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TREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES (preparation of inorganic compounds or non-metallic elements C01; treatment of materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone C04B 14/00, C04B 18/00, C04B 20/00); PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; {Preparation of inorganic materials which are no single chemical compounds and which are mainly used as pigments or fillers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The treatment of inorganic compounds other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties;

Preparation of carbon black.

Preparation of inorganic materials being no single chemical compounds and used as pigments or fillers.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Treatment by polymerisation onto particle is classified in C08F 292/00.

Only treatment by already polymerised agents is classified in C09C.

Special rules of classification within this subclass

The following IPC groups are not used in the internal CPC classification scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups: IPC group C09C1/68 is covered by CPC group C09K 3/14.

Whenever in groups C09C 1/00 to C09C 1/66 the materials consist of a particulate core bearing a coating or any other deposit, classification is done only according to the composition of the core, unless otherwise stated, e.g. C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078. Preparations of materials which are no single chemical compounds, mainly comprising ceramic pigments (C09C 1/0009),consisting of solid solutions or polycristalline structures, and compounds defined as composite materials (C09C 1/0081).Preparation and treatment steps are not always easy to distinguish from each other, e.g. preparation in the presence of treating agents (by precipitation or calcination), precise reacting conditions, affecting pigmentary effects. It is common practice to include these complex topics in C09C 1/00 while avoiding redundancy.

The last appropriate place rule applies.

When classifying in this subclass, symbols of C01P and are used to identify structural or physical aspects of solid inorganic compounds.

In case a group is indicated as indexed, the subgroups thereof are also indexed.

The symbols of C01P group deals with Structural and Physical Aspects of Solid Inorganic Compounds classified in subclasses C01B to C01G and C09C.These aspects include crystal-structural characteristics, particle morphology and physical properties.

Exception from the last appropriate place rule:

Dopant: A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) in order to alter the physical properties of the substance. For the purpose of classification, a dopant is considered as such, when it's concentration is less than 5% (wt, vol, at.) or when mentioned as such in the patent document to be classified.

In such a case, the compound is classified ignoring the dopant(s) and the last appropriate place rule does not apply in view of the dopant(s). In case of doubts, the document is given the classification symbol relating to the last appropriate place rule by taking into account the dopant(s) and in the appropriate class, without taking into account the dopant(s).

Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers (luminescent or tenebrescent materials C09K); Preparation of carbon black
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fibers and preparation of carbon black

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lake pigments Dyes

Luminescent or tenebrescent materials

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For the inorganic products itself

Aluminium oxide

Silica, silicates

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Pigment

A material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.A distinction is usually made between a pigment (inorganic), which is insoluble in the vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye (organic), which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resul ting in a solution). References : G. Buxbaum (Ed.), Industrial Inorganic Pigments, Wiley VCh.(1998) H.M. Smith (Ed.), High Performance Pigments, Wiley VCh.(2002)

{Compounds of molybdenum (C09C 1/0015 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of molybdenum

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{containing bismuth and vanadium (C09C 1/0015 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds containing vanadium and bismuth

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Pigments for ceramics (C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{containing zirconium and silicon}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of zirconium

Silicates

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroup shall be applied.

{ Pigments exhibiting interference colours, e.g. transparent platelets of appropriate thinness or flaky substrates, e.g. mica, bearing appropriate thin transparent coatings (C09C 1/0078, C09C 1/62 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments with interference colours, e.g. pearlescent pigments, interference pigments, luster pigments, optical variable pigments (OVP), effect pigments.

In general interference pigments consist of one substrate coated with one or more optically active layers. The optical active layers have a high or low refractive indices. A comprehensive list of inorganic compounds and their refractive indices can be found in "Sample dispersion & refractive index guide", Malvern Instruments Ltd. 1997.

Protective layers or functional layers applied on said interference pigments consist in general of metal oxides, silica, fatty acids, polymers, silanes etc. and are deemed not to affect the optical properties of the core pigment on which they are applied. Therefore and for the purpose of classification this layers are considered as being not optically active.

