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COMPOSITIONS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS (pesticides, herbicides A01N; pharmaceuticals, cosmetics A61K; explosives C06B; compositions based on polymerisable monomers C08F, C08G; paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives C09; lubricants C10M; detergents C11D; artificial filaments or fibres D01F; textile treating compositions D06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of macromolecular compounds, either with other macromolecular compounds or with other ingredients, including compositions of polysaccharides, rubbers or natural macromolecular compounds.

The use of macromolecular substances as compounding ingredients.

The above compositions and uses may involve macromolecular substances obtained by reactions which may or may not involve only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and compositions.

C08L is the technical field for compositions of polymers. In general single polymers in solution are classified in C08L, unless otherwise mentioned in specific groups.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Composition of polymers with organic or inorganic additives should not be classified here.

Relationship with other subclasses of class C08 and C09

Subclasses C08B to C08L are generally function-oriented subclasses in relation to the polymers per se, while C09D to C09K are application-oriented subclasses in relation to the said polymers (see below for the special relationship with C09D and C09J).

Polysaccharides per se and their derivatives are classified in C08B.

Treatment and chemical modification of rubbers, including conjugated diene rubbers, are classified in C08C – however synthesis of rubbers and treatment or chemical modification of non-rubbers are classified in subclasses C08F or C08G.

Macromolecular compounds per se obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds (usually known as addition polymers) are in C08F. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also in C08F.

Macromolecular compounds per se obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds (usually known as condensation polymers) are classified in C08G. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also classified in C08G.

Derivatives of natural macromolecular polymers per se, e.g. derived from proteins or vulcanised oils, are classified in C08H.

Working-up, general processes of compounding and after-treatment are covered by subclass C08J. These include making solutions, dispersions etc., plasticising, compounding with additives, e.g. colouring or masterbatching, crosslinking, manufacture of articles or shaped materials, chemical treatment or coating of such articles, making porous, cellular or foamed materials, and recovery or working up of waste materials.

Use or choice of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic materials as compounding agents are classified in C08K; Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, are not classified in C08L. However, if a composition contains two polymers and an additive following C08K, classification is made in C08L.

Coating compositions and other polymer compositions for similar uses, e.g. paints, inks, woodstains and printing pastes, are classified in C09D.

C09G covers the application of the compositions of C08L when used as polishes.

Adhesives and adhesive processes are classified in C09J.

Materials used in applications not otherwise provided for, are classified in C09K. These include sealing or anti-slip materials, heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, drilling compositions, luminescent or tenebrescent materials, etching, surface-brightening or pickling materials, antioxidant materials, soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials, liquid crystal or fireproofing materials.

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Therapeutic activity of macromolecular compounds is further classified in subclass A61P.

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations is further classified in subclass A61Q.Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms in order to (i) liberate, separate or purify a pre-existing compound or composition, or to (ii) treat textiles or clean solid surfaces of materials, are further classified in subclass C12S.

Relationship between C08F, C08G, C08L, C09D and C09J

Polymers as such are classified in C08F or C08G. Polymers compositions are classified in C08L. Coating compositions or adhesive compositions are classified in C09D and C09J respectively.

C09D and C09J are seen as "related fields" of C08L - this structure has implications on search and classification.

For classification:

  • if the claims only pertain to a "coating composition...", only the C09D class is given.
  • if the claims pertain to a composition as such and to coating (e.g. "composition for use as coating..."), both the C09D class and the corresponding C08L class are given.

For searching: both classes are to be searched, regardless of the wording of the claims, since in many documents of C08L, a passage relating to the use of the composition for coating can be found.

These rules apply in analogy for the adhesive compositions of C09J.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Artificial filaments or fibres
Treatment of textiles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Application of macromolecular compositions as pesticides or herbicides
Application of macromolecular compositions as pharmaceutical compositions or cosmetics
Application of macromolecular compositions as explosive compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in coating compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in adhesive compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in lubricants
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products
Liquid crystal compositions
Electrolytic processes, e.g. electrophoresis
C25
Special rules of classification

C-Sets:

When two or more polymers are present in a solution, classification is given in the form of C-sets: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see below), and the minor components are characterised by Indexing Codes. The Indexing Codes are chosen from C08L or C08K and they may be linked or unlinked. The polymer in majority is always first in the C-set.

Therefore at least one Indexing Code must always be present when more than one polymer is mentioned.

Notes 2, resp. 3 relate to the combination classes which was in use before 2003, from 09-2003 until 04-2012. The documents have not been reclassified.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Addition polymers
Polymers in which unsaturated monomer molecules join together to form a polymer in which the molecular formula of the repeat unit is identical (except for the double bond) with that of the monomer.
Aliphatic radical
Means an acyclic or non-aromatic carbocyclic carbon skeleton which is considered to be terminated by every bond to: an element other than carbon; a carbon atom having a double bond to one atom other than carbon; an aromatic carbocyclic ring or a heterocyclic ring. Examples: Polymers ofCH2=CH-O-CH2-CH2-NH-COO- CH2 - CH2-OH are classified in group C08F 16/28 ;CH2=CH-CO-CH=CH2 are classified in group C08F 16/36 ;CH2=CH-C6H4-Cl are classified in group C08F 12/18.
Block polymers
Polymers formed by polymerization of monomers on to a macromolecule having groups capable of inducing the formation of new polymer chains bound at one or both ends of the starting macromolecule, or by polymerization using successively different catalyst types or successively different monomer systems without deactivating the intermediate polymer.
Condensation polymers
Polymers in which water or some other simple molecule is eliminated from 2 or more monomer molecules as they combine to form the polymer or crosslinks between polymer chains.
Copolymer
Usually denotes a polymer of 2 chemically distinct monomers, and sometimes denotes a terpolymer containing more than 2 types of monomer unit.
Graft polymers
Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerizing monomers on to preformed polymers or on to inorganic materials. Such preformed polymers could be rubbers, polysaccharides, condensation polymers, homopolymers or copolymers of the addition polymer type.
Homopolymers
Polymers resulting from the polymerisation of a single monomer or polymer with a single type of repeating unit.
Repeat(ing) unit
The unit in an addition polymer which is repeated throughout the molecule; for example in polyethylene the repeat unit is:–CH2-CH2-
Rubber
a. Natural or conjugated diene rubbers; b. Rubber in general.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ABS
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
AIBN
Azoisobutyronitrile (initiator)
AMMA
Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate copolymer
AMPS
Acrylamidomethylpropanesulfonic acid
BR
Butadiene rubber
CTFE
Chloro-trifluoroethylene
DVB
Divinylbenzene
EAA
Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer
EPDM
Ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer
EPR
Ethylene-propylene rubber
EVA
Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer
EVOH
Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer
HDPE
High-density polyethylene
HEMA
Hydroxyethyl methacrylate
LDPE
Low-density polyethylene
LLDPE
Linear low-density polyethylene
PAN
Polyacrylonitrile
PEEK
Polyetherether ketone, also named polyetheresterketone
PEI
Polyethylenimine
PMMA
Polymethyl methacrylate
PPE
Polyphenylene ether
PPO
Polyphenylene oxide or polypropylene oxide
PPS
Polyphenylene sulphide
PTFE
Polytetrafluoroethylene
PUR
Polyurethane
PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
Compositions of cellulose, modified cellulose and cellulose derivatives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of cellulose, modified cellulose or cellulose derivatives corresponding to the following groups:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08B as they are considered as polysaccharide derivatives per se.

Coating compositions based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09D following the same rules as mentioned in the note for C08L.

Adhesives or binders based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09J following the same rules as mentioned in the note for C08L.

Multiple classification

Please refer to the comments provided for C08B, as well as for the corresponding C08B group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cellulose or derivatives thereof per se
Composition based on lignin-containing materials, e.g. lignin, cork, lignocellulose or wood
Composition of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 to C08L 97/00, e.g. flours
Coating composition comprising cellulose or cellulose derivative
Adhesive composition comprising cellulose or cellulose derivative
Compositions of cellulose or cellulose derivatives in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Cellulose or derivatives thereof either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a cellulose and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but also in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Codes in C08K.

Example 1: Cellulose acetate in solution is classified in C08L 1/12

Example 2: A composition consisting of 60 wt% of microcrystalline cellulose and 40 wt.% of maltodextrin is classified in (C08L 1/04, C08L 3/02).

Example 3: A composition consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose and glycerol (plasticiser) is classified in C08L1/28228F, C08K 5/053 and C08K 5/0016.

- If gels are not crosslinked, then they are classified in the corresponding C08Lx/y groups together with C08J 3/075.

Example: Hydrogel of cellulose is classified in C08L 1/02 and C08J 3/075.

- Last place priority rule: Within each group of the subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of starch, amylose or amylopectin or of their derivatives or degradation products
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of starch, amylose or amylopectin or of their derivatives or degradation products corresponding to the following groups:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08B as they are considered as polysaccharide derivatives per se.

Coating compositions based on such starches are classified in C09D following the same rules as mentioned in the note for C08L.

Adhesives or binders based on such starches are classified in C09J following the same rules as mentioned in the note for C08L.

Multiple classification

Please refer to the comments provided for C08B, as well as for the corresponding C08B group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Starch and derivatives thereof per se
Coating composition comprising starch, amylose, amylopectin or their derivatives or degradation products
Adhesive composition comprising cellulose or cellulose derivative starch, amylose, amylopectin or their derivatives or degradation products
Compositions of starch, amylose, amylopectin or their derivatives or degradation products in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Starch or derivatives thereof either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a starch and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but also in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Codes in C08K.

Example 1: Starch acetate in solution is classified in C08L 3/06.

Example 2: A composition consisting of 60 wt. % of crosslinked starch and 40 wt.% of maltodextrin is classified in (C08L 3/04, C08L 3/02) and C08L 2205/02.

Example 3: A composition consisting of carboxymethyl starch and glycerol (plasticiser) is classified in C08L 3/08, C08K 5/053 and C08K 5/0016.

- If gels are not crosslinked, then they are classified in the corresponding C08Lx/y groups together with C08J 3/075.

Example: Hydrogel of dextrin is classified in C08L 3/02 and C08J 3/075.

- Last place priority rule: Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of polysaccharides or of their derivatives not provided for in groups C08L 1/00 or C08L 3/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of polysaccharides, other than cellulose and starch, and their derivatives corresponding to the following groups:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08B as they are considered as polysaccharide derivatives per se.

Coating compositions based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09D following the same rules as mentioned in the note for C08L.

Adhesives or binders based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09J following the same rules as mentioned in the note for C08L.

Multiple classification

Please refer to the comments provided for C08B, as well as for the corresponding C08B group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Polysaccharides per se
Coating composition comprising polysaccharide or polysaccharide derivative
Adhesive composition comprising polysaccharide or polysaccharide derivative
Compositions of polysaccharide or polysaccharide derivatives in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a polysaccharide and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but also in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Codes in C08K.

Example 1: Ethers of cyclodextrin in solution are classified C08L 5/16.

