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DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS (cracking oils C10G; underground gasification of minerals¬†E21B 43/295)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Retorts or coke ovens and details thereof, such as heating of coke ovens, doors or closures therefor, devices for charging or discharging coke ovens and mechanical treatments of coal charges, cooling or quenching coke, safety devices and other details.

Carbonising or coking processes, including pyrolysis and other methods of destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials, using direct heating (including the partial combustion of the material to be treated) and/or indirect heating (e.g. external combustion).

Destructive distillation specially adapted for particular types of solid raw material or for materials in special form (such as cellulose-containing materials, powdered coal, oil shale or bituminous rocks, synthetic polymeric materials e.g. tyres).

Coking mineral oils, bitumen, tar etc. with solid carbonaceous materials.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The processes and apparatus of this subclass are generally directed to producing products that are gaseous or solid at ambient temperatures. Exceptions to this statement are shown below:

  • Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures (e.g. turpentine, wood creosote and kerosene) from carbonaceous materials, and also from oxides of carbon, is covered by C10G.
  • Production of synthesis gas (syngas) from liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons is covered by C01B 3/00.
  • Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide (including producer gas, wood gas, town gas, synthesis gas, manufactured gas and water gas) from solid carbonaceous fuels, is matter for C10J. This includes fixed-bed gasification of lump fuel, gasification of granular or pulverulent fuels in suspension, gasification using molten salts or metals, carburetting by pyrolysis of carbonaceous material in the fuel bed and carburetting by pyrolysis of carbonaceous material in a carburettor.
  • Classification is made in F23B if complete combustion of combustible substances (e.g. gases or coke) takes place in the same apparatus, e.g. in different parts of the same combustion chamber.
  • Modifying the properties of any distillation gases outside the oven is covered by subclass C10K (doing this inside the oven is covered by this subclass).
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cracking oils
Hydrothermal carbonisation
Underground gasification of minerals
Recovery or working-up of waste materials of organic macromolecular compounds or compositions based thereon by dry heat-treatment to obtain partially depolymerised materials
Working up tar, pitch, asphalt or bitumen by techniques including distillation and/or heat-treatment; production of pyroligneous acid
Wet carbonising of peat

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Pyrolysis of sludge
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from rubber or rubber waste
Gasification combined with pre-distillation of the fuel
Torrefaction of biomass
Plant characterized by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids, the engine cycles being thermally coupled, combustion heat from one cycle being used to heat the fluid in another cycle
Plant characterized by the engines using gaseous fuel generated in the plant from solid fuel, e.g. wood
Gas turbine plant using a separate gas producer for gasifying the solid or pulverulent fuel before combustion
Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions with pretreatment by pyrolysis or gasifying stage
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rotary reactors
Nozzles per se
Cleaning containers, e.g. tanksby the force of jets or sprays
Processing of used rubber in general
B29H19/00
Preparation of carbon black from used rubber products, e.g. tyres
Coking to produce liquid products mainly, e.g. shot coke
Partial oxidation or gasification of pyrolysis gas
Shifting devices
Drying in general
Rotary drum furnaces per se
Casings; Linings; Walls; Roofs
Making or repairing linings in general
Special rules of classification within this subclass

In the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place ("last place rule").

Groups C10B 17/00, C10B 19/00, C10B 21/00 and C10B 23/00 relate to heating of coke ovens.

Heating of ovens by solar heating is classified in C10B 23/00.

Deheading of a delayed coking vessel is classified in C10B 25/10.

Groups C10B 31/00, C10B 33/00, C10B 35/00 and C10B 37/00 relate to devices for charging and discharging coke ovens; mechanical treatments of coal charges.

Discharging devices such as decoking tools using high pressure water jets is classified in C10B 33/00.

Measuring is classified in C10B 45/00.

Carbonising or coking processes are covered by C10B 47/00, C10B 49/00, C10B 51/00, C10B 53/00, C10B 55/00 and C10B 57/00.

Delayed coking is classified in C10B 55/00.

