Skip over navigation
FATTY ACIDS FROM FATS, OILS OR WAXES; CANDLES; FATS, OILS OR FATTY ACIDS BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF FATS, OILS, OR FATTY ACIDS OBTAINED THEREFROM
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Methods and apparatus for preparation of fatty acids from fats, fatty oils, or waxes; compositions thereof
  • Refining the fatty acids; methods and apparatus thereof
  • Fats, oils, or fatty acids by chemical modification of fats, oils, or fatty acids obtained therefrom; methods and apparatus thereof
  • Candles; compositions therefor, processes and apparatus for production thereof
Relationship between large subject matter areas

The use of fatty acids, fats, oils or waxes for different purposes should be classified in appropriate application places, e.g. using fatty acids esters of higher fatty acids as emulsifiers should relate to B01F17/06; using fatty acids as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone - to C04B 24/04; using oils, fats, or waxes and derivatives thereof in cosmetics or toilet preparations - to A61K 8/92; using fats, fatty oils, ester type waxes, higher fatty acids, oxidized oils or fats as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone - to C04B 24/08; using fatty oil as lubricating composition base - to C10M 101/04.

C07 covers production or working up chemically synthesized substances, e.g. synthetic waxes, whereas subclass C11C covers synthesis of substances from natural materials.

C11B covers the production, purification/refining, recovery from waste material or working up of oils and fats (e.g. animal or vegetable oils). C11B does not cover obtaining fatty acid or chemical modification of fats, oils or fatty acid from fat, fatty oils or waxes, which are covered by C11C.

A23D covers edible oils or fats and compositions thereof, e.g. margarines, shortenings, cooking oils and provides for subject matter relating to working up or preservation of finished products. Obtaining or refining fatty acid or chemically modified fat, oils or fatty acids including edible oils or fats are covered by subclass C11C, e.g. hydrogenating is covered by C11C 3/12 .

The various uses of fatty acids for different purposes is classified in corresponding places (see references).

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preparation of carboxylic acid esters
Separation, purification, stabilisation, or use of additives associated with the preparation of carboxylic acid esters
Esters of carboxylic acids, e.g. fatty acid esters
Sulfonated fats or oils
Epoxidised fats
Natural vulcanized oils, e.g. factice
Compositions of oils, fats or waxes; Compositions of derivatives thereof
Production, refining, preservation of fats
Recovery of fatty acids from waste materials
Preparation of fats, fatty oils, ester-type waxes, higher fatty acids or oxidized oils or fats using enzymes or microorganisms
Lighting devices
F21
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fuels from fatty acids (Biodiesel)
Lubricants from fatty acids
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Fat
Esters of glycerol and fatty acids, generally in solid form
Fatty acid
A carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain, which may have unsaturations and a terminal carboxyl group
Oil
Fat which is in liquid form
Esterification
Reaction between acid and alcohol resulting in ester bond
Hydrogenation
Chemical process that adds hydrogen atoms to a molecule
Isomerizing
Process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms
Lipid
Organic compounds based on fatty acids, generally hydrophobic
Wax
Any of a group of substances composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, alcohols, fatty acids, and esters that are solid at ambient temperatures.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

FA
Fatty acid
DE
Degree of esterification
FAME
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester
PUFA
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
HUFA
Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acid
TG
Triglyceride
MG
Monoglyceride
DG
Diglyceride
Preparation of fatty acids from fats, fatty oils, or waxes; Refining the fatty acids (recovery of fatty acids from waste materials C11B 13/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of fatty acids in general.

[N: Sources of fatty acids, e.g. natural glycerides, characterised by the nature, the quantities or the distribution of said acids]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sources selected for production of particular types of fatty acids (e.g. HUFA, PUFA, CLA, branched fatty acids, etc.)

