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FILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS (dental prosthetics A61C)
Definition statement
This subclass covers:

Apparatus, devices or methods for physically correcting or altering the body of patients or disabled persons that are directly and for prolonged periods of time (i.e. not just during acute exceptional circumstances) used on or in the body of the patient or the disabled person:

Stents and similar devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body;

Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body that are either implantable into the body (e.g. blood vessels, eye parts, heart valves, bones, joints) or not implantable in the body (e.g. mammary prostheses, artificial arms, hands, legs or feet or parts thereof);

Specially adapted electrical, bioelectrical or fluid operating or control means for prostheses or sphincters;

Specially adapted means for connecting prostheses with or to the body (e.g. bandages, harnesses, sockets, stockings for the limb stump);

Specially adapted means for protecting prostheses;

Filters implantable into blood vessels;

Lengthening pieces for natural legs;

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints, e.g. splints, casts, corsets, devices for stretching including equipment for beds or treatment tables, medical insertions for shoes, pressure pads, suspensory bandages;

Methods or devices for physically treating or correcting of the eyes (e.g. eye surgery using laser);

Apparatus specially adapted for guiding the blind by supplementing or replacing their visual perception;

Methods or devices for treatment of the ears, e.g. surgical.

Methods or devices (e.g. head or eye-gaze-direction actuated control devices, oral communication actuated control devices) for enabling patients or disabled persons to operate independent apparatus or machines (i.e. apparatus such as room lights or doors that is not a part of, or used in conjunction with the functioning of, artificial or natural parts of their body) without the application of direct force from the part of the human body that would normally be used by individuals for controlling operation of the independent apparatus or machine such as a hand, foot or their artificial equivalents.

Contraceptive devices for males (e.g. condoms, vas deferens occluders) or females (e.g. pessaries, intra-uterine type, fallopian occluders).

Devices for medical or hygienic care of living individuals that are worn by the individual or directly contact the body of the individual during their care:

Devices worn by the patient for reception of urine, faeces; colostomy devices;

Bandages or dressings, e.g. plasters, elastic stockings;

Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, absorbent garments, e.g. diapers, tampons, e.g. catamenial tampons, surgical swabs; supporting and fastening means for pads.

Heating or cooling devices for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body and for body cavities, e.g. compresses, warming pads, pans or mats, hot water bottles, ice bags.

Protective devices for the eyes, e.g. goggles, eye-masks worn to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes.

Devices for inserting contact lenses.

Protective devices for the ears, e.g. ear plugs or earmuffs.

Auxiliary appliances for wound dressings; dispensing containers for dressings or bandages; packages or wrapping arrangements for used pads, e.g. for disposal.

Containers having various emergency medical supplies such as bandages, simple medical tools, and medicines (i.e. first-aid kits) that are intended to be used for administering initial treatment to injured or sick individuals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If an apparatus, method, device, or material is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61F. Similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61F that are usable exclusively for animals or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D.

Surgical apparatus or processes in general are covered by subclass A61B.

Subclass A61H provides for massage, chiropractic, or physical therapy apparatus or processes used for the treatment of disease, injuries or disability (i.e. an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy.

Chemical and material aspects of prostheses, structures inserted into tubular structures of human bodies, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles are covered by subclass A61L.

With regard to human organs and their parts, the exact distinction between the artificial devices implantable into human bodies that are proper for subclass A61F and those proper for subclass A61M is somewhat imprecise. Therefore, for analogous situations that are not specifically covered by existing groups of these subclasses, the following listings are intended to provide guidance.

Subclass A61F provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: hollow or tubular parts of organs (e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi, heart valves and blood vessels, bile ducts), structural supporting or maintaining devices for such parts (e.g. stents), artificial eyes and artificial ears.

Subclass A61M provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: artificial hearts (based on catchword index), artificial livers, artificial lungs, artificial pancreas, artificial kidneys and catheters in general.

Devices for introducing media into or onto the body, devices for taking media from the body are also covered by subclass A61M.

Spectacles, sunglasses, contact lenses or goggles insofar as they have the features of vision correction or protection against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light are covered by subclass G02C.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Brassieres

Cosmetic articles, e.g. wigs, hair pieces

Caps with means for protecting the eyes or the ears

Ordinary arch supports for shoes

Artificial nails

Heating or cooling means in connection with bedsteads or mattresses

Surgical instruments

Devices for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

Dental prostheses

Chiropractic methods or devices

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

Massage of the genitals

Chemical aspects of contraception

Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

Adhesives for colostomy devices

Surgical adhesives or cements

Materials for prostheses

Materials for colostomy devices

Artificial hearts, kidneys

Irrigators

Drainage appliances for wounds

Dilators

Valves specially adapted for medical use

Making artificial eyes from organic plastic material

Arm rests for use as writing aids

Arrangements of tyre-inflating valves to tyres or rims

Safety devices for welding in general

Removable contact lenses

Sunglasses or goggles having the same features as spectacles

Electric heating elements

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Undergarments

Baby linen

Corsets or girdles

Surgical drapes

Transdermal drug delivery patches

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

Goggles for swimming

Diving masks

Materials for prostheses

Balloon catheters

Dilators

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

The breakdown symbols (i.e. the non "parallel" or non "mirror" symbols) and "orthogonal" symbols are to be used for classifying the invention information (in addition to the invention symbols) in case the invention is insufficiently classified by an invention information symbol. They are also to be used for classifying the additional information. They are stored in the additional information field.

Classify in both A61M and A61F if the disclosed utility is injecting media into the body, e.g. blood, to cool the body.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Absorbent articles

Articles adapted to absorb liquid excreted by the body.

Dilator

A (surgical) device or instrument used to dilate, distend, enlarge, expand, stretch an opening, organ, passage, tube, canal or cavity of a human or animal body (e.g. urethrotomy, tracheotomy, nasal, anal or cervix (Hegar's dilator) or vaginal dilation, bougienage, percutaneous dilation of tissues (Byrd dilator), whereas stents are not dilators but prostheses for providing patency, or preventing collapsing of tubular structures of the body.

