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WINE; OTHER ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES; PREPARATION THEREOF (beer C12C)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

C12H deals only with pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification or ageing of alcoholic beverages.

Low alcohol beer is classified in C12C 12/04.

Low alcohol wine is classified in C12G 1/00 and other low alcohol beverages are classified in C12G 3/08.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Beer; Preparation thereof

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generic equipment and processes for separation of solids from liquids

Generic distillation processes or apparatus

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Dégorgeage

Process for removing yeast which has settled in the neck of a bottle or on a specially formed closure

Desulfiting

Process for the removal of excess sulfur dioxide

Fermentation

Process whereby yeast converts sugar to ethyl alcohol.

Immobilized yeast

The yeast is absorbed on a material instead of being dispersed throughout the liquid

Must

Juice extracted from grapes

Pompage

Pumping

Sulfiting

Process for adding sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Wine

This term includes fortified wines such as Sherry, Port or Madeira, but does not include barley wine which is a synonym for beer used in older documents

Winestone

Crystals of potassium bitartrate precipitated from the wine

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Traditional method", "Champagne Method" and "Méthode Champenoise"are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Low alcohol", "Reduced alcohol" and " dealcoholized" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the expression/word "Dégorgeage" is often used with the meaning "degorgement".

In patent documents the expression/word "degorge" is often used with the meaning "disgorge".

In patent documents the expression/word "agitation prior to removal of yeast " is often used with the meaning "remuage".

In patent documents the expression/word "dead yeast" is often used with the meaning "lees" or "sediment".

Preparation of wine or sparkling wine
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • Methods for preparing wine or sparkling wine;
  • Apparatus adapted for use in such methods.
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Methods as well as apparatus pertaining to pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, ageing of alcoholic beverages (including wine)

Preparation of alcoholic beverages other than beer and wine

Alcoholic fermentation of fruit juice derived from non-grape material, e.g. apples, pears or peaches to give "fruit wine"

Simulation of ageing by flavouring

Recovery of by-products from fermented solutions (including wine)

Pitching / depitching machines, venting devices for casks, barrels and the like, and cellar tools (used in winemaking)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for enzymology in general

{Methods or means to load or unload, to weigh or to sample the vintage; Replenishing; Separation of the liquids from the solids before or after fermentation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods or means for loading, unloading, weighing and/or sampling vintage, i.e. grape material to be used in winemaking, for replenishing, or for separation of the liquids from the solids before or after fermentation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Extraction of juices

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Methods as well as apparatus pertaining to pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, ageing of alcoholic beverages (including wine), wherein precipitate and/or added materials is/are removed

Subject-matter of general interest relating to presses

Subject-matter of general interest relating to apparatus for extracting juice

Grape harvesting machines

Preparation of must from grapes; Must treatment and fermentation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Preparation of must from grapes;
  • Treatment or fermentation of the must.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Separation of the liquids from the solids before or after fermentation

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of fruit and vegetable juices

{by microbiological or enzymatic treatment}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Treatment or fermentation of the must (i.e. grape juice) using micro-organisms and/or enzymes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fermentation processes for beer

Fermentation processes for alcoholic beverages other than beer & wine

Propagation of micro-organism in general

Enzymes in general

Processes using micro-organisms in general

{using a home wine making vessel}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Preparation, treatment or fermentation of the must (i.e. grape juice) using a home (or comparable small scale) wine making vessel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers in general

Home brew equipment for use in beer production

Special rules of classification within this group

This class should be given if reference is made to home (or small scale) wine making or if the dimensions of the vessel are significantly smaller compared to standard equipment (which is of course and inevitably subjective to some degree).

Moreover, this class takes precedence over C12G 1/0209 and C12G 1/0213.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions “Home wine making” and “small scale wine making” are often used as synonyms.

{in a horizontal or rotatably mounted vessel (C12G 1/0206 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Preparation, treatment or fermentation of the must (i.e. grape juice) in a horizontal and/or rotatably mounted vessel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers in general

Special rules of classification within this group

C12G 1/0206 takes precedence over C12G 1/0209.

{with thermal treatment of the vintage (C12G 1/0206 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Preparation, treatment or fermentation of the must (i.e. grape juice) wherein the vintage is subjected to thermal treatment (i.e. heating and/or cooling).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Post fermentation heating and/or cooling

Using a home wine making vessel

Special rules of classification within this group

C12G 1/0206 takes precedence over C12G 1/0213.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this group, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

Cryomaceration

Maceration of vintage at decreased temperature

Thermovinification

Vinification at increased temperature

{with recirculation of the must for pomage extraction}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Preparation, treatment or fermentation of the must (i.e. grape juice) wherein the must is recirculated for pomace extraction.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Immersion (or "plunging") of the pomace (or "cap") in/into the must

Sulfiting the must; Desulfiting
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods or apparatus for sulfiting and/or desulfiting of must (i.e. grape juice) as part of a winemaking process.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Preservation of fruit juices

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Sulfiting compounds

Sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, SO2, sulfite etc.