A rutilization promoting layer (mostly SnO2) is also not considered as being optically active if not otherwise stated. Also other layers, like adhesion promoting layers etc. are also considered as optically not active

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

C0C1/00G

Metallic pigments or fillers

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00- subgroups shall be applied.

{uncoated and unlayered plate-like particles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising uncoated and unlayered plate-like particles, e.g. Substrate materials suitable for use as substrate for pigments exhibiting interference colours.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied

{ comprising a core coated with only one layer having a high or low refractive index}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a core coated with only layer having a high or low refractive index, e.g. pearlescent pigments consisting of a substrate and only one optically active layer, e.g. [SiO2-(substrate)-SiO2], [TiO2-(substrate)-TiO2], but also [(substrate)-Fe2O3], [(substrate)-SiO2].

These pigments can comprise non optically active layers like protective or functional layers (see definition statement C09C 1/0015).

These pigments can also comprise a substrate comprising.a protective- or a adhesion promoting layer, which cannot be considered as being optically active, e.g. a substrate comprising an metallic aluminium flake coated with a protective layer to prevent corrosion (e.g. silica, aluminium oxide etc.).

A rutilization promoting layer (mostly SnO2) is also not considered as being optically active if not otherwise stated.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Metallic effect pigments showing no interference colours

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices, wherein the first coating layer on the core surface has the high refractive index}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices, the first coating layer on the core surface having high refractive index, e.g Pearlescent pigments consisting of a substrate and with alternating optically active layers, e.g. [SiO2-TiO2-(substrate)-TiO2- SiO2] (Low-High-Substrate-High-Low), but also [(substrate)-TiO2- SiO2-Fe2O3].

These pigments can further comprise non optically active layers like protective or functional layers (see definition statement C09C 1/0015).

These pigments can also comprise a substrate comprising.a protective- or a adhesion promoting layer, which cannot be considered as being optically active, e.g. a substrate comprising an metallic aluminium flake coated with a protective layer to prevent corrosion (e.g. silica, aluminium oxide etc.).

A rutilization promoting layer (mostly SnO2) is also not considered as being optically active if not otherwise stated.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ One layer consisting of at least one sub-stoichiometric inorganic compound}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices, the first coating layer on the core surface having high refractive index and one layer consisting of at least one sub-stoichiometric inorganic compound, typically used substoechiometric compounds are non-stoechiometric titanium or silicon oxide, like TiOx, SiOx with 0<x<2.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

In case said layer is defined to be a light adsorbing layer it has to be classified also in C09C 1/003

{ comprising at least one light-absorbing layer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices, the first coating layer on the core surface having high refractive index and with at least one light-absorbing layer, e.g. a light-absorbing layer is often a compound having an own colour, e.g. metallic oxides, alloys, dyes etc.

Special rules of classification within this group

Symbols from C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups are used for classification.

{ consisting of a metal or an alloy}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shll be applied.

{ consisting of at least one dye}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ consisting of at least one coloured inorganic material}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices, the first coating layer on the core surface having high refractive index and with at least one light-absorbing layer consisting of one coloured inorganic material, e.g. typically a coloured metal oxide, e.g. iron oxide

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ Sub-stoichiometric inorganic materials}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ consisting of a carbonaceous material, e.g. carbon black, graphite, SWNT, MWNT incorporated within an inorganic material}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

SWNT

single-walled carbon nanotubes

MWNT

multi-walled carbon nanotubes

{ comprising at least one optically active layer with at least one organic material layer, e.g. liquid crystal polymers}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating low and high refractive indices, wherein the first coating layer on the core surface has the low refractive index}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices with the first coating layer on the core surface having the low refractive index, e.g. pearlescent pigments consisting of a substrate and with alternating optically active layers, e.g. [TiO2-SiO2-(substrate)-SiO2- TiO2] (Low-High-Substrate-High-Low), but also [(substrate)-TiO2- SiO2-Fe2O3].

These pigments can further comprise non optically active layers like protective or functional layers (see definition statement C09C 1/0015).

