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CARD, BOARD, OR ROULETTE GAMES; INDOOR GAMES USING SMALL MOVING PLAYING BODIES; VIDEO GAMES; GAMES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Games including card games, board games, roulette games, indoor games using small moving playing bodies, e.g. pinball games, miscellaneous games, e.g. puzzle games.
  • Video games, i.e. games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions, e.g. on a television screen, showing representations related to the game.
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Casino chips

Sport games

Bowling games, games of pins, billiards

Video games, online or networked video games

Guns (laser guns, water guns, etc.), targets, darts

Vending machines

Data-processing equipment characterised by a specific application for game playing

Casino gaming machines, slot machines, medal game machines, coin pushers, online or networked gaming systems

Educational games, i.e. games having educative or pedagogical purpose

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Animal toys

Nursery furniture

Household or table equipment

Toys

Robots

Cards in general (trading cards, postcards, etc.)

Ornamental bodies

Children's cycles

Packages

Digital computing in general

Data-processing equipment characterised by a specific application for game playing

Generating random numbers; lottery apparatus

Advertising or display means

Music devices

Card games (aspects of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions showing representations related to the game A63F 13/00; card games played on a gaming machine G07F 17/32)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Aspects of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions showing representations related to the game

Online card games

Computer-implemented, simulated card games, e.g. video poker

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Educational card game (ex.: US7029281)

Cards; Special shapes of cards (card-printing methods B41K, B41M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Playing cards used with card games; special shapes of playing cards used with card games or other games.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Card-printing methods

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cards in general (trading cards, business cards, postcards, greeting cards, etc.)

Overlapping transparent elements with an opaque part

Card games combined with other games
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Card games combined with other games;
  • Cards played in a game which is not a card game as such, i.e. in a game involving other primary playing supports than sole cards.
Card games appurtenances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Card games appurtenances and accessories for card games.

Board games; Raffle games (racing games, traffic games, or obstacle games characterised by figures moved by action of the players A63F 9/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Board games, i.e. any game in which counters or "playing pieces" are placed, removed, or moved on a generally premarked surface or "game board" according to a set of rules. Examples of board games: game of goose, chess, scrabble(R).
  • Raffle games, i.e. any game in which people obtain tickets, each ticket having the chance of winning a prize, e.g. lottery games. Examples of raffle games: lottery, lotto, bingo.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

In a board game (A63F 3/00) the playing piece or counter is moved according to a set of rules (e.g. according to the face value of a dice), usually directly by the playing touching or handling the playing piece with the relevance put on the strategy, whereas in a game classified in A63F 7/00, the "moving playing body" is moving by itself, or moved by action of a physical force (gravity, projecting device, etc.), with the relevance put on the movement itself. Generally, when playing pieces are rolling on a board, the right group is A63F 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Roulette games

Indoor games using small moving playing bodies

Racing games, or obstacle games characterized by figures moved by action of the players

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Miscellaneous games not otherwise provided for

Special rules of classification within this group

Generally, multiple classification is necessary: according to the type of game and according to the relevant technical characteristics. For example, a backgammon with illumination (DE202010009233U) is classified in both A63F 3/00151 and A63F 2003/00646.

For trivia board games (aspects of a question-and-answer game), add the Indexing Code A63F 9/18.

The board games are classified under A63F 3/00-A63F 3/04. The raffle games are classified under A63F 3/06-A63F 3/08.

The type of board game is classified under A63F 3/00003, or in A63F 3/02 (chess-like board games) or A63F 3/04 (educational board games).

The mechanical characteristics of the game board of any game type are classified under A63F 3/00173. The playing pieces of any game type are classified under A63F 3/00697. The electrical features of any game type are classified under A63F 3/00643.

The magnetic game boards of any type are classified in A63F 3/00694.

The accessories for game boards are classified under A63F 3/00895.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "board game", "parlor game" (EN)," Brettspiel", "Gesellschaftsspiel" (DE) and " jeu de société", "jeu de plateau" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{ Casino or betting games (horse races A63F 3/00082) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casino or betting board games and board games involving betting.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lottery games, raffle games

Roulette games

Computarized casino or wagering games and systems

{Casino tables }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tables for casino games.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Chip identification on gaming table

Gaming table as piece of furniture

Gaming table having an inductive interface

Table game control system

Gambling table monitoring system

Bet tracking system for gaming tables

{with five play locations and optionally a sixth in the middle }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Games for several participants, with game pieces and a throw able unit with plane faces carrying different symbols (dice), comprises a hollow component with a through hole and several blind holes.

E.g. Game comprising a rectangular or cylindrical wooden box with a lid having five holes and one through hole.

Popular in Germany, therefore principally from German patents.

{rollable, flexible or deformable board (shaped as an endless belt A63F 2003/00321; flexible rim A63F 2003/00504) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Game boards shaped as an endless belt

Flexible rims

Special rules of classification within this group

Possibly add Indexing Code A63F 2250/18 (Use of resilient or deformable elements) or A63F 2250/183 (Foam).

{with or designed as a turntable, lazy Susan }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " turntable", "lazy Susan" (EN),"Drehteller", "Drehplatte" (DE) and "plateau tournant" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{with playing pieces visible from both sides }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example the game "connect four".

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " connect four", "connect 4" (EN),"vier gewinnt", "4 gewinnt" (DE) and " puissance 4" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{ Electric board games;Electric features of board games (electric word or number games A63F 3/0421; computer chess G06F; electric raffle games A63F 3/081) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric features of any board game.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electric word or number board games

Electric lottery games and tickets

Electric raffle games

Computer chess

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric games not otherwise provided for

Special rules of classification within this group

Electric or electronic details not to be found under A63F 3/00643 can be classified under the Indexing Codes A63F 9/24. For example, aspects of radiofrequency identification (RFID) in board games are given the Indexing Code A63F 2009/2489.

{using inductance }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: inductive coils in the board, magnets in the playing pieces inducing signals in the coils.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " inductance coil", "inductor coil", "coil", "solenoid", "inductor" (EN), "Spule", "Induktor" (D) and "bobine d'induction" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{using hall effect }
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Hall effect

Non-uniformity of the electric conduction in a conductor caused by magnetisation normal to the current density vector. The latter, instead of being parallel to the electric field, forms an angle with it

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Hall effect (EN)", "Halleffekt", "Hall-Effekt", "Hallscher Effekt", "Hal'scher Effekt (D " and "effet Hall (FR " are often used as synonyms.

{Reed relay }
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Reed relay

type of relay that uses an electromagnet to control one or more reed switches

Reed switch

electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. It consists of a pair of contacts on ferrous metal reeds in a hermetically sealed glass envelope. The contacts may be normally open, closing when a magnetic field is present, or normally closed and opening when a magnetic field is applied. The switch may be actuated by a coil, making a reed relay - or by bringing a magnet near to the switch. Once the magnet is pulled away from the switch, the reed switch will go back to its original position.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "reed relay" (EN),"Reedkontakt", "Herkonkontakt", "Zungenrelais" (D) and "relai mouillé à anche", "relai à lame(s) vibrante(s)" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{ Magnetic board games (other games using magnetically moved or magnetically held pieces A63F 9/34) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Board games having magnetic components.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Other games using magnetically moved or magnetically held pieces

Special rules of classification within this group

The board games having magnetic characteristics are not necessary all classified in A63F 3/00694. Only when the magnetic aspect is essential are these classifications given.

The magnetic aspects of board games are detailed in the following Indexing Codes, depending more precisely on the parts (parts of the board , supporting structure, playing pieces, accessories) between which a magnetic force is involved:

  • A63F 2003/00391 magnetic connection between modules constituting the game board;
  • A63F 2003/00927 magnetic instrument for handling a play piece (e.g. a wand for moving on or taking out a playing piece from the playing surface);
  • A63F 2003/0093 magnetic instrument for handling a play piece, acting through a cover;
  • A63F 2003/00545 magnetic connection between game board and supporting structure;
  • A63F 2003/0063 magnetic connection between game board and playing pieces;
  • A63F 2003/00738 magnetic connection amongst playing pieces (e.g. magnetically stackable playing pieces)
  • A63F 2003/00662 and under for magnetic field sensors (with sub codes for "using inductance", "using hall effect" and "reed relay").
  • possibly (but more rarely) Indexing Code A63F 3/00694 when the magnetic aspect is not essential and does not concern any connection where another code is already existing.

the " shogun"-type board games*, where the playing pieces comprise a changeable display by means of a (rotatable) magnet, are classified in the following group and Indexing Code in combination: A63F 2003/00826 and A63F 3/00694.

(*The "shogun" game comprises particular playing pieces which could change the value marked thereon depending on the field where they were landing on. The mechanism was a rotating magnet in the playing piece and hidden magnets in the board. Examples: DE2718756, EP1813323, US3406974, DE202006017774U).

{ Playing pieces}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Playing pieces for board games.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Casino chips

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tiles for tessellation games, e.g. mosaic games, possibly using a particular shape of tile

{ Accessories for board games (A63F 3/00697 takes precedence; game accessories of general use A63F 11/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any accessory used in combination with a board game.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Cards

Dispensing or collecting devices for token or chips

Chance selectors, e.g. spinners

Tools, e.g. hammers

Indicators of values, e.g. score counters

Playing pieces for board games

Dice

Marker or means for drawing, e.g. pen, pencil, chalk

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Game accessories of general use

Special rules of classification within this group

Accessories specially adapted for board games for which a group exists in another place of the scheme (e.g. spinners, cf. limiting references) are given both the group A63F 3/00895 and the group of this other place.

{with a table-flap }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "table-flap" (EN), "Klappdeckel" (D) and "abattant" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{with a grid, e.g. 'Sudoku'-type games }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any number board game comprising a grid of numbers, e.g. for playing 'Sudoku'-type games. Also: any logical board game equivalent to Sudoku, in which the numbers are replaced with other symbols, e.g. different colors.

For example DE202006012844U.

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Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Grid

a figure composed of uniformly spaced horizontal and perpendicular lines.

Sudoku

a puzzle in which several numbers are to be filled into a 9x9 grid of squares so that every row, every column, and every 3x3 box contains the numbers 1 through 9.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "grid" (EN),"Kästchen" (D), "grille" (FR), "quadrillage" (FR) and "cases" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{Word games, e.g. scrabble (electric A63F 3/0421; two-dimensional puzzles with rotating rings or discs A63F 9/0811, A63F 9/0819) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electric word games

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Word or number games

Two-dimensional puzzles with rotating rings or discs

{Crosswords }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "crosswords", "word-search puzzles", "hidden words" (EN),"Kreuzworträtsel" (D), "mots croisés" (FR) and "mots cachés" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

Lottos or bingo games; Systems, apparatus or devices for checking such games { (small boxes with balls used for generating random numbers A63F 7/048; lottery apparatus G07C 15/00; lottery gaming stations, online lottery or bingo G07F 17/329; printing processes for lottery tickets B41M 3/005) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lottery games, bingo games, football pools and the like; Associated devices and accessories for playing or checking such games.

