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PRODUCING (pressing, extraction), REFINING AND PRESERVING FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES (e.g. lanolin), FATTY OILS AND WAXES, INCLUDING EXTRACTION FROM WASTE MATERIALS; ESSENTIAL OILS; PERFUMES (drying-oils C09F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- Methods and apparatus for preparation of fats from raw material

- Refining the fats; methods and apparatus thereof

- Preservation of fats

- Separating and recovery of fats.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The various uses of fats for different purposes is classified in corresponding places (see references).

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of fats in foods in general
Fat compositions
Use of fats in animal feeds
Preparation of carboxylic acid esters
Fuels from fats, e.g. biodiesel
Lubricants from fats
Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds e.g. fats, fatty oils, ester-type waxes, oxidized oils or fats by processes using enzymes of micro-organisms
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Essential oil
A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants
Esterification
Reaction between acid and alcohol resulting in ester bond
Fat
Esters of glycerol and fatty acids, generally in solid form
Fatty acid
A carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain, which may have unsaturations and a terminal carboxyl group
Hydrogenation
Chemical process that adds hydrogen atoms to a molecule
Isomerizing
Process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms
Lipid
Organic compounds based on fatty acids, generally hydrophobic
Oil
Fat which is in liquid form
Wax
Any of a group of substances composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, alcohols, fatty acids, and esters that are solid at ambient temperatures.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DE
Degree of esterification
DG
Diglyceride
FA
Fatty acid
FAME
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester
HUFA
Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acid
MG
Monoglyceride
PUFA
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
TG
Triglyceride
Production of fats or fatty oils from raw materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating fats/oils from source.

Pretreatment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for facilitating separation of fats/oils from sources.

[N: by enzymes or microorganisms, living or dead]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pretreatment with objective of facilitating separation essentially when enzyme mediated, either via direct addition or indirectly via microbes.

of vegetable raw material [N: (C11B 1/025 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oils sources which have cell walls.

by pressing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Facilitating separation using extrusion, rollers, expressers, etc.

by hot pressing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Facilitating separation by raising temperature or not cooling.

by extracting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources using extractants (typically fluids)

[N: in counter-current; utilisation of an equipment wherein the material is conveyed by a screw]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources when source and extractant move in opposite directions and use of extruders in combination with added extractant.

using super critical gases or vapours
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources with the aid of super- of near -critical fluids

[N: using ultra-sounds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources with the aid of sound above 20kHz.

[N: after-treatment, e.g. of miscellae]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All post separation treatment of extraction media.

by melting out
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources with direct application of heat.

with hot water or aqueous solutions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources with application of heat via water or solutions.

with steam
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separating from fats/oil sources with application of heat via gaseous water.

Refining fats or fatty oils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Undefined processes for removing undesired material from fats/oils.

[N: by a combination of two or more of the means hereafter]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where a combination of processes is required.

[N: by enzymes or microorganisms, living or dead]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process is essentially enzyme mediated, either via direct addition or indirectly via microbes.

[N: by wave energy or electric current, e.g. electrodialysis]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process is based energy which has a frequency, e.g. sound or radiation.

[N: by extraction]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process uses fluids.

[N: by filtration, e.g. including ultra filtration, dialysis (C11B 3/005 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends on size retention.

by chemical reaction [N: (C11B 3/003 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends chemical change.

with acids
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends chemical change influenced by acidic material or pH<7.

with bases
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends chemical change influenced by alkaline material or pH>7.

with oxidising agents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends chemical change influenced by reactions involving removal of electrons, e.g. peroxy compounds or hypochlorites.

by adsorption
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends physico-chemical attraction to solids, e.g. zeolites.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification is also made in group B01D 15/08 insofar as subject matter of general interest relating to chromatography is concerned.

by distillation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends on change to gaseous phase, e.g. short path or wiped film.

with the use of indifferent gases or vapours, e.g. steam
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends change to gaseous phase using steam as boiling point depressant.

by mechanical means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for removing undesired material from fats/oil where process depends on purely physical forces, e.g. gravity, decantation or centrifugation.

Preserving by using additives, e.g. anti-oxidants
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of substances.

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups C11B 5/0007 to C11B 5/0092, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a composition is classified in the last appropriate place.

[N: Organic substances]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of carbon containing substances generally.

