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APPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; { APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or devices specially adapted to the fermentation or to the growth of microorganisms, animal or plant cells or tissues, i.e. bioreactors and fermenters. The apparatus or devices covered by this subclass are designed for producing biomass or artificial tissues in laboratory or industrial scale.

The most simple bioreactor or fermenter is an apparatus comprising at least a container where the microorganisms or cells are placed and which is put under conditions that make it suitable for the culturing of the microorganisms or cells.

This subclass covers also devices for the pre-treatment of the material to be treated in the apparatus and for the after-treatment of the biomass, cells or tissues grown in the apparatus.

This subclass does not cover the methods or processes taking place in bioreactors which are not based on the use of the apparatus or its parts.

In this subclass the term microorganism includes prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Viruses, human, animal or plant cells, protozoa and unicellular algae are considered microorganisms.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Apparatus and devices per se which are not specifically intended or adapted for culturing microorganisms or cells are classified in the subclasses corresponding to their general function, e.g. mixing and mixers in general B01F, chemical or physical laboratory apparatus for general use B01L, apparatus for chemical or physical processes in general B01J.

Documents describing an apparatus or device and mentioning its use for culturing microorganisms, cells or tissue among other different uses are to be primarily classified in the subclasses corresponding to the general type of apparatus or device (e.g. B01F, B01L, B01J, etc.) with a secondary classification should be given in C12M.

C12M covers devices for controlling the product of the biomass production process taking place in the bioreactor. The analysis and determination of microorganisms and cells per se as well as apparatus for cellular observation or diagnostic are classified in C12Q and G01N.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for culturing plant tissue
Apparatus or devices for disinfecting or sterilising in general. Investigating the degree of sterilization
Apparatus for preserving living parts of the human or animal body
Chemical or physical processes in general. Chemical or physical laboratory apparatus for general use. Investigating or analysing biological material
Apparatus or devices for DNA or RNA technology
Apparatus for the biological treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge
Apparatus for preparing fertilisers characterised by the composting step
Apparatus for beer brewing
Apparatus for production of wine or vinegar
Fermentation processes
Apparatus for bioleaching of ores
Removing non-cellulose substances from cellulose-containing materials
Investigating individual particles
Testing or evaluating the effect of a chemical or biological compound involving human or animal cells
Investigating or analysing biological material by immunoassay
Automatic analysis
Special rules of classification within this subclass

IPC groups C12M 1/00 to C12M 3/00 are not used in CPC.

The CPC groups C12M 21/00 to C12M 99/00 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.

The concordance table ECLA:IPC under the title of the subclass should be disregarded.

All the inventive technical features of the bioreactor should be classified in the corresponding groups and subgroups of C12M. Additional information can also be classified in C12M and should be taken into account for proposing a classification in other subclasses.

The last place rule for classification is not used in C12M.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Bioreactor
Apparatus comprising at least a container where the microorganisms or cells are placed and which is put under conditions that make it suitable for the culturing of the microorganisms or cells.
Fermenter
Term used for bioreactors for culturing bacteria or yeast with the purpose of obtaining their metabolic or fermentation products
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Bioreactor
Fermenter, Digester, Biodigester
Cell growth
Cell expansion, cell differentiation
Incubator
Apparatus for temperature control
{ Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses (digesters for manure A01C 3/023; apparatus for PCR B01L 7/52; destroying or transforming solid waste B09B 3/00; methods for genetic engineering C12N 15/00, C12Q 1/68; nucleic acid amplification reactions C12Q 1/6844) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for biological treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge
Apparatus for preparing organic fertiliser by composting
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digesters for manure
Apparatus for PCR
Destroying or transforming solid waste
Methods for genetic engineering
Nucleic acid amplification reactions
Special rules of classification within this group

The main group C12M 21/00 should not be used for classification.