Disabled person

A human being that is unable to do certain basic physical tasks (e.g. walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Patient

A human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g. testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g. doctors, dentists, midwives, chiropractors), or (b) physical tending (e.g. feeding) by care giver (e.g. hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Stent

Balloon- or self-expandable tubular device for use in the treatment of duct-like organs typified for example by a blood vessel, biliary tract, urinary tract, digestive tract, and the like providing patency.

Stent graft

Stent with a tubular member made of a synthetic resin affixed to the inside or outside of the stent.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression/word device for fluid management is often used with the meaning incontinence article.

Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents (as cosmetic articles, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. wigs, hair pieces, A41G 3/00, A41G 5/00, artificial nails A45D 31/00; dental prostheses A61C 13/00; materials for prostheses A61L 27/00; artificial hearts A61M 1/10; artificial kidneys A61M 1/14)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Cosmetic articles, e.g. wigs, hair pieces

Artificial nails

Dental prostheses

Materials for prostheses

Artificial hearts

Artificial kidneys

Special rules of classification within this group

The "subdivision" Indexing Code symbols (i.e. the non "parallel" Indexing Code symbols) are used for classifying as well the invention information as the additional information. They are stored only in the additional information field"

The "orthogonal" Indexing Code symbols are also used.

Prostheses classified in groups A61F 2/00 to A61F 2/26 or A61F 2/82 or A61F 9/00 or A61F 11/00 or subgroups thereof:

A61F 2210/00 Particular material properties

A61F 2220/00 Fixations or connections

A61F 2230/00 Geometry of prostheses

A61F 2240/00 Manufacturing or designing of prostheses (specific manufacturing fields take precedance)

A61F 2250/00 Special features of prostheses

{Closure means for urethra or rectum, i.e. anti-incontinence devices or support slings against pelvic prolapse}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Colostomy devices: A61F 5/445

Receptacles for taking up urine or feces: A61F 5/451

Drainage catheters: A61M 27/00

Medical informatics for controlling closure devices: G06F 19/30

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Closure means for other lumina

Drainage of urine without closure

Catheters for rectum

{placed in or outside the body opening close to the surface of the body (plugging an opening in the wall of a hollow or tubular organ A61B 17/0057)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Plugging an opening in the wall of a hollow or tubular organ

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/0009.

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{inflatable}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/0013.

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{placed deep in the body opening (occluding blood vessels by internal devices A61B 17/12022)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Occluding blood vessels by internal devices

Urethral drainage stents

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/0022

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{implantable (A61F 2/0018 takes precedence)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Implanted gastrointestinal electrodes for the anal tract: A61N 1/0512

Implanted gastrointestinal electrodes for the urinary tract: A61N 1/0514

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Magnetic closure means placed in or outside the body opening close to the surface of the body

Injectable solid implants

Drainage implants in the urethral tract

Stimulation by electrodes

{inflatable}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants: A61F 2250/0001

{Support slings}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Slings or meshes for pelvic prolapse

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Hernia repair meshes: A61F 2/0063

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bone anchors for fixation of slings

Suturing instruments

Treatment of female stress incontinence, i.e. especially delivery devices or other devices for implantation

{with pressure applied to urethra by an element placed in the vagina}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Tampons: A61F 13/20

Pessaries, i.e. devices worn in the vagina to support the uterus: A61F 6/08

Exercising apparatus for vaginal muscles: A63B 23/20

{with pressure applied to urethra by an element placed around the penis, e.g. penis clamp}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Absorbent pads for male use: A61F 13/471

Penis implants: A61F 2/26

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clamps or clips in general

{Cosmetic or alloplastic implants (A61F 2/10 to A61F 2/16, A61F 2/28 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Implants are structurally confined; there are no uncontained fillers

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Cosmetic fillers: A61K 8/02

Cosmetic materials containing animal cells: A61L 27/38

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Hair or skin implants

Mammary prosthesis

Eye parts

Intraocular lenses

Bones

{Implantable repair or support meshes, e.g. hernia meshes}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Knitting processes for the production of meshes: D04B 21/12

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Implants for closing a vessel puncture or a septal defect

Bandages

Support slings for the urethra

Breast lifts

Heart meshes, i.e. covering the external surface of the heart

Mesh patterns and the fabrication thereof

{Special surfaces of prostheses, e.g. for improving ingrowth (A61F 2/30767 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Bone surfaces

Materials for coating prostheses

Sand blasting

Processes for functionalising a surface

Inorganic coating processes

{Packages or dispensers for prostheses or other implants (for intraocular lenses A61F 2/1691; for dental surgery A61C 19/02)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Packages or dispensers for instruments: A61B 19/026

Packages in general: B65D 1/00 - B65D 90/00

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Packages or dispensers for dental surgery

Packages or dispensers for intraocular lenses

Special rules of classification within this group

Implants receive their particular Indexing Code-code together with the class A61F 2/0095 (Example: a package for a soft heart valve prosthesis will be classified in A61F 2/0095 and A61F 2/2412).

Filters implantable into blood vessels {(filters used as gripping instruments A61B 17/22031)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Catheters for removing obstructions in lumina with perfusion capabilities: A61B 17/22

Aspiration catheters: A61M 1/008

Dilation catheters with perfusion capabilities: A61M 2025/1095

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Filters used as gripping instruments

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Internal occluding devices

Snare instruments

{Distal protection devices, i.e. devices placed distally in combination with another endovascular procedure, e.g. angioplasty or stending}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/013.