[N: Hydrocarbons]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of substances having only C and H constituents.

[N: containing oxygen]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of O containing substances, generally organic.

[N: Carboxylic acids; Their derivates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of substances containing COOH groups or anions, esters or salts thereof, e.g. acetate or fatty acids.

[N: Phenols; Their halogenated and aminated derivates, their salts, their esters with carboxylic acids]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of substances containing hydroxy group (including deprotonated) attached to aromatic ring structure , e.g. quinones, tocols or polyphenols.

[N: containing nitrogen]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of nitrogen containing substances, e.g. N2, peptides or amino acids.

[N: Amines or imines (C11B 5/0035 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of substances with a free amine or imine groups.

[N: Amides or imides]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of substances with free amide or imide group.

[N: Heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen in the ring]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. quinolines or pyroles.

[N: containing halogens, sulfur or phosphorus (halogenated phenols C11B 5/0035)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. chloro, thio or methio compounds.

[N: Metal hydrides or organo-metallic compounds, i.e. organic compounds containing a metal-to-carbon link]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. butyltin, ferrocene or silica hydrides.

[N: Substances of natural origin of unknown constitution, f.i. plant extracts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. rosemary, sage, garlic or tea.

[N: Mixtures]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of deterioration of oils/fats by addition of known mixtures of substances.

Separation of mixtures of fats or fatty oils into their constituents, e.g. saturated oils from unsaturated oils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separation where the process is undefined.

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups C11B 7/0008 to C11B 7/0091, in the absence of an indication to the contrary an invention is classified in the last appropriate place.

[N: by differences of solubilities, e.g. by extraction, by separation from a solution by means of anti-solvents (addition of a minor amount of solvent intended to lower the melting point C11B 7/0083, C11B 7/0091)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separation of oils/fats where the process uses fluids and differential solubilities/miscibilities.

[N: in hydrocarbons or halogenated hydrocarbons (in pressure liquefied gases C11B 7/005)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. hexanes.

[N: in solvents containing oxygen in their molecule]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. acetone, carboyxlic acid derivatives or alcohols.

[N: in solvents containing other heteroatoms in their molecule]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. nitropropane or sulfoxides.

[N: in mixtures of individualized solvents (water is not taken into account)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. blends or mixtures.

[N: in solvents used at superatmospheric pressures]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. near or super-critical fluids.

[N: in solvents or mixtures of solvents of different natures or compositions used in succession]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. solvent gradient systems or gas liquid mixtures.

[N: between two or more non-miscible solvent phases]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g bi- or tri-phasic systems.

[N: by differences of melting or solidifying points]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separation of oils/fats where the process uses heating or cooling and exploits, e.g. winterizing or crystallizing.

[N: with addition of auxiliary substances, e.g. crystallisation promotors, filter aids, melting point depressors, (if a characterised solution is formed C11B 7/0008)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separation of oils/fats where the process uses separation additives, e.g. urea, chelation, salts or complexation.

[N: non-solvents, e.g. water wherein the fat or oil is dispersed account a more washing out of fractions is not taken into]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. wetting agents or pressure.

Essential oils; Perfumes (perfume compositions characterized only by non-fragrant ingredients A61Q 13/00; body deodorants A61Q 15/00; air fresheners and aromatherapy A61L 9/00; synthesis of chemical substances C07C 1/00, C07D1/00; detergent compositions containing perfume ingredients)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Perfume compositions otherwise not falling under the subclasses C11B 9/0003 to C11B 9/0096; Essential oil compositions; testing methods for perfumes which are not characterized by the equipment used, e.g. sniffer tests.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification:

Perfume compounds or compositions described as being suitable for flavoring applications are also classified under A23L 1/22 - essential oils described as being suitable for flavoring applications are also classified under A23L 1/222 or A23L 1/2225.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Aromatherapy, air freshening methods and air fresheners
Perfume compositions characterized only by non-fragrant ingredients, e.g. emulsifiers, preservatives or stabilizer
Body deodorants and antiperspirants
Synthesis of perfume compounds and the compounds per se
C07C 1/00, C07D1/00
Detergent compositions containing perfume ingredients
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Flavorings
Essential oils from non-citrus fruit, used for flavoring applications
Essential oils from citrus fruit, used for flavoring applications
Special rules of classification within this group