Example 2: A composition consisting of 60 wt% of hyaluronic acid and 40 wt.% of maltodextrin is classified in (C08L 5/08, C08L 3/02).

Example 3: A composition consisting of carboxymethyl dextran and glycerol (plasticiser) is classified in C08L 5/02, C08K 5/053 and C08K 5/0016.

- If gels are not crosslinked, then they are classified in the corresponding C08Lx/y groups together with C08J 3/075.

Example: Hydrogel of alginate is classified in C08L 5/04 and C08J 3/075.

- Last place priority rule: Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of natural rubber
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of natural rubber or natural rubber latex.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of conjugated diene hydrocarbons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of isoprene, butadiene and their latexes

Compositions of copolymers with acrylonitrile or latex

Compositions of copolymers with styrene or latex

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of chloroprene
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of chloroprene or latex.

Compositions of rubbers containing carboxyl groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of rubbers containing carboxyl groups containing monomers in minority, e.g. acrylic acid or acrylic acid esters.

Compositions of rubber derivatives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of rubber derivatives, e.g. rubber treated according to C08C

Special rules of classification within this group

An Indexing Code C08C may be given for the treatment.

Compositions of reclaimed rubber
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of reclaimed rubber, e.g. reuse of unvulcanised or devulcanised rubber.

Compositions of rubbers not provided for in the previous groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions comprising vulcanised or crosslinked rubber

Compositions containing rubbers with functional groups e.g. telechelic diene rubbers.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

- Treatment or chemical modification of diene rubber is classified in C08C 1/00 - C08C 19/44.

- Polymerisation of diene polymers is classified in C08F 36/00, C08F 136/00 or C08F 236/00.

- Preparation of polymer compositions is classified in C08J 3/20 - C08J 3/22.

- Recycling of polymers is classified in C08J 11/04 - C08J 11/28.

- Coating compositions comprising diene rubbers or their derivatives are classified in C09D 107/00 - C09D 121/00.

- Adhesive compositions comprising diene rubbers or their derivatives are classified in C09J 107/00 - C09J 121/00.

References relevant to classification in these groups
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions of copolymers of ethene-propene or ethene-propene-diene, e.g. EPM or EPDM rubber
Compositions of copolymers of isobutene with minor part of conjugated dienes monomers, e.g. butyl rubber
Compositions of polyacrylates
Compositions of unconjugated dienes
Compositions of graft copolymers
Compositions of block copolymers
Compositions of ABS
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chemical compositions of tyres
Inorganic or non-macromolecular organic materials as compounding agents
Compositions of diene rubbers or their derivatives in minority
Special rules of classification within these groups

In the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

In group C08L 15/00, groups C08L 11/00 and C08L 13/00 take precedence.

Compositions of diene rubbers or their derivatives in minority are given an Indexing Code C08L 7/00 - C08L 21/00.

Compositions are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents.

Compositions are classified according to the macromolecular constituent or constituents present in the highest proportion: if all these constituents are present in equal proportions the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

Use of C-Sets:

After the notation of C08L 7/00 - C08L 21/02, notations concerning the other constituents of the composition may be added, in the form of C-sets. The further constituent is added with an Indexing Code. The Indexing Codes are chosen from C08L or C08K and they may be linked or unlinked. The polymer in majority is always first in the C-set.

Inorganic or non-macromolecular organic materials as compounding agents are classified in C08K; Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, are not classified in C08L. However, if a composition contains two polymers and an additive following C08K, classification is made in C08L and an Indexing Code from C08K will be given.

Examples:

a: A blend of 60 parts polybutadiene (C08L 9/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 9/00, C08L 77/00).

b: A blend of 50 parts polybutadiene (C08L 9/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 9/00, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 9/00).

c: A blend of 60 parts polybutadiene (C08L 9/00), 40 parts natural rubber (C08L 7/00) and 40 parts of silica is classified in (C08L 9/00, C08L 7/00, C08K 3/36).

Glossary of terms In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

meaning indicated:

"rubber" includes:

a. natural or conjugated diene rubbers;

b. rubber in general (for a specific rubber, other than a natural rubber or a conjugated diene rubber, see the group provided for compositions of such macromolecular compounds).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

BR
Butadiene rubber
CR
Chloroprene rubber
EPM
Ethene propene rubber
EPDM
Ethene propene diene rubber
IR
Isoprene rubber
IIR
Butyl rubber
NBR
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
NR
Natural rubber
SAN
Styrene acrylonitrile copolymer
SBR
Styrene butadiene rubber
Compositions of unspecified rubbers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of rubbers not provided for in groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 19/02.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons corresponding to groups C08F 10/00, C08F11/00 and C08F 210/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. polymer resulting from polymerisation of ethylene and propene with transition metal catalyst
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of polyethylene
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. a composition of polyethylene and carbon black

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Application of macromolecular compositions as pesticides or herbicides
Application of macromolecular compositions as pharmaceutical compositions or cosmetics
Application of macromolecular compositions as explosive compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in coating compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in adhesive compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in lubricants
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products
Chemical compositions of tyres
Post-polymerisation treatments
Detergents
Artificial filaments or fibres
Special rules of classification within this group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 23/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C08L Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given.

For Copolymers

Copolymers get the class of the major component, except if there is a lower class which specifies the comonomer in minority (see also last place rule), i.e. ethylene butene copolymers (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L23/0815, and not in C08L 23/20, but ethylene vinylacetate (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L23/0853, not in C08L 23/08 or C08L 31/04.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added, as explained above.

Remark: [N: Note 2 is not relevant for C08L 23/00. All documents from before 2003 have been reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts polyethylene (C08L 23/06) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 23/06, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts polyethylene (C08L 23/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 23/06, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 23/06).

c. A composition based on polyethylene and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, i.e. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 23/06). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 23/06, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first polyethylene (C08L 23/04) and containing a second polyethylene, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 23/04, C08L 23/04, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/02.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polyethylene is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 23/06) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two ionomers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for a compositions of a K+ and a Na+ ionomer therefore would be (C08L 23/0876, C08L 23/0876) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.).

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications) and C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) are used.

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used, i.e. terpolymers of ethylene, acrylic ester and vinyl acetate would be classified in C08L 23/0869 instead of C08L 23/0853 even when vinyl acetate would be present in a higher amount than acrylic ester.

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, i.e. if the examples only describe compositions of polypropylene, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of polyolefin, the document is classified as composition of polypropylene (C08L 23/10, C08L--/--).

This group C08L 23/00 should not be used for classification.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, i.e. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene or isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, with the exception of neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LDPE
Low density polyethylene, prepared by radical process
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
not modified by chemical after-treatment
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should only be used in exceptional cases, i.e. no or too many examples.

[N: Copolymer of an unspecified olefin with a monomer other than an olefin]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should only be used in exceptional cases, i.e. no or too many examples.

Homopolymers or copolymers of ethene
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should only be used if there are examples both of polymers of C08L 23/06 or C08L 23/0807 and C08L 23/0846.

Polyethene
Special rules of classification within this group

Homopolymers can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/062, C08L 2207/066, C08L 2207/068, C08L 2207/07 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

Copolymers of ethene (C08L 23/16 takes precedence)
Special rules of classification within this group

This group should only be used if there are examples both of polymers of C08L 23/0807 and C08L 23/0846.

C08L 23/16 takes precedence over C08L 23/08.

[N: Copolymers of ethene with unsaturated hydrocarbons only containing more than three carbon atoms]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/062 - C08L 2207/07 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

It is preferable to classify in C08L 23/0815 when possible.

[N: Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic 1-olefins]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/062 - C08L 2207/07 or C08L 2314/02 - M08L207/08.

When ethylene is in majority, ethylene-propene copolymers are only classified when propene is clearly the minor component, e.g. LLDPE with comonomer propene is classified in C08L 23/0815, whereas EPR is classified in C08L 23/16.

[N: Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic cyclic olefins]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic cyclic olefins, e.g. ethylene norbornene copolymers, e.g. TOPAS® or copolymer of ethylene, propene and norbornene

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

TOPAS®
TOPAS® is a cyclo olefin copolymer (COC) copolymerized from norbornene and ethylene using a metallocene catalyst
[N: Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic polyenes, i.e. containing more than one unsaturated bond]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethylene with aliphatic polyenes, e.g. copolymer of ethene, butene (small amount) and norbornene (smaller amount)

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

[N: Copolymers of ethene with aromatic monomers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethene with aromatic monomers , e.g. copolymer of ethene, butene (small amount) and styrene (smaller amount).

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

[N: Copolymers of ethene with unsaturated hydrocarbons containing other atoms than carbon or hydrogen atoms]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethene with unsaturated hydrocarbons containing other atoms than carbon or hydrogen atoms, e.g. copolymer of ethylene, butene (small amount) and acrylate (smaller amount).

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

[N: Saponified vinylacetate]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethene with saponified vinylacetate, e.g. copolymer of ethylene, vinylaceate (small amount) and vinylalcohol (smaller amount, e.g. partially saponified EVA

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0861.

[N: Acids or derivatives thereof]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethylene and acids or derivatives, e.g. copolymer of ethene and vinyl sulfonic acids.

Special rules of classification within this group

C08L 23/0892 takes precedence over this group.

[N: Neutralised polymers, i.e. ionomers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethylene and carboxylic acid, where H+ is replaced by M+.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0892.

In this group, M+ is not regarded as "other atom" in the sense of C08L 23/0892.

[N: Epoxide containing esters]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of ethylene with epoxide containing esters, e.g. glycidyl methacrylate.

[N: containing monomers with other atoms than carbon, hydrogen or oxygen atoms]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0869.

Homopolymers or copolymers of propene
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in this group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/10 - C08L 2207/14 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08

Polypropene
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Homopolymers of propene

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in this group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/10 - C08L 2207/14 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

Copolymers of propene (C08L 23/16 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers of propene with the propene in majority, e.g. ethylene-propene copolymers when ethylene is clearly the minor component, i.e. EPR

Rubbery polymers, e.g. high olefin comonomer content, but not propene

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in this group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/10 - C08L 2207/14 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

C08L 23/16 takes precedence over this group.

[N: Copolymers of propene with monomers having more than one C=C double bond]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/14 or C08L 23/142 in the case of terpolymers even if the polyene unit is the monomer in the lowest concentration.

[N: Copolymers of propene with monomers containing other atoms than carbon or hydrogen atoms]
Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/14 or C08L 23/142 in the case of terpolymers even if the heteroatom carrying unit is the monomer in the lowest concentration.

[N: Elastomeric] ethene-propene or ethene-propene-diene copolymers, [N: e.g. EPR and EPDM rubbers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymers comprising both ethylene and propylene on about the same amount.

Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815 and C08L 23/14;

Although these polymers are rubbers or elastomers, C08L 23/00 or subgroups are used if they not in majority.

modified by chemical after-treatment
Special rules of classification within this group

C08L 23/0861 takes precedence in the case of saponified EVA. C08L23/08C2A takes precedence in the case of neutralised ethylene carboxylic acid copolymers (iononers).

by reaction with halogens or compounds containing halogen
Special rules of classification within this group

For chlorosulfonation C08L 23/32 takes precedence over this group.

by chlorosulfonation
Special rules of classification within this group

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/28.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by an aromatic carbocyclic ring; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Homopolymers or copolymers of

- hydrocarbons

- styrene, e.g. polystyrene

- alkyl-substituted styrenes

- aromatic monomers containing elements other than carbon and hydrogen

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
SBR rubber
Grafted (co)polymers
Block (co)polymers
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS
Special rules of classification within this group

The use of general classes should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable.

For example, a document claiming compositions of a polymer of an aromatic vinyl monomer, wherein the examples are limited to e.g. polystyrene, should receive the class C08L 25/06 and not C08L 25/04, C08L 25/02 or C08L 25/00

General purpose PS, GPS is classified in C08L 25/06.

High impact polystyrene HIPS is classified in C08L 25/06, unless the rubber or rubber content is of relevance, where it should be classified in C08L 51/04.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

GPS
General purpose polystyrene
HIPS
High impact polystyrene
PS
Polystyrene
SAN
Styrene acrylonitrile copolymer
SPS
Syndiotactic polystyrene
Copolymers of styrene (C08L 29/08, C08L 35/06, C08L 55/02 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers with allyl alcohol, even when allyl alcohol monomer is in minority
Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 35/00, even in minority
Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 41/00, even in minority
Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 43/00, even in minority
with conjugated dienes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Styrene butadiene rubber, i.e. SBR
Grafted copolymers comprising styrene and dienes
Block copolymers comprising styrene and dienes
with unsaturated nitriles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Copolymers of unsaturated nitriles
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymers ABS
with unsaturated esters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Copolymers with unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Homopolymers or copolymers containing chloride, e.g. of vinyl chloride or of vinylidene chloride.

Homopolymers or copolymers containing bromine or iodine atoms

Homopolymers or copolymers containing fluorine atoms, e.g. of vinyl fluoride,

of vinylidene fluoride, of tetrafluoroethene or of hexafluoropropene.

Homopolymers or copolymers containing halogen, modified or not modified by chemical after-treatment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chemically modified, (post)halogenated polymers e.g., halogenated polyolefins or halogenated polxyolefinspolyolefins
(Per)halogenated esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids
(Per)halogenated polyethers
Special rules of classification within this group

The use of general classes should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable.

For example, a document claiming compositions of a halogenated polymer, wherein the examples are limited to poly(vinyl chloride), should be classified in C08L 27/06 and not in C08L 27/04, C08L 27/02 or C08L 27/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CTFE
Chlorotrifluoroethene; Chlorotrifluoroethylene
HFP
Hexafluoropropene; Hexafluoropropylene
PTFE
Poly (tetrafluoroethene); Poly (tetrafluoroethylene)
PVC
Poly (vinyl chloride)
PVDC
Poly (vinylidene chloride)
PVDF
Poly (vinylidene fluoride)
PVF
Poly (vinyl fluoride)
containing fluorine atoms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of (co)polymers of fluorine containing unsaturated monomers other than those covered by C08L 27/14 - C08L 27/20.

Compositions of (co)polymers of fluorine containing unsaturated monomers having additional halogen atom(s) other than fluorine, e.g. (co)polymers of chlorotrifluoroethene.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by an alcohol, ether, aldehydo, ketonic, acetal or ketal radical; Compositions of hydrolysed polymers of esters of unsaturated alcohols with saturated carboxylic acids; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated alcohols, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol.

Partially hydrolysed homopolymers or copolymers of esters of unsaturated alcohols with saturated carboxylic acids, e.g. copolymers of allyl alcohol.

Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated ketones.

Homopolymers or copolymers of acetals or ketals obtained by polymerisation of unsaturated acetals or ketals or by after-treatment of polymers of unsaturated alcohols.

Special rules of classification within this group

The use of general classes should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable.

For example, a document claiming compositions of a polymer of an unsaturated alcohol monomer, wherein the examples are limited to polyvinyl alcohol, should be classified in C08L 29/04 and not in C08L 29/02 or C08L 29/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

EVA or E-VA
Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymerOR ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer
PVA
Poly(vinyl alcohol)OR poly(vinyl acetate)
PVB
Poly(vinyl butyral)
PVOH
Poly (vinyl alcohol)
Polyvinyl alcohol; Partially hydrolysed homopolymers or copolymers of esters of unsaturated alcohols with saturated carboxylic acids
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Saponified or hydrolysed (co)polymers of vinyl esters of saturated acids, e.g. saponified or hydrolysed (co)polymers of vinyl acetate.

with vinyl-aromatic monomers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Copolymers with styrene, even when styrene is in majority.

Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated ethers (C08L 35/08 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 35/08 (such as unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, anhydrides or esters) are classified in C08L 35/08 only, even when these monomers are in minority
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by an acyloxy radical of a saturated carboxylic acid, of carbonic acid or of a haloformic acid (of hydrolysed polymers C08L 29/00); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Homopolymers or copolymers of

- esters of monocarboxylic acids, e.g. of vinyl acetate

- esters of polycarboxylic acids, e.g. of phthalic acid.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hydrolised or saponified polymers thereof
Special rules of classification within this group

The use of general classes should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable.

For example, a document claiming compositions of a (co)polymer of an unsaturated ester of a saturated carboxylic acid monomer, wherein the examples are limited to e.g. polyvinyl acetate, should receive the class C08L 31/04 and not C08L 31/02 or C08L 31/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

EVA or E-VA
Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer or ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer
PVA
Poly(vinyl acetate) or poly(vinyl alcohol)
PVAC or PVAc
Poly (vinyl acetate)
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and only one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 20/00, C08F 120/00 and C08F 220/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification:

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. polymer resulting from polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and acrylic
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of poly(methyl methacrylate)
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of poly methyl methacrylate and carbon black
Diene rubbers containing carboxylic groups with acrylic monomers in minority
Compositions having a major polymer part containing monomers in minority from C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/00
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pesticides; Herbicides;
Pharmaceuticals; Cosmetics;
Moulding processes
Layered products
Chemical compositions of tyres
Use of polymers in building materials, e.g. mortars
Explosives
Post-polymerisation treatments
Working-up, compounding, crosslinking, masterbatches or after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Transmission belts
Plastic pipes
Special rules of classification within this group

The group C08L 33/00 should not be used.

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 33/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C08L Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes of C08L for all polymers in minority and additives are given. Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F 220/00.

For Copolymers

Copolymers get the class of the major component, except if there is a lower class which specifies the comonomer in minority. A composition based on a copolymer of ethylene and acrylic acid therefore is to be classified in C08L 23/0869 (ethylene in majority), but in C08L 33/02 (acrylic acid in majority). However, a copolymer of acrylic ester and acrylonitrile (acrylic ester in majority) would be classified in C08L 33/18. The monomer composition of the main polymer component can be characterised by Indexing Codes of C08F

The classification of the main component polymer of the composition should be according to the most specific, or reactive monomer (i.e. glycidyl methacrylate and not methyl methacrylate in a copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate). All comonomers of the main polymeric component should be characterised by their Indexing Codes in C08F (C08F 2220/325 and C08F 220/14).

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added. These notations are selected from the list above:

Remark: Note 2 is relevant for C08L 33/00. Documents from before 2003 are not reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts polymethyl methacrylate (C08L 33/12) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 33/12, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts polymethyl methacrylate (C08L 33/12) and 50 parts polyamide (B4N) is classified in (C08L 33/12, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 33/12).

c. A composition based on polymethyl methacrylate and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, e.g. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 33/12. If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 33/12, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first polymethyl methacrylate (C08L 33/12) and containing as a second polymer a copolymer of acrylic acid, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 33/12, C08L 33/02, C08K 5/13,C08K 3/36) and , C08L 2205/02.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polymethyl methacrylate is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 33/12) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two polymers am hydroxi containing acrylic ester, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such a compositions therefore would be (C08L 33/066, M08L23/06B4) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (e.g.. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications), C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) and C08F are used.

A composition containing next to another addition polymer a main component of a copolymer of acrylic ester, acrylamide and hydroxymethylmethacrylate therefore would be classified in (C08L 33/26, C08L 33/12), C08F 220/10 and C08F 220/26, even if less acrylamide monomer is present than acrylic ester and hydroxymethylmethacrylate. If this main component would be in a blend with methylmethacrylate copolymer.

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used. Eg. terpolymers of styrene, vinyl acetate and methyl methacrylate in similar proportions would be classified in C08L 33/12 instead of C08L 25/00 or C08L 31/00. However, Indexing Codes of C08F should be given (C08F 212/08 for styrene, C08F 218/08 for vinyl acetate)

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic copolymers, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of acrylamide copolymer, the document is classified as composition of acrylamide copolymers (C08L 33/26, C08L--/--)

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

EVA
Ethylene-vinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Homopolymers or copolymers of acids; Metal or ammonium salts thereof
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers of bicarboxylic acids in majority
Homopolymers or copolymers of esters [N: (C08L 43/04 takes precedence)]
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/064-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group, even if the corresponding monomers are in minority; this group should be used if the nature of the acrylic ester polymer is not specified.

of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which oxygen atoms are present only as part of the carboxyl radical
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymers formed from alkyl alkylacrylate monomers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Acrylic acid esters or methacrylic acid esters with alkaonols or phenols without having additional functional groups, e.g. methyl ethylacrylate
[N: Copolymers with monomers not covered by C08L 33/06]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Polymers formed from monomers, which have OH, glycidyl, anhydride or additional acid groups
Polymers formed from monomers, which have halogen, nitrogen, sulphur or oxygen
[N: containing anhydride, COOH or COOM groups, with M being metal or onium-cation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acrylic polymers containing maleic acid or an derivative in minority.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Polymers containing an olefin in majority
Acrylic polymers containing maleic acid or a derivative in majority
[N: containing -OH groups]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymers containing for e.g. hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA).

[N: containing glycidyl groups]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymers containing for e.g. glycidyl methacrylate

Further details of subgroups

In C08L 33/08 - C08L 33/12 the only copolymers classified are esters of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid. Other alkylacrylates are classified in C09J 133/06.

All copolymers with other monomers are classified elsewhere.

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/062-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group even if the corresponding monomers are in minority.

Homopolymers or copolymers of methacrylic acid esters
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/062-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group even if the corresponding monomers are in minority.

of esters containing halogen, nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen atoms in addition to the carboxy oxygen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acrylic esters of polyethylene ethers,

Polymers of methoxymethacrylates,

Polymers of amino substitued acrylate esters.