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The other endovascular procedure in addition to the filtering device has to be classified in the appropriate groups such as for example:

Stent or stent-graft delivery devices: A61F2/84

Balloon catheters: A61M 25/10

Prostheses implantable into the body {(closure means for urethra or rectum or for artificial body openings therefor A61F 2/0004)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Closure means for urethra or rectum or for artificial body openings therefor

{Artificial gland structures using bioreactors (hemodialysis A61M 1/16; hemofiltration A61M 1/34; other extracorporeal blood treatment A61M 1/36)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Devices which replace or supplement a natural gland and deliver enzymes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Drug delivery

Hemodialysis

Hemofiltration

Other extracorporeal blood treatment

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bioreactors for enzymes

Processes for producing enzymes

Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts (A61F 2/18, A61F 2/20 take precedence; devices, other than stent-grafts, providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body other than stent-grafts, e.g. stents A61F 2/82; instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts A61F 2/95)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Urethral drainage stents : A61M 25/0017

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Internal ear or nose parts

Epiglottis, Larynxes Tracheae

Stents

Bariatric or gastric sleeves

Tear duct implants

A61F9/00T

Special rules of classification within this group

Documents receiving a class in A61F 2/04 have to receive a further class information, such as:

Urinary bladders: A61F 2/042

Bronchi: A61F 2002/043

Esophageal anti reflux valves and devices: A61F 2002/044

Tubes in the stomach: A61F 2002/045

Trachea: A61F 2002/046

Urethrae: A61F 2002/047

Ureters: A61F 2002/048

{Urinary bladders}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Drainage implant : A61M 27/002

Blood vessels
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Tubular structures that substitute natural blood vessels, e.g. bypass grafts

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Materials for artificial blood vessels

Artificial blood vessels as access point for injections e.g. for repeated puncture

Tracheal tubes

{Apparatus for the production of blood vessels made from natural tissue or with layers of living cells (prostheses made from natural tissue or living cells A61L27/5007)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Devices for creating vascular grafts by mechanical means.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Materials containing animal cells: A61L 27/38

Cell culture and products made of cells: C12N 5/00

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protheses made from natural tissue or living cells

Bioreactors for producing artificial tissue or for ex-vivo cultivation of tissue

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/062:

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{with special features to facilitate anastomotic coupling (anastomosis of natural blood vessels A61B 17/11)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The artificial blood vessel has special technical features, e.g. hooks to provide a connection to a natural or artificial blood vessel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Anastomosis in general; Anastomosis of natural blood vessels

Stent-grafts
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stent-grafts for blood vessels. Stent-grafts are tubular grafts with stents embedded therein or attached to the graft material. The stent-graft for blood vessels is usually deployed within an aneurysm. The stent anchors the graft to the blood vessel wall. The graft is usually made from fabric material

Relationship between large subject matter areas

External clamps or sleeves around an aneurism: A61B 17/12

Reinforcement of blood vessels, e.g. for repeated puncture: A61M 1/3655

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

External stent or sleeve around aneurysm

Stent-grafts for tubular structures of the body other than blood vessels

Instruments for placement or removal

Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments {(sutures A61B 17/04)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Artificial muscles implanted in the body

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Tendon anastomosis: A61B 17/1146

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Sutures

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial muscles as exoprostheses, i.e. not implanted but outside the body

Programme-controlled manipulators with muscles or tendons

{Implements for inserting tendons or ligaments}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Guiding means for bone drills

{Fixation devices for tendons or ligaments}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Suture anchors

Staples for connecting tendon to bone

Special rules of classification within this group

Documents receiving a class in A61F 2/0811 have to receive a further class information, such as:

Structure of the anchor

Modular anchors comprising a plurality of separate parts

without deformation of anchor parts, e.g. fixation screws on bone surface, extending barbs, cams, butterflies, spring-loaded pins

with deformation of anchor parts, e.g. expansion of dowel by set screw

Longitudinal channel for insertion tool running through the whole tendon anchor, e.g. for accommodating bone drill, guidewire

Mode of fixation of anchor to tendon or ligament

Fixation of a loop or U-turn, e.g. eyelets, anchor having multiple holes

Fixation of tendon or ligament between anchor and bone, e.g. interference screws, wedges

Fixation of tendon or ligament between anchor elements, e.g. by additional screws in the anchor, anchor crimped around tendon

Anchor integrated into tendons, e.g. bone blocks, integrated rings

Position of anchor in respect to the bone

Anchor in or on top of a bone tunnel, i.e. a hole running through the entire bone

Anchor in or on a blind hole or on the bone surface without formation of a tunnel

Hair or skin implants
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Instruments for implanting hair follicles

Hair cells

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wigs

Hair pieces

{Skin implants, e.g. artificial skin}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Skin cells

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for use in artificial skin

Mammary prostheses and implants
Relationship between large subject matter areas

External mammary prostheses: A61F 2/52

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Devices for expanding tissue

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/12

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Example for mammary support implant: WO2007004214

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Eye parts, e.g. lenses, corneal implants; { Implanting instruments specially adapted therefor}; Artificial eyes
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All eye prostheses and replacement parts not provided for in the subclasses

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Retinal electrodes: A61N 1/0526

Retinal implants: A61N 1/36046

Removable contact lenses: G02C 7/04

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Artificial eyes (making thereof from organic plastic material)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packages or dispensers for prostheses or other implants in general

Exercisers for the eye

{Artificial eyes}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Surgical instruments for osteosynthesis of orbital bone

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/141

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{Cornea, e.g. artificial corneae, keratoprostheses or corneal implants for repair of defective corneal tissue}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Artificial or natural cornea replacement implant for repair of defective corneal tissue.

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Relationship between large subject matter areas

Implantation instruments therefor: A61F 2/148

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Optically active corneal inlay or onlays for refractive correction

Corneal implants for refractive correction by alteration of the shape of the cornea

{Corneal inlays, onlays, or lenses for refractive correction}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Optically active elements inserted between corneal layers for refractive correction.

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Corneal onlays and inlays for photoablative laser surgery

Corneal onlays and inlays for photodisruptive laser surgery

Reshaping the cornea assisted by thermal and/or chemical treatment and the like

A61F9/012

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Contact lenses for reshaping the cornea, i.e. orthokeratology

{Implants to be inserted in the stroma for refractive correction, e.g. ring-like implants}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stromal or corneal implants, in general at least partial rings, shaping the cornea for refractive correction.

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Relationship between large subject matter areas

Contact lenses for reshaping the cornea, i.e. orthokeratology: G02C 7/04

{Implantation instruments specially adapted therefor}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Implantation instruments for corneal implants altering the shape of the cornea for refractive correction

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Implantation instruments for intraocular lenses

Intraocular lenses
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

An intraocular lens (IOL) is an optically active element implanted in the eye, either replacing a removed natural crystalline lens (aphakic) or for additional refractive correction of the existing crystalline lens (phakic) or a separate artificial IOL (pseudo-phakic).