In C11B 9/0007 to C11B 9/0069, classify each compound under one class only, according to last place rule. All exemplified compounds to be classified.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "volatile oils", "ethereal oils", "aetherolea" and "fragrances" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Compounds of unspecified constitution defined by the chemical reaction for their preparation; Pro-perfumes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reaction products of fragrant compounds with further chemical compounds, adapted to release the fragrant compound when later activated by e.g. heat.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Essential oils
Protected perfumes in detergent compositions
Perfume compounds in detergent compositions which generate a fragrance upon thermal or chemical activation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Flavorings
Essential oils from non-citrus fruit, used for flavoring applications
Special rules of classification within this group

For pro-perfumes, the fragrance-generating precursor compound according to one of the classes C11B 9/0007 to C11B 9/0069 should also be classified.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Pro-perfume
Fragrant compound obtained by reacting a fragrance-generating precursor compound, typically an aldehyde or ketone, with at least one additional compound
[N: Aliphatic compounds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fragrant compounds with no rings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Alicyclic ring compounds; Aromatic ring compounds; Heterocyclic ring compounds
[N: containing S]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aliphatic sulfur compounds, e.g. mercaptans or thiols.

[N: containing oxygen as the only heteroatom]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aliphatic compounds containing an oxygen atom, e.g. alcohols, ethers, aldehydes or ketones.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Carboxylic acids; Salts or esters thereof
Aliphatic aminoalcohols
[N: containing nitrogen as the only heteroatom]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aliphatic compounds containing nitrogen atoms, e.g. amines or aminoalcohols.

[N: compounds containing an alicyclic ring not condensed with another ring]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aliphatic ring compounds, saturated or unsaturated, optionally with substituents bonded to the ring, these substituents may include heteroatoms, e.g. halogen atoms, hydroxy groups or ether linkages.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Condensed rings; Spiro compounds; Aromatic ring compounds; Heterocyclic ring compounds
[N: the ring containing less than six carbon atoms]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compounds containing cyclopentane, cyclopentene, cyclobutane, cyclobutene or cyclopropane rings.

[N: the ring containing six carbon atoms]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cyclohexane or cyclohexene compounds.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compounds with a benzene ring
[N: the ring containing more than six carbon atoms]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cycloheptane; Cycloheptene or larger ring compounds.

[N: both rings being six-membered]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Naphthalene compounds.

[N: compounds containing a six-membered aromatic ring not condensed with another ring]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spiro compounds containing a heterocyclic ring system which has only O or S as ring heteroatoms
Recovery or refining of essential oils from raw materials
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Essential oil compositions for perfume applications
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recovery of essential oils intended for flavoring applications only
[N: Refining]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Refining and purification of essential oils, e.g. for removing unwanted constituents such as allergens.

[N: Recovery by solvent extraction]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Extraction of essential oils from raw materials using an organic solvent or an inorganic solvent, e.g. water or supercritical CO2.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Solvent extraction of natural raw materials to produce flavorings
[N: Recovery of volatiles by distillation or stripping]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distilling, stripping or recovering volatile compounds intended for flavoring applications
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Stripping
Removal of volatile compounds from a liquid stream by a vapour stream, typically steam or a heated gas
Recovery or refining of other fatty substances, e.g. lanolin, waxes (synthetic waxes C07, C08; mineral waxes C10G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specific cases of recovery and refining of non-glyceride material containing fatty acids.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Organic chemistry
C07
Organic macromolecular compounds
C08
Cracking hydrocarbon oils, production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures
Recovery of fats, fatty oils, or fatty acids from waste materials (mechanical separation from waste water C02F, E03F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fats, fatty oils or fatty acids recovered from waste materials, e.g. trap grease, yellow grease or used cooking oil.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge
Sewers, cesspools
[N: of residues of the fabrication of wood-cellulose (in particular tall-oil)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fats, fatty oils or fatty acids recovered from residues of the fabrication of wood-cellulose, e.g. rosin.

from soap stock
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery or refining of fats/oils from aqueous caustic refining by product.

from spent adsorption materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fats, fatty oils or fatty acids recovered from spent adsorption materials, e.g from filter cake or bleaching earths.

Solidifying fatty oils, fats, or waxes by physical processes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fatty oils, fats or waxes solidified by physical processes, e.g. including prilling or coating.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013