Special rules of classification within this group

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/062-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group even if the corresponding monomers are in minority.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a carboxyl radical, and containing at least one other carboxyl radical in the molecule, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 22/00, C08F 122/00 and C08F 222/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. copolymers resulting from polymerisation of styrene with maleic anhydride with a specific catalyst
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer and carbon black
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products
Explosives
Post-polymerisation treatments
Working-up, crosslinking, masterbatches, foaming, compounding or after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Special rules of classification within this main group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 35/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C-Set notations and Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given

For Copolymers

Copolymers get the class of the major component, except if there is a lower class which specifies the comonomer in minority (see also last place rule), i.e. ethylene maleic anhydride copolymers (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0869, and not in C08L 35/00, but ethylene maleic anhydride copolymers (maleic anhydride in majority) would be classified in C08L 35/06, not in C08L 23/0869

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added. These notations are selected from the list above.

Remark: Note 2 is relevant for C08L 35/00. Documents from before 2003 are not reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 35/06, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 35/06, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 35/06).

c. A composition based on styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, e.g. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 35/06). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 35/06, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06) and containing a second styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/06, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/025.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 35/06) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer polymers, are characterised by the Indexing Codes C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/06) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications), C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) and C08F (for specific monomers) are used.

Indexing Codes of C08F are used for specific monomers, which are part of the copolymer classified in C08L 35/00.

Therefore a terpolymer of styrene, maleic anhydride and acrylic amide should additionally be characterised by an Indexing Code C08F 220/56.

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of styrene-maleic anhydride, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a vinyl aromatic copolymer, the document is classified as composition of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LDPE
Low density polyethylene, prepared by radical process
ULDPE, VLDPE
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Homopolymers or copolymers of esters (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/08 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers of unsaturated esters, e.g. acrylic ester with a monomer of C08L 35/00, e.g. maleic anhydride which have the ester in majority
Special rules of classification within this group

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Groups C08L 35/06 and C08L 35/08 take precedence over this group.

Homopolymers or copolymers of nitriles (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/08 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers of unsaturated nitriles, e.g. acrylonitrile with a monomer of C08L 35/00, maleic anhydride which have the nitrile in majority
Special rules of classification within this group

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Groups C08L 35/06 and C08L 35/08 take precedence over this group.

Copolymers with vinyl-aromatic monomers
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers of vinyl aromatic compounds, styrene with a monomer of C08L 35/00, maleic anhydride which have the vinyl aromatic compound in majority
Special rules of classification within this group

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Copolymers with vinyl ethers
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copolymers of vinylethers with a monomer of C08L 35/00, maleic anhydride which have the vinylether in majority
Special rules of classification within this group

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen (of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids C08L 31/00; of cyclic anhydrides of unsaturated acids C08L 35/00); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers corresponding to groups C08F 24/00, C08F 124/00 or C08F 224/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Compositions based on polymerisable monomers are classified in C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00 or C08G.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. copolymers resulting from polymerisation of styrene with vinyl furan with a specific catalyst
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of a diene vinyl furan copolymer
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of a diene vinyl furan copolymer and carbon black
Compositions of polymers of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids
Compositions of polymers of anhydrides of unsaturated acids
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products
Explosives
Post-polymerisation treatments
Special rules of classification within this main group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 37/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C-Sets and Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given

For Copolymers

In C08L 37/00, the major monomer component of the copolymers does not determine the class. A composition based on a copolymer of diene and vinylfuran, which has only a low content of vinyl furan, would be classified in C08L 37/00. Additional classification in C08L 09/00 should be considered. The comonomer in majority should get an Indexing Code in C08F (C08F 236/06 for dienes).

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added.

Remark: Note 2 is relevant for C08L 37/00. Documents from before 2003 are not reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts diene vinyl furan copolymer (C08L 37/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 37/00, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts diene vinyl furan copolymer (C08L 37/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 37/00, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 37/00).

c. A composition based on diene vinyl furan copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, e.g. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 37/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 37/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first diene vinyl furan copolymer (C08L 37/00) and containing a second diene vinyl furan copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 37/00, C08L 37/00, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/025.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a diene vinyl furan copolymer is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 37/00) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two diene vinyl furan copolymer polymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 37/00, C08L 37/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications), C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) and C08F (for specific monomers) are used.

Indexing Codes of C08F are used for specific monomers, which are part of the copolymer classified in C08L 37/00

Therefore a terpolymer of diene, maleic anhydride and vinyl furan should additionally be characterised by Indexing Codes C08F 222/00 and M08L236/06

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of diene vinyl furan, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a diene copolymer, the document is classified as composition of diene vinyl furane copolymer (C08L 37/00, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LLDPE
Linear low-density polyethylene, significant comonomer content
LDPE
Low density polyethylene, prepared by radical process
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a single or double bond to nitrogen or by a heterocyclic ring containing nitrogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of

  • Vinylamine
  • N-vinylpyrrolidones
  • Vinyl-pyridine

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 26/00, C08F 126/00 and C08F 226/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. copolymers resulting from polymerisation of styrene with vinyl pyrrolidone with a specific catalyst
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of a styrene-vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of a styrene-vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer and carbon black
Compositions of copolymers of acrylic amides or imides
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Post-polymerisation treatments
Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Post-polymerisation treatment
Special rules of classification within this group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 39/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C08L Indexing Codes in the C-Sets. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given.

For Copolymers

In C08L 39/00, copolymers do not get the class of the major monomer component of the copolymers. A coating based on a copolymer of acrylic ester and vinyl pyridine, which has a lower content of vinyl pyridine than acrylic ester, would also be classified in C08L 39/08. Additional classification in C08L 33/08 should be considered. The comonomer in majority should get an Indexing Codes code in C08F (C08F 220/10 for acrylic esters)

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added.

Remark: Note 2 is relevant for C08L 39/00. Documents from before 2003 are not reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 39/06, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 39/06, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 39/06).

c. A composition based on vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, e.g. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 39/06). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 39/06, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06) and containing a second vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 39/06, C08L 39/06, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/025.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 39/06) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 39/06, C08L 39/06) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications), C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) and C08F (for specific monomers) are used.

Indexing Codes of C08F are used for specific monomers, which are part of the copolymer classified in C08L 39/00

Therefore a terpolymer of acrylic ester, vinyl pyrrolidone and maleic anhydride should additionally be characterised by Indexing Codes C08F 220/10 and C08F 222/06

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic ester - vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a acrylic ester copolymer, the document is classified as composition of vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA, PVOH
polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a bond to sulfur or by a heterocyclic ring containing sulfur; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 28/00, C08F 128/00 or C08F 228/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. copolymers resulting from polymerisation of styrene with vinyl thioethanol with a specific catalyst
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of a vinyl thioethanol copolymer and carbon black
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of a acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Post-polymerisation treatments
Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Post-polymerisation treatments
Special rules of classification within this main group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 41/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C-Sets and C08L Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given

For Copolymers

In C08L 41/00, the major monomer component of the copolymers does not determine the class. A composition based on a copolymer of acrylic ester and vinyl thioethanol, which has only a low content of vinyl thioethanol, would be classified in C08L 41/00. Additional classification in C08L 09/00 should be considered. The comonomer in majority should get an Indexing Code in C08F (C08F 236/06 for acrylic esters)

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added.

Remark: Note 2 is relevant for C08L 41/00. Documents from before 2003 are not reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer (C08L 41/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 41/00, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer (C08L 41/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 41/00, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 41/00).

c. A composition based on acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, e.g. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 41/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 41/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer (C08L 41/00) and containing a second acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 41/00, C08L 41/00, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 77/00.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 41/00).

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer polymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 41/00, C08L 41/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications), C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) and C08F (for specific monomers) are used.

Indexing Codes of C08F are used for specific monomers, which are part of the copolymer classified in C08L 41/00.

Therefore a terpolymer of acrylic ester, maleic anhydride and vinyl thioethanol should additionally be characterised by Indexing Codes C08F 220/10 and M08L222/06.

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a acrylic ester copolymer, the document is classified as composition of acrylic ester vinyl thioethanole copolymer (C08L 41/00, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and containing boron, silicon, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium or a metal; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers (of metal salts, e.g. phenolates, alcoholates, see the parent compounds)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 30/00, C08F 130/00 or C08F 230/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. copolymers resulting from polymerisation of styrene with vinyl silane with a specific catalyst
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of a styrene-vinyl silane copolymer
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of a styrene-vinyl silane copolymer and carbon black
Compositions of copolymers of ethylene with monomers used in C08L 43/00 in minority
Compositions of copolymers of propene with monomers used in C08L 43/00 in minority
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Post-polymeridsation treatments
Special rules of classification within this main group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 43/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C-Sets and Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given.

For Copolymers

In general, in C08L 43/00, copolymers do not get the class of the major monomer component of the copolymers. A coating based on a copolymer of acrylic ester and vinyl silane, which has a lower content of vinyl silane than acrylic ester, would also be classified in C08L 43/04. Additional classification in C08L 33/08 should be considered. The comonomer in majority should get an Indexing Code in C08F (C08F 220/10 for acrylic esters).

However, if the major comonomer is ethylene or propene, the corresponding copolymer compositions are classified in C08L 23/0892 or C08L 23/147

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added.

Remark: Note 2 is relevant for C08L 43/00. Documents from before 2003 are not reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 43/04, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 43/04, C08L 43/04) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 43/04).

c. A composition based on vinyl silane copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, e.g. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 43/04). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 43/04, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04) and containing a second vinyl silane copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 43/04, C08L 43/04, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/025.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a vinyl silane copolymer is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 43/04) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two vinyl silane copolymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 43/04, C08L 43/04) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications), C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) and C08F (for specific monomers) are used.

Indexing Codes of C08F are used for specific monomers, which are part of the copolymer classified in C08L 43/00

Therefore a terpolymer of acrylic ester, vinyl silane and maleic anhydride should additionally be characterised by Indexing Codes C08F 220/10 and C08F 222/06.

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic ester - vinyl silane copolymers, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a acrylic ester copolymer, the document is classified as composition of vinyl silane copolymer (C08L43/06, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Further details of subgroups

Copolymers of ethylene or propene are not classified here.

Copolymers of ethylene or propene are not classified here.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having no unsaturated aliphatic radicals in side chain, and having one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds in a carbocyclic or in a heterocyclic ring system; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers (of cyclic anhydrides or imides C08L 35/00; of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids C08L 31/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 32/00, C08F 132/00, C08F 232/00 or C08F 244/00.

(Co)polymers of cyclic olefins, e.g. norbornene or bicyclopentadiene, where the cyclic monomer is the major component in the copolymer.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. polymer resulting from polymerisation of coumarone and indene with a specific catalyst
Applications or uses of single polymers, e.g. a film of polynorbornene
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of coumarone-indene polymer and carbon black
Copolymers of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids
Copolymers of cyclic anhydrides or imides
Copolymers of monomers terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing Oxygen
Coating compositions
Adhesives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
C08K 3/00 - C08F13/08
Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds
C08J 3/00 - C08F11/28
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Post-polymerisation treatments
Special rules of classification within this main group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 45/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C-Sets and Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given

For Copolymers

Copolymers get the class of the major component, except if there is a lower class which specifies the comonomer in minority (see also last place rule), e.g. ethylene norbornene copolymers (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0823, and not in C08L 45/00, but ethylene norbornene (norbornene in majority) would be classified in C08L 45/00, not in C08L 23/08

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added. These notations are selected from the list above.