An intraocular prism shifting the image on the retina slightly away from the fovea (e.g. in case of macular degeneration) is considered as an IOL.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mirrors and prisms in general

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Phakia

the presence of the natural crystalline lens.

Aphakia

the absence of the natural crystalline lens, either from natural causes or because it has been removed.

Pseudophakia

substitution of the natural crystalline lens with a synthetic lens.

Pseudophakic IOLs

are used in cataract surgery

{Corrective lenses for use in addition to the natural lenses of the eyes or for pseudo-phakic eyes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Corrective lenses for phakic or pseudophakic eyes.

PN - US2002103537 A1 20020801

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Intraocular lenses for replacing the natural cristalline lens

Special rules of classification within this group

Piggyback lenses: additional IOL for "fine tuning" already implanted IOL (pseudophakic), A61F 2/1602 (& A61F 2/1648) & A61F 2/1613

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Phakic eye:

having natural crystalline lens

Pseudophakic eye

having an artificial lens replacing the natural crystalline lens

{having special lens configurations, e.g. multipart lenses; having particular optical properties, e.g. pseudo-accommodative lenses, lenses having aberration corrections, diffractive lenses, lenses for variably absorbing electromagnetic radiation, lenses having variable focus}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Having special lens configuration and particular optical properties, e.g. pseudo-accommodative, having variable focus, aberration correcting, multipart, diffractive, variably absorbing electromagnetic radiation.

{Pseudo-accommodative, e.g. multifocal or enabling monovision}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Pseudo-accommodative IOL having fixed power or power distribution, the brain selects the sharp image formed on the retina, neglecting blurred images.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Accommodative IOL having variable focal power

{Multifocal lenses}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A plurality of different but fixed powers usually distributed on concentric circles, bifocal lenses are comprised

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{enabling correction for monovision}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A different lens in each eye, with different foci, e.g. to enable near and far vision.

Term referring to a method of correcting presbyopia by using a lens corrected for distance in one eye (usually the dominant one) and a lens corrected for near in the other eye. Binocular vision is impaired with this method, especially stereoscopic vision. It is assumed that at any time one eye is focused while the other is not and the cortical visual system suppresses this latter image.

[Image taken from WIKIPEDIA]

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monovision in general

{having adjustable focus; power activated variable focus means, e.g. mechanically or electrically by the ciliary muscle or from the outside}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Actuated by external means as e.g. mechanically, by electrical or magnetic fields, or by an internal mechanisms of the eye, as e.g. mechanically or electrically by ciliary body action or by pupillary constriction (accommodating IOL).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Pseudo-accommodative lenses simultaneously offering distinct foci to the brain

{for changing index of refraction e.g. by external means or by tilting}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Crosslinked regions of a polymeric lens have increased volume, and hence increased refractive index and increased dioptre power,

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photosensitive materials with macromolecular compounds as photosensing material in general

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/1627

e.g. WO2009124231

media20.png

media21.png

For polymeric materials capable of changing focal power in response to crosslinking: A61F 2/1627 and A61F 2/1635 (or A61F 2/1635 and A61F 2/1627 depending on which effect is identified as dominant)

{for changing longitudinal position, i.e. along the visual axis when implanted}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Single optical elements changing position along its optical axis (like a slide machine) or more than one optical elements changing relative distance to alter the focal power.

media22.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Changing position perpendicularly to longitudinal axis

Special rules of classification within this group

For more than one optically active element

For one or more optically active element and one or more optically inactive additional elements like e.g. movement arms

{for changing radial position, i.e. perpendicularly to the visual axis when implanted}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Changing position vertically to visual axis, either one single optical element having irregular power distribution or at least two optic elements changing relative radial position

media23.png

Special rules of classification within this group

For more than one optical element: A61F 2/1632 and A61F 2/1648

{for changing shape}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Changing either shape or curvature of an external surface of the lens or e.g. of an internal interface between to immiscible fluids having different index of refraction.

media24.png

Special rules of classification within this group

Two media having different optical properties (e.g. refractive index): A61F 2250/0053

{Correcting aberrations caused by inhomogeneities; correcting intrinsic aberrations, e.g. of the cornea, of the surface of the natural lens, aspheric, cylindrical, toric lenses}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

IOL adapted for correcting higher order optical errors either by a particular form or by particular treatment of the refracting surfaces

Special rules of classification within this group

Aspheric IOL

Cylindrical IOL

Toric IOL

Special surface

{Multipart lenses}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

At least two optically active components.

media25.png

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Principle of different correction for the two eyes (far/near, colours, arrangement of power zones) in general: G02C

Special rules of classification within this group

At least one optically active and at least one optically inactive component, both necessary for the performance of the IOL assembly: A61F 2/1648

Made from materials having different optical properties (e.g. index of refraction) : A61F 2250/0053

{Diffractive lenses}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

IOL having at least one diffractive element

media26.png

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Ophthalmic lenses having diffractive optical surfaces in general: G02C

IOL comprising a Fresnel lens, prism or plate: A61F 2/1656

{Fresnel lenses, prisms or plates}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The Fresnel lens reduces the amount of material required compared to a conventional spherical lens by dividing the lens into a set of concentric annular sections known as Fresnel zones.