These pigments can also comprise a substrate comprising a protective- or a adhesion promoting layer, which cannot be considered as being optically active, e.g. a substrate comprising an metallic aluminium flake coated with a protective layer to prevent corrosion (e.g. silica, aluminium oxide etc.).

A rutilization promoting layer (mostly SnO2) is also not considered as being optically active if not otherwise stated.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

{ one layer consisting of at least one sub-stoichiometric inorganic compound}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices with one layer consisting of at least one sub-stoichionetric inorganic compound, e.g. non-stoechiometric titanium or silicon oxide, like TiOx, SiOx with 0<x<2.

In case said layer is a light adsorbing layer, see C09C 1/0057

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 subgroups shall be applied.

In case the layer is a light adsorbing layer, see C09C 1/0057

{ comprising at least one light-absorbing layer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices with the first coating layer on the core surface having the low refractive index and comprising at least one light-absorbing layer, e.g. light-absorbing layer is often a compound having an own colour, e.g. metallic oxides, alloys, dyes etc.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups shall be applied.

{ consisting of a metal or an alloy}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 shall be applied.

{ consisting of at least one dye}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups shall be applied.

{ consisting of at least one coloured inorganic material}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Typically a coloured metal oxide, e.g. iron oxide

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups shal be applied.

{ Sub-stoichiometric inorganic materials}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments exhibiting interference colours comprising a stack of coating layers with alternating high and low refractive indices with the first coating layer on the core surface having the low refractive index and comprising at least one light-absorbing layer consisting of sub-stoichiometric coloured inorganic material,e.g. substoechiometric compounds are non-stoechiometric titanium or silicon oxide, like TiOx, SiOx with 0<x<2.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups shall be applied.

{ consisting of a carbonaceous material, e.g. carbon black, graphite, SWNT, MWNT incorporated within an inorganic material}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups shall be applied.

{ comprising at least one optically active layer with at least one organic material layer, e.g. liquid crystal polymers}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P and C09C 2200/00 groups shall be applied.

{Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pigments consisting of non metallic substrates having a surface-region comprising only metal, e.g. a substrate consisting a silicate, mica, a metal oxide material coated with a metallic layer.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Composite particulate pigments or fillers, i.e. containing at least two solid phases, except those consisting of coated particules of one compound (C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{containing titanium dioxide}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{only containing titanium dioxide and silica or silicate}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{whose phases only contain calcium, magnesium and carbonate ions and may contain hydroxyl ions}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{whose phases only contain calcium ions, carbonate ions and silicate ions or silica}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Compounds of antimony (C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of antimony

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of alkaline earth metals or magnesium {(C09C 1/0003, C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence; dolomitic solids C09C 1/009)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Treatment of molybdenum compounds

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Dolomitic solids

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Calcium carbonates}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of calcium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Calcium sulfates}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gypsum

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Barium sulfates}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of barium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Compounds containing only magnesium as metal}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of magnesium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of zinc {(C09C 1/0003, C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Treatment of molybdenum compounds

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of zinc

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Zinc oxide}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zinc oxide

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{containing phosphorus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of zinc compounds containing phosphorous to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties, e.g Zinc phosphate pigments which are as anticorrosion pigments

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds comprising phosphate anions

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Lithopone
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

lithopone, brilliant white pigment used in paints, inks, leather, paper, linoleum, and face powder. Lithopone was developed in the 1870s as a substitute or supplement for lead carbonate (white lead), to overcome its drawbacks of toxicity, poor weathering, and darkening in atmospheres that contain sulfur compounds. Lithopone is an insoluble mixture of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide that precipitates upon mixing solutions of barium sulfide and zinc sulfate. The precipitate is recovered by filtration, then calcined (roasted) at temperatures above 600° C (1,112° F). Although lithopone has been replaced in many applications by titanium dioxide, introduced after World War I, it is still widely used in a number of products, such as water paints.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Zinc chromate
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of zinc chromate to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties, e.g like zinc phosphate the zinc chromate is an anticorrosive pigment