Remark: Note 2 is not relevant for C08L 45/00. All documents from before 2003 are reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts ethylene-norbornene copolymer (C08L 23/0823) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 23/0823, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts polyethylene (C08L 23/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 23/06, C08L 23/06) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 23/06).

c. A composition based on polynorbornene and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 2 of C08K, i.e. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 45/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 45/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first polynorbornene (C08L 45/00) and containing a second polynorbornene, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 45/00, C08L 45/00, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/03.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polynorbornene is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 45/00) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two coumarone-indene polymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 45/00, C08L 45/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications) and C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) are used.

Additional monomers present in the main component can be characterised by an Indexing Code of C08F

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, i.e. if the examples only describe compositions of polynorbornene, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of polyolefin, the document is classified as composition of polynorbornene (C08L 45/00, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
EPR or EPDM, elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, i.e. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more carbon-to-carbon triple bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 38/00, C08F 138/00 and C08F 238/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01P.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

References relevant to classification in this main group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions classified in C08K according to note 3 of C08K, e.g. composition of polyacetylene and carbon black
C08K, e.g. (C08K 3/04, C08L49/00K)
Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers
Copolymers of acetylene derivatives
Homopolymers of acetylene derivatives
Applications or uses of single polymers,e.g. a film of polyacetylene

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Coating compositions
Adhesives

Places in relation to which this main group is residual:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products
Post-polymerisation treatments
Special rules of classification within this main group

Majority rule:

For compositions

Since C08L 49/00 relates to compositions, two or more polymers are always present. Classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L class (see above), and the minor components are characterised by C-Sets and Indexing Codes. In the case that several polymers can be in majority, several C08L classes for the polymers which are possibly in majority and the Indexing Codes for all polymers in minority and additives are given.

For Copolymers

Copolymers get the class of the major component, except if there is a lower class which specifies the comonomer in minority (see also last place rule), i.e. ethylene copolymers (ethylene comonomer in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0807, and not in C08L 49/00, but ethylene acetylene (acetylene in majority) would be classifed in C08L 49/00, not in C08L 23/08.

Use of C-Sets:

To indicate the nature of the second component in a system, C-Sets are added.

Remark: Note 2 is not relevant for C08L 49/00. All documents from before 2003 are reclassified.

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts poly-acetylene (C08L 49/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 49/00, C08L 77/00).

b. A blend of 50 parts poly acetylene (C08L 49/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 49/00, C08L 49/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 49/00).

c. A composition based on polyacetylene and containing CaCO3 is classified according to [N: Note 4 of C08K, i.e. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 49/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 49/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

d. A composition based on a first polyacetylene (C08L 49/00) and containing a second polyacetylene, a phenol and silica is classified in (C08L 49/00, C08L 49/00, C08K 5/13 , C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/03.

e. A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polyacetylene is classified in (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 49/00) and C08L 2205/03.

f. Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two polyacetylenes, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such a compositions therefore would be (C08L 49/00, C08L 49/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties, e.g. molecular weight or density.

Indexing Codes:

All Indexing Codes of C08L (for secondary or polymers in minority, properties, uses, applications) and C08K (for inorganic or organic non-macromolecular additives) are used.

Last place rule:

If there are several possibilities to classify, the lowest alternative classification (last place) is used.

Classification guidance

Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, i.e. if the examples only describe compositions of polyacetylene, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of polyolefin, the document is classified as composition of polyacetylene (C08L 49/00, C08L--/--).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Aliphatic cyclic olefins
Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond
Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM
Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, i.e. 30-70wt% ethylene and 70-30wt% propene
Ionomer
Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids
Iso-olefin
Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene
Modified by chemical after treatment
Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA (C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00
Saponified vinylacetate
Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate
PVAC
Polyvinyl acetate
ULDPE, VLDPE,
Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content
Compositions of graft polymers in which the grafted component is obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of graft polymers of C08F 251/00 - C08F 292/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Graft copolymers in which the grafted component is obtained by reactions involving C=C per se are classified in C08F 251/00 - C08F 292/00

Coating composition comprising graft polymers are classified in C09D 151/00 - C09D 151/10

Adhesive composition comprising graft polymers are classified in C09J 151/00 - C09J 151/10.

Compositions comprising graft polymers in which the graft polymer is in minority are classified in C08L 51/00 - C08L 51/10.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions comprising ABS polymers
Compositions comprising block or graft copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences, not obtained by reaction of C=C monomer(s) onto polysiloxane
Compositions comprising graft polymers obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers, e.g. graft polymer of C08G 81/00 - C08G 81/028
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cosmetic or toilet preparations comprising graft polymers
Graft polymers in membranes
B01D 71/78
L01D71/78L01D323/38
Compositions comprising ABS polymers
Detergent composition comprising Graft polymers
Developers with toner particles comprising graft polymers
G03G9/13FG03G9/087H1
Graft or comb polymers in mortars, concrete or artificial stone
M04B103/00P20M04B103/00E20C
Special rules of classification within this group

C-Sets and C08L classes are used as specified in the Special rules of classification of class C08L.

For compositions comprising grafted rubbers, several classes are given if the rubber is specific.

Examples:

if the rubber is EPR: C08L 51/04 and C08L 51/06

if the rubber is EPDM, SBR or acrylate rubber: C08L 51/04 and C08L 51/003

Compositions of block copolymers containing at least one sequence of a polymer obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of block polymers of classes C08F 293/00 - C08F 297/08

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Block polymers obtained by reactions only involving C=C per se are classified in C08F 293/00 - C08F 297/08.

Coating compositions comprising block polymers are classified in C09D 153/00 - C09D 153/025.

Adhesive compositions comprising block polymers are classified in

C09J 153/00 - C09J153/002B.

Compositions comprising block polymers in which the block polymer is in minority are classified in

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions comprising block polymers obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers, e.g. block polymer of C08G 81/00 - C08G 81/028
Compositions comprising block or graft copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences, not obtained by reaction of C=C monomer(s) onto polysiloxane
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cosmetic or toilet preparations comprising block polymers
Block polymers in membranes
Developers with toner particles comprising block polymers
G03G9/13FG03G9/087H2
Block polymers in mortars, concrete or artificial stone
Special rules of classification within this group

C-Sets and C08L classes are used as specified in the Special rules of classification of class C08L.

C08L 53/005 and C08L 53/025 cover compositions comprising modified block polymers. In particular, compositions comprising hydrogenated styrene-diene block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/025.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers, obtained by polymerisation reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, not provided for in groups C08L 23/00 to C08L 53/00 
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
ABS polymers per se
Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerising monomers on to polymers modified by introduction of aliphatic unsaturated end or side groups
Polymerisation by the diene synthesis
Corresponding coatings and adhesives
Compositions comprising a minor amount of homopolymers or copolymers, obtained by polymerisation reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, not provided for in groups C08L 23/00 to C08L 53/00
Special rules of classification within this group

C-Sets and C08L classes are used as specified in the Special rules of classification of class C08L.

Compositions of unspecified polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds which are not limited to a particular polymer type as defined in groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 55/00.

Compositions of polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds which are not specific enough as to fit in the preceding groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 55/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The use of C08L 57/00 - C08L 57/12 classes should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable, in the corresponding classes of C08L 7/00 - C08L 55/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

The use of general classes should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable.

containing halogen atoms
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compositions of (co)polymers of unsaturated halogen containing monomers as defined in
containing oxygen atoms
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polysaccharides
Unsaturated alcohols, ethers, ketones, acetals, ketals
Saturated carboxylic acid, carbonic acid or haloformic acid esters of unsaturated alcohols
Unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters
Unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides
Unsaturated aliphatic radicals, terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen
containing nitrogen atoms
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polymers of unsaturated nitriles amides or imides
Unsaturated dicarboxylic amides, imides, nitriles
Unsaturated aliphatic radicals, terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing nitrogen
Compositions of polyacetals ; Compositions of derivatives of polyacetals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Composition of polyacetals, which are addition polymers of aldehydes or cyclic oligomers thereof or of ketones and correspond to groups C08G 2/00 to C08G 16/00 and their subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Polyvinyl acetals
Special rules of classification within this group

Attention is drawn to the rules of C-Sets which are explained after the C08L title.

When a document specifies polyacetal in general, or both homopolyacetals and copolyacetals, then main group C08L 59/00 is used; only when the document specifically mentions homopolyacetals or copolyacetals, then C08L 59/02 and C08L 59/04 respectively are used.

Compositions of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Composition of

Coating compositions based on condensation polymers of

- aldehydes or ketones with polyalcohols which correspond to subgroups C08G 4/00,

- aldehydes or ketones only which correspond to subgroups C08G 6/00 - C08G 6/02,

- aldehydes or ketones with phenols only which correspond to subgroups C08G 8/00 - C08G 8/38,

- aldehydes or ketones with aromatic hydrocarbons or halogenated

aromatic hydrocarbons only which correspond to subgroups C08G 10/00 - C08G 10/06,

- aldehydes or ketones with only compounds containing hydrogen attached to nitrogen which correspond to subgroups C08G 12/00 - C08G 12/46,

----- condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with two or more other monomers covered by at least two of the groups C08G 8/00 corresponding to C08G 12/00, which correspond to subgroups C08G 14/00 - C08G 16/06.,

- condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with monomers not provided for in the groups C08G 4/00 to C08G 14/00, which correspond to subgroups -C08G16/0006.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

These subgroups do not cover:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with polynitriles
Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with polyalcohols
Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with polynitriles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compounding ingredients
Application in or for layered products
Peptides
Special rules of classification within these groups

IPC groups C08L61/08 and C08L61/10 are not used and covered by C08L 61/06.

Attention is drawn to the rules of C-Sets which are explained after the C08L title.

Compositions of epoxy resins; Compositions of derivatives of epoxy resins
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All compositions comprising epoxy resins and optionally other polymeric or non polymeric compounds. The emphasis is on the epoxy resins.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

see Note in C08L .

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Synthesis or modification of epoxy resins
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polycondensates having more than one epoxy group per molecule
Compositions of homo- or copolymers of acrylic/methacrylic esters having pendent glycidyl groups
Special rules of classification within this group

Use of C-Sets:

When two or more polymers are present in a composition, classification is given as follows: the polymer in majority is given a C08L (see above), and the minor components are characterised by Indexing Codes; therefore at least one Indexing Code must always be present when more than one polymer is mentioned (see [N: Notes 2 and 3] after C08L title).