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{having variable absorption coefficient for electromagnetic radiation, e.g. photochromic lenses}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Microscopically and macroscopically variable absorption, i.e. due to modification of the structure or variable size of an opening in an opaque medium (e.g. for increasing depth of focus).

media28.png

Special rules of classification within this group

Radiopaque

K61F250/00W93

{Instruments for inserting intraocular lenses into the eye}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Any kind of instrument for inserting IOL in an eye during surgery for implantation

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Instruments for inserting mechanical ocular implants : A61F 2/148

Instruments for directly injecting therapeutic agents or drug eluting implants in an eye: A61F 9/0008

{for manual insertion during surgery, e.g. forceps-like instruments}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Instruments for manually (folding) and inserting an IOL in an eye during surgery, e.g. forceps-like

media29.png

For manual insertion during surgery, e.g. forceps-like instruments, tweezers

{with rotatable plungers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

IOL insertion instrument having a plunger for moving and ejecting the IOL actuated by rotation

media30.png

{with pushable plungers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Instruments for inserting an IOL in an eye during surgery, the plunger for moving and ejecting the IOL being actuated by being pushed

media31.png

{with a two-stage plunger, e.g. rotatable and pushable or rotatable at different speeds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Instruments for inserting an IOL in an eye having a plunger that allows for different kind of actuation e.g. for advancing and for ejecting the IOL

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{with a lubricated inner surface, e.g. the lubricant being coated on the inner surface or being injected through a port}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Insertion instruments having a lubricated surface, e.g. of the barrel, the loading chamber, the folding section or the ejecting nozzle, for reducing friction

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{with a separate cartridge or other lens setting part for storage of a lens, e.g. preloadable for shipping}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Insertion device having a separate cartridge, e.g. for storing (pre-packing) or for compaction of lens in order to avoid contamination due to handling of the IOL during loading in the inserter.

media34.png

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Packages or dispensers for IOL: A61F 2/1691

{Packages or dispensers for intraocular lenses (for contact lenses A45C 11/005)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Packages and holders for IOL ; individual containers or packages suitable for encasing and/or securing intraocular lenses e.g. for shipping and/or storage before implantation

media35.png

Relationship between large subject matter areas

IOL insertion instruments having a separate cartridge: A61F 2/1678

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Packages and holders for contact lenses

{Capsular bag spreaders therefor}
Special rules of classification within this group

Implantable holder for an, e.g. exchangeable, IOL

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/1694.

For example ring-shaped elements for supporting or stretching the capsular bag for easier implantation of an IOL

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Internal ear or nose parts, e.g. ear-drums {(implants for middle ear ventilation or drainage A61F 11/002)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Implants for middle ear ventilation or drainage

Cochlear electrodes

{Nose parts}
Special rules of classification within this group

Implants for plugging a hole in a nasal septum: A61B 17/0057

Orthopaedic devices for correcting deformities of the nose: A61F 5/08

{Epiglottis}; Larynxes; Tracheae combined with larynxes or for use therewith (tracheae, bronchi per se A61F 2/04; {tracheostomy tubes A61M 16/0465})
Special rules of classification within this group

Tracheae, bronchi per se: A61F 2/04

Tracheostomy tubes: A61M 16/0465

Heart valves {; Vascular valves, e.g. venous valves; Heart implants, e.g. passive devices for improving the function of the native valve or the heart muscle; Transmyocardial revascularisation [TMR] devices}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Vascular valves, e.g. venous valves; Heart implants, e.g. passive devices for improving the function of the native valve or the heart muscle; Transmyocardial revascularisation [TMR] devices as this is the most suitable place for.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Plugging a cardiac septal defect; Dividing the heart volume into a passive and an active section, e.g. umbrella shaped

Esophageal valves

Motor for/with heart valve

Valvuloplasty

Apical access devices/heart ports

Special rules of classification within this group

Lung/bronchial valves: A61F 2002/043

{with pivoting rigid closure members (check valves with hinged closure members in general F16K 15/03)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Check valves with hinged closure members in general

{Support rings therefor, e.g. for connecting valves to tissue (annuloplasty rings A61F 2/2442)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Sewing rings

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Annuloplasty rings

{with soft flexible valve members, e.g. tissue valves shaped like natural valves (check valves with flexible valve members in general F16K 15/14)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Check valves with flexible valve members in general

Special rules of classification within this group

Two part valves with a docking frame into which a valve is mounted during surgery get both A61F 2/2418 and A61F 2250/006 (modular).

{Manufacturing methods}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In particular cutting and forming of the prosthetic valve leaflets.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Surgical cutting instruments for a heart valve

{Scaffolds therefor, e.g. support stents}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This class includes features of the valve leaflets (e.g. geometrical) in relation to their fixation to the scaffold:

media37.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Annular rigid support rings

Stents used for opening blocked vessels

Special rules of classification within this group

Stents solely used for heart valves do not get a class in A61F 2/82 but may get codes (additional information).

Two part valves with a docking frame into which a valve is mounted during surgery get both A61F 2/2418 and A61F 2250/006 (modular).

Stent-like anchor members (no class in A61F 2/82 and subgroups is given additionally, except if a stent without valve is explicitly mentioned)

{Devices for manipulating or deploying heart valves during implantation}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Delivery devices for annuloplasty implants or for inserts in the coronary sinus for correcting the valve shape or for implants for improving the function of a native heart valve

Special rules of classification within this group

Handle mechanisms

Heart valve crimping mechanisms

{Deployment by mechanical expansion}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/243

media38.png

If an additional retractable sheath is mentioned also a code (additional information) is given A61F 2/2436.

{Expansion controlled by filaments}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2439

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{Annuloplasty rings or inserts for correcting the valve shape; Implants for improving the function of a native heart valve}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Staples connected by a thread for plicating the annulus

Devices for joining two adjacent leaflets at a single point, e.g. clips

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plugging a cardiac septal defect

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2442

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{Annuloplasty rings in direct contact with the valve annulus}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2445

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Springs for tensioning or expanding the annulus:

media42.png

{Inserts in the coronary sinus for correcting the valve shape}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Inserts not only in the coronary sinus but also in other coronary vessels.

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{Means for preventing inversion of the valve leaflets, e.g. chordae tendineae prostheses}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2454

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media45.png

{Chordae tendineae prostheses}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2457

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Valves with soft leaflets with artificial chordae get a class in both A61F 2/2412 (subclass where appropriate) and A61F 2/2457

{Devices for obstructing a leak through a native valve in a closed condition}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Plugs per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/246

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media48.png

{Implants forming part of the valve leaflets}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/246

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{with resilient valve members, e.g. conical spiral}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2469

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{Devices for testing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Devices for testing the proper functioning of the prosthetic valve in vivo or in vitro

{Venous valves}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also annuloplasty devices for venous valves and springs inside or outside the vein for reshaping the annulus.