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of chromium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of cadmium {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of cadmium compounds to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties, e.g cadmium pigments have particularly brilliant red and yellow colours.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of cadmium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Cadmium yellow

pure CdS or mixed crystalls of zinc and cadmium sulfide (Cd,Zn)S

Cadmium cinnabar

(Cd,Hg)S (Cadmium mercury sulfide)

Cadmium suphoselenide
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of cadmium suphoselenide to enhance its pigmenting or filling properties, e.g Cadmium Red Cd(S,Se)

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of lead {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of lead

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

White lead
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

White lead is basic lead carbonate, (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2) and has the warmest masstone of all the whites. It has a very subtle reddish-yellow undertone that is almost unnoticeable unless you are looking for it, or comparing lead white side by side with other kinds of white. This undertone is minimal in the best quality of lead whites.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Red lead
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Red lead is lead tetroxide, also called minium, red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, is a bright red or orange crystalline or amorphous pigment. Chemically, red lead is lead tetroxide, Pb3O4, or 2PbO·PbO2.

Lead tetroxide is used in the manufacture of rust-proof primer paints.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Lead chromate
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of lead chromate compounds to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties, e.g "chrome yellow" : Lead(II) chromate (PbCrO4) is a chemical compound, a chromate of lead, but also a mixed phase compound of the type (Pb(Cr,S)O4

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of chromium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of iron {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of iron

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Oxides of iron
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Iron oxide pigments consist in general of the well defined compounds like goethite (α-FeOOH) (yellow); lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) (yellow to orange); hematite (α-Fe2O3, red) (light red to dark violet); maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) (brown); magnetite (Fe3O4) (black).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of iron

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{of plate-like shape}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Iron blues
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The iron blues are based upon iron (II,III) hexacyanoferrate (II,III), ferric ferrocyanide, ferric hexacyanoferrate, iron (III) ferrocyanide, iron (III) hexacyanoferrate (II). Historical and more common names for said pigments are Prussian blue (Parisian blue, Berlin blue) and Turnbull's blue

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of silicon {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of silicon

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Silicic acid
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Silicic acid is a general name for a family of chemical compounds of the element silicon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula

[SiOx(OH)4-2x]n.

Silicon dioxide (SiO2)is considered as anhydrous silicic acid and is classified in C09C 1/30

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of silicon

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Physical treatment, e.g. grinding; treatment with ultrasonic vibrations}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Grinding}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Drying, calcination}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Agglomeration, granulation, pelleting}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with inorganic compounds}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Coating}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with low-molecular organic compounds}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Low-molecular organic compounds are compounds which consist of one type of molecule, which molecular weight can be exactly defined. The molecular weight of low-molecular compounds is less than 15000 g/mol. Typical low-molecular compounds are fatty acids, ethylene glycols.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with macro-molecular organic compounds}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Macromolecular organic compounds are compounds with a molecular weight of more than about 15000 g/mol. Typical macro-molecular organic compouds are polymers like polyethylene, polypropylene etc., waxes etc.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with organo-silicon compounds}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroup shall be applied.

{Combinations of treatments provided for in groups C09C 1/3009 to C09C 1/3081}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

The groups for the single treatments have to be indicated as well, e.g. a silicon dioxide treated with an inorganic compound, further coated with a macromolecular compound and a silane, followed by a grinding process will get the group symbols C09C 1/309, C09C 1/3045, C09C 1/3072, C09C 1/12 and C09C 1/3018

Ultramarine
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ultramarine is a blue pigment consisting primarily of a double silicate of aluminium (three dimensional aluminosilicate lattice) and sodium with some sulfides or sulfates, and occurring in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli. In the past, it has also been known as azzurrum ultramarine, azzurrum transmarinum, azzuro oltramarino, azur d'Acre, pierre d'azur, Lazurstein. Current terminology for ultramarine include natural ultramarine (English), outremer lapis (French), Ultramarin echt (German), oltremare genuino (Italian), and ultramarino verdadero (Spanish). Ultramarine is a complex sulfur-containing sodium-silicate (Na6-10Al6Si6O24S2-4) containing a blue cubic mineral called lazurite (the major component in lapis lazuli). The blue color of the pigment is due to the S3 − radical anion, which contains an unpaired electron.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of chromium {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078, C09C 1/08, C09C 1/20 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Treatment of zinc chromate

Treatment of lead chromate

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of chromium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{containing silicon or associated with silicon containing material, except when silicon only occurs in a thin coating of the particles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of titanium compounds containing silicon or associated with silicon containing material, except when silicon only occurs in a thin coating of the particles.