The titles of the subgroups of C12M 21/00 form a non exhaustive list of the most common uses of bioreactors or fermenters covered by C12M. Documents relating to one of the uses enumerated in the subgroups of C12M 21/00 should be classified in the relevant subgroups. Documents on bioreactors or fermenters which are not related to one of the uses enumerated in the subgroups of C12M 21/00 should not be classified in C12M 21/00 or its subgroups at all.

Notwithstanding the classification according to the use in C12M 21/00, at least a further classification should be given in C12M 23/00 to C12M 99/00 according the technical features of the apparatus.

{ Photobioreactors (culturing algae A01G 33/00, A01H 4/001, C12N 1/12) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters using a source of illumination which is needed for achieving cellular growth.

Photobioreactors can be closed systems or open systems such ponds or basins.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods for culturing algae
Apparatus for plant tissue culture
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
PBR
Photobioreactor
{ for producing gas, e.g. biogas (digesters for manure with production of biogas A01C 3/028, biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage C02F 3/00, C02F 11/02, preparation of natural gas or syngas C10L 3/06, C10L 3/10) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Biological treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digesters for manure with production of biogas
Preparation of natural gas or syngas or other gaseous fuels
{ for in vitro fertilization}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
IVF
in vitro fertilization
{ for producing artificial tissue or for ex-vivo cultivation of tissue (prostheses A61F 2/00, grafts A61L 27/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Prostheses, artificial parts of the human body
Grafts, transplant tissues
{ for producing fuels or solvents (C12M 21/04 takes precedence; liquid carbonaceous fuels C10L 1/00, solid fuels C10L 5/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bioreactors or fermenters for producing gas
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid carbonaceous fuels
Solid Fuels
Grafts, transplant tissues
{ Solid state fermenters, e.g. for koji production}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters for solid state fermentation. Solid state fermentation is characterized by a content of at least 90% of dry matter. In the solid state fermentation the liquid phase is not continuous.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
SSF
Solid-state fermentation
SLF
Submerged liquid fermentation
Non submerged state fermenter
Solid-state fermenter
{ Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges (flow directing inserts in C12M 27/18-C12M 27/24; apparatus for chemical or physical processes in general B01J, chemical or physical laboratory apparatus in general B01L) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or devices for culturing microorganisms or cells or for culturing tissues characterized by constructional details of the vessel of the bioreactor or characterized by parts with a mechanical function not covered by groups C12M 25/00 to C12M 41/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flow directing inserts
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for chemical or physical processes in general
Chemical or physical laboratory apparatus in general
{ Form or structure of the vessel (large containers B65D 88/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Large containers in general
{ Flat or tray type, drawers (C12M 23/10, C12M 23/12, C12M 23/16 take precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Petri dish
Well or multiwell plates
Microfluidic devices; Capillary tubes
{ Tubular (C12M 23/08, C12M 23/16 take precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Test tubes
Capillary tubes
{ Flask, bottle or test tube}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes and flasks for laboratory use in general
B01L3/00B2, B01L 3/08
{ Petri dish (crystallising dishes B01L 3/06) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Crystallizing dishes in general
{ Well or multiwell plates (C12M 25/04 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Membranes or filters in combination with well or multiwell plates
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multi-well filtration in general
B01L3/00C6D2
{ Microfluidic devices; Capillary tubes (integrated microfluidic structures B01L 3/5027; microreactors B01J 19/0093) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Integrated microfluidic devices in general
B01L3/00C6M
Microreactors per se
Biochips
{ Open ponds; Greenhouse type or underground installations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

i.a. combinations of closed and open bioreactors.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Closed bioreactors which are situated in or on an open water space itself not used for culture
{ Material Coatings (Immunocoatings C12M 25/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Materials and coatings for the materials other than immunocoatings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Immunocoatings
{ Transparent or translucent parts (glassware for laboratory use B01L 3/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Glassware for laboratory use in general
B01L3/00B8
{ flexible (flexible containers for laboratory use B01L 3/505) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Flexible containers for laboratory use in genera
B01L3/00C4
{ Manifolds; Distribution pieces (fluid transfer means B01L 3/563) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid transfer means in general
B01L3/00B3
{ Integrated assemblies, e.g. cassettes or cartridges}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters built as integral units comprising all the different parts disposed in a compact unit. This compact unit comprising all parts of the bioreactor can be in the form of a cassette or a cartridge which could also be assembled with other devices.