Special rules of classification within this group

Annuloplasty devices for venous valves and springs inside or outside the vein for reshaping the annulus. Those also get the appropriate class in A61F 2/2442. Venous valves do not get a class in A61F 2/06 or A61F 2/07

{Devices outside the heart wall, e.g. bags, strips or bands}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Bags outside the heart wall:

media51.png

Heart splints:

media52.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Active ventricular assist devices, i.e. heartbags with motor

Special rules of classification within this group

Heart splints, i.e. two anchors connected by string to reduce heart volume: A61B 2017/048

Devices for improving valve function being external to the heart wall adjacent to the valve annulus: A61F 2/2442

{Devices within the heart chamber, e.g. splints}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also internal heart bags/meshes that pull the heart wall inside (e.g. equipped with barbs).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Membranes dividing the heart chamber volume into an active and a passive part

Barbs, anchors per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2487

media53.png

{Transmyocardial revascularisation [TMR] devices}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also implants for revascularising the myocardium, e.g. screws.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Anastomosis

By-pass connections, i.e. connections from heart chamber to blood vessel or from blood vessel to blood vessel

Side-to-side connections, i.e. shunts between vessels (clips without an elongate tubular middle part)

{Devices for determining the dimensions of the prosthetic valve to be implanted, e.g. templates, sizers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also templates for artificial heart valves, annuloplasty rings or other heart implants.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring per se

Penis implants
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

External devices for promoting erection

Special rules of classification within this group

If inflatable do not classify in A61F 2250/0003

Bones ({A61F 2/42 takes precedence}; joints A61F 2/30; {means for introducing bone substitute or for implanting bone graft implants A61F 2/4601; devices for grinding or milling bone material A61F 2/4644})
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Prosthetic bones, i.e. implants for replacing bones or parts of bones.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Surgical implants which are not prosthetic, but added to the natural bone, are classified in A61B 17/00. Examples classified in A61B 17/00 are: Bone plates, bone screws, bone fixators, devices for injection of materials into bone.

A61F 2/28 contains implants for replacement of bones or parts of bones.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Hand or foot

Tarsal bones

Carpal bones

Vertebrae

Anatomical models for scientific, medical or mathematical purposes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Joints

Means for introducing bone substitute or for implanting bone graft implants

Devices for grinding or milling bone material

Special rules of classification within this group

Additional information is classified under A61F 2/28 and A61F 2/30 - A61F 2002/48 and A61F 2310/00. Any additional information which may be useful for search must be completely classified.

{for mandibular reconstruction (temporo-mandibular joints A61F 2/3099; bone plates for the jaw A61B 17/8071)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bone plates for the jaw

Periodontal bone regeneration for consolidating natural teeth

Skull or cranium

Temporo-mandibular joints

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2803

media54.png

{Bone stump caps}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Devices for attachment of external prostheses to bone stumps are classified in both A61F 2/2814 and A61F 2/78.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for attaching external orthopedic prostheses to the body

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2814

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{Support means for bone substitute or for bone graft implants, e.g. membranes or plates for covering bone defects (nets or sleeves applied to surface of endoprostheses A61F 2/30907; bone plates A61B 17/80; bone regeneration in dental surgery A61C 8/0006)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bone plates

Bone regeneration in dental surgery

Nets or sleeves applied to surface of endoprostheses

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2846

media56.png

{for cadavers (devices for autopsy A61B 16/00)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for autopsy

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2857

media57.png

{Skull or cranium (A61F 2/2803 and A61F 2/3099 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

For mandibular reconstruction

Temporo-mandibular joints

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/2875

media58.png

Joints
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Prosthetic joints, i.e. implants for replacing joints or parts of joints. The classes A61F 2/30 to A61F 2/46 comprise:

Hip joints

Knee and elbow joints

Shoulder joints

Wrist, ankle, finger and toe joints

Vertebrae and vertebral joints

Tools for implanting or extracting prosthetic joints

Operating or control means

Accessories

Cartilage endoprostheses

Special articulating or bone contacting surfaces

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Surgical implants which are not prosthetic, but added to the natural joint, are classified in A61B 17/00. Examples classified in A61B 17/00 are: Devices implanted between the natural articulating surfaces, devices implanted adjacent a natural joint for stabilising it.

A61F 2/30 contains implantable devices for replacing anatomical joints.

Special rules of classification within this group

Additional information is classified under A61F 2/30 - A61F 2002/48. Any additional information which may be useful for search must be completelyclassified.

Additional information concerning a particular anatomical joint is classified under the corresponding subgroup (A61F 2/32 - A61F 2002/48).

Additional information concerning accessories is classified under A61F 2/30721.

Additional information concerning cartilage endoprostheses is classified under A61F 2/30756.

Additional information concerning external or bone-contacting surfaces of joint or bone prostheses is classified under A61F 2/30767.

Additional information concerning manufacturing of endoprostheses is classified under A61F 2/3094.

Additional information concerning anatomical joints not covered by A61F 2/32 - A61F 2/44 is classified under A61F 2/30988.

Further additional information applicable for joint or bone prostheses is classified under A61F 2002/30003 - A61F 2002/30667.

Additional information concerning the use of particular materials in joint or bone prostheses is classified under A61F 2310/00.

Additional information for which classes exist in neighbouring fields, is coded in said fields, e.g.