Thin layer coating is a coating thickness being less than 0.1 time the particle radius.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of siliconCompounds of chromium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Chromium oxides}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of chromium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of titanium {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of titanium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{ Titanium dioxide}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of titanium oxide compounds to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties, e.g rutile, anatase and brookite;

Anatase has the higher photocatalytic activity compared with the photocatalytic activity of rutile.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanium dioxide

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Physical treatment, e.g. grinding, treatment with ultrasonic vibrations}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Grinding}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Drying, calcination}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Agglomeration, granulation, pelleting}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Densifying, degassing, packaging}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with inorganic compounds}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Coating}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with low-molecular organic compounds}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Low-molecular organic compounds are compounds which consist of one type of molecule, which molecular weight can be exactly defined. The molecular weight of low-molecular compounds is less than 15000 g/mol. Typical low-molecular compounds are fatty acids, ethylene glycols.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with macro-molecular organic compounds}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Macromolecular organic compounds are compounds with a molecular weight of more than about 15000 g/mol. Typical macro-molecular organic compounds are polymers like polyethylene, polypropylene etc., waxes etc.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with organo-silicon compounds}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Combinations of treatments provided for in groups C09C 1/3615 to C09C 1/3684}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

The classes for the single treatments have to be indicated as well, e.g. a titanium dioxide treated with an inorganic compound, further coated with a macromolecular compound and a silane, followed by a grinding process will get the classes C09C 1/309, C09C 1/3045, C09C 1/3072, C09C 1/12 and C09C 1/3018.

Compounds of mercury {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of mercury

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compounds of aluminium {(C09C 1/0009, C09C 1/0015, C09C 1/0078, C09C 1/32 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments for ceramics

Pigment exhibiting interference colours

Pigment consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Treatment of ultramarine

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of aluminium

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Satin white, modifications thereof, e.g. carbonated or silicated; Calcium sulfoaluminates; Mixtures thereof, e.g. with calcium carbonate or kaolin}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of satin white compounds, calcium sulfoaluminates compounds, mixtures thereof to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Satin white is a white pigment consisting essentially of calcium sulfate and aluminum hydroxide

{containing combined silica, e.g. mica}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Aluminium oxides or hydroxides}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Clays (preparatory treatment for clay wares C04B 33/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparatory treatment for clay wares

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Carbon
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds of carbon

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Graphite ({C09C 1/0015 takes precedence}; preparation of graphite C01B 31/04)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Graphite is an allotrope of carbon and has a layered, planar structure. In each layer, the carbon atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparation of graphite

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Carbon black
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Carbon black is a form of amorphous carbon and produced with the thermal decomposition method or the partial combustion method using hydrocarbons such as oil or natural gas as raw material.

The characteristics of carbon black vary depending on manufacturing process, and therefore carbon black is classified by manufacturing process.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{ Preparation from used rubber products, e.g. tyres (recovery of plastics or other constituents of waste material containing plastics B29B 17/00)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Processing of used rubber in general

B29H19/00

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Preparation involving the use of a plasma or of an electric arc}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Separation; Recovery (quenching C09C 1/50 to C09C 1/54)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Quenching

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Furnace black; {Preparation thereof (separation or recovery C09C 1/487)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Furnace black is a carbon black formed by partial combustion of petroleum or coal oil and gaseous hydrocarbons in a closed furnace with a deficiency of oxygen

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Separation or recovery

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Channel black; {Preparation thereof (separation or recovery C09C 1/487)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Channel black is a carbon black formed by bringing partially combusted fuel, which is generated with natural gas as raw material, into contact with channel steel and then collecting the carbon black which results.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Separation or recovery