Preparation of sparkling wine, e.g. champagne; Impregnating wine with carbon dioxide
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Preparation of sparkling wine (such as champagne);
  • Impregnation of wine with carbon dioxide.
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subgroup does not cover:

Sparkling wine derived from non-grape material, e.g. apples, pears or peaches

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-sparkling wine

Introduction of gases into liquids in general, apparatus for impregnating liquids with gases per se

Impregnating non-alcoholic beverages with carbon dioxide

{Agitation, centrifugation, or vibration of bottles}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for agitation, centrifugation or vibration of bottles in sparkling wine production and apparatus specifically designed or adapted therefor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bottle stoppers used for trapping (mainly yeast) sediments per se

Champagne and similar bottles per se

Rigid pallets with side walls which can be charged with champagne bottles

Shelves for bottles

Cellar tools (in general)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Keywords relating to the loosening of sediments / deposits in sparkling wine and champagne bottles

Vibrating, agitating, riddling, shaking etc.

{using enclosed yeast}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Preparation of sparkling wine (such as champagne) or impregnation of wine with carbon dioxide, wherein enclosed yeast is used.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers for use in immersing enclosed yeast per se

Bottle stoppers used for trapping (mainly yeast) sediments per se

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this group, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

Enclosed yeast

This term seems not to be completely clear. It may be useful to replace it e.g. by "immobilised yeast" (although this implies a larger scope)

Removal of yeast ("degorgeage")
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Devices and methods for removing yeast in the preparation of sparkling wine or champagne

  • by the disgorgement (French: dégorgeage) procedure or
  • by processes giving substantially equivalent results to disgorgement (e.g. using bottle stoppers for entrapping sediment).
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cork removing devices for champagne or sparkling wine bottles

Devices for emptying bottles

Bottle stoppers used for trapping (mainly yeast) sediments per se

Preparation of other alcoholic beverages
Definition statement
This group covers:

Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) and apparatus adapted therefor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of wine from grapes

{solid or pasty alcoholic beverage-forming compositions}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for preparing solid or pasty compositions forming (typically upon reconstitution or dilution) alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes).

Apparatus adapted therefor.

by straight fermentation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) by straight fermentation.

Apparatus adapted therefor.

{Low alcoholic beverages (produced by after-treatment of fermented solutions C12G 3/08)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for preparing low alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) by straight fermentation.

Apparatus adapted therefor.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Preparation of low alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) by after-treatment of fermented solutions

by mixing, e.g. liqueurs
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) by mixing (e.g. liqueurs)

Apparatus adapted therefor.

with flavouring ingredients
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) by mixing with flavouring ingredients, e.g. flavoured cocktails;
  • Apparatus adapted therefor.
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents disclosing the use of flavouring ingredients as essential or predominant aspect of the invention as well as documents disclosing specific embodiments (in particular examples) wherein flavouring ingredients are used, are classified in this group.

{Flavouring with wood or wood extract; Pretreatment of the wood used therefor}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes) by mixing and thereby flavouring with wood or wood extract;
  • Apparatus adapted therefor;
  • Pre-treatment of the wood used therefor.
by other methods for varying the composition of fermented solutions, e.g. by reducing the alcohol content
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes), by methods for varying the composition of fermented solutions other than straight fermentation and mixing, e.g. by reducing the alcohol content;
  • Apparatus adapted therefor.
{using membranes, e.g. by ultra filtration, by dialysis, by osmosis, by inverse osmosis, by electrodialysis}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes), by methods for varying the composition of fermented solutions other than straight fermentation and mixing, e.g. by reducing the alcohol content, wherein membranes are used (e.g. ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrodialysis, osmosis, reverse osmosis), and apparatus specifically adapted therefor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Reverse osmosis process

Semi-permeable membrane for separation processes

Increasing the alcohol content
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes), by increasing the alcohol content;
  • Apparatus specifically adapted therefor.
{by refrigeration and separation of the crystals formed}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes), by increasing the alcohol content by refrigeration and separation of the crystals thus formed (i.e. freeze-concentration);
  • Apparatus specifically adapted therefor.
by distillation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Methods for preparing alcoholic beverages other than beer, wine (derived from grapes) or sparkling wine (derived from grapes), by increasing the alcohol content by distillation.
  • Apparatus specifically adapted therefor.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes specially adapted for distillation or rectification of fermented solutions

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013