Further details of subgroups

A63F 3/0605-A63F 3/062 cover the type of game: Lottery games (A63F 3/0605), lottos (A63F 3/061), football pools (A63F 3/0615), bingo games (A63F 3/062). A63F 3/0625 and A63F 3/065 cover more precisely the devices for filling-in, checking, the tickets and accessories therefor.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lottery-type interactive games of chance

Lottery apparatus, i.e. apparatus for drawing the balls in a lottery game

Lottery games played on a gaming machine, gaming computer or terminal

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

Printing of lottery tickets

Special rules of classification within this group

Balls for lottery apparatus: classified in A63F 9/0415 and Indexing Codes A63F 2009/0466 and K63F3/06L2.

"Instant" lottery games, in which the ticket has a message becoming legible after an action of the player (e.g. scratch-off lottery games), are usually classified only in A63F 3/0665 to A63F 3/069 (with the ticket).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Lottery apparatus

apparatus for drawing the balls in a lottery game

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Lottery apparatus " (EN),"Lotto-Toto-Glückmaschine" (G07C 15/001) (D)" and "machine de tirage des boules du loto" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{ Lottery games}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A form of gambling games in which many people purchase chances, called lottery tickets. Generally the winning tickets are drawn from a pool composed of all tickets sold (sweepstakes) or offered for sale, or consisting of all of or most of the possible permutations of the numbers or symbols used on the tickets.

The classic lotteries are with pre-printed numbers or symbols on the tickets.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for generating the winning numbers of a lottery game

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " playslip", "grid" (EN) and " grille de loto" (FR) " are often used as synonyms.

{ in which the players select their own numbers, e.g. Lotto}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lottery games in which the bettors can choose their own numbers (from an acceptable pool).

In most lottos, the player fills out a playslip with his/her selected numbers. The playslip is then read on a terminal which records the selected numbers and generates a ticket.

{ based on sporting events, e.g. football pools}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lottery games based on outcome of a sporting event.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Methods and systems for presenting pari-mutuel (PMU) betting options and construction wagers

Special rules of classification within this group

Add Indexing Code A63F 2011/0097 if watching television is part of the game.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation are often used:

PMU

pari mutuel urbain

In patent documents the following expressions/words " football pool", "Pools", "forecasting/guessing results in competitions/sporting events/matches" (EN),"Toto, Sport Toto (D)" and "loto sportif, jeu de pronostics sportifs (FR)" are often used as synonyms.

{ Bingo games, e.g. Bingo card games}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Games of chance in which each player has one or more cards (bingo cards or bingo game boards) printed with differently numbered squares on which to place markers when the respective numbers are drawn and announced by a caller. The first player to mark a complete row of numbers (or other winning pattern) is the winner. Examples of design of a bingo card:

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Bingo cards optionally include a free indicia that is considered a match in any pattern including said free indicia.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Online bingo games

Bingo-like slot machines

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " bingo card game, Bingo, also sometimes called lotto (EN)" and " jeu de loto [le classique "loto des pompiers" avec quines et cartons pleins (FR) " are often used as synonyms.

{ Tickets or accessories for use therewith (A63F 3/0625 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for filling-in or checking

Printing of lottery tickets

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking means, e.g. pencils

Postcards, freeting. menu. business or like cards; letter cards or letter-sheets with peel-away layer hiding information

Special rules of classification within this group

Tickets for lotto or bingo games referring to security aspects are allocated also the Indexing Code A63F 2250/58 "antifraud or preventing misuse".

Holograms in lottery tickets: add Indexing Code A63F 2250/302.

{having a message becoming legible after rubbing-off a coating or removing an adhesive layer (for educational purposes G09B) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Educational games having a message becoming legible after rubbing-off a coating or removing an adhesive layer, for educational purposes

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "lottery scratch tickets",

"scratch-off tickets/layers ","removable layer" and "instance lottery games" are often used as synonyms.

{having a message becoming legible after a chemical reaction or physical action has taken place, e.g. applying pressure, heat treatment, spraying with a substance, breaking microcapsules (use of microcapsules for duplicating paper B41M 5/165) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of microcapsules for duplicating paper

Special rules of classification within this group

Fluorescence signature in lottery ticket: group A63F 3/0685 and Indexing Code A63F 2250/423.

Raffle games that can be played by a fairly large number of people { (A63F 3/0625, A63F 3/065 take precedence; lottery apparatus G07C 15/00; lottery gaming stations, online lottery or bingo G07F 17/329) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A form of gambling competition playable simultaneously by a large number of people, e.g. remotely playable via radio or Internet, in which people obtain numbered tickets, each ticket having the chance of winning a prize.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for filling-in or checking such games

Tickets or accessories for use with such games

Lottery apparatus

Computer programs and networked systems for playing a raffle game

Roulette games (aspects of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions showing representations related to the game A63F 13/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Roulette games, that is any game of chance in which a rotating wheel or disc, the roulette wheel, determines the criteria for winning the game.
  • Classical roulette games, that is games of chance where the landing position of a ball in pockets distributed around a rotating wheel determines the criteria for winning the game, are classified in A63F 5/00.
  • Other roulette-like ball games, e.g. with holes distributed over the entire surface of the roulette wheel, are for A63F 5/02.
  • Roulette games without ball are for A63F 5/04.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Aspects of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions showing representations related to the game

Gaming systems with roulette anddata processing, networked roulette gaming devices

Coin-operated roulette games

Mechanical (and computerized) reel-type gaming machine,Rotating disks slot machine

G07F17/34F

Special rules of classification within this group

Relevant details about the playing surface, the ball launcher, the ball itself, etc., not present in the classification scheme A63F 5/00 have to be classified in the scheme A63F 7/00.

Relevant details about sensors, electronic displays, etc. have to be classified under Indexing Codes A63F 9/24.

The groups A63F 5/0011 to A63F 5/0094 can be used in combination with any type of roulette games, that is also in combination with A63F 5/02 and A63F 5/04.

The devices for launching the ball of a roulette game are classified both under A63F 7/24 and in A63F 5/00.

The ball return mechanisms for roulette game are classified both in group A63F 5/00 and Indexing Code A63F 2007/345.

The devices using air jets for propelling the ball are classified both in A63F 2009/0087 and A63F 5/00.

{ Automatic roulette}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Roulette wheels in which the ball is automatically put in play.

Example of automatic roulette wheel:

An automatic roulette wheel in which at the end of a turn the wheel is accelerated and the ball is ejected from the pocket under centrifugal force and moves to the top of the ball track.

{ Details about the compartments or sectors, e.g. sectors having different sizes}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Compartment", "(landing) sector", "pocket "and "canoe" are often used as synonyms.

{ with a plurality of balls used during one game}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Lottery apparatus with balls

Disc roulettes; Dial roulettes; Teetotums; Dice-tops
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Roulette games without ball.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dices

Spinning top games used as random generator

Tops

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "carousel wheel", "spinning wheel", "dial (EN)" and "Wählscheibe (D)" are often used as synonyms.

{ Teetotums; Dice-tops}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Any spinning top used as a die.
  • A dice-top or teetotum has generally a polygonal body marked with letters or numbers, which indicate the result of each spin.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dice

Tops involved in a game, usually combined with a rolling board or involving a plurality of tops (spinning-top games)

Tops as such

Special rules of classification within this group

The number of faces of the dice-top, when relevant, should be classified under Indexing Codes A63F 9/0415.

{ using a rotating wheel and a fixed indicator, e.g. fortune wheels}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fortune wheel, to be understood as using a rotating wheel with a fixed indicator (with optionally a friction stop).

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In a spinner (A63F 11/0011, Indexing Code A63F 2011/0016) a pointer rotates, possibly relatively to a fixed disc, whereas in a fortune wheel (A63F 5/045) a disc rotates relatively to a fixed pointer.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Fortune wheel", "wheel of chance", "wheel of Fortune (EN)"," roue de la fortune(FR)" and " Glücksrad (DE)" are often used as synonyms.

Indoor games using small moving playing bodies, e.g. balls, discs or blocks (board games, raffle games A63F 3/00; roulette games A63F 5/00; miniature bowling games A63D 3/00; bagatelle or similar games A63D 13/00; billiards, pocket billiards A63D 15/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any game in which the main purpose is to roll or move small playing bodies, e.g. balls, marbles, discs or blocks, with some skill on a playing surface or rolling board.

Examples: Pinball games, marble games, tabletop football, rolling board games (ex.: US2009084863).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In some cases the borderline between these games (A63F 7/00) and some sport games (A63B) with balls is blurred. The games of this group do not aim, contrary to the sport games, to do physical activity.

Ball games in which players use a racket or wherein the ball bounces (like in table tennis games) are usually classified with the sport games (A63B).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Sport games, e.g. table tennis

Miniature bowling games

Bagatelle or similar games

Billiards, pocket billiards

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Board games, raffle games

Roulette games

Dice games

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Bagatelle

a modification of billiards played from one side in which the players' object is to strike the balls so that they, and perhaps other balls, shall fall into numbered holes or pockets that determine the score. Usually the bagatelle table has a rounded far end and a channel (essential) on the right hand side along which the balls are propelled and directed toward the pockets. The bagatelle requires the players standing at the square end of the table hitting the balls with a cue towards the holes at the other end.

Children's bagatelle

consist of marbles or balls that are shot onto a board which features areas fenced in by nails hammered into its surface. Each container scores different points depending upon the likelihood of a ball finishing in it (it is normally smaller than a bagatelle, table size).

{ played on a table, the ball or other playing body being rolled or slid from one side of the table in more than one direction or having more than one entering position on this same side, e.g. shuffle boards (miniature bowling-alleys A63D 3/00; goalposts per se A63F 7/305) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Miniature bowling-alleys

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Goalposts per se

{Target bowling or skee ball }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

media24.jpg

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " ramp" (EN),"tremplin" (FR) and "Schanze" (DE) are often used as synonyms.

using falling playing bodies or playing bodies running on an inclined surface, e.g. pinball games { (bagatelle or similar games A63D 13/00) }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Distinguish between:

  • pinball games (A63F 7/025), where a ball usually propelled by flippers, travels on an inclined board;
  • pachinko games (A63F 7/022), with a vertical board; and
  • bagatelle (A63D 13/00), which is a modification of billiards played from one side in which the players' object is to strike the balls so that they, and perhaps other balls, shall fall into numbered holes or pockets that determine the score. Usually the bagatelle table has a rounded far end and a channel (essential) on the right hand side along which the balls are propelled and directed toward the pockets. The bagatelle requires the players standing at the square end of the table hitting the balls with a cue towards the holes at the other end.