{ Multiple separable units; Modules}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters comprising separated or separable units which can be mounted or dismounted independently from each other.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Reaction vessels connected in series or in parallel
{ Holding appliances; Racks; Supports (holding devices for laboratory apparatus B01L 9/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holding devices for laboratory use in general
{ Means for positioning or orientating the apparatus (C12M 41/08 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control of illumination by means of changing the orientation
{ Mobile; Means for transporting the apparatus (transportable laboratories B01L 99/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transportable laboratories in general
B01L99/00K
{ Reaction vessels connected in series or in parallel (combinations of bioreactors with other apparatus, C12M 43/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combinations of bioreactors or fermenters with other apparatus (different from a bioreactor or fermenter)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connected reactors for chemical or physical processes in general
{ Means for supporting, enclosing or fixing the microorganisms, e.g. immunocoatings}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus, devices or systems for culturing microorganisms or cells or for culturing tissues characterized by the means for supporting the organism to be cultured, e.g. immunological coatings of the walls of the vessel.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Note that C12N 5/0068 covers supports for cell culture "per se" and C12M 25/00 and subgroups covers these supports when they form part of a bioreactor or fermenter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus in general for separation processes using semipermeable membranes
Packing elements for chemical or physical processes
Fluidized bed apparatus
{ Membranes; Filters (filters or filtration in general B01D 24/00-B01D 41/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filters or filtration in general
{ Hollow fibers or tubes (hollow fiber modules in general B01D 63/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow fibre modules in general
{ Scaffolds; Matrices (in general C12N 5/0068) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Substrate, supports and/or coatings for cell culture
{ Particles; Beads; Granular material; Encapsulation (chemical or physical processes conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles B01J 8/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chemical or physical processes conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles
{ Fluidized bed (in chemical or physical processes B01J 8/18) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluidized bed apparatus in chemical or physical processes
{ Means for mixing, agitating or circulating fluids in the vessel (by introduction of gas C12M 29/06, C12M 29/14, mixing in general or mixers per se B01F; mixing in apparatus for chemical or physical processes B01J) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters characterized by means for mixing, agitating or fluid circulation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Mixing and mixers in general are covered by B01F.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bioreactors or fermenters characterized by means for mixing, agitating or fluid circulation by introduction of gas when the gas is not introduced through an stirrer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digesters for manure with mixing means
Mixing in apparatus for chemical or physical processes
{ Stirrer or mobile mixing elements}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mixing with completely immersed stirring elements
Stirrers in general
Stirred reactor in general
{ with introduction of gas through the stirrer or mixing element}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mixing in general with introduction of gas through the stirrer
{ with horizontal or inclined stirrer shaft or axis}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mixing in general with stirrer rotating around an horizontal axis
{ Rotating vessel}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rotating reactors in general
Mixers with rotating receptacles per se
{ Vibrating; Shaking; Tilting}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mixers in general with shaking, oscillating or vibrating mechanisms
In chemical or physical processes in general
{ Baffles; Ribs; Ribbons; Auger vanes}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Baffles in general
Baffles in reactors for physical or chemical processes
{ Means for introduction, extraction or recirculation of materials, e.g. pumps (pumps per se F04B) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for introduction or extraction of materials in or from a bioreactor or fermenter. These materials can be in gaseous, liquid or solid form and do not include microorganisms or biomass.

Means for extraction and reintroduction (i.e. recirculation) of materials other than microorganisms or biomass are also covered in this section.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pumps per se
{ Percolation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters with a recirculation of filtered culture medium not containing microorganisms or cells to the same vessel or to a different bioreactor vessel.