Multiple classification

The following multiple classification rule applies in C10B 53/00:

Documents disclosing details of the apparatus are further classified in groups C10B 47/00, C10B 49/00 and C10B 51/00.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Retort
An airtight vessel in which substances are heated for a chemical reaction producing gaseous products to be collected in a collection vessel or for further processing
Coke oven
An airless oven for driving of volatile constituents from coal during carbonisation to produce coke. In "by-product" coke ovens, the gaseous and liquid by-products obtained during the carbonisation process are recovered, the principal by-products are coal tar and coke-oven gas. The coke oven gas is used to heat the ovens by combustion is external heating flues.In "non-recovery" or "heat recovery" coke ovens, the raw gas produced in the ovens is completely combusted and used to generate power.
Beehive oven
Earliest type of coke oven, developed in the 1850s; its main characteristic is that the heat necessary for coking is produced by burning the volatile constituents within the oven, whereby all the gaseous and liquid by-products are lost, together with large amounts of heat.
Destructive distillation
The process of pyrolysis conducted in a distillation apparatus to allow the volatile products to be collected. An example is tar making from pinewood slices (which are rich in terpenes), which are heated in an airless container causing the material to decompose, leaving charcoal and turpentine as by-products.
Coke
A solid, high in carbon content, and structurally in the non-graphitic state, derived from the pyrolysis of organic material (especially low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal) which has passed, at least in part, through a liquid or liquid-crystalline state during the carbonization process. The volatile constituents of the coal (including water, coal gas and coal-tar) are driven off by baking in an airless oven at temperatures as high as 2000 degrees C.
Coking
The transformation of coal or heavy oil into coke.
Carbonisation
The conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
Pyrolysis
The chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam.
Ablative pyrolysis
Fast pyrolysis by contacting feed with hot surface, e.g. hot plate or heated wall.
Torrefaction
Pyrolysis at temperatures below 320 degrees C.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "fast pyrolysis", "flash pyrolysis" and "rapid pyrolysis" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "torrefaction", "roasting" and "mild pyrolysis" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the expression/word "wharf" is often used instead of "ramp" which is used in the classification scheme of this group.

Retorts
Coke ovens with vertical chambers
Coke ovens with horizontal chambers
Coke ovens with mechanical conveying means for the raw material inside the oven
Beehive ovens
Coke ovens with inclined chambers
Coke ovens with means for bringing and keeping the charge under mechanical pressure
Other coke ovens
Other coke ovens with floor heating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non recovery/heat recovery coke ovens, i.e. distillation gases are partially combusted above the charge and further combustion takes place in flue channels below the floor, such as illustrated by US4287024, DE10201985 and WO2006103043.

Preheating of coke ovens
Heating of coke ovens by electrical means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heating of coke by electrical means, e.g. microwave heating.

Heating of coke ovens with combustible gases
Other methods of heating coke ovens
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Solar heating

Doors or closures for coke ovens
Special rules of classification within this group

Deheading of a delayed coker vessel is classified in C10B 25/10.

Arrangements for withdrawal of the distillation gases
Other details of coke ovens
Charging devices
Discharging devices; Coke guides
Arrangements for pollution-free discharge
Combined charging and discharging devices
Mechanical treatments of coal charges in the oven
Compressing charges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of the coal charge in the oven such as levelling, compressing (not maintaining charge under mechanical pressure) and forming holes in the coal charge

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compressing charges during coking
Special rules of classification within this group

If the invention concerns compressing a charge in the oven, it's classified in C10B 37/04. If the oven has means for compressing, it's also classified in C10B 13/00.

If the invention concerns compressed charge (compacting charge outside the oven), it's classified in C10B 45/02. It the invention concerns charging the oven with compressed charges prepared outside the oven, it will be classified in C10B 31/10.

Cooling or quenching coke
Safety devices, e.g. signaling or controlling devices for use in the discharge of coke
Preventing or removing incrustations
Other details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring devices

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling
Devices for producing compact unified coal charges outside the oven
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
Briquetting presses
Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous material with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion
Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated
Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by combined direct and indirect heating
Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form (wet carbonising of peat C10F)
Special rules of classification within this main group

Documents disclosing details of the apparatus are further classified in groups C10B 47/00, C10B 49/00 and C10B 51/00.

Coking mineral oils, bitumen, tar, and the like or mixtures thereof with solid carbonaceous material (cracking oils C10G)
Other processes not covered before; Features of destructive distillation processes in general
Non-mechanical pre-treatment of the charge
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pre-treatment of coal by non-mechanical process, e.g. desulfurization.

Special rules of classification within this group

C10L 9/00 takes precedence.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013