Children's bagatelle (also included in A63D 13/00) consist of marbles or balls that are shot onto a board which features areas fenced in by nails hammered into its surface. Each container scores different points depending upon the likelihood of a ball finishing in it (it is normally smaller than a bagatelle, table size).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Bagatelle or similar games

{ Pachinko }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pachinko or vertical pinball games.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Standard pachinko games (i.e. vertical pinball machines) (FTerm)

2C088/AA01

Playing surfaces movable during play {, i.e. games played on a non-stationary surface, e.g. the ball intended to be in permanent motion (balls to be shaken or rolled in small boxes A63F 7/04; eccentric weights put into orbital motion by nutating movement of the user A63B 21/0608) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Games played on a non-stationary surface, e.g. the ball intended to be in permanent motion, playing surfaces held by the user, mechanisms for rocking rolling boards during play.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Eccentric weights put into orbital motion by nutating movement of the user

Balls to be shaken or rolled in small boxes

Hand-held boxes with balls rolled, e.g. towards holes, by tilting the box

Balls or other moving playing bodies, e.g. pinballs or discs { used instead of balls}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Balls or other moving playing bodies, e.g. pinballs, sliding discs, for use therefor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Balls for sport games

Balls for lottery apparatus

Spherical dices

Games not otherwise provided for (aspects of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions showing representations related to the game A63F 13/00 { ;miscellaneous sporting games A63B 67/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Miscellaneous games not otherwise provided for;
  • Accessories of general use for games covered in this subclass.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Miscellaneous sporting games

Aspects of games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions showing representations related to the game

Casino gaming machines

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Card games

Board games; Raffle games

Roulette games

Indoor games using small moving playing bodies

{Games specially adapted for blind or partially sighted people }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Games relative to the sense of touch

{Games or toys connected to, or combined with, other objects; Objects with a second use as a toy or game}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any game when the inventive idea consists in the combination or use of games or toys with another object which is usually not a game or a toy.

Special rules of classification within this group

The game or toy involved should be also classified in the corresponding group if available.

Examples: a beverage container system for playing a card game (US2003116914) is classified in A63F 9/001, Indexing Code A63F 2009/0012A63F 1/02.

{with provisions for connecting to clothes }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

With provisions for connecting to a part of the body

{Beer mats or coasters; Placemats }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Beer mats as such

{ Labyrinth games (A63F 3/00097, A63F 7/04 take precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Board games with labyrinth(s)

Indoor games using balls to be shaken or rolled in small boxes, e.g. comprising labyrinths

Indoor games using balls to be shaken or rolled in small boxes, comprising 2D-labyrinths

Indoor games using balls to be shaken or rolled in small boxes, comprising 3D-labyrinths

{blown by mouth }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Blowguns

{Punchboards}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Boards or cards with holes containing concealed slips, disks or the like, to be punched out, used in various games: the slips or disks can bear numbers, names, prize designations, or the like.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for checking lottery games with checking-cards with rupturable portions

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hammers

Score counters using pegs insertable into sockets

Pin and socket connection between game board and playing piece

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "cribbage board (EN)" and "planche de cribbage (FR)" are often used as synonyms.

{Reaction time games (testing reaction time A61B 5/162; reaction time training A63B 69/0053; time registering, indicating or recording in connection with sports or games G07C 1/22) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing reaction time

Apparatus generating random stimulus signals for reaction-time training involving a substantial physical effort

Time registering, indicating or recording in connection with sports or games

{Word or number games (A63F 3/0415, A63F 3/0421, A63F 3/0423 take precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Number games as board games

Electric word or number games as board games

Word games as board games, e.g. scrabble(R)

Shooting or hurling games (throwing-implements for sports or recreational use A63B 65/00; throwing or projecting toys per se A63H 33/18; { gun simulators F41A 33/00, e.g. light- or radiation-emitting guns F41A 33/02; practice apparatus for gun-aiming F41G 3/26, e.g. using a light-emitting device F41G 3/2616} ; targets, target ranges, bullet catchers F41J, { photo-electric hit-detector systems F41J 5/02} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any skill game involving propelling or causing to fall a projectile through the air at a target.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In some cases the borderline between these games (A63F 9/02), some sport games (A63B) and some weapon-aiming games (F41) is blurred. The games of this subgroup:

  • do not have the purpose of doing a physical activity, contrary to the sport games;
  • do not have the purpose of training a weapon, like gun-aiming games.
  • In general:
  • Games in which players throw a projectile by means of his hands, feet or a racket, and therefore involving a physical activity are usually classified with the sport games (A63B).
  • Games in which players throw a projectile by means of a gun or other weapon are generally classified under F41.
  • Games with integrated devices, e.g. with a spring -loaded launching device connected to a structure, are generally for A63F 9/02.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Throwing-implements for sports or recreational use

Ring or tossing games, e.g. hooptoss games, aunt sally

Throwing or projecting toys per se

Gun simulators

Light- or radiation-emitting guns

Water pistols

Practice apparatus for gun-aiming

Practice apparatus for gun-aiming using a light-emitting device

Targets, target ranges, bullet catchers

Photo-electric hit-detector systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Amusement arrangements, e.g. shooting stands

Devices allowing competition between several persons, not otherwise provided for

Blowguns

Darts as munitions

Games with water being squirted

{Targets therefor (for ball games A63B 63/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Target for ball games, e.g. pétanque

Targets, target ranges, bullet catchers

{Shooting devices therefor}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Blowguns

Catapults

Dice (dice tops A63F 5/04 { D} ) ; Dice-boxes; Mechanical dice-throwing devices { (casino or betting games played on boards A63F 3/00157) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Dice (singular: dice or die), i.e. any small throwable object with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers or symbols;
  • Dice games, i.e. games that use or incorporate a die as their sole or central component, usually as a random device; and
  • Accessories for use therewith, e.g. dice-boxes; mechanical dice-throwing devices, rolling boards for dice.
  • Dice as such (the object itself) are found in A63F 9/0415 ("Details of dice").
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Casino or betting games played on boards

A63F3/00W

Dice-tops or teetotums

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Games using balls to be shaken or rolled in small boxes, used for generating random numbers

Lottery apparatus

Electronically generating random numbers

Special rules of classification within this group

Craps games, i.e. dice games involving betting, are placed in group A63F 3/00157 and the Indexing Code A63F 9/04.

{ Rolling boards}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rolling boards for rolling dice thereon.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rolling boards for movable playing bodies, e.g. balls

Special rules of classification within this group

Details of rolling boards for dice can be classified under Indexing Codes A63F 7/36-A63F 2007/3666.

{ Electronic dice; electronic dice simulators}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical dice in which the random numbers are electronically generated.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electronic dies

Special rules of classification within this group

Usefull electronic details, e.g. emitters, sensors, classified under the Indexing Codes A63F 9/24.

{provided with instructions for playing dice games }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dice games provided with instructions for playing the dice games, i.e. explaining how to proceed depending on the result of throwing the dice. Can take the shape of a instruction book, instruction card, table, etc.

{Customisable dice, e.g. with interchangeable or replaceable inserts }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "customizable dice" (EN) and "dé personnalisable" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{Sighting device }
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Zieleinrichtung", "Zielgeraet", "Visiereinrichtung" (DE) and "dispositif de visée", "viseur" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{Polaroid filters }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any game using polaroid filters or polarised light.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "polarised light", "polarized light" (EN), "polarisiertes Licht" (DE) and "lumière polarisée" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{ using a marker or means for drawing, e.g. pen, pencil, chalk}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Markers for filling-in lottery tickets

Puzzles provided with elements movable in relation, {i.e. movably connected} , to each other
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Puzzles provided with elements movable in relation, i.e. movably connected, to each other.

Examples: sliding puzzles, Rubik's cubes.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When the possible movement of the elements movable in relation occurs on a two-dimensional surface only, then classify in A63F 9/0803.

When the movement occurs three-dimensionally, then classify A63F 9/0826.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

2D-jigsaw puzzles

3D-jigsaw puzzles

Crossword puzzles

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Brain twister", "brain-teaser", "logical puzzle (EN)", "Geduldspiel", "Denkspiel (DE)" and "casse-tête (FR)" are often used as synonyms.

{Two-dimensional puzzles with slideable or rotatable elements or groups of elements, the main configuration remaining unchanged}
Special rules of classification within this group

The 2D sliding puzzles or "slide puzzles" (with sliding elements on a plan, requiring vacant position or gap migration) are in A63F 9/0807.

{ requiring vacant positions or gap migration, e.g. two-dimensional sliding puzzles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Typically, a series of generally rectangular tiles confined closely packed, side by side in coplanar relation as a generally two dimensional or planar array by a housing frame which also provides a vacant tile admitting or parking space so as to permit sequential lateral coplanar movement of selected individual tiles within the frame in and out of the parking space to change the array, typically to reorder indicia forming a sequence of numbers or letters marked on the exposed surface of the tiles or to change a pattern or picture depicted by the tiles.

Example: 2D-sliding (tile) puzzles/shift(able) block puzzles: GB435660:

media4.jpg

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Sliding tile puzzle", "slide puzzle", "sliding puzzle", "sliding block puzzle", "shifting block puzzle (EN)", " Schiebespiel (DE)"and" taquin (FR)" are often used as synonyms.

{with rotary, stacked elements, e.g. elements with a puzzle image on a curved or cylindrical outer surface }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (FR2533450):

media25.jpg

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "spin puzzle", "spinnable puzzle", "wheel puzzle" (EN) and "puzzle cylindrique" (FR) are often used as synonyms.

{with rotatable non-concentric discs, e.g. gear games}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (FR2566281):

media5.jpg

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " gear game", "game with gears (EN)", and "jeu à engrenages (FR)" are often used as synonyms.

{having overlapping circles with interchangeable elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Puzzles in which one or more of the elements are movable along plural intersecting circular paths.

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in this group (DE9000743U):

media6.jpg

GB2229642:

media7.jpg

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "mosaic puzzle" and "shunting puzzle" are often used as synonyms.

{ with vacant positions or gap migration}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A series of movable elements confined closely packed in a generally three dimensional array by a housing frame which also provides a vacant element admitting or parking space so as to permit sequential movement of selected individual elements within the frame in and out of the parking space to change the array

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group, (3D-sliding puzzles WO9604971):

media8.jpg

{ comprising only two layers, e.g. with eight elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (FR2593075):

media9.jpg

{ with an element, e.g. invisible core, staying permanently in a central position having the function of central retaining spider and with groups of elements rotatable about at least three axes intersecting in one point}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (GB2087245):

media10.jpg

{ each group consisting of again a central element and a plurality of additional elements rotatable about three orthogonal axes at both ends, the additional elements being rotatable about at least two axes, e.g. Rubik`s cube}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (Rubik's cube BE887875):

media11.jpg

{ with elements slidably connected to a visible central body, e.g. beads in grooves}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (DE29811543U):

media12.jpg

{ with elements slidably connected to neighbouring elements, e.g. with hollow interior}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (EP1584357A1):

media13.jpg

{ with a plurality of single elements rotatably connected to a central body which are characterised only by design, e.g. shape, use of colours or symbols}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (CA2174178):

media14.jpg

{ with groups of elements rotating about at least three axes not intersecting in one point, e.g. toroidal shapes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (WO9515799):

media15.jpg

{ a sphere rotatable with respect to an inner sphere}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Three-dimensional puzzles comprising a sphere inside another sphere, the spheres being rotatable with respect to each other. The spheres can be incomplete, e.g. with holes.