{ Nozzles; Sprayers; Spargers; Diffusers (per se B01F 3/04106, B01J 19/26) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mixing in general by use of nozzles, diffusers or sprayers
{ Hollow fibers (hollow fiber modules in general B01D 63/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hollow fibers used as means for introduction or extraction of materials in the bioreactor or fermenter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hollow fibers used as means for supporting the microorganims.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow fibre modules in general
{ External loop; Means for reintroduction of fermented biomass or liquid percolate (loop type reactors for chemical or physical processes B01J 19/2435) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters with systems for recirculation and reintroduction of biomass or culture medium containing microorganisms or cells.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Loop type reactors for chemical and physical processes in general
{ Degassing; Venting; Bubble traps (means for collection or storage of gas C12M 23/36; gas collection apparatus for laboratory use B01L 5/02) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for collection or storage of gas
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gas collection apparatus for laboratory use in general
{ Means for providing, directing, scattering or concentrating light (C12M 41/06 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for control of illumination
{ Rotating light emitting elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters with rotating light emitting and/or light transmitting elements.

{ Means for introduction, transport, positioning, extraction, harvesting, peeling or sampling of biological material in or from the apparatus (chemical or physical laboratory apparatus in general B01L, devices for taking cell samples A61B 10/0045, withdrawing or distributing predetermined quantities of fluid B01L 99/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for introduction into the bioreactor or extraction from the bioreactor of biomass comprising the microorganisms or cells that are to be cultured or have been already cultured.