Examples:

a. A blend of 60 parts non-specified epoxy resin (C08L 63/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 63/00, C08L 77/00).

a’: A blend of 50 parts non-specified epoxy resin (C08L 63/00) and 50 parts Novolak epoxy resin (C08L 63/04) is classified in (C08L 63/00, C08L 63/04), (C08L 63/04, C08L 63/00) and C08LC08L 2205/02.

b. A composition based of a polyepoxide and containing CaCO3 is classified

according to note 2 of C08K, i.e. in (C08K 3/26, C08L 63/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 63/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Epoxy resins
All polycondensates having more than one epoxy groups per molecule
Synonyms and Keywords
Bisphenol A
4,4'-(Propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol
Bisphenol F
2-[(2-Hydroxyphenyl)methyl]pheno
Bisphenol S
4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)sulfonylphenol
DGEBA
Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A
Epoxide
Oxirane
Glycidyl-
2,3-Epoxypropyl-
Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-to-carbon link in the main chain (C08L 7/00 to C08L 57/00, C08L 61/00 take precedence); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-carbon bond in the main chain other than polymers obtained by reactions only involving the polyaddition of carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds. Said macromolecules are classified in C08G 61/00 - C08G 61/128. The compositions comprise either other macromolecular compounds and/or other ingredients.

The use of such macromolecular substances as compounding ingredients is included, as well.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Relationship with other subclasses of classes C08 and C09:

Macromolecular compounds per se obtained by polyaddition reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are placed in C08F. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also classified in C08F.

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-carbon bond in the main chain other than polymers obtained by reactions only involving the polyaddition of carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are classified in C08G 61/00. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also placed in C08G 61/00.

Coating compositions and other polymer compositions for similar uses, e.g. paints, inks, woodstains and printing pastes, are classified in C09D.

Adhesives and adhesive processes are classified in C09J.

Relationship with other main groups of the same subclass C08L:

Compositions based on polymers prepared by condensation reactions of aldehydes or ketones with phenols only are classified in groups C08L 61/04 - C08L 61/16, since C08L 61/00 - C08L 61/34 takes preference. For the same reasons, compositions of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones only are put in C08L 61/02. Compositions based on polymers, which may otherwise be formed by carbon-carbon bond formation, but which are prepared by condensation reactions other than those involving the formation of carbon-carbon bonds in the main chain are classified in the appropriate groups, e.g. C08L 79/04 for polypyrroles formed from amines and polyketones. Compositions of polyketones are classified in C08L 73/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

The corresponding subclass C08L and this group does not cover:

Artificial filaments or fibres
Treatment of textiles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Application of macromolecular compositions as pesticides or herbicides
Application of macromolecular compositions as pharmaceutical compositions or cosmetics
Application of macromolecular compositions in medical devices, such as stents
Application of macromolecular compositions as explosive compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in coating compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in adhesive compositions
Application of macromolecular compositions in lubricants
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Catalysts in general
Polyacetylenes prepared by polyaddition reactions
Condensation polymers of aldehydes with aromatic hydrocarbons or halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons only; compositions comprising such polycondensates
Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-to-carbon link in the main chain of the macromolecule
Poly(ether ketones) obtained by reactions forming an ether link in the main chain of the macromolecule or compositions comprising such polycondensates
Polycondensates having nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings in the main chain of the macromolecules obtained by reactions forming a linkage containing nitrogen, including polypyrroles or compositions comprising such polycondensates
Condensation polymers of aldehydes with phenols only; compositions comprising such polycondensates
Preparation of ion-exchange films, membrane or diaphragms
Electrically conductive paint compositions
Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent or chemiluminescent materials containing organic luminescent materials
Conductors characterised by the conductive material: Conductive polymers
Solid state devices using oligomeric or polymeric materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials including organic oligomers or polymers with other materials as the active part
Electrode materials selected from organic compounds
Fuel cells, electrolyte layers, solid electrolyte capacitors, solid polymeric electrolyte materials for accumulators
Complementary aspects concerning C08G 61/00
C08G 2261/00 - M08G261/00F4
Special rules of classification within this group

If two or more components are present in equal weight, then each is classified.

If such a component is a condensation polymer containing two or more different types of linkages, it is classified according to the linkage present in the greatest amount.

If such a component is an addition polymer containing two or more monomers, it is classified according to the monomer present in the greatest amount.

The rules of classification provided at the subclass level apply.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Addition polymers
An addition polymer is a polymer which is formed by an addition reaction, where monomers bond together via rearrangement of bonds without the loss of any atom or molecule. This is in contrast to a condensation polymer which is formed by a condensation reaction where a molecule, such as water, is lost during the formation.
Condensation polymers
Condensation polymers are macromolecules formed my means of reactions in which water or some other simple molecule is eliminated from 2 or more monomer molecules as they combine to form the polymer. This is a polycondensation.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ADMET
Acyclic diene metathesis
ROMP
Ring-opening metathesis polymerisation
Compositions of polyesters obtained by reactions forming a carboxylic ester link in the main chain; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymer compositions wherein the major component is a polymer of C08G 63/00

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions of polyester-amides
Compositions of polyester-imides
Coating compositions of polyesters
Adhesive compositions of polyesters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of medical dental or toilet purposes
Chemical aspects of and materials for bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles
Layered products comprising polyesters
Dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, polyrotaxanes, polycatenanes, supramolecular polymers
Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances and compounding ingredients
Degradable polymer compositions
Coating compositions characterized by their physical nature or their effects produced
Polyester fibers
Binders for toners
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
PBT
Polybutylene terephthalate
PCL
Polycaprolactone
PEA
Polyethylene adipate
PEN
Polyethylene naphthalate
PET
Polyethylene terephthalate
PGA
Polyglycolic acid
PHA
Polyhydroxyalkanoate
PLA
Polylactic acid
PTT
Polytrimethylene terephthalate
Compositions of polycarbonates; Compositions of derivatives of polycarbonates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymer compositions wherein the major component is a polymer of C08G 64/00

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating compositions of polycarbonates
Adhesive compositions of polycarbonates
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products comprising polycarbonates
Dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, polyrotaxanes, polycatenanes, supramolecular polymers
Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances and compounding ingredients
Polycarbonate fibers
Polycarbonate lenses
Polycarbonate binders for toners
Polycarbonate record carriers
G11B7/253B2
Compositions of polyethers obtained by reactions forming an ether link in the main chain (of polyacetals C08L 59/00; of epoxy resins C08L 63/00; of polythioether-ethers C08L 81/02; of polyether-sulfones C08L 81/06); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of:

polyalkylenes oxides,

polyethers derived from hydroxy compounds, e.g. PPO

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions of polyacetals
Compositions of epoxy resins
Compositions of polythioether-ethers
Compositions of polyether-sulfones
Polyalkylene oxides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions containing (-O-R-O-) repeat unit where R is an alkyl group

e.g. polyethylene oxide, polypropylene oxide or polytetrahydrofuran.

Special rules of classification within this group

Polyalkylene oxides can be made by either ring opening reactions as in C08G 65/02 and C08G 65/26 or much more rarely by a condensation reaction as in C08G 65/34. In either case, compositions of such polymers regardless of the method of synthesis should be classified in C08L 71/02.

Special rules of classification within this group

Groups C08L 71/08 and C08L 71/10 are not used.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a linkage containing oxygen or oxygen and carbon in the main chain, not provided for in groups C08L 59/00 to C08L 71/00; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polyketones made by reaction of carbon monoxide with unsaturated aliphatic compound.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Polyaryletherketones
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polyketones from carbon monoxide
Polyanhydrides
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of polyanhydrides
Compositions of polyureas or polyurethanes; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymer compositions wherein the major component is a polymer of C08G 18/00 or C08G 71/00

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating compositions of polyurethanes or polyureas
Adhesive compositions of polyurethanes or polyureas
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparations for medical, dental or toilet purposes
Shaping or joining plastics
Mould release agents
Layered products comprising polyurethanes
Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients
Processes for applying liquid materials to surfaces
Coating compositions characterized by their physical nature or their effects produced
Adhesives processes
Working up of polyurethanes to porous or cellular articles
Materials for sealing
Special rules of classification within this group

The presence and nature of further polymers in the composition is indicated by using C-Sets as indicated in the note of C08L. The polymer components present in minority are indicated using additional Indexing Code C08L for each minority polymer.

Synonyms or keywords
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
CPP
Copolymer polyol
DABCO
1,4-Diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane
DMPA
Dimethylol propionic acid
EDA
Ethylene diamine
EO
Ethylen oxide
HDI
Hexane diisocyanate
H12MDI
Dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate
IEM
Isocyanato ethyl methacrylate
IPDI
Isophorone diisocyanate
Jeffamine
Amine capped polyether
MDI
4,4-Methylenebis(phenyl)isocyanate
PEG
Polyethyleneglycol
PIR
Polyisocyanurate
PMDI
Polymethylene poly(phenylisocyanate)
PO
Propylene oxide
PPG
Polypropylene glycol
PTMO
Polytetramethylene oxide
TDI
Toluene diisocyanate
TMP
Trimethylol propane
TMXDI
Trimethylol propane
TPU
Tetramethylxylylene diisocyanate
XDI
Xylylene diisocyanate
Compositions of polyamides obtained by reactions forming a carboxylic amide link in the main chain; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of polyamides derived from

- omega-amino carboxylic acids or from lactams which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/02, e.g. nylon 6,

- alpha-amino carboxylic which correspond to subgroups C08G 69/10

polyamines and polycarboxylic acids which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/26, e.g. nylon 66,

- aromatically bound amino and carboxyl groups of amino-carboxylic acids or of polyamines and polycarboxylic acids which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/32,

- compositions of polyester-amides which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/44.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions of polyhydrazides
Compositions of polyamideimides or polyamide acids
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow fibres membranes
Layered products
Treatment of rubber
Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon bonds
Processes of polymerisation
Post-polymerisation treatments
Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon to carbon bonds
Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances
Processes of crosslinking
Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances, e.g. films
Coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances
Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular materials
Compounding ingredients
Tubes
Optical articles, optical parts, e.g. contact lenses
Photosensitive films
Printed circuits
Special rules of classification within this group

Attention is drawn to the rules of C-Sets which are explained after the C08L title.

Group C08L 77/10 takes precedence over C08L 77/02, C08L 77/04 and C08L 77/06.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing nitrogen, with or without oxygen, or carbon only, not provided for in groups C08L 61/00 to C08L 77/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of:

  • Polyamines or polyethyleneimines.
  • Polycondensates having nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings in the main chain, for e.g. polyhydrazides, polyhydrazides, polytriazoles, polyamino-triazoles, polybenzimidazoles or polyoxadiazoles.
  • Polyimides, polyester-imides, polyamide-imides, polyamide acids, (unsaturated) polyimide precursors.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow fibres membranes
Layered products
Treatment of rubber
Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon bonds
Processes of polymerisation
Post-polymerisation treatments
Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon to carbon bonds
Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances
Processes of crosslinking
Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances, e.g. films
Coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances
Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular materials
Compounding ingredients
Tubes
Optical articles, optical parts, e.g. contact lenses
Photosensitive films
Printed circuits
Special rules of classification within this group

Attention is drawn to the rules of C-Sets which are explained after the C08L title.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing sulfur with or without nitrogen, oxygen or carbon only; Compositions of polysulfones; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions containing polymers corresponding to group C08G 75/00.