For example US2002105139

media16.jpg

{Bent wire or cord puzzles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Puzzles with bent wire or cord as primary element.

Example of bent wire puzzle:

media17.jpg

Example of cord puzzle: GB232557

media18.jpg

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "puzzle ring" and "wire puzzle" are often used as synonyms.

{Puzzles with elements that are connected by straps, strings or hinges, e.g. Rubik`s Magic}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (EP2138209):

media19.jpg

Two-dimensional jig-saw puzzles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Puzzles consisting of pieces that are to be fitted together to form a two-dimensional object, e.g. a picture.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Foldable 2D-pieces for jigsaw puzzles

Special rules of classification within this group

If the pieces are movably connected to each other, the main configuration remaining unchanged, e.g. sliding puzzles, then: A63F 9/08.

The pieces of puzzles classified under A63F 9/08 are generally permanently connected to each other while playing, whereas the pieces of jigsaw puzzles are generally detached for one another when starting the game.

3D-puzzles, e.g. spherical puzzles, made from non-planar 2D-puzzle elements are classified in A63F 9/12 and A63F 2009/124 when the final configuration is a sphere).

Shapes of jigsaw playing pieces can be classified under the Indexing Codes A63F 9/0669.

{ Display boards therefor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display boards as underlying support for putting the jigsaw puzzle playing pieces thereon or therein, while playing the jigsaw puzzle game, and/or for displaying the solution.

Also therein: box for 2D jigsaw puzzles.

Special rules of classification within this group

Display on a pedestal or stand: add Indexing Code A63F 2009/0035.

With provisions for hanging on a wall: add Indexing Code A63F 2009/0032.

{with provisions for storing and transporting an interrupted game }
Special rules of classification within this group

When rolling for storing, add also Indexing Code A63F 2003/00258 "rollable, flexible or deformable collapsible playboards for board games" (ex.: WO2008040824).

{non-planar }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

3D-puzzles, e.g. spherical puzzles, made from non-planar 2D-puzzle elements are classified under A63F 9/12 only, e.g. in A63F 9/12 and A63F 2009/124 when the final configuration is a sphere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Foldable pieces for 2D- or 3D-jigsaw puzzles

Three-dimensional jig-saw puzzles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Puzzles consisting of pieces that are to be fitted together to form a three-dimensional object.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Puzzles with parts generally permanently connected to each other while playing

Pieces being movably connected to each other, the main configuration remaining unchanged, e.g. rubik's cube

Jigsaw puzzles with generally detached parts for one another when starting the game or3D-puzzles, e.g. spherical puzzles, made from non-planar 2D-puzzle elements

{with foldable pieces, e.g. pieces having folds or hinges }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Jigsaw puzzles with foldable, bendable or hinged pieces.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Hinged logical puzzles (e.g. chain of elements connected by hinges, puzzles in which each element is articulated to a neighboring element)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Building blocks with additional hinge-joints

Special rules of classification within this group

3D as well as 2D foldable jigsaw puzzles are given this class.

Add Indexing Code A63F 2003/00233 "collapsible playboard with one fold or hinge" or A63F 2003/00239 "with two hinges or folds" or A63F 2003/00246 "with three or more hinges or folds" when the resulting fold or hinge makes the whole puzzle foldable.

When relevant add Indexing Code A63F 2250/18 "use of resilient or deformable elements" or A63F 2250/183 "foam".

Synonyms and Keywords

Living hinge

thin flexible hinge (flexure bearing) made from plastic (rather than cloth, leather or some other substance) that joins two rigid plastic parts together, allowing them to bend along the line of the hinge

{using a plurality of pegs }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

3D-jigsaw puzzles using a plurality of pegs, pins or rods as puzzle elements (and not as e.g. connectors or binding means between puzzle elements). The pegs can be of same or different types.

{with notches }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (US2009079131A1):

media26.jpg

Racing games, traffic games, or obstacle games characterised by figures moved by action of the players ( { racing} games using dice A63F 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group (Racing game US5152528):

media20.jpg

Obstacle game US4208833:

media21.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Board games simulating racing games, traffic games, or obstacle games, usually using dice

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Figure toys with single- or multiple-axle undercarriages, by which the figures perform a realistic running motion when the toy is moving over the floor

Toy vehicles

Track ways for toys

Simulators for teaching control of land vehicles, a model being viewed and manoeuvred from a remote point

{electric}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Racing games, traffic games, and obstacle games characterised by figures moved by action of the player and comprising electric features, e.g. with electromotors for moving the figures.

For example, electric racing game machine WO2008120723:

media22.jpg

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Racing games simulated on a video display

Computerized racing game machines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Remote-control arrangements for toy vehicles

Spinning-top games
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tops involved in a game, games with tops (usually combined with a rolling board or involving a plurality of tops).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Dice-tops

Tops as such

Question-and-answer games
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices working with questions and answers.

{electric}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Voting apparatus

Electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices working with questions and answers

Watching television being part of the game

Used for radio or TV, e.g. television shows, used in front of an audience

Special rules of classification within this group

TV quizz shows: add Indexing Code A63F 2250/64.

{ Electric games;} Games using electronic circuits not otherwise provided for { (video games A63F 13/00, computers for game playing per se G06F19/00B; computerized gaming systems G07F 17/32) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electric board games

Electric indoor games using small moving playing bodies

Electric game simulating a sport game

Electronic dice simulator

Electric question-and-answer games

Video games

Computerized gaming machines and systems

Card games adapted for being played on a screen

Electric features for jigsaw puzzles

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Card games

Board games; Raffle games

Roulette games

Indoor games using small moving playing bodies

Games not otherwise provided for

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computers for game playing per se

G06F19/00B

{of a contour (shadow shows A63J 2019/003) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Shadow shows

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words "shadow show", "shadow play" (EN), "ombres chinoise", "spectacle d'ombres" (FR) and " Schattenspiel" (DE) are often used as synonyms.

Capturing games for grabbing or trapping objects, e.g. fishing games
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Crane game machines (ex. US5855374, DE3526438)

G07F17/32B

Special rules of classification within this group

Crane game machines (ex. US5855374, DE3526438) are classified in both A63F 9/30 and G07F17/32B.

Game accessories of general use { e.g. score counters, boxes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Game accessories of general use, e.g. bags for tokens, spinners, score counters, boxes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tokens

Accessories for card games

Accessories for video games, e.g. joysticks

Accessories for lottery tickets

Accessories of general use for games covered in main group

Dice

Markers or means for drawing

Accessories for board games

Accessories for indoor games using small moving playing bodies

Special rules of classification within this group

Game accessories specially adapted for a particular type of game are classified in one of the groups A63F 1/00 to A63F 9/00 covering the particular game.

Game accessories for specific games, when notable as such: give classification group to the specific game and classification to the accessory.

Game accessories for specific games, when notable only in combination with the specific game: give classification to the specific game and Indexing Code to the accessory.

{ Chance selectors (A63F 7/048, A63F 9/04 take precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chance selecting devices for games, e.g. spinners.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Dice-tops

Small boxes wherein balls are shaken or rolled for generating random numbers

Dice

Spinning-top games as random generators

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Random number generators

{Spinners }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In a spinner (A63F 11/0011 and subgroups, Indexing Code A63F 2011/0016) a pointer rotates (possibly relatively to a fixed disc) whereas in a fortune wheel (A63F 5/045) a disc rotates relative to a fixed pointer.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words "spinner" and "pointer" are often used as synonyms.

{ Indicators of values, e.g. score counters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Intruments, devices or parts of playing devices for calculating or indicating values, e.g. scores or coefficients.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Score counters for card games

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Displays for showing the score of a ball game, indicating arrangements e.g. for sports

{Abacus }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any abacus as score counters, as calculator or the like function.

media27.jpg

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For the slid bead frames were the game itself consists of sliding a bead over a wire, the key code is the Indexing Code: A63F 2007/4081 "ball with a hole sliding over a guide".

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Abacus

is a particular bead frame with the aim of (score) count ing, calculating.Not to mix up with "abac": the abacs (french "abaques" or "abaques de calcul") are classified in Indexing Code A63F 2011/0067 "score or tally sheet".

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/words " abacus", "abacuses", "abaci" (EN), "boulier (abaque)" (FR) and "Abakus (DE)" are often used as synonyms.

Video games, i.e. games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions { (Gaming systems which provide a financial reward G07F 17/32) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Structural or hardware-related aspects of video games: accessories, optional for the execution of the game; constructional details of game devices; input devices specially adapted for playing video games; output devices specially adapted for playing video games.
  • Details specific to network games: characteristics of the network topology when used in network games; details of servers specially adapted for providing network games.
  • Software aspects of video games, played locally or in a network: the mapping of input signals into game commands; the animation of the virtual camera in a video game; indicators added to the game scene; time aspects of video games; simulation of game objects or characters; the generation or alteration of the game content; game management; the provision of additional services to game players.

The following diagram provides some guidance on the structure of the higher-level subgroups:

media28.png

Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • This group is an "application place" with respect to more functional places such as G06F, G06T or H04L.
  • This group covers systems using computer and telecommunication technologies, which have been specially adapted for providing video games, as seen above.
  • The scope of this group differs from that of G07F 17/32 which covers games providing financial rewards, played by electronic means, e.g. online poker, waging or betting.
  • The scope of this group also differs from that of main groups A63F 1/00 to A63F 11/00 which cover traditional games such as puzzles and card, board and dice games, and from that of A63F 9/24 which covers traditional games played by electronic means.
  • The scope of this group differs from that of A63H, which covers toys.
  • This group covers features of input devices specially adapted to video games. The corresponding function place for generic computer input devices is G06F 3/01- G06F 3/03.
  • This group is in particular an application place for computer graphics. Animation and 3D graphics in general are covered by G06T 13/00 - G06T 19/00.
  • This group is an application place for telecommunication, in particular with respect to network games. Data network services are covered by H04L 29/06.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Video games having financial rewards

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Roulette games

Indoor games using falling playing bodies or playing bodies running on an inclined surface

Coin-freed apparatus and like for games

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Arcade machine

coin-operated entertainment device placed in a public venue.

Combo

a sequence of commands which has by design a greater effect when executed within a fixed time period than the mere succession of these commands.

Fiducial (marker)

real object used in the field of view of an imaging system which appears in the image produced, for use as a point of reference or a measure; the object can exist naturally in the scene (features of a face) or be added for the purpose of tracking (light-emitting diode, retro-reflective patch).