{Plugs or restrictors for sealing a cement-receiving space (tools for inserting plugs A61F 2/4614; sealing collars for use during cementing A61B 17/8808)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tools for inserting plugs

Sealing collars for use during cementing

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30723

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{Spacers for centering an implant in a bone cavity, e.g. in a cement-receiving cavity}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30724

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{Collars; Bone edge protectors (A61F 2/30734 takes precedence; sealing collars for use during cementing A61B 17/8808)}
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Modular inserts, sleeves or augments

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sealing collars for use during cementing

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30728

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media62.png

{Modular inserts, sleeves or augments, e.g. placed on proximal part of stem for fixation purposes or wedges for bridging a bone defect}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30734

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{Devices connected to the proximal part of an endoprosthetic femoral shaft for reinforcing or replacing the trochanters, e.g. the greater trochanter (proximal parts of endoprosthetic femoral shafts A61F 2/367; non-prosthetic trochanteric devices A61B 17/74)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Proximal parts of endoprosthetic femoral shafts

Non-prosthetic trochanteric devices

A61F2/74

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30739

media64.png

{Bellows or hose-like seals; Sealing membranes (A61B 17/8808 takes precedence; sealing membranes for retaining bone substitute A61F 2/2846)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Tool for implantation with bone cement and with sealing collar for bone cavity

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sealing membranes for retaining bone substitute

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30742

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{End caps, e.g. for closing an endoprosthetic cavity}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30744

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{Fixation appliances for connecting prostheses to the body}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cartilage endoprostheses

{Cartilage endoprostheses (A61F 2/3603 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Femoral heads implanted without ablation of the shole natural femoral head

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30756

media67.png

{Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth (materials for coating prostheses A61L 27/28)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for coating prostheses

{applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves (etching the surface A61F 2/30767)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Etching the surface

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/30771

media68.png

{Designing or manufacturing processes (not used, see subgroups)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Not used for invention information, see A61F 2/30942 or A61F 2/30965.

{for designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, CT or NMR scans, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques (computer-assisted sizing or machining of dental prostheses A61C 13/0004; CAD-CAM techniques per se G05B 19/4202)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer-assisted sizing or machining of dental prostheses

CAD-CAM techniques per se

{for temporo-mandibular [TM, TMJ] joints (endoprostheses for mandibular reconstruction A61F 2/2803)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Endoprostheses for mandibular reconstruction

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3099

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Acetabular cups
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/34

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Femoral heads; {Femoral endoprostheses}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/36

media71.png

{for replacing only the epiphyseal or metaphyseal parts of the femur, e.g. endoprosthetic femoral heads or necks directly fixed to the natural femur by internal fixation devices (non-prosthetic internal fixation devices for the femoral head or neck A61B 17/74)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-prosthetic internal fixation devices for the femoral head or neck

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3601

media72.png

{implanted without ablation of the whole natural femoral head (endoprosthetic cartilage A61F 2/30756)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Endoprosthetic cartilage

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3603

media73.png

{including proximal or total replacement of the femur}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3607

media74.png

{Femoral heads or necks; Connections of endoprosthetic heads or necks to endoprosthetic femoral shafts (A61F 2/3601 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Femoral endoprostheses for replacing only the epiphyseal or metahpyseal parts of the femur

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3609

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media76.jpg

{Femoral shafts}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3662

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media78.jpg

{Proximal or metaphyseal parts of shafts (trochanteric devices connected to said proximal parts A61F 2/30739)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Trochanteric devices connected to said proximal parts

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/367

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{Intermediate parts of shafts}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3672

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{Distal or diaphyseal parts of shafts}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3676

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for elbows or knees
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/38

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{for elbows}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3804

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{Femoral components}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3859

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{with sliding tibial bearing}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3868

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{Meniscus for implantation between the natural bone surfaces}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3872

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{Patellae or trochleae}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3877

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{for stabilising knees against anterior or lateral dislocations}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Knee prostheses with sliding tibial bearing

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/3886

media89.png

{Tibial components (A61F 2/3868 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Knee prostheses with sliding tibial bearing

for shoulders
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/40

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{Replacing only the epiphyseal or metaphyseal parts of the humerus, i.e. endoprosthesis not comprising an entire humeral shaft (replacing only the epiphyseal or metaphyseal parts of the femur A61F 2/3601)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Replacing only the epiphyseal or metaphyseal parts of the femur

{Humeral heads or necks; Connections of endoprosthetic heads or necks to endoprosthetic humeral shafts}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4014

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{Humeral shafts}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4059

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{Glenoid components, e.g. cups}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4081

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for the spine, e.g. vertebrae, spinal discs
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/44

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{for apophyseal or facet joints, i.e. between adjacent spinous or transverse processes (devices implanted between spinous or transverse processes A61B 17/7062)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • facet joint prostheses,
  • facet joint fusion implants, if the implant replaces the joint.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices implanted between spinous or transverse processes

{made of inflatable pockets or chambers filled with fluid, e.g. with hydrogel}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/441

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{Intervertebral or spinal discs, e.g. resilient (non-disc-shaped intervertebral inflatable pockets A61F 2/441; non-disc-shaped intervertebral fusion implants A61F 2/4455)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-disc-shaped intervertebral inflatable pockets

Intervertebral fusion implants

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/442

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{made of articulated components}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4425

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{for the fusion of spinal bodies, e.g. intervertebral fusion of adjacent spinal bodies, e.g. fusion cages (intervertebral discs A61F 2/442)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Intervertebral discs

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4455

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{having a circular or elliptical cross-section substantially parallel to the axis of the spine, e.g. cylinders or frustocones}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/446

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{having a circular or kidney shaped cross-section substantially perpendicular to the axis of the spine}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4465

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{substantially parallelepipedal, e.g. having a rectangular or trapezoidal cross-section}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/447

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Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Surgical instruments

{for introducing bone substitute, for implanting bone graft implants or for compacting them in the bone cavity (for introducing bone cement A61B 17/8805)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For introducing bone cement

{for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof}
Special rules of classification within this group

A classification symbol for invention information is given as soon as the instrument is shown in the figures of the document.

{of elbows}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4605

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{of hip femoral endoprostheses}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4607

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{of acetabular cups}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4609

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{of knees}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/461

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{of spinal prostheses}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4611

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{of shoulders}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4612

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{of plugs for sealing a cement-receiving space}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4614

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{of cartilage}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4618

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{for connecting or disconnecting two parts of a prosthesis}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/4637

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For the concerned anatomical joint, as additional information, a classification symbol in A61F 2/30 - A61F 2/44 is given.