Polythioethers; Polythioether-ethers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of aromatic polythioethers
Polysulphides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions containing polymers containing the (S-S)n repeat unit.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions of polyphenylene sulphides
Polysulphones; Polyethersulphones
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compositions of polyetherketones
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of polysulfones
Synthesis of polyethersulfones
Polysulphonates
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of polysulphonates
Polysulphonamides; Polysulphonimides
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of polysulphonamides
Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing silicon with or without sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen or carbon only; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing silicon with or without sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen or carbon only, e.g.

  • polysilicates (corresponding to group C08G 77/02),
  • polysiloxanes (corresponding to group C08G 77/04),
  • block- or graft-copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences (corresponding to group C08G 77/42) or
  • polymers in which at least two but not all the silicon atoms are connected by linkages other than oxygen atoms (corresponding to group C08G 77/48);

Compositions of derivatives of such polymers .

These polymers are referred to with the MDTQ nomenclature.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The preparation of polymers containing Si in the main chain is classified in C08G 77/00.

Coating of polymers containing Si in the main chain are classified in C09D 183/00 and adhesives of polymers containing Si in the main chain are classified in C09J 183/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Application for medical or pharmaceutical purposes
Application in cosmetics
Application in layered products
Application to construction materials
Preparation of aqueous siloxane emulsions
Manufacturing of foams
Compounding ingredients
Compositions of polymers of other C08L groups
Application of siloxanes as pressure sensitive adhesives, i.e. PSA
Release coating composition on which the PSA is applied
Treating fibres and yarns
Application in optical articles, optical parts, e.g. contact lenses
Application in semiconductors e.g. as dielectric layer or encapsulation
Special rules of classification within this group

In this main group, from 01.09.2010 onwards, new documents are classified according to the following system. The composition is identified with C-Sets e.g. (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/04) (for a composition containing two or more siloxanes), while the information as to which different polymers are present in the composition is identified with additional Indexing Codes taken from the C08G 77/00 classes, e.g. C08G 77/12 and C08G 77/20.

It is obligatory to add the following Indexing Codes if applicable:

- C08G 77/70 for every document which uses the MDTQ nomenclature in the claims or the examples;

- C08G 77/80 for polysiloxanes having aromatic substituents such as phenyl side groups.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
MDTQ nomenclature
The so called MDTQ nomenclature exists to facilitate the description of siloxane molecules.
where R is an organic group O is an oxygen connected to other silicon atomsM (R3SiO1/2 ) stands for monofunctional unit , i.e. monofunctional with respect to the connection to other Si atoms D (R2SiO2/2= R2SiO) is difunctional, T (RSiO3/2) Trifunctional and Q (SiO4/2= SiO2) is tetrafunctional
T-resin
Branched structure which contains only T-units, i.e. is prepared from trialkoxysilanes or trichlorosilanes
MQ-resin
Resin which contains M and Q units, i.e. prepared from tetraalkoxysilanes, e.g. TEOS and monoalkoxysilanes
MDTQ-resin
contain all four elements
Silsesquioxane
Resin which falls under the stochiometric formula RSiO3/2 (silsesqui means one and a half), e.g. a T-resin
Curing systems
The three most important ways to harden or cure siloxanes are hydrosilation-, condensation- or radical cure
Hydrosilation cure
The cure is established via the hydrosilation (or hydrosilylation or addition) reactionSi-CH=CH2 + H-Si → Si-CH2-CH2-Si , e.g. ViMDxMVi + MDH3DxM → elastomeric material (3d x-linked), which is done in most cases with the help of a platinum catalyst, e.g. platinic acid, platinum compounds or karstedt catalyst.
Condensation cure
The cure is established via condensation reactions such as Si-OR + HO-Si → Si-O-Si or Si-OH + HO-Si → Si-O-Si, e.g. HOMDxMOH + (RO)3SiR → elastomer which is performed with the help of a variety of condensation catalysts, e.g. tin compounds, acids or bases.
Radical or peroxide cure
the cure is established via the reaction Si-CH3 + CH3-Si → Si-CH2-CH2-Si which is done in most cases with the help of a peroxide catalyst.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions “platin” or” karstedt” are often used as synonyms when searching for “platinum catalyst”

MDxM
Non functional PDMS, i.e. polydimethylsiloxane
MM
Hexamethyldisiloxane
ViMDxMVi
PDMS having vinyl end groups
MDHxDxM
PDMS having SiH side groups
containing silicon bound to oxygen-containing groups (C08L 83/12 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polysiloxanes containing silicon bound to oxygen-containing groups, e.g. (meth)acrylates, epoxy groups, glycol or polyhydric alcohol substituents or carbinols, i.e. Si-CH2-OH.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Si-OH and Si-OR compounds
Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing atoms other than silicon, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of macromolecular compounds corresponding to groups C08G 79/00, e.g. containing Al or Sn.

containing phosphorous
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of polymers containing phosphorus, e.g. polyphosphates or polyphosphazenes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of phosphorous containing polymers
containing boron
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synthesis of Boron containing polymers
Compositions of unspecific macromolecular compounds, obtained otherwise than by polymerisation reactions only involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of unspecific macromolecular compounds, obtained by step polymerisation reactions and addition polymerization reactions.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Macromolecular compounds obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers
Special rules of classification within this group

After the notation of C08L 87/00, C-Sets notations concerning the other constituents of the composition may be added -see general notation of C08L.

[N: Block or graft polymers not provided for in Groups C08L 81/00 to C08L 85/04]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of block or graft polymers obtained by step polymerisation reactions and addition polymerization reactions.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Macromolecular compounds obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers
Compositions of graft polymers in which the grafted component is obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds
Compositions of block copolymers containing at least one sequence of a polymer obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymer
Special rules of classification within this group

After the notation of C08L 87/00, C-sets notations concerning the other constituents of the composition may be added -see general notation of C08L.

Compositions of proteins; compositions of derivatives thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of proteins or derivatives thereof corresponding to the following groups: C08H 1/00 - C08H 1/06

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08H as they are considered as protein derivatives per se.

Multiple classification

Please refer to the corresponding part in C08H.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Proteins or derivatives thereof per se
Coating composition comprising proteins or protein derivatives
Adhesive composition comprising proteins or protein derivatives
Compositions of proteins or protein derivatives in minority
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composition of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 to C08L 97/00, e.g. flours
Special rules of classification within this group

- Proteins or derivatives thereof in solution, or together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a proteins or derivatives thereof and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but also in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Code(s) in C08K.

Example: Composition consisting of gelatine and glass fibres (filler) - C08L 89/06, C08K 7/14 and (C08K 7/14, C08L 89/06).

- If gels are not crosslinked, then they are classified in the corresponding C08Lx/y groups together with C08J 3/075.

Example: Hydrogel of collagen is classified in C08L 89/06 and C08J 3/075.

- Last place priority rule: Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of oils, fats and waxes; Compositions of derivatives thereof
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

The use of oils, fats and waxes in cosmetics and other toilet preparations is further classified in one of A61Q together with A61K 8/92.

Galenical compositions comprising natural resins are classified in A61K 9/00.

The use of oils, fats and waxes as carriers in medicinal preparations is classified in A61K 47/44.

The use of oils, fats and waxes in lubricants is classified in C10M.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vulcanised oils; e.g. factice
Coating composition comprising oils, fats and waxes
Adhesive composition comprising oils, fats and waxes
Compositions of oils, fats or waxes or derivatives thereof in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Oils, fats and waxes either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing oils, fats and waxes and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but also in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Code(s) in C08K.

Example: A composition consisting of mineral wax and glass fibres (filler) is classified in (C08K 7/14, C08L 91/08), C08L 91/08 and C08K 7/14.

- Last place priority rule: Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Linoxyn
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Linoxyn: an elastic solid formed by oxidation of linseed oil

Compositions of natural resins; compositions of derivatives thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of natural resins, e.g. shellac, rosin and their derivatives corresponding to the following groups: C09F 1/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

Grafted natural resins obtained by reaction of an unsaturated monomer onto a natural resin are classified in C08F 253/00.

Galenical compositions comprising natural resins are classified in A61K 9/00.

Please refer also to the corresponding part in C09F 1/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Composition comprising natural resins
Coating composition comprising natural resins
Purification or chemical modification of natural resins
Adhesive composition comprising natural resins
Compositions of natural resins in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Natural resins either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a natural resin and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but also in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Code(s) in C08K.

Example: A composition consisting of shellac and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 93/02 and C08K 7/14 as well as (C08K 7/14, C08L 93/02).

- Last place priority rule: Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of bituminous materials, e.g. bitumen, asphalt, tar, pitch
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Pure bitumen or asphalt, since there is no corresponding single polymer class.
  • Compositions of bitumen or asphalt irrespective of their intended use as well as mixture design methods
  • Aqueous compositions of bitumen or asphalt, e.g. emulsions, irrespective of their intended use as well as mixture design methods for obtaining said aqueous compositions
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Relationship with other subclasses of class C08 and C09

Attention is drawn to the corresponding paragraph after the C08L title.

The subclasses of class C08K encompass the use of ingredients for bituminous materials.

The subclasses of class B03B, B32B, C04B, C09D, C09J, C09K, D06N, E01C and E04D encompass applications of bituminous compositions.

The subclasses of class C10C and C10G encompass the production or working-up of (pure) bitumen.

The rules of all these classes should be followed for reasons of consistency, nevertheless additional multiple classification might be mandatory.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

General arrangement of separating plant, e.g. flow sheets specially adapted for bitumen or recycling of bitumen or asphalt containing materials
Layered products essentially comprising bituminous or tarry substances
Treatment of fillers specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone by coating or impregnation with bituminous materials
Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing bituminous materials
Use of inorganic or organic non-macromolecular substances as compounding ingredients, e.g. mixtures of bitumen and aggregate or bitumen and sulphur
Printing inks based upon bitumen
Coating compositions based on bituminous materials
Adhesives based on bituminous materials
Working-up pitch, asphalt, bitumen
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials
Roofing felt i.e. fibrous webs coated with bitumen
Details of pavings, methods or materials for repairing pavings
Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving
Coherent pavings made in situ of bituminous binders
Special pavings and pavings for special parts of roads or airfields
Roof covering like build-up roofs, i.e. consisting of two or more layers bonded together in situ, at least one of the layers being of watertight composition
Roof covering by making use of flexible material, e.g. supplied in roll form by making use of compounded or laminated materials, e.g. metal foils or plastic films coated with bitumen
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polymeric products of isocyanates or isothiocyanates characterised by the compounds used containing active hydrogen are bituminous compounds
Sealing materials based upon bituminous compositions
Noise or sound or vibration damping materials based upon bituminous materials
See the appropriate classes
Special rules of classification within this group

Attention is drawn to the rules of C-Sets which are explained after the C08L title.