Force feedback

outputting forces, vibrations, and/or motions to the player to provide haptic feedback.

Game character

a game entity simulating a sentient being; the simulated being can be real, e.g. a person or an animal, or fictitious, e.g. a dragon or a speaking mirror.

Game client

game device connected to a game server through a network.

Game command

game-specific representation of the control signal, e.g. "pause" or "shoot" command.

Game console

consumer electronics system specially adapted to execute video games, offering reduced functions with respect to generic personal computers; it differs from arcade machines, which are also specially adapted for video games, but for commercial purposes.

Game content game asset

data required for the execution of the game program, e.g. bitmap images, three-dimensional models; the content is usually created by the game makers before the game release, but can also created afterwards by the player, e.g. using level editors.

Game device

a data-processing apparatus enabling performing of the video game; the apparatus is connected to a display and input means, e.g. a controller or a mouse; it is either handheld or stationary; the device can be dedicated to the execution of game programs, e.g. a game console, an arcade game machine, a portable game machine, or a generic computer, e.g. a personal computer.

Game mode

distinct method of operation within the game program, usually relating to distinct game mechanics or goals, e.g. single player mode, multiplayer mode, capture the flag mode

Game model

abstract description of the game's inner workings and the possible interactions with the player, conditioning her tactical possibilities. The game model includes game parameters, such as the score, and the procedures and constraints governing their evolution. The game specification usually includes a model of some physical systems, be they fictitious or real. However, this model is not part of the game model if its sole purpose is to provide a realistic simulation.

Game object

a game entity simulating a thing (excluding sentient beings); the simulated thing can be real, e.g. a tennis ball, or fictitious, e.g. a laser gun.

Game parameter

a variable of the game model. Some variables of the game specification are not game parameters. For instance, the position of the virtual camera in a hand-to-hand fighting game is a game parameter if the position is chosen to be closer to the fighter with the lowest life meter. On the contrary, calculating a natural position of a fighter's elbow using the positions and orientations of his hands and shoulders, does not belong to the game model.

Game program

a computer readable program comprising instructions and data adapted to perform a video game when executed on a data-processing apparatus. To produce the video game program, the game designer communicates the game model in the game specifications to the developer team, who creates or adapts a game engine to implement the game model and optimize its implementation.

Game progress

any change in one of the game parameters (see game model)

Game scene

data describing the main virtual space used in the game's representation, e.g. describing a maze, a race circuit or the room where the player character is located, and its content. By extension, the image resulting from processing this data. The structure used for this data is usually a scene graph.

Game server

a data-processing apparatus or system connected to a network, not adapted for accepting directly player-generated signals, facilitating at least part of the execution of a video game (e.g. receiving inputs from the game clients, executing the game for the game clients and providing processed game information to the game clients for presentation to the player).

Player generated signal

an action made by the player to convey a decision, e.g. move circularly the arm, push a button with a finger.

Virtual camera

virtual viewpoint in world space with position and view direction to render an image of the game.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

3D

three-dimensional

AI

Artificial Intelligence

AR

Augmented Reality

D-pad

Directional pad

FOV

Field Of View

FPS

First Person Shooter (game)

HUD

Head-Up Display

LOD

Level Of Detail

MMORPG

Massively multiplayer online role-playing game

MOG

Multiplayer online game

MUD

Multi-User Dungeon

PC/NPC

Player Character/Non-Player Character

POV

Point Of View

PvP

Player versus Player (mode)

RPG

Role Playing Game

RTS

Real Time Strategy (game)

VR

Virtual Reality

In the technical literature, the following terms (or expressions) are often used:

Directional pad

set of neighbouring switches mounted on a game controller, usually thumb-operated, for indicating one direction, e.g. four-way digital cross

First person / third person mode

in a first person mode, the game is viewed from the point of view of the player character/object; in a third person mode, the game is viewed from above, below or aside of the player character/object

Game engine

core portion of the game program which masks the hardware platform and can be re-used when developing other game programs. The game engine components typically include a rendering engine, a physics engine, and frameworks for e.g. sound, scripting, animation, artificial intelligence, networking, streaming, memory management, threading, localization support, and scene graph management.

Game mechanics

the procedures and constraints expressed in the game model

Gamepad

handheld game controller, where the fingers (especially thumbs) are used to provide input; gamepads generally feature a set of action buttons handled with the right thumb and a direction controller handled with the left; the direction controller has traditionally been a four-way digital cross (see D-pad), but most modern controllers additionally (or as a substitute) feature an analog stick

Gameplay

the interaction process taking place between the player and the game

Joypad

a game controller or a directional pad

Nonlinear game

a game providing challenges that can be completed in a number of different sequences.

Physics engine

component of the game engine which provides an approximate simulation of physical systems in real-time

Pseudo-3D

simulation of a 3D environment using 2D techniques, such as the axonometric projection, parallax scrolling or skyboxing.

Rendering engine

component of the game engine which generates an image from a scene model

Open World, Sandbox

a game mode providing no explicit goal

Input arrangements for video game devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only input devices, which have been specially adapted for playing games.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Generic input devices such as a mouse which could also be used in a game are covered in the function place G06F 3/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer

pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user

characterised by their sensors, purposes or types
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The use of commonplace sensors for unforeseen purposes, e.g. a pedal controlling the stand up/crouch position of a player-character, and devices using unforeseen sensors, e.g. electronic noses.

The subgroups under this group cover the physical parameters to be sensed and the means of detection.

using inertial sensors, e.g. accelerometers or gyroscopes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input devices sensing acceleration, angular acceleration, velocity, angular velocity, position or orientation. A typical setup includes 3 mono-dimensional accelerometers, arranged perpendicularly, where the measured acceleration values are integrated to compute velocity and further, the device's position. The inertial sensor can be included in the game controller. The sensor can simply detect the motion in a given direction, without providing a measure of its intensity, e.g. to detect a push.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

acceleration sensors per se

processing of the acceleration values to recognize a pattern, a gesture or a trajectory

using sensors worn by the player, e.g. for measuring heart beat or leg activity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wearable sensors which register a biosignal, such as electroencephalogram, or the motion of the player.

Communication between the input device and the game device is usually wireless, but can be wired.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

hand-held video game devices

comprising photodetecting means, e.g. cameras, photodiodes or infrared cells (A63F 13/219, A63F 13/655 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cameras and image sensors used in video games.

Photo-detecting means, e.g. photodiodes or infrared detectors, included in the game controller.

Typically, a camera is placed close to the main screen and registers the player's motions (see for example ref. 20 of the drawing). To ease tracking, fiducials such as objects with specific colours, shapes or reflectivity can be used. The output information is typically bi-dimensional. Alternatively, photodetecting means are included in the game controller and register the position of infrared light sources. Some imaging systems also provide depth information, using a range sensor, or using several cameras.

media29.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

photodetecting means used to detect where the game controller points to on the screen

image processing to generate game commands

for locating contacts on a surface, e.g. floor mats or touch pads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors for detecting a variation of a physical quantity measured at a location on a surface.

Devices using a plurality of discrete switches, e.g. dance mats.

Detecting the location of player's fingers by non-contact methods, e.g. reflected light.

media30.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

contact sensors

game devices locating a contact using a camera

processing of position series to recognize a pattern or a trajectory

the surface being also a display device, e.g. touch screens
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Direct interactions with the game display. Typically, the screen and the sensor are provided in one form-factor. However, the display can be composed of a projector and a projecting surface, also used to detect contact.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

input device providing a touch screen as a secondary display

comprising means for detecting acoustic signals, e.g. using a microphone
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors allowing the player to enter a voice command, to sing or to blow. Microphone arrays used for source localization are also classified here.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

processing to convert the acoustic signal into game commands

beam-formers

using geographical information, e.g. location of the game device or player using GPS
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of geographical information obtained directly, e.g. by GPS, or indirectly, e.g. by triangulation of cellular telephone base stations.

Use of geographical information as a game input, or for a "treasure hunt", or as a game parameter, e.g. for matching the day/night cycle of the game to local time.

for aiming at specific areas on the display, e.g. light-guns
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of photo-sensing cells to detect scanning lines on a monitor screen and using synchronization information to calculate the scan line position at the time of detection.

Use of photo-sensing cells to detect IR emitters placed nearby the display.

Setup operations, e.g. calibration, key configuration or button assignment
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

mapping of keys to a specific game's commands

for interfacing with the game device, e.g. specific interfaces between game controller and console
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Connectors specially adapted for video game input devices.
  • Peripherals-to-port assignments.
  • Methods to provide additional data on standard connection.
  • Devices to allow more controllers than the number of ports on the game device.
  • Arrangements to daisy-chain game controllers.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

other constructional details or arrangements of video game devices

control or interface arrangements for pointing devices

using a wireless connection, e.g. infrared or piconet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Wireless controllers
  • Specific interface protocols, aspects regarding battery management, use of RFID and other wireless transponders for game data input.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

small scale wireless networks; flat hierarchical wireless networks

transmission through free space

H04B10/10

Constructional details thereof, e.g. game controllers with detachable joystick handles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Construction of input devices having several mechanical degrees of freedom, for example allowing rotation or twisting.
  • Details of mechanical contact between elements of game controller, e.g. sliding or rotating contact.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

apparatus modifying mechanically an input device

specially adapted to a particular type of game, e.g. steering wheels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input devices mimicking real world objects, which are used in the game simulation such as steering wheels, pedals, throttles, guns, rifles, fishing rods, guitars, keyboards, drums.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

accessories attached to an input device

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

The type of game should be additionally classified under A63F 13/90.

Output arrangements for video game devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

digital output to display devices

control of displays in general

having at least one additional display device, e.g. on the game controller or outside a game booth
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Game controllers with a small-size display device, allowing to display additional views of the game or player-specific information.

Arcade game devices with additional display devices showing additional views, such as rear- or side-mirror view in a driving game or mounted outside a booth allowing spectators to watch the game. Multi-screen game systems

responding to control signals received from the game device for affecting ambient conditions, e.g. for vibrating players' seats, activating scent dispensers or affecting temperature or light (controlling the output signals based on the game progress A63F 13/50)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

controlling visual or acoustic output signals based on the game progress

Generating tactile feedback signals via the game input device, e.g. force feedback
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Generating forces to give tactile feedback.
  • Generating vibrations.
Interconnection arrangements between game servers and game devices; Interconnection arrangements between game devices; Interconnection arrangements between game servers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

interconnection arrangements in generic data networks

Communication aspects specific to video games, e.g. between several handheld game devices at close range
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

communication control characterised by protocols

using local area network [LAN] connections
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

LAN in general

between game devices with different hardware characteristics, e.g. hand-held game devices connectable to game consoles or arcade machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Communication between handheld game devices and a home game devices.

Communication between portable game devices and arcade machines.

