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GENERAL METHODS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY; APPARATUS THEREFOR (preparation of carboxylic acid esters by telomerisation C07C 67/47; telomerisation C08F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General methods for the preparation of organic compounds which are of general applicability, in which the method itself is of interest rather than the product. Such methods are:

Reduction and oxidation in general;

Reactions with or without formation or introduction of functional groups containing heteroatoms;

Halogenation;

Grignard reactions;

Introduction of protecting groups or activating groups;

Asymmetric syntheses;

Racemisation;

Complete or partial inversion;

Separation of optically-active compounds;

Introduction of isotopes of elements into organic compounds and isotopically labelled compounds per se;

Purification

Separation

Stabilisation

Apparatus suitable for carrying out the general methods for the preparation of organic compounds

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General methods for preparation of organic compounds are organic transformations which can be classified in various other C07 subclasses but because of its general character are also classified in C07B. If for a wider range of compounds, which are to be classified in more C07 subclasses (C07D, C07C etc.), an OH group is introduced as an example, this would have to be classified in C07B 41/02. The formation of the hydroxy group would also have to be classified in the neighbouring fields for the various different subclasses.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Organic reactions which are not of generic character
Other C07 class
Preparation of carboxylic esters by telomerisation
Processes for preparing macromolecular compounds, e.g. telomerisation
Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition or to separate optical isomers from a racemic mixture
Production of organic compounds by electrolysis or electrophoresis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Process classes in other (non-general) C07 subclasses for the individual reactions.
Apparatus
Catalysts
Chromatography
Preparation, separation, purification or stabilisation of hydrocarbons
Preparation, separation, purification or stabilisation of unsubstituted lactams
Process for preparation of steroids, in general
General process for the preparation of peptides
Special rules of classification within this subclass
  • When classifying in this subclass all relevant symbols should be assigned. For example, if a document discloses stereoselective reactions (C07B 53/00) as well as substitution reactions (C07B 37/04), classification in both groups should be attributed.
  • Classified are processes as claimed in the claims when it has been shown in the real examples that the reactions are of generic character, i.e. that they are classified in various other C07 classes.
  • A functional group which is already present in some residue being introduced and is not substantially involved in a chemical reaction, is not considered as the functional group which is formed or introduced as a result of the chemical reaction.
  • If a document concerns reactions in different main groups, classes should be given for all these main groups (e.g. if a document concerns hydrogenation reactions of isotopically labelled benzenes, a C07B 35/02 class and a C07B 59/00 class is given).
  • If the generic reaction involves the use of charge transfer complexes, the M07M1/00 Indexing Code is given
  • If the generic reaction involves free radicals, the M07M3/00 code is given.
  • If the generic reactions involves the use of a solid support, the M07M11/00 Indexing Code is given.
  • When the generic reaction involves fullerenes, the C07C 2104/00 Indexing Code is given.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Asymmetric synthesis
Process that produce optically active compounds from symmetrically constituted molecules by the intermediate use of optically active reagents, but without the use of any of the methods of resolution
Functional group
Group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for certain properties of the molecule and reactions in which it takes part
Grignard reaction
Addition of organomagnesium compounds (Grignard reagents) to carbonyl groups or other unsaturated groups to give alcohols or ketones
Inversion
The spatial rearrangement of atoms or groups of atoms in a disymmetric molecule, giving rise to a product with a molecular configuration that is a mirror image of that of the original molecule
Isotopically labelled compound
Compounds with an unusual isotope in one or more of its elements. By unusual is meant that the isotope does not exist in high amounts naturally
Racemisation
Conversion, by heat or by chemical reaction of an optically active compound into an optically inactive form in which half of the optically active substance becomes its mirror image (enantiomer). This change results in a mixture of equal quantities of dextro- and levorotatory isomers, as result of which the compound does not rotate plane-polarized light to either right or left since the two opposite rotations cancel each other
Separation
Means separation only for the purposes of recovering organic compounds
Reduction in general
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General reduction reactions. Documents are classified in this class when there are more reductions disclosed in different classes. The reductions are applicable to a wide range of reactants.