[N: Splitting up mixtures of fatty acids into their constituents (processes intended for both fats and fatty acids C11B 7/00)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes specifically for separating fatty acids (e.g. stearic from oleic, CLA from C18 in general)

[N: using organic solvents]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery and refining of fatty acids specifically.

from fats or fatty oils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery and refining of fatty acids specifically from pre-separated oils/fats in general.

[N: by saponification and release of fatty acids]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery and refining of fatty acids specifically from pre-separated oils/fats using base hydrolysis.

by hydrolysis
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery and refining of fatty acids specifically from pre-separated oils/fats using non-base hydrolysis.

[N: using enzymes or microorganisms, living or dead]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acids from fatty acid containing material, e.g. hydrolysis of fats or fatty oils using esterase, lipase to prepare fatty acids

using solid catalysts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. clays, resins, etc.

Refining
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Undefined processes for removing undesired material from fatty acids.

by distillation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fatty acids where process depends on change to gaseous phase., e.g. distillation, short path, wiped film

[N: after or with the addition of chemicals]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. steam.

[N: inert gases or vapors]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of fatty acids by distillation after or with the addition of inert gases or vapors, e.g.CO2, inert co-solvents,

Fats, oils, or fatty acids by chemical modification of fats, oils, or fatty acids obtained therefrom (sulfonated fats or oils C07C 309/62 ; factice C08H; drying oils C09F)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Derivative of natural macromolecular compounds
Natural resins; French polish; drying oils
[N: by esterification of fatty acids with alcohols (C11C 3/02 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acid esters where fatty acid containing material is esterified with an alcohol per se.

[N: by oxidation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fats, oils, or fatty acids obtained by oxidation, e.g. epoxidation, peroxidation, lactones,

by esterification of fatty acids with glycerol
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acid esters where fatty acids which are not esterified are esterified with glycerol.

by esterification of fats or fatty oils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acid esters where non-free fatty acid containing material is esterified.

Special rules of classification within this group

General esterification reactions (i.e. transesterification, interesterification)

with glycerol
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acid esters where non-free fatty acid containing material is esterified with glycerol (e.g. triglyceride reaction with glycerol)

with fatty acids
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acid esters where non-free fatty acid containing material is esterified with a free fatty acid , for example triglyceride reacted with oleic acid

Ester interchange
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fatty acid esters where non-free fatty acid containing material is esterified with esterifed material , for example triglyceride with ethyl stearate, triglyceride with diglyceride, interesterification.

by hydrogenation
[N: using catalysts based principally on nickel or derivates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fats, oils or fatty acids by hydrogenation using catalysts based principally on nickel or derivates, i.e. any compounds derived from a nickel based compound , e.g. nickel based organometallic

[N: using catalysts based principally on other metals or derivates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of fats, oils or fatty acids by hydrogenation using catalysts based principally on other metals or derivates, i.e. any compounds derived from a other metal based compound , e.g. other metal based organometallic

by isomerisation [N: (isomerisation induced by hydrogeneration C11C 3/12)]
Candles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wick containing products and processes to prepare.

[N: Ingredients]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. fuel components, blends, additives, etc.

[N: dyes, pigments; products giving a coloured flame]
[N: wicks, related accessories]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

wicks, wicks related accessories of a candle, eg. wick holders, wick components, wick clips, etc.

[N: Candles characterised by their form; Composite candles, e.g. candles containing zones of different composition, inclusions, or the like]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. decorative, aesthetic, novelty, segmented, etc.

Apparatus for preparation thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for candle making

[N: by compressing solid materials in a mould without heating]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes using pressure and no external heat

[N: by casting or melting in a mould]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes whereby candle material is poured

[N: by dipping a wick in a melt]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes involving repetitive dipping of wick into molten candle material

[N: by a continuous process, e.g. by extrusion by conveying a melt together with the wick through a solidification zone]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes whereby candle material is continuously injection molded or extruded

[N: by shaping a preform, e.g. forming the butts, trimming]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes whereby the candle is carved or compressed into shape from preformed candle.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013