Typically, the game devices are designed by the same company, which simplifies the data exchange. However, this group also covers communications between game devices with different hardware characteristics executing different Operating Systems.

media31.png

using wireless networks, e.g. Wi-Fi or piconet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements for locally connecting game devices using an air interface.

Connections based on standardized protocols are used such as IEEE 802.11 (WiFi) or Bluetooth.

Connections based on game device specific protocols using for example the Infrared interface of hand-held devices.

media32.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

small scale wireless networks; flat hierarchical wireless networks

transmission through free space

H04B10/10

using wide area network [WAN] connections
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

WAN in general

using wireless networks, e.g. cellular phone networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

wireless communication networks

using Internet
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

IP networks per se

using television networks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

interactive television

using peer-to-peer connections
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

peer-to-peer networking in general

involving special game server arrangements, e.g. regional servers connected to a national server or a plurality of servers managing partitions of the game world
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements of hierarchies of game servers and players.

In the exemplary drawing below, references 10, 12, 14, 20, 22, 24 show the different layers in the server hierarchy with increasing geographical coverage.

media33.png

Processing input control signals of video game devices, e.g. signals generated by the player or derived from the environment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects of the use of input signals for facilitating the game interaction process.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Details of the generation of these signals, e.g. transduction from tactile or acoustic input, are classified in the corresponding function places.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

input arrangements for game devices

by mapping the input signals into game commands, e.g. mapping the displacement of a stylus on a touch screen to the steering angle of a virtual vehicle
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The linear mapping of input signals into game commands.

The contextual, dynamic or non-linear mapping of signals received from an input switch or lever to game commands. For example, a fully inclined joystick might trigger a barrel roll instead of a simple turn:

media34.png

automatically for the purpose of assisting the player, e.g. automatic braking in a driving game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The insertion of additional commands in the command sequence, i.e. to produce combos, and correcting the player's input to improve her accuracy.

involving acoustic input signals, e.g. by using the results of pitch or rhythm extraction or voice recognition
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

input arrangements for game devices comprising means for detecting acoustic signals

evaluation based on rhythm only

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

evaluating musical performance in general

evaluating musical performance for karaoke

evaluating musical performance with respect to rhythm or tempo

evaluating musical performance with respect to pitch

speech recognition

microphones

involving on-screen location information, e.g. screen coordinates of an area at which the player is aiming with a light gun
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-trivial mappings to game scene (e.g. use of 2D position for pointing to a game object in 3D environment), sequences of operations (e.g. drawing the trajectory of a sword on screen) and their recognition (e.g. symbol drawn to cast spell).

involving motion or position input signals, e.g. signals representing the rotation of aninput controller or a player's arm motions sensed by accelerometers or gyroscopes10
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The processing of signals representing motion of the controller, e.g. swinging, as detected by accelerometers, to produce game commands.

The mapping of signals, e.g. from accelerometers, onto game object parameters.

Detection and recognition of sequences of operation, e.g. rotating a controller such as a lever for 720 degrees.

Noise resistant procedures.

media35.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

input arrangements for game devices using inertial sensors

involving timing of operations, e.g. performing an action within a time slot
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of timing actions, e.g. in rhythm games, time-dependent sequences of commands, e.g. combos, and the displays associated to timing.

In the exemplary drawing below, each time slot T1, T2, T3, T4 has subdivisions defining the optimal timing of an action.

media36.png

Computing the game score
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of scoring methods, such as fuzzy evaluations of score, management of experience points or rewards scheme.

media37.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

comparisons of scores and rankings

involving branching, e.g. choosing one of several possible scenarios at a given point in time
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the game's narrative. A narrative structure can be implemented trivially as a sequence, but also as a tree or as a set of goals or tasks randomly assigned to NPC, to provide nonlinear gameplay.

The exemplary drawing below shows different branching points in the narrative (410,420,430) with the possible alternative segments.

media38.png

Saving the game status; Pausing or ending the game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The storage of game data in internal or external memory. Both "save" and "pause" commands can be triggered by the player or automatically, e.g. pausing when receiving a phone call on the same device or auto-save feature.

Typically, a multiplayer game played over a network requires a protocol to pause or end the game. For instance, a player closes her own handheld apparatus. Prior to setting of a sleep mode, the game apparatus notifies all other game apparatuses of the interruption of the communication game, and then the game apparatus saves parameters necessary to execute a game main processing program to interrupt the execution of the game main processing program.

Resuming a game, e.g. after pausing, malfunction or power failure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for retrieving game status and value of the game parameters as they were when the game was suspended

Methods for compensating discontinuities in memory or input when resuming. For instance, if a game using a controller with a tilt sensor is paused, then the change of position during pause will cause a discontinuity in the input coordinates.

Partially or entirely replaying previous game actions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Backward replay allowing the player to roll back to a previous state, e.g. before her character's death.

Forward replay allowing to display past game events.

Summary or recap techniques for shortening the replay.

Controlling the output signals based on the game progress
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects of the use of such signals for facilitating the game interaction process.

Use of signals not directed to the screen or the speakers.

involving aspects of the displayed game scene
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

two dimensional image generation

animation in general

three dimensional image rendering

Changing parameters of virtual cameras
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of virtual cameras to facilitate the interactions between the player and the game.

The use of game variables for this control. For instance, in a fighting game, the camera can be placed closer to the fighter with the lowest life meter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Navigation in three-dimensional environments

using two or more virtual cameras concurrently or sequentially, e.g. automatically switching between fixed virtual cameras when a character changes room or displaying a rear-mirror view in a car-driving game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques that enable rendering of scenes from multiple perspectives.

In the exemplary drawing below, virtual cameras 401, 402 are placed on both sides of the wall, allowing rendering the scene from 2 perspectives (figure (b), (c))

media39.png

according to dedicated instructions from a player, e.g. using a secondary joystick to rotate the camera around a player's character
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Direct control of the camera by the player to e.g. resolve projection ambiguities or occlusions. This control can be explicit, e.g. using a dedicated lever, or implicit. For instance, the orientation of the virtual camera can be set to the real orientation of a camera, to produce an augmented reality game. Alternatively, the head of the player can be tracked and the virtual viewpoint’s position be updated accordingly, to produce an autostereoscopic display.

In the exemplary drawing below, the player can select view 160A or 160B using the input device 120.

media40.png

by dynamically adapting the position of the virtual camera to keep a game object or game character in its viewing frustum, e.g. for tracking a character or a ball
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for setting dynamical parameters of the virtual camera according to the dynamical parameters of a game object or character, allowing to implement cinematographic camera effects in video games.

Typically, speeds will be similar but the virtual camera may accelerate or decelerate according to a predefined game event. The relative height or angle of the virtual camera provides also the desired view of the game scene.

For example, if the player's car approaches an obstacle such as a tree or building, the viewpoint is positioned to quickly approach the player's car by increasing the moving speed.

In the further exemplary drawing below, virtual camera C tracks the virtual skier and changes its height and direction between C1 and C2 according to the game course.

media41.png

involving additional visual information provided to the game scene, e.g. by overlay to simulate a head-up display [HUD] or displaying a laser sight in a shooting game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The display of game state variables which are not expressed in the game scene or of information to improve the game-player interaction. For instance, a magnified view of the target is displayed in a shooting game or a gauge for controlling the timing of the pitch in a baseball game.

media42.png

media43.png

for prompting the player, e.g. by displaying a game menu
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for prompting the player by presenting a display of control buttons, a keyboard, a menu, or the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

interactions techniques for graphical user interfaces

using indicators, e.g. showing the condition of a game character on screen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Indicators related to the experience or health of characters, for example, power gauges and life indicators.

media44.png

for tagging characters, objects or locations in the game scene, e.g. displaying a circle under the character controlled by the player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Indicators used to show the current selection or the target for the next game command. The selection can be controlled by the player, or automatic, e.g. highlighting the closest team member in a soccer game.

media45.png

for graphically or textually suggesting an action, e.g. by displaying an arrow indicating a turn in a driving game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques to help the player choosing her next command. Typically, a textual advice or a drawing of the game controller is overlaid. It is also used to provide information on a part of the game scene which is not visible on the screen, e.g. the position of the soccer team members on the field.

Hints as part of an in-game tutorial.

Indicators linked to an object in the scene.

media46.png

media47.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

indicator expressing the timing of operation

for displaying an additional top view, e.g. radar screens or maps (using two or more virtual cameras concurrently A63F 13/5252)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Overlaid windows with a two-dimensional map of the game scene.

media48.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Using two or more virtual cameras concurrently

involving acoustic signals, e.g. for simulating revolutions per minute [RPM] dependent engine sounds in a driving game or reverberation against a virtual wall
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sound effects in video games.

In the first example below, sound characteristics are generated depending on the status of the car (idling, moving). In the second example, the reverberation from obstacles 901, 902 is be simulated.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

sound-producing devices

Controlling game characters or game objects based on the game progress
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

animation in general

3d image rendering

Computing the motion of game characters with respect to other game characters, game objects or elements of the game scene, e.g. for simulating the behaviour of a group of virtual soldiers or for path finding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for moving automatically non-player characters in the game scene according to the game progress. For example, virtual soldiers follow their leaders in a strategy games or virtual soccer characters are positioned to receive or intercept the ball.

In the first example below, characters 51 and 52 are moving automatically to a location according to player input on a touch screen. In the other example, non-player characters 11 and 12 are approaching automatically the player character.

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Simulating properties, behaviour or motion of objects in the game world, e.g. computing tyre load in a car race game (A63F 13/56 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for simulating the law of physics applied to game objects

In the example below, tyre load (front, rear, left or right) is computed according to the longitudinal or transversal acceleration of the virtual racing car and indicated by the shading.

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using trajectories of game objects, e.g. of a golf ball according to the point of impact
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The impact of calculated trajectories on the game process.

In the examples below, the trajectories of the tennis or soccer ball are used to determine the landing point on the game field.

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using determination of contact between game characters or objects, e.g. to avoid collision between virtual racing cars
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The determination if an object or character has entered the collision zone of other objects or characters.

The triggering of a corresponding game action if collision has occurred.

In the examples below, the results of collision determination are used to find out if the player character has broken a glass surface with a ball, has been hit by an arrow or could catch a flying object.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

collision detection in image processing

by computing conditions of game characters, e.g. stamina, strength, motivation or energy level
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The computation of parameters associated with game characters, which need to be continuously updated in the game course.

The use of those parameters to influence the game course as they typically have a significant impact on the outcome of the game.

The dashboard of the exemplary drawing below shows the different skill parameters of a game character in a soccer video game.

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using advertising information
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for embedding advertising information in video games.

Techniques for associating advertising information to video games.

In the example below, a virtual billboard displays an advertisement in a video racing game.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

advertising per se

marketing, e.g. advertising

by the player, e.g. authoring using a level editor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means allowing the player to create new game items, or to add music or a personalised sound track to the game.

automatically by game devices or servers from real world data, e.g. measurement in live racing competition
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Collecting images and data from real world games, races, etc., and the processing and use of this information to create a virtual event, for example a race between a player’s virtual car and real cars.

by importing photos, e.g. of the player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for embedding photos in video games.