Reductions are reactions where oxygen is removed and replaced by hydrogen (nitrobenzene to aminobenzene), which is different from hydrogenation reactions where hydrogen is added (conversion alkyne to alkene).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hydrogenations of unsaturated carbon bonds are classified in C07B 35/02 .
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Formation of hydrocarbons by reduction of an oxygen or nitrogen containing compound.
Hydrodeoxygenatione.g. HO-CH2-CH2OH -> CH3-CH2-OH
Synonyms and Keywords

The term hydrogenation is sometimes used for reduction. In principle, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen only, whereas reduction involves addition of hydrogen and simultaneous removal of oxygen.

Oxidation in general
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General oxidation reactions. Documents are classified in this class when there are more oxidations disclosed in different classes. The oxidations are applicable to a wide range of reactants. Oxidation can be seen as creating compounds by losing electrons (or the increase in oxidation state). An example of such a generic oxidation are oxidation of tetralin to tetralone as well as formation of epoxides from alkenes as well as formation of alcohols from cycloalkanes in the same document.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Formation of alcohols only
Formation of carbonyl groups only
Formation of carboxylic groups or salts, halides or anhydrides thereof only
Formation of carboxylic acid ester groups only
Formation of amide groups only
Formation of cyano groups only
Dehydrogenation reactions without formation or introduction of functional groups containing heteroatoms involving a change in the type of bonding between two carbon atoms already directly linked only
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Formation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides thereof
Reactions without formation or introduction of functional groups containing hetero atoms, involving a change in the type of bonding between two carbon atoms already directly linked
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions whereby no functional groups are formed. Classified are general organic reactions wherein only the type of bonding of a C-C bond is changed, like:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Reductions whereby oxygen is removed and replaced by hydrogen (e.g nitrobenzene to aminobenzene)
Isomerization reactions leading to the formation or disconnection of a C-C bond (olefin methathesis)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reactions without formation or introduction of functional groups containing hetero atoms, involving either the formation of a carbon-to-carbon bond between two carbon atoms not directly linked already or the disconnection of two directly linked carbon atoms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions whereby no functional groups are formed. Classified are general organic reactions wherein a C-C bond is either created or broken like:

  • Addition reactions (C07B 37/02)
  • Substitution reactions, e.g. transition metal catalyzed C-C couplings (C07B 37/04)
  • Decomposition reactions, e.g. elimination of carbon dioxide (C07B 37/06)
  • Isomerization reactions, olefin methathesis (C07B 37/08)
  • Cyclization reactions, e.g. Diels Alder and ring closing methathesis (C07B 37/10 and C07B 37/12)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Isomerization reactions wherein only the type of bonding between two carbon atoms have been changed.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Halogenation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions involving the creation of a carbon-halogen bond.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of halogenated hydrocarbons
Formation or introduction of functional groups containing oxygen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions whereby a functional group containing oxygen is introduced. Reactions which are classified are:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Oxidation of hydrocarbons
Preparation of hydroxy compounds by oxidation
Preparation of metal-alcoholates by oxidation of metal-carbon bonds
Preparation of compounds having an hydroxy or O-metal group bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring by oxidation of a C-H group
Preparation of ethers
Preparation of C=O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms
Preparation of quinones by oxidation
Preparation of carboxylic acids / anhydrides by oxidation
Preparation of carboxylic acid esters by oxidation
Preparation of carboxylic esters by introduction of oxygen-containing functional groups
Preparation of carbonic or haloformic acid esters
Preparation of carboxyl groups in compounds containing amino groups
Preparation of nitriles by oxidation
Formation or introduction of functional groups containing nitrogen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions whereby a functional group containing nitrogen is introduced. Reactions which are classified are:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of esters of nitric or nitrous acid or of compounds containing nitro or nitroso groups bound to a carbon skeleton
Preparation of optionally substituted amines
Preparation of optionally substituted aminoacids
Preparation of amides
Preparation of hydrazines/hydrazides
Preparation of imines, oximes and hydrazones
Preparation of nitriles
Preparation of derivatives of isocyanic acid
Formation or introduction of functional groups containing sulfur
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions whereby a functional group containing sulfur is introduced. Reactions which are classified are:

  • formation of sulfo (-S(O)3H) or sulfonyldioxy groups (-OS(O)2-O-) (C07B 45/02)
  • formation of sulfonyl (-S(O)2-) or sulfinyl (-SO) groups (C07B 45/04)
  • formation of mercapto (-SH) or sulfide (-S-) groups (C07B 45/06)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of sulfonic acids
Preparation of esters of sulfuric acids
Preparation of esters of sulfonic acids
Preparation of salts of sulfonic acids
Preparation of amides of sulfuric acids
Preparation of amides of sulfonic acids
Preparation of sulfones and sulfoxides by oxidation of sulfoxides and sulfides
Preparation of thiols
Preparation of sulfides
Formation or introduction of functional groups not provided for in groups C07B 39/00 to C07B 45/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions whereby a functional group other than oxygen nitrogen or sulfur is introduced.

An example would be trifluoromethylation of organic compounds.

Grignard reactions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions involving Grignard reactions. An example would be the conversion of various ketones to substituted alcohols, wherein the products are heterocyclic group containing alcohols, aliphatic alcohols and alcohols contianing other functional groups like thio groups; the substrates containing these various other groups already.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The Grignard complexes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnesium compounds
Substitution reactions, e.g. transition metal catalyzed C-C couplings
Introduction of protecting groups or activating groups, not provided for in the preceding groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions wherein a protecting or activating group is introduced which does not belong to oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur functional groups. An example would be the protection of alocohols and/or diols with various 2-norbornylsilyl groups, wherein the alcohols are classified over various C07 groups, like acyclic alcohols, heterocyclic group containing alcohols etc.

Asymmetric syntheses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Organic reactions wherein an asymmetric center is created.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Kinetic resolution / separation of optically-active compounds
Complete or partial inversion
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical isomers
M07M7/00
Synonyms and Keywords
Asymmetric synthesis
enantioselective synthesis
Racemisation; Complete or partial inversion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Organic reactions wherein an asymmetric carbon atom with enantiomeric excess is racemised or wherein complete or partial inversion occurs at such a carbon atom. An example would be the asymmetric hydrogenation of acetophenone leading to (R)-1-phenethylalcohol.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
See groups in Isomerization
C07B 35/08 and other C07C classes mentioned in C07B 35/08
Separation of optically-active compounds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In this main group processes involving separation of optically active compounds (enantiomers, diastereomers) are classified. Kinetic resolution is also classified here.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
See separation classes mentioned in informative references in:
Introduction of isotopes of elements into organic compounds; {Labelled organic compounds per se}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Introduction of non-natural istopes of elements into organic compounds and the labelled compounds per se. Distinction is made between the various compounds:

  • acyclic or carbocyclic compounds : C07B 59/001
  • heterocyclic compounds : C07B 59/002
  • acyclic, carbocyclic or heterocyclic compounds containing elements other than carbon, hydrogen, halogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium: C07B 59/004
  • sugars; derivatives thereof; nucleosides; nucleotides; nucleic acids: C07B 59/005
  • steroids: C07B 59/007
  • peptides: C07B 59/008
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Isotopically modified compounds
M07M5/00
Other general methods
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General organic reactions which do not fit anywhere else. Generation of free radicals and organic free radicals per se. (C07B 61/02).

An example would be the formation of free radicals of various compounds classified over the whole range of C07, like heterocyclic compounds, acyclic compounds like ketones, esters and amines etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Simultaneous synthesis of five or more different compounds (libraries)
Purification; Separation (separation of optically-active compounds C07B 57/00) ; Stabilisation; Use of additives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Purification of organic compounds in general, separation of organic compounds in general. Also classified are stabilization of organic compounds or mixtures as well as the use of additives for stabilizing compounds (e.g. piperidine-N-oxides for stabilizing monomers).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Separation of optically active compounds
Anti-oxidant compositions or compositions inhibiting chemical change in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013