13/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic coating with other materials than metals, e.g. organic materials, inorganic materials e.g. plating with ZnO from a solution comprising Zn2+ ions and OH- ions and by varying the pH.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lacquering

Anodic or cathodic protection (inhibit corrosion)

Electrophoretic coating in general

Single crystal growth

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plating of hydroxyapatite, for dental implants

Controlling or regulating

Measuring thickness

Electrolytic coating by surface reaction, i.e. forming conversion layers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrolytic coating by surface reaction with formation of conversion layers, which often serve as passivation layers. However, certain processes are directly classified in the relevant subgroups C25D 11/02-C25D 11/38, e.g. anodisation of refractory metals are classified in C25D 11/26.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface (chemical conversion), like phosphatising or chromatising

Inhibit corrosion of metals by anodic or cathodic protection

Electrolytic removal of materials (etching, polishing, cleaning

Electroplating with an oxide, not a conversion of the surface

Coating with an oxide by electromigration of charged particles

Manufacturing of printed circuit board by metal deposition

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling or regulating

Semiconductors, wafers

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AAO

Aluminum Anodic Oxidation

ANOF

Anodic oxidation by spark discharge

In patent documents the following expression/words "anodic oxidation", "anodisation", "electrochemical conversion coating" and "eloxieren" are often used as synonyms.

Pretreatment {, e.g. desmutting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pretreatment of the electrolytic coated surface, e.g. desmutting.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Desmutting

Removal of smut layer formed after etching a metal or an alloy

After-treatment, e.g. pore sealing (lacquering B44D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

After treatment of electrolytic coated surface, e.g., physical or chemical after treatment, e.g. using organic dyestuffs, for sealing layers.

Phosphatising {, e.g. NiP, CoP, FeP (bath solutions of NiP, CoP, FeP C25D 3/562)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The electrochemical process of forming an adherent phosphate coating on a metal substrate by immersion thereof in a suitable aqueous phosphate solution and precipitation of insoluble metal phosphate compounds unpon increase of the pH in the vicinity of the substrate, wherein part of the metal substrate reacts with the solution to form the coating. A metal source other than the substrtae may be added to the solution, e.g. precipitation of zinc phosphate on steel substrate, thereby limiting the actual contribution of the metal of the substrate to the coating formation.

Special rules of classification within this group

The classification in C25D 11/36 implies a surface reaction, typically the acidic/anodic dissolution of the metal surface to form a metal phosphate coating, i.e. a conversion coating.

If the contribution of the metal of the surface to the formation of the coating is not explicit, for instance in the case of a cathodic process wherein a base is generated at the cathode to allow precipitation, the process will nevertheless be classified in C25D 11/36.

If it is explicit that the metal surface is not attacked by the phosphatising solution, such a precipitation process is classified in the relevant C25D 9/04 subgroup only.

In case of doubt, it is classified in both.

Electrophoretic coating (C25D 15/00 takes precedence; apparatus for continuously conveying articles into baths B65G, e.g. B65G 49/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes wherein charged particles or molecules suspended or dissolved in a liquid medium, forming a solution, a dispersion or a colloid, migrate under the influence of an electric field and are deposited onto an electrode. However, certain aspects are directly classified in the relevant subgroups C25D 13/02-C25D 13/24, e.g electrophoretic deposition of low molecular weight organic compounds, non polymeric and non polymerisable compounds are classified in C25D 13/04.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lacquering

Compositions for electrophoretic coating of polymers, , e.g. electrografting

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coating containing embedded materials

Electrolytic coating other than with metals, by deposition of ions, not through electromigration

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for continuously conveying articles into bath

Measuring thickness

Controlling or regulating

Servicing or operating { apparatus or multistep processes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Servicing and operating; apparatus and multistep processes.

Electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings containing { uncharged} embedded materials, e.g. particles, whiskers, wires
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Processes wherein a matrix of a first material is formed by electrodeposition onto an electrode (see definitions of C25D 5/00 and C25D 9/00) and wherein supplemental substances of at least a second material such as powders, filings, or threads are added to the bath and get entrapped into the matrix upon formation thereof.
  • Processes wherein a matrix of a first material is formed on a substrate by an electrolytic coating process involving the reaction of the surface (see definition of C25D 11/00) and wherein supplemental substances of at least a second material such as powders, filings, or threads are added to the bath and get entrapped into the matrix upon formation thereof.
  • Processes wherein a matrix of a first material is formed on a susbtrate by electrophoretic coating (see the definition of C25D 13/00) and wherein supplemental substances of at least a second material such as powders, filings, or threads are added to the liquid and get entrapped into the matrix upon formation thereof.

However, when electrophoretic and electrolytic processes are concomittant, the global process is directly classified in C25D 15/02.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lacquering comprising pigments

Compositions for electrophoretic coating of copolymers

Special rules of classification within this subclass

When the coating is a self-supporting article, it is classified only in C25D 1/00

Combined electrolytic and electrophoretic processes { with charged materials}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes involving the formation of a matrix containing supplemental embedded substances (see the definition of C25D 15/00) wherein said supplemental substances are not only passively entrapped in the matrix but are actively involved in an electrophoretic or electrolytic deposition process, e.g. processes wherein the formation of the matrix by electroplating and the migration of the supplemental substances to the cathode by electrophoresis take place concomitantly.

Constructional parts, or assemblies thereof, of cells for electrolytic coating (apparatus for continuously conveying articles into baths B65G, e.g. B65G 49/00; electric devices see the relevant classes, e.g. H01B, H02G){(C25D 7/06, C25D 11/005, C25D 13/22, C25 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Apparatuses for electroplating and electrolytic conversion plating of C25D 11/00
  • Apparatuses for plating wafers
  • Sealing device, cell separation, contacting devices, current directing device, current shielding device, indirect electrode contact.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Apparatus for electroless plating

Apparatus for electroplating conveyed wires, strips or foils characterised by anodes, diaphragms, conducting rolls, isolating rolls

Apparatus for electrophoretic coating

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for continuously conveying articles into bath

Special rules of classification within this group

Electrolytic coating plants are classified in this group, C25D19/00 is not used.

Apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 subgroups only when relevant subgroups, e.g. radial cells, are available. If no relevant subgroups are available, then apparatus for electroplating metallic strips or foils are classified in C25D 7/06 or C25D 7/06 and C25D 17/00 subgroups

Apparatus for electroplating tubes, hollow bodies are classified in C25D 7/04

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words "barrels" and "drums" are often used as synonyms.

{ Supporting} racks{ i.e. not for suspending}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Racks, for supporting, not suspending.

Electrodes { e.g. composition, counter electrode}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrodes (composition, counter electrode).

Special rules of classification within this subclass

This group is the principal group for electrodes. If the electrode concerns an electrode for electroplating, electrolytic coating by surface reaction or electrophoretic coating, it is then also classified in those groups.

Processes for servicing or operating cells for electrolytic coating
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Processes and apparatus for electrolytic production or recovery of metals and alloys from solutions or melts are classified in C25C

Processes and apparatuses for electrochemical removal of materials from object, e.g. etching, polishing, brightening are classified in C25F.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring thickness of coating

Measuring thickness of coating with piezo, capacity, magnetically

Measuring thickness of coating with radiation

Measuring thickness of coating with sonic vibration

Arrangements for measuring current density

pH sensor or regulator

Process control or regulation in general

Removal of gases or vapours {; gas or pressure control (electroplating characterized by the use of gases C25D 5/003)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removal of gases or vapours and pressure control in general.

Filtering { particles other than ions (filtering ions C25D 21/22)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filtering particles, not ions.

Agitating of electrolytes; Moving of racks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method of roiling the aqueous solution for electrolytic coating or of displacing the supports for the article to be treated.

Special rules of classification within this subclass

Electroplating with moving electrolyte is classified in C25D 5/08.

by ion-exchange
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regenerations of process solutions by ion exchange, filtering ions, not particles

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words " regeneration " and " replenish" are often used as synonyms.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013