Techniques for associating photos to video games.

In the example below, photos of other players are used to tag enemy characters 22 and 24.

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References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

input arrangements for game device comprising photodetecting means

adaptively or by learning from player actions, e.g. skill level adjustment or by storing successful combat sequences for re-use
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Simulation of cognitive functions for NPC
  • Artificial intelligence game engines
  • Automatic adaptation of the game difficulty to the player's skill and style of play
using secure communication between game devices and game servers, e.g. by encrypting game data or authenticating players
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

network security

Authorising game programs or game devices, e.g. checking authenticity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Techniques restricting player access to game devices
  • Techniques restricting access to the content of a game recording medium
  • Techniques restricting access to game information files, being stored locally or distributed via a network.

In the example below, security devices 710 are entitled by a gaming authority 760 and provide conditional access to game device 702.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

computer security

Enforcing rules, e.g. detecting foul play or generating lists of cheating players
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The detection and classification of player's activity into foul play and the imposition of game penalties.

involving data related to game devices or game servers, e.g. configuration data, software version or amount of memory
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for executing or distributing game software based on hardware of software characteristics of game servers or game devices

for payment purposes, e.g. monthly subscriptions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

payment protocols

apparatus actuated by coins or the like for games

for finding other players; for building a team; for providing a buddy list
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Inviting players to multi-player games running on a network.
  • Associating players with a group of players based on preferences.
  • Using information from social network services in a game.
for assessing skills or for ranking players, e.g. for generating a hall of fame (computing the game score A63F 13/46)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating players and producing ranking lists in multi-player games running on a network.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

computing the game score

Driving vehicles or craft, e.g. cars, airplanes, ships, robots or tanks
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

simulators for teaching control of vehicles or other crafts

Musical performances, e.g. by evaluating the player's ability to follow a notation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

evaluating musical performance in general

evaluating musical performance for karaoke

evaluating musical performance for rhythm or tempo

evaluating musical performance for pitch

involving concurrently two or more players on the same game device, e.g. requiring the use of a plurality of controllers or of a specific view of game data for each player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Techniques for providing multiplayer games on the same game device by offering each player her own input device. Typically, a different view is displayed for each character on a different output area of the display device if they are too far one from the other, and a single view is used when the characters are close enough.

In the examples below, the screen is subdivided horizontally or vertically into two regions, allowing to render the game from the perspective of each of the two players.

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Communicating with other players during game play, e.g. by e-mail or chat
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The use of peer-to-peer or one-to-many communications in multi-player games running on a network.

Constructional details or arrangements of video game devices not provided for in groups A63F 13/20 or A63F 13/25, e.g. housing, wiring, connections or cabinets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Structural or electrical aspects of the game device hardware.

In the example below, an arcade machine has changeable input means, which can be fixed to the housing but later replaced if the type of game changes.

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

input arrangements of video game devices

output arrangements of video game devices

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

constructional details of input arrangements

Video game devices specially adapted to be hand-held while playing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dedicated game devices, where the form factor, size, weight, button arrangements or compact design make them suitable to be held at least in a hand. Such devices depart from generic hand-held devices, such as PDA or mobile phones, which can run games but are not specially designed for playing.

Storage media specially adapted for storing game information, e.g. video game cartridges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Recording medium specially adapted to game devices
  • Use of storage medium before, during or after game execution, e.g. game loading from a disk

In the example below, a dedicated game cartridge storing a game program can be inserted into a game machine.

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Accessories, i.e. detachable arrangements optional for the use of the video game device, e.g. grip supports of game controllers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accessories, which are optional for playing the game (i.e. as opposed to input means, which are essential). They may add for example comfort or convenience to the game experience.

In the examples below, accessories are used to support a hand-held game device or a game controller.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

input arrangements for game devices

output arrangements for game devices

with provisions for connecting to a part of the body
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Games or toys connected to, or combined with a hanger or ornament, e.g. bracelet, headband, necklace, ring

made from a blank
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Game elements made from a blank, i.e. a piece cut from sheet for subsequent shaping

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Blank

A piece cut from sheet for subsequent shaping

characterized by input arrangements for converting player-generated signals into game device control signals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input arrangements for game devices. Covered are here only input devices, which have been specially adapted for playing games and are usually distinguished by their shape, the number or arrangement of buttons.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer

Pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user

G06F3/33

Special rules of classification within this group

Generic input devices such as a mouse which could also be used in a game are covered in the function place G03F 3/00.

involving biosensors worn by the player, e.g. for measuring heart beat, limb activity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using sensors worn by the player, e.g. for measuring heart beat or leg activity.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US5672107, EP1275420, JP2003033572, JP11047445, JP7289734.

Calibration; Key and button assignment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setup operations, e.g. calibration, key configuration or button assignment.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2006116203, JP2006149927, JP2283390.

details of the interface with the game device, e.g. USB version detection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For interfacing with the game device, e.g. specific interfaces between game controller and game console. For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US6514143, US2001009564, JP2001147767, JP2001202168.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interfaces for pointing devices in general

using a wireless connection, e.g. Bluetooth, infrared connections
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2002098889, US2006111187, JP2002140154, JP2004329300.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wireless communication networks

being specially adapted for converting control signals received from the game device into a haptic signal, e.g. using force feedback
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generating tactile feedback signals via the game input device, e.g. force feedback.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2006046843, US2007182708, JP2006068210, JP2005056267.

being characterized by constructional details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details thereof, e.g. controllers with detachable joystick handles.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1586356, EP1475131, US2004142749, JP2005296432, JP2004329915, JP2004215856.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructional details or arrangements of video game devices

using inertial sensors, e.g. accelerometers, gyroscopes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1062994, WO2004009196, JP2007296219.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Acceleration sensors per se

involving pressure sensitive buttons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using pressure sensors, e.g. generating a signal proportional to the pressure applied by the player.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007281787, US2004147317, JP2007299706, JP2004261193.

being specially adapted to a type of game, e.g. steering wheel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specially adapted to a particular type of game, e.g. steering wheels.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US5056787, US5813864, US6312335, JP2114982, JP9149957, JP10214155.

being specially adapted to detect the point of contact of the player on a surface, e.g. floor mat, touch pad
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For locating contacts on a surface, e.g. floor mats or touch pads.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007015588, JP2000293292, JP2007018372, JP2004337504.

using a touch screen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The surface being also a display device, e.g. touch screens.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2005159223, US2006019752, JP2005204754, JP3734819B1.

Input via voice recognition
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For detecting acoustic signals, e.g. using a microphone. Microphones allowing the player to enter a voice command for, e.g. providing additional control of his/her character.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007178952, JP2000181676, JP2002136764, JP2005103241.

comprising photodetecting means, e.g. a camera
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Comprising photodetecting means, e.g. cameras, photodiodes or infrared cells.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2005208999, US6811492, JP7185131, JP2003010541, JP2004085524, JP2005230139.

characterised by details of the game platform
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the game device.

Playing authorisation given at platform level
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Authorising game programs or game devices, e.g. checking authenticity of the recording medium.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007092118 ([44]-[49]), JP2007089732.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer security

Image generating hardware
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specially adapted for generating image data, e.g. circuitry for displaying objects on a television screen.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1585062, EP1469382, EP0553532, JP2005287756, JP2004318139, JP2003126550.

the platform being a handheld device
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Game devices specially adapted to be portable, i.e. held in at least one hand while playing.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US6764400, US2002047237, JP10235014, JP2000051517.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Constructional details of input arrangements

for detecting the geographical location of the game platform
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using geographical information, e.g. location of the game device or player using GPS.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2002063655 ([38]-[44]), JP2002159743.

Game information storage, e.g. cartridges, CD ROM`s, DVD`s, smart cards
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Storage medium specially adapted for storing game information, e.g. game cartridge.

for accessing game resources from local storage, e.g. streaming content from DVD
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving loading game data from a removable recording medium, e.g. streaming from a DVD.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO03032127 (p.8, l.16 - p.10, l.3), US6949023 ([3], [4], [73]-[82]), JP2005505362T, JP2000107455.

for storing personal settings or data of the player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving personal data of the player, e.g. player profile, personal settings.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2003109312 ([32]-[35]), JP2001104646.

characterized by low level software layer, relating to hardware management, e.g. Operating System, Application Programming Interface
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Low level software layer, relating to hardware management, e.g. Operating System, API.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2003154367 ([57]-[65]), US6672963 (abstract), JP2000047876.

characterized by output arrangements for receiving control signals generated by the game device
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Output arrangements for game devices.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital output to display device

Control of display in general

using an additional display connected to the game console e.g. on the controller
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Having at least one additional display device, e.g. on the game controller or outside a game booth.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US20070015577.

specially adapted for receiving control signals not targeted to a display device or game input means, e.g. vibrating driver's seat, scent dispenser
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Responding to control signals received from the game device for affecting ambient conditions, e.g. for vibrating player's seats, activating scent dispensers or affecting temperature or light.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP0970730.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Controlling visual or acoustic output signals based on the game progress

for displaying additional data, e.g. simulating a Head Up Display
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using indicators, e.g. showing the condition of a game character on screen.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007149266 (circular gauge, [5]-[6], [62]-[64]), EP1787697 (showing tire load in driving game), JP2007167153.

for providing a graphical or textual hint to the player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For graphically or textually suggesting an action, e.g. by displaying an arrow indicating a turn in a driving game.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007111768, JP2006031670, JP2002360921.

for displaying a marker associated to an object or location in the game field
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For tagging game characters, game objects or locations in the game scene, e.g. displaying a circle under the character controlled by the player.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP0844580 (marker at soccer player's feet, figure 7, claim 5), JP2006212423.

for displaying an additional window with a view from the top of the game field, e.g. radar screen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2002006817 (soccer game shows 1 of 3 radars, [4]-[6], [41]-[51]), JP11128538, JP2002210235.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Using a plurality of virtual cameras concurrently

Details of the user interface
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For prompting the player, e.g. by displaying a game menu.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1273326, US2005176486 (selecting soccer players on touch screen, [6], [134]-[138]), JP2005218779

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interactions techniques for graphical user interfaces

characterised by details of platform network
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Interconnection arrangements between game servers and game devices; Interconnection arrangements between game devices; Interconnection arrangements between game servers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interconnection arrangements in generic data networks

Communication between platforms, i.e. physical link to protocol
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Communication aspects specific to video games, e.g. between several handheld game devices at close range.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Communication control characterised by protocols

Connection between platform and handheld device
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Between game devices with different hardware characteristics, e.g. hand-held game devices connectable to game consoles or arcade machines.

characterized by a local network connection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using a local connection.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

LAN in general

being a wireless ad hoc network, e.g. Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Pico net
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving a wireless network, e.g. Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or piconet.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wireless communication networks

Transmission via wireless network, e.g. pager or GSM
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using wireless networks, e.g. cellular phone networks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wireless communication networks

Data transfer via internet
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

IP networks per se

Peer to peer connection
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Peer-to-peer networking in general

Data transfer via television network
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interactive television

Server architecture
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hardware details of game servers.

server hierarchy, e.g. local, regional, national or dedicated for different tasks, e.g. authenticating, billing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving special game server arrangements, e.g. regional servers connected to a national server or a plurality of servers managing partitions of the game world.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1407803 (abstract, paragraphs [52],[58],[61]-[81], claim 1, fig 11).

connected to a local network, e.g. in a plane, hotel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular local network, e.g. on a plane, in a train, in a hotel.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO2006062641 (figure 1, claim).

using secure communication, e.g. by encryption, authentication
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using secure communication between game devices and game servers, e.g. by encrypting game data or authenticating players.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1519531 (abstract. figures 5,6).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Network security

for network load management. e.g. bandwidth optimization, latency reduction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adapting the progress of the game according to the network or server load, e.g. for reducing latency due to different connection speeds between game clients.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO02098526 (abstract, page 20: line 3 and following.

for performing operations on behalf of the game client, e.g. rendering
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Performing operations on behalf of game clients with restricted processing capabilities, e.g. game servers transform changing game scene into an MPEG-stream for transmitting to a mobile phone or a thin client.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO03095050 (abstract, figure 2).