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Acetylene black; Thermal black; {Preparation thereof (separation or recovery C09C 1/487)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acetylene black is a carbon black formed by thermally decomposing acetylene gas. It provides carbon black with higher structures and higher crystallinity.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Separation or recovery

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Treatment of carbon black; {Purification}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{comprising an oxidative treatment with oxygen, ozone or oxygenated compounds, e.g. when such treatment occurs in a region of the furnace next to the carbon black generating reaction zone}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Agglomerating, pelleting, or the like by wet methods
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Agglomerating, pelleting, or the like by dry methods
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Metallic pigments or fillers ({C09C 1/0015 takes precedence}; obtaining metal powder, see the relevant class for the method used, e.g. B22F 9/00, C21B 15/02, C22B 5/20, C25C 5/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Metallic pigments or fillers, metallic effect pigments provided in their pure metallic form. However, for corrosion prevention the metallic pigments or fillers can be coated with optically non-active, protective coatings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Obtaining metal powder

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Comminution, shaping or abrasion of initially uncoated particles, possibly in presence of grinding aids, abrasives or chemical treating or coating agents; Particle solidification from melted or vaporised metal; Classification}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Comminution, shaping or abrasion of initially uncoated particles, with or without grinding aids, abrasives or chemical treating or coating agents.

Particle solidification from melted or vaporised metal

Classification

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{the particles consisting of zinc or a zinc alloy}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Copper}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroupsshall be applied.

Aluminium
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{treated with inorganic compounds}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{treated with organic compounds, e.g. polymers}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{concomitant with mechanical comminution, shaping or abrasion of the particles}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{treated with inorganic organic, e.g. polymeric, compounds}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Copper alloys, e.g. bronze
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Treatment in general of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties (dyeing other macromolecular particles C08J 3/20; dyeing macromolecular fibres D06P)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment in general of inorganic materials not being fibrous fillers to increase their pigmenting or filling properties

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Dyeing other macromolecular particles

Dyeing macrolecular fibres

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Specific examples shall always be classified in the appropriate C09C 1/00 group

{Flushing}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Flushing

to purge, washing

{ Combinations of treatments provided for in groups C09C 3/04 to C09C 3/12}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied

The single treatment steps shall be classified in the appropriate C09C 3/00-class

Physical treatment, e.g. grinding, treatment with ultrasonic vibrations {(C09C 3/006 takes precedence)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Grinding}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Drying, calcination}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Agglomeration, granulation, pelleting}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Densifying, degassing, packaging}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment with a plasma}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Treatment with inorganic compounds {(C09C 3/006, C09C 3/048 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Combination of treatments provided for in groups C09C 3/04 to C09C 3/12

Treatment with plasma

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Coating}
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

{Treatment or coating resulting in a free metal containing surface-region (C09C 1/0078 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallics subtrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Treatment with low-molecular-weight {non-polymer} organic compounds {(C09C 3/006, C09C 3/048 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Low-molecular organic compounds are compounds which consist of one type of molecule, which molecular weight can be exactly defined. The molecular weight of low-molecular compounds is less than 15000 g/mol. Typical low-molecular compounds are fatty acids, ethylene glycols.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Combination of treatments provided for in groups C09C 3/04 to C09C 3/12

Treatment with plasma

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Treatment with macromolecular organic compounds {(C09C 3/006 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Macromolecular organic compounds are compounds with a molecular weight of more than about 15000 g/mol. Typical macro-molecular organic compouds are polymers like polyethylene, polypropylene etc., waxes etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Combination of treatments provided for in groups C09C 3/04 to C09C 3/12

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Treatment with organosilicon compounds {(C09C 3/006 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Combination of treatments provided for in groups C09C 3/04 to C09C 3/12

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in C01P subgroups shall be applied.

Compositional and structural details of pigments exhibiting interference colours
Special rules of classification within this group

When the subgroups of C09C 2200/00 to C09C220/20 are used for classification only for C09C 1/0015 to C09C 1/0075, no symbols are given for the classification of the particle morphology according to the symbols C01P 2004/10 to C01P 2004/42 or C01P 2004/80 to C01P 2004/88

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013