In addition to said rules, the C08L 95/00 code in combination with the relevant Indexing Code (C08L 2555/00 - C08L 2555/86)C08L 2205/24 - M08L205/80) characterising essential features should also be given.

Bituminous compositions classified in C08K according to note 1 of C08K, should also be classified in C08L 95/00 in combination with the relevant Indexing Code (C08L 2555/00 - C08L 2555/86),

A C08L 95/00 code in combination with the relevant Indexing Codes code(s) (C08L 2555/00 - C08L 2555/86) characterising essential features should also be given irrespective of the claimed subject matter if said subject matter is mainly characterised by the bituminous composition, either by its constituents and/or by its parameters.

Examples

A blend of 80 parts bitumen and 20 parts polyethylene is classified in (C08L 95/00, C08L 23/06) and C08L 2555/86.

A composition of 5 parts bitumen and 95 parts stone aggregate is classified in (C08K 3/36, C08L 95/00), C08L 95/00 and C08L 2555/52. A composition of 4 parts bitumen, 1 part of polyethylene and 95 parts stone aggregate in (C08L 95/00, C08L 23/06, C08K 3/36), C08L 2555/52 and C08L 2555/86.

A roofing felt comprising an undefined bitumen is classified in D06N 5/00. A roofing felt comprising bitumen having a certain needle penetration is classified in D06N 5/00 and C08L 95/00. A roofing felt comprising bitumen and vegetable oil is classified in D06N 5/00, (C08K 5/103, C08L 95/00), C08L 95/00 and C08L 2555/64.

A pavement structure comprising an undefined asphalt (an undefined mixture of bitumen and aggregate) is classified in E01C 7/18. A pavement structure comprising a designed asphalt mixture (a mixture of bitumen and stone aggregate obtained by applying a defined mixture design method) is classified in E01C 7/18, (C08K 3/36, C08L 95/00), C08L 95/00, C08L 2555/10 and C08L 2555/52.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Warning: as a general rule it must be noted that terms are often interchangeable, have overlapping definitions and may have a different meaning in different parts of the world. Extending the definition of any term is generally better than maintaining a narrow definition. Guidance of term definitions can be found in (international) standards, e.g. EN, DIN, ASTM, ISO, GB, JIS or KS.

Aggregate
Granular or particulate, normally mineral, material, including dust, sand, gravel, crushed stone, cement, slag, glass or cullet for use in bituminous mixtures for roads, airfields or other trafficked areas.
Asphalt
Mixture of mineral aggregate and a bituminous binder (EN 12597); alternatively, asphalt is a dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing (ASTM D8-02).
Asphaltum
See Asphalt; old expression therefore.
Bitumen
Virtually involatile, adhesive and water-proofing material derived from crude petroleum, or present in natural asphalt, which is completely or nearly completely soluble in toluene, and very viscous or nearly solid at ambient temperatures (EN 12597); alternatively, bitumen is a class of black or dark-coloured (solid, semi-solid, or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches and asphaltites are typical (ASTM D8-02).
Bitumen emulsion
Emulsion in which the dispersed phase is bitumen and the continuous phase is, unless stated otherwise, assumed to be water or an aqueous solution (EN 12597); alternatively, a suspension of minute globules of bituminous material in water or an aqueous solution, or, a suspension of minute globules of water or of an aqueous solution in a liquid bituminous material (ASTM D8-02)
Bituminous binder
Adhesive material containing any unmodified, modified, oxidised, cut-back, fluxed or emulsified bitumen. Tar and pitch are not included
Cold Mix Asphalt
Asphalt produced between 0°C and 35°C (32F- 86F)
Flux
Fluid added to another to reduce its viscosity (EN 12597); alternatively, a bituminous material, generally liquid, used for softening other bituminous materials (ASTM D8-02).
Half Warm Mix Asphalt
Asphalt which is produced between 65°C and 100°C (149F-212F)
Hot Melt Asphalt
Asphalt which is produced above 140°C (284F)
Low Energy Asphalt
Asphalt produced between 90°C and 105°C (194F-221F), most typically at 95°C (203F)
Low Temperature Asphalt
Asphalt produced at 90°C (194F)
Mixture design method
An iterating sequence of process steps and/or test methods to establish the optimal composition of a bituminous mixture for obtaining one or more preset characteristic(s) or property(-ies) of said bituminous mixture during the envisaged application
Oil
An oil is typically liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. The term oil encompasses vegetable oils, organic oils, mineral oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils or synthetic oils.
Pitch
Petroleum-derived pitch is often called bitumen. Pitch produced from plants is often indicated as resin. It is obtained by dry-distillation. It is chemical distinct from bitumen. Tar and pitch are used interchangeably. Pitch is considered to be more viscous as tar.
Rejuvenating agent
Agent, component or composition which rejuvenates, i.e. alters or improves the properties of recycled or reclaimed asphalt or paving mixtures.
Renewable natural resource
Resources that are replaced by naturally processes and replenished with the passage of time. Said resources are part of our natural environment and form our eco-system. Plant or animal waxes are renewable, petroleum derived waxes are not.
Tar
Tar is produced from wood, roots or other organic origin or from petroleum or coal by destructive distillation under pyrolysis. It is chemical distinct from bitumen. Tar and pitch are used interchangeably, but tar is considered to be more liquid as pitch.
Warm Mix Asphalt
Asphalt produced between 100°C and 140°C (212F-284F)
Wax
Wax refers to a class of chemical compounds that are plastic, i.e. malleable near ambient temperatures. Waxes generally melt above 45°C and give low viscosity liquids. Plant and animal waxes are typically esters of fatty acids and long chain alcohols. Petroleum derived waxes are typically long-chain hydrocarbons lacking functional groups.
Synonyms and Keywords
Bitumen
Asphalt
Bituminous material
Bitumen, asphalt, tar or pitch
CMA
Cold mix asphalt or cold mix
Crumb rubber
Reclaimed or recycled tyre rubber, or other rubber waste or particles are also encompassed.
Cullet
Scraps of broken or waste glass, granular reclaimed or recycled glass
Cut-back bitumen
Cut-back asphalt
Emulsion
Aqueous or non-aqueous emulsion, anionic or cationic emulsion
HMA
Hot melt asphalt
HWMA
Half warm mix asphalt or half warm asphalt
Hydrocarbon binder
Adhesive material containing bitumen, asphalt, tar or pitch, or any combination thereof
LEA
Low energy asphalt, low emission asphalt or LEA-CO
LTA
Low temperature asphalt
Paving bitumen
Asphalt cement
PMA
Polymer modified asphalt or bitumen
RA
Recycling agent or rejuvenating agent
RAP
Reclaimed or recycled asphalt pavement or asphalt paving mixture
WMA
Warm mix asphalt
Compositions of lignin-containing materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of lignin-containing materials corresponding to the following groups: C08H 6/00 or C08H 8/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08H as they are considered as lignin derivatives per se.

Multiple classification

Please refer to the corresponding part in C08H.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Macromolecular compounds derived from lignin
Macromolecular compounds derived from lignocellulosic materials
Composition of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 to C08L 97/00, e.g. flours
Coating composition comprising lignin-containing materials
Adhesive composition comprising lignin-containing materials
Compositions of lignin-containing materials in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Lignin-containing materials either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a lignin-containing material and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are not classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Code(s) in C08K.

Example: A composition consisting of lignocellulose and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 97/02 and C08K 7/14, as well as (C08K 7/14, C08L 97/02).

- If gels are not crosslinked, then they are classified in the corresponding C08Lx/y groups together with (C08J 3/075, C08Lx/y).

Example: Hydrogel of lignocellulose is classified in C08L 97/02 and (C08J 3/075, C08L 97/02).

- Last place priority rule: Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 to C08L 97/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or derivatives thereof corresponding to the following group: C08H 99/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08H as they are considered as protein derivatives per se.

Multiple classification

Please refer to the corresponding part in C08H.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Natural macromolecular compounds or derivatives thereof
Compositions based on starch or derivatives thereof
Composition based on lignin-containing materials, e.g. lignin, cork, lignocellulose or wood
Coating composition comprising natural macromolecular compounds
Adhesive composition comprising natural macromolecular compounds
Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds in minority
Special rules of classification within this group

- Natural macromolecular materials either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L. They are classified according to the mutual proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents, in particular according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion. If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.

- Compositions containing a natural macromolecular material and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are not classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L, but in the corresponding C08L subclass together with the corresponding Indexing Code(s) in C08K.

Ex.: A composition consisting of flour and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 99/00 and C08K 7/14, as well as (C08K 7/14, C08L 99/00).

- If gels are not crosslinked, then they are classified in the corresponding C08Lx/y groups together with (C08J 3/075, C08Lx/y).

Ex.: Hydrogel of flour is classified in C08L 99/00 and (C08J 3/075, C08L 99/00).

Last place priority rule: Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

- The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.

Compositions of unspecified macromolecular compounds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the polymer in majority is unspecified.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processes for mixing polymers
Special rules of classification within this group

In group C08L 101/00 C-Sets are used.

The following Indexing Codes can be used: C08L 2205/00 - M08L205/90.

[N: Dendritic macromolecules]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the polymer in majority is unspecified and the polymer in minority is a dendritic polymer.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dendritic polymers
Dendrimers
Hyperbranched polymers
Coating compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/005
Adhesive compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/005
characterised by the presence of specified groups, [N: e.g. terminal or pendant functional groups]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups.

containing nitrogen atoms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups containing nitrogen, e.g. carbamates.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coating compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/025
Adhesive compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/025
containing halogen atoms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of halogen atoms.

containing oxygen atoms [N: (C08L 101/025 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups containing oxygen, e.g. hydroxyl, or carboxyl groups.

Special rules of classification within this group

C08L 101/025 takes precedence over this group.

Carboxyl containing groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of carboxyl groups.

containing hydrolysable silane groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups containing silicone, e.g. silanes or silanol groups.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals and containing silicon
Polysiloxane compositions
Coating compositions of polymers classified in C08L 43/04
Polysiloxane coating compositions
Coating compositions in which the unspecified polymer contains hydrolysable silane groups
Adhesive compositions of polymers classified in C08L 43/04
Polysiloxane adhesive compositions
Adhesive compositions in which the unspecified polymer contains hydrolysable silane groups
characterised by physical features, e.g. anisotropy, viscosity or electrical conductivity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymer compositions characterised not by chemical nature, but by physical features.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Liquid crystal materials or compositions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid crystal materials
Intrinsically conductive polymers
the macromolecular compounds being water soluble or water swellable, e.g. aqueous gels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Super-absorbent polymer compositions.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid-swellable gel-forming materials, e.g. super-absorbents
Processes for making macromolecular gels
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SAP
Super absorbent polymer
SAH
Super-absorbent hydrogel
the macromolecular compounds being biodegradable
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymer compositions where the polymer in majority is biodegradable.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compositions of aliphatic polyesters
Compositions of starch
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013