Details of game data or player data management
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For managing game device-related data or player-related data.

using advertisements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using advertising information.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US6928414 (abstract, paragraphs [23],[84], figure 3).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Advertising per se

involving billing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For payment purposes, e.g. monthly subscriptions.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2006168119 (abstract).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Payment protocols

Coin-freed apparatus and like for games

for downloading to client devices, e.g. using OS version, hardware or software profile of the client device
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving data related to game devices or game servers, e.g. configuration data, software version or amount of memory.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1291048 (abstract, figure 3, paragraph [20]).

by saving game or status data
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Saving the game status; Suspending or ending the game.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO2004026425 (page1:line 20 through page 2:line 13, figures 2,4).

using player registration data, e.g. identification, account, preferences, game history
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving player-related data, e.g. identities, accounts, preferences or play histories.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1669117 (paragraph [33], figures 2,3).

Player lists, e.g. online players, buddy list, black list
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For finding other players, e.g. for matching opponents or building a team by skill level, geographical area, preferences, play style or for providing a buddy list.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US20030104868 (abstract, claim 1, figures 1,9).

player location
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving game device location.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO2007010336 (abstract, paragraphs [2], [4], [48], [49], figures 1,2).

by assessing the players' skills or ranking
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For assessing skills or ranking players, e.g. for generating a hall of fame.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US 20040198495 (abstract, paragraphs [7],[34],figures 1,4).

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Computing the game score

for enforcing rights or rules, e.g. to prevent foul play
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Enforcing rules, e.g. detecting foul play or generating lists of cheating players.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see WO2007109130 (abstract, figures 1,3,7).

details of game services offered to the player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Providing additional services to players.

Communication between players during game play of non game information, e.g. e-mail, chat, file transfer, streaming of audio and streaming of video
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Communicating with other players during game play, e.g. by e-mail or chat.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US6241612 (abstract, figure 3).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conference services in data networks

Message switching systems, e.g. e-mail systems

for importing or creating game content, e.g. authoring tools during game development, adapting content to different platforms, use of a scripting language to create content
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generating or modifying game content before or while executing the game program e.g. specific authoring tools for game development or game-integrated level editor. adapting content to different game platforms, using a scripting language to create content.

where the game content is authored by the player, e.g. level editor or by game device at runtime, e.g. level is created from music data on CD
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

By the player, e.g. authoring using a level editor.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2001037181 (abstract, [174]-[188]), JP2001184525.

using adaptive systems learning from user actions, e.g. for skill level adjustment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adaptively or by learning from player actions, e.g. skill level adjustment or by storing successful combat sequences for re-use.

for offering a minigame in combination with a main game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For offering mini-games in combination with main games, e.g. while loading the main game content.

for mapping control signals received from the input arrangement into game commands
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

By mapping the input signals into game commands, e.g. mapping the displacement of a stylus on a touch screen to the steering angle of a virtual vehicle.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2006252540 ([92], [93], [96], [98]), EP1125610 (claim 1), JP2006311966.

by generating automatically game commands to assist the player, e.g. automatic braking in a driving game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Automatically for the purpose of assisting the player, e.g. automatic braking in a driving game.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US6764401 (abstract), US2003032466 ([1]-[4], [49]-[55]), JP2001046742, JP2003053035.

of an input signal e.g. pitch and rhythm extraction, voice recognition
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving acoustic input signals, e.g. by using the results of pitch or rhythm extraction or voice recognition.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Input arrangements for game devices for detecting acoustic signals

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Evaluating musical performance in general

Evaluating musical performance for karaoke

Evaluating musical performance rhythm or tempo

Evaluating musical performance and for pitch

Speech recognition

Microphones

generating an output signal, e.g. under timing constraints, for spatialization
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving acoustic signals, e.g. for simulating revolution-dependent engine sound in a driving game or reverberation against a virtual wall.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sound-producing devices

for unlocking hidden game elements, e.g. features, items, levels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

By enabling or updating specific game elements, e.g. unlocking hidden features, items, levels or versions.

for controlling the execution of the game in time
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Controlling the progress of the game.

by branching, e.g. choosing one of several possible story developments at a given point in time
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving branching, e.g. choosing one of several possible scenarios at a given point in time.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2007010325 ([4], [69], [72], [73]), JP2007014457.

for replaying partially or entirely the game actions since the beginning of the game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Partially or entirely replaying previous game actions.

involving process of starting or resuming a game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting a game, e.g. waiting for other players to join a multiplayer session or activating a game device.

according to the timing of operation or a time limit
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving the timing of operations, e.g. performing an action within a time limit.

for computing dynamical parameters of game objects, e.g. motion determination or computation of frictional forces for a virtual car
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Simulating properties, behaviour or motion of objects in the game world, e.g. computing tyre load in a car race game . e.g. gravity direction is variable and depends on input signal.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US20090005139 (player-chosen gravity direction), US20060258448 (planet's gravity is controlled by player [71]-[77]), US20090325694 (switching between classical and quantum physics).

by determining the impact between objects, e.g. collision detection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using determination of contact between game characters or game objects, e.g. to avoid collision between virtual racing cars.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2003162592 (objects are glued when colliding, figure 2B, figure 8A, [118]-[120]), EP2216082 (size of contact area decreases if tennis player looses balance [38]-[39]), US2002024521.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Collision detection in image processing

for calculating the trajectory of an object
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using trajectories of game objects, e.g. of a golf ball according to the point of impact.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US20090051690 (NPC trajectory randomly chosen between 2+ curves), US20090118011 (drawn trajectory is analysed to suggest user input, claim 1).

for computing the condition of a game character
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

By computing conditions of game characters, e.g. stamina, strength, motivation or energy level.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US20030144045 (psychological pressure in basketball game).

for rendering three dimensional images
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving aspects of the displayed game scene. instructing the image rendering of a game scene on the basis of game parameters; details of the rendering of the 3D game scene are classified in the corresponding function place G06T.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP2000185 (NPC character is removed from scene if not in player character field of vision, [3], [42]-[44]), US20020198047 (2 game fields are displayed together, [3], [4], claim 1).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Two dimensional image generation

Animation in general

Three dimensional image rendering

for animating game characters, e.g. skeleton kinematics
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Computing the motion of game characters with respect to other game characters, game objects or elements of the game scene, e.g. for simulating the behaviour of a group of virtual soldiers or for path finding. e.g. for controlling clone characters, for intercepting a soccer ball.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP1228794 (2nd character automatically controlled or not), EP1586357 (clones in fixed configuration), EP1203603 (jump or push obstacle depending on speed), JP2005287757.

for animating a group of characters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specially adapted to simulate their behaviour as a group, e.g. bird flock, school of fishes, military formation.

for the computation and display of the shadow of an object or character
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shadowing in three dimensional image rendering

for changing the position of the virtual camera
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Changing parameters of virtual cameras.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP0990458.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Navigation in three-dimensional environments

using a plurality of virtual cameras concurrently or sequentially, e.g. automatically switching between fixed virtual cameras when a character change rooms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using a plurality of virtual cameras concurrently or sequentially, e.g. automatically switching between fixed virtual cameras when a game character changes room or displaying a rear-mirror view in a car-driving game.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2003027637 (switching cameras in fight game depending on hit count, claim 1).

by dedicated player input
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

According to dedicated instructions from player, e.g. using a secondary joystick to rotate the virtual camera around the player's character.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2006040740.

by dynamically adapting its position to keep a game object in its viewing frustrum e.g. for tracking a character or a ball
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP0933105 (distance between player's car and camera depends on obstacles, [80]-[81]).

using special effects, generally involving post-processing, e.g. blooming
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using special effects, generally involving post-processing, e.g. blurring of rendered frames.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see EP0948979, EP1744283, EP1170044, JP11272881, JP2005316926 and JP2002024857.

Involving elements of the real world in the game world, e.g. measurement in live races, real video
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Automatically by game devices or servers from real world data, e.g. measurement in live racing competition. game level is created from music data on a CD.

Imported photos, e.g. of the player
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US2005219377 and JP2005284767.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Input arrangements for game devices using photodetecting means

specially adapted for executing a specific type of game
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special adaptations for executing a specific game genre or game mode.

Athletics
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Athletic performances, e.g. track-and-field sports.

Ball
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ball games, e.g. soccer or baseball.

Driving on land or water; Flying
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Driving vehicles or crafts, e.g. cars, airplanes, ships, robots or tanks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Simulators for teaching control of vehicles or other crafts

the game being played by multiple players at a common site, e.g. in an arena, theatre, shopping mall using a large public display
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Characterised by a large display in a public venue, e.g. in a movie theatre, stadium or game arena.

For examples of the subject matter covered by this Indexing Code, see US20060258457.

Fighting without shooting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand-to-hand fighting, e.g. martial arts competition.

Virtual fishing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fishing.

Skating using skis, skates or board
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gliding or sliding on surfaces, e.g. using skis, skates or boards.

Music games
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using musical performances, e.g. by evaluating the player on the ability to follow a notation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Evaluating musical performance in general

For karaoke

Rhythm or tempo

For pitch

Ball team management
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Managing virtual sport teams.

Virtual breeding, eg. tamagotchi
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fostering game characters.

Shooting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shooting of targets.

involving concurrently several players in a non-networked game, e.g. on the same game console
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Involving concurrently several players on the same game device, e.g. requiring the use of a plurality of controllers, of a split-screen or of a specific view of game data for each player.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013