Means for shifting the biomass or positioning the biomass inside the bioreactor.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Loop means for reintroduction of biomass
Sampling of air borne microorganisms
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for taking samples of body liquids
Chemical or physical laboratory apparatus in general
Withdrawing or distributing predetermined quantities of fluid
B01L99/00G
{ by impregnation, e.g. using swabs or loops (fluid transport using swabs B01L 3/5029) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Absorbing means for transferring liquids.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid transport using swabs
B01L3/00C6S
{ by injection or suction, e.g. using pipettes, syringes, needles (pipettes in general B01L 3/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pipettes in general
{ by centrifugation (centrifuges in general B04B) ; Cyclones (cyclones in general B04C) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Centrifuges in general
Cyclones in general
{ Means for application of stress for stimulating the growth of microorganisms or the generation of fermentation or metabolic products; Means for electroporation or cell fusion (machines for extracting juice from animal or plant tissue by electroplasmolysis A23N 1/006, processes employing electric or wave energy B01J 19/08;treatment of microorganisms or enzymes with electrical or wave energy C12N 13/00; methods for cell fusion C12N 15/02; introduction of foreign genetic material C12N 15/87) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for cell fusion
Introduction of foreign genetic material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines or apparatus for extracting juice from animal or vegetable tissue by electroplasmolysis
Processes employing electric or wave energy
Treatment of microorganisms or enzymes with electrical or wave energy
{ Magnetic means (C12M 35/02 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Application of stress on microorganisms or cells or electroporation by electromagnetic means
{ Means for sterilizing, maintaining sterile conditions or avoiding chemical or biological contamination (C12M 23/38 takes precedence; filtration in general and filters per se B01D 24/00-B01D 41/00; autoclaves B01J 3/04; treatment of microorganisms with electrical or wave energy C12N 13/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Caps or covers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filters and filtration in general
Autoclaves
Treatment of microorganisms with electrical or wave energy
{ Seals}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Seals for reactors in general
Seals for laboratory containers
B01L3/00B4
Seals in general
{ Means for testing the completeness of the sterilization (testing for sterility conditions C12Q 1/22) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sterilizing in general
Testing for sterility conditions
{ Means for cleaning the apparatus or avoiding unwanted deposits of microorganisms (apparatus for cleaning laboratory receptacles or instruments B01L 99/00; cleaning in general B08B) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for cleaning laboratory receptacles or instruments
B01L99/00D
Cleaning in general
{ Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation (controlling or regulating chemical, physical or physicochemical processes B01J 19/0006; heating or cooling apparatus for laboratory use B01L 7/00; electro optical investigation of individual particles, flow cytometers G01N 15/14; automatic analysis G01N 35/00; controlling or regulating in general G05N) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling or regulating chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes
Heating or cooling apparatus for laboratory use
Electro-optical investigation of individual particles, flow cytometers
Automatic analysis
Controlling or regulating in general
G05N
{ of foam (foam prevention during gasification of liquids B01D 19/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Foam prevention during degasification of liquids
{ Means for foam enhancement (making foam by mixing B01F 3/04446) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making foam by mixing
{ of temperature (controlling the temperature of chemical or physical processes B01J 19/0013, heating or cooling apparatus for laboratory use B01L 7/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digesters for manure with heat recuperation means
Controlling the temperature of chemical or physical processes
B01J10/00B2
Heating or cooling apparatus for laboratory use
{ Incubators; Climatic chambers (per se B01L 1/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Enclosures or chambers for laboratory use
{ of biomass, e.g. colony counters or by turbidity measurements (electrooptical investigation of individual particles G01N 15/14, flow cytometers G01N 15/1404) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrooptical investigation of individual particles
Flow cytometers
{ Automatic or computerized control (automatic analysis G01N 35/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Automatic analysis
{ Combinations of bioreactors or fermenters with other apparatus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bioreactors or fermenters characterized in that they are connected to other apparatus which are not bioreactors or fermenters.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bioreactors or fermenters connected with other bioreactors or fermenters
{ Bioreactors or fermenters combined with combustion devices or plants, e.g. for carbon dioxide removal (C12M 43/06 takes precedence; recovery of carbon dioxide C12F 3/02) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Photobioreactors combined with devices or plants for gas production
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recovery of carbon dioxide
{ Means for pre-treatment of biological substances}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for treating the biomass before introducing it into the bioreactor or fermenter and before starting the culturing process. These means are normally situated outside the bioreactor or fermenter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of living parts of the human or animal body
{ by mechanical forces; Stirring; Trituration; Comminuting (crushing, pulverizing, disintegrating in general B02C) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cutting apparatus specially adapted for plant tissue culture
Crushing, pulverizing, disintegrating in general
{ by centrifugation (centrifuges in general B04B) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Centrifuges in general
{ Means for packing or storing viable microorganisms (casings for storing cell samples A61B 10/0096, preservation of living parts of the human or animal body A01N 1/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Casings for storing cell samples
Preservation of living parts of the human or animal body
{ Means for after-treatment of the produced biomass or of the fermentation or metabolic products, e.g. storage of biomass (filters in general B01D 23/00-B01D 41/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for treating the biomass that has been already cultured. These means are normally situated outside the bioreactor or fermeneter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of living parts of the human or animal body
Filters and filtration in general
{ Separating microorganisms from the culture medium; Concentration of biomass (separating microorganisms from their culture media C12N 1/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separating microorganisms from their culture media
{ Cell isolation or sorting (purging biological preparations of unwanted cells C12N 5/0081, determining the presence or kind of microorganism C12Q 1/04) } ]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Purging biological preparations of unwanted cells
Determining the presence or kind of microorganism
{ Hydrolysis; Cell lysis; Extraction of intracellular or cell wall material (lysis of microorganisms C12N 1/06; extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples C12N 15/1003) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lysis of microorganisms
Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples
{ Separation or concentration of fermentation products (bioreactors combined with means for distillation or extraction of liquid fuel C12M 43/02) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bioreactors or fermenters combined with means for liquid fuel extraction
{ Purification (C12M 47/04 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cell isolation or sorting
{ Sterilization (autoclaves in general B01J 3/04) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Autoclaves in general
{ Gas cleaning, e.g. scrubbers; Separation of different gases (separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours B01D 45/00; separation of gases or vapours B01D 53/00; gas washing apparatus for laboratory uses B01L 5/04) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
Separation of gases or vapours
Gas washing apparatus for laboratory use
{ Heating or cooling (heating or cooling apparatus for laboratory uses B01L 7/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Heating or cooling apparatus for laboratory use
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013