{Preparation of bone graft, bone plugs or bone dowels, e.g. grinding or milling bone material (bone material A61F 2/28; disintegrating or milling devices B02C)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Surgical bone cutting instruments for harvesting bone graft

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bone prostheses

Disintegrating or milling devices

Cutting in general

Bone as a prosthesis material

{Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints (for surgical instruments A61B 19/46)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For surgical instruments

Special rules of classification within this group

For the concerned anatomical joint, as additional information, a classification symbol in A61F 2/30 - A61F 2/44 is given.

{for cleaning or coating bones, e.g. bone cavities, prior to endoprosthesis implantation or bone cement introduction (for cleaning teeth cavities A61C 17/00; irrigators A61M 3/02)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For cleaning teeth cavities

Irrigators

{Testing instruments for artificial joints (for testing non-implantable prostheses A61F 2/76)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For testing non-implantable prostheses

Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress

Special rules of classification within this group

For the concerned anatomical joint, as additional information, a classification symbol in A61F 2/30 - A61F 2/44 is given.

{Trial or dummy prostheses}
Special rules of classification within this group

For the concerned anatomical joint, as additional information, a classification symbol in A61F 2/30 - A61F 2/44 is given.

Prostheses not implantable in the body {(closure means for urethra or rectum or for artificial body openings therefor A61F 2/0004)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body, which are NOT implantable in the body, as well as fitting and attaching measures for such devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Bone stump caps: A61F 2/2814

Orthopaedic devices: A61F 5/01

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Brassieres

Implantable devices

Orthopaedic devices adapted for correcting deformities of the limbs or for supporting them

Exoskeleton

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure means for urethra or rectum or for artificial body openings therefor

Orthopaedic devices with articulation, e.g. for the knees, the feet or the arms, hands or fingers

Programme-controlled manipulators

Gripping heads

Joints

Arms

Special rules of classification within this group

Designing or making customized prostheses, e.g. using templates, finite-element analysis or CAD-CAM techniques: A61F 2/5046

Prostheses which are not implantable; e.g. upper and lower artificial limbs, or mammary prostheses: A61F 2/54, A61F 2/60, A61F 2/52

Operating or control means for such prostheses: A61F 2/68

Means for assembling, fitting or testing prostheses: A61F 2/76

Means for attaching such prostheses to the body: A61F 2/78

Note: Additional information is classified under A61F 2/50 - A61F 2/80.

Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents (stent-grafts for tubular structures of the body other than blood vessels A61F 2/04; stent-grafts for blood vessels A61F 2/07; instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts A61F 2/95; for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed A61B17/03; dilators A61M 29/00)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stents with tubular structures deployed within a stenosis in order to widen and support the vessel. The stent is usually made from a rigid material like metal or polymer.

Illustrative examples for classification:

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A61F 2/82 /low (specific stent class) A61F 2002/065 A61F 2002/828 (means for connecting a plurality of stents)

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A61F 2/82 /low (specific stent class) A61F 2002/067 A61F 2002/828 A61F 2/856 :If it is not clear if there is a portal or if there are 2 stents connected, classify both possibilities

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Stent Manufacturing:

Laser cutting

Etching

Bending sheets of metals for making tubes

Injection Moulding

Moulds or cores

Wire-working in the manufacture of stents (e.g. bending around mandrel)

Stent braiding

Electroplating, tubes

Coating by spraying

Materials for stents

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B17/03

Stent-grafts for blood vessels

Instruments for placement or removal of stents or stent grafts

Urethral drainage stents

Dilators

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

The following additional information is given to stents when appropriate:

Ostial stents

Stents, different from stent-grafts, adapted to cover an aneurysm

having longitudinal struts

more than one stent being applied sequentially

Means for connecting a plurality of stents allowing flexibility of the whole structure

folded prior to deployment
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/844

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CLXVa. A61F 2/848

having means for fixation to the vessel wall, e.g. barbs

The following additional information is given to stents when appropriate:

Barbs

provided on at least one of the ends

Two or more distinct overlapping stents
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/852

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Single tubular stent with a side portal passage
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Single tubular stent with a passage in side of the stent for allowing access to secondary lumen (see passage 60 in the example drawing).

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References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Stents or stent-grafts having a Y-shape

the wire-like elements formed as helical or spiral coils (forming a net-like or mesh-like structure A61F 2/90)
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Nets formed from intersecting coils

{comprising a coil including a plurality of spiral or helical sections with alternate directions around a central axis}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/885

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the wire-like elements comprising two or more adjacent rings flexibly connected by separate members
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Single, discrete rings joined by a connector.

Stent rings which are connected in order to allow flexibility of the whole structure (see connectors (4) between stent rings (2) in the example drawing).

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References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Means for connecting a plurality of stents allowing flexibility of the whole structure

Stents having meander bands being connected to each other by struts

Stent-grafts

Illustrative example of a document classified in A61F 2002/828 and not A61F 2/89 to demonstrate the difference between both groups:

US2009/0254164 A

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A61F 2002/828 : Stents must be "standing alone" structures (in the absence of the connector, they would still accomplish their supporting function). Do not give A61F 2250/006 "modular" if they are joined (single structure).

Illustrative example of a document classified in A61F 2/915 and not A61F 2/89 to demonstrate the difference between both groups:

US2009105809

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Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

The following additional information is given to stents when appropriate:

Frangible connectors

Biodegradable covering or connection

characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Woven tubular fabrics

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/90

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Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words “net”, “net-like”, “mesh” and “mesh-like” are often used as synonyms.

made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stents made from perforated sheet material or tubes. Perforated sheet material or tubes are created by methods including, for example, laser cutting, etching or some other techniques.

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with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Stents having a meander or wave-like pattern. The stent comprises several meander bands. Each meander band forms peaks and throughs. The bands are connected to each other by struts (see connector 50 between bands 40 and 60 in the example drawing) or directly connected without struts.

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Special rules of classification within this group

The meander structure receives further additional classification:

The meander having a difference in amplitude along the band: A61F 2002/91508

The meander having a change in frequency along the band: A61F 2002/91516

Within the whole structure different bands showing different meander characteristics, e.g. frequency or amplitude: A61F 2002/91525

Characterised by the phase between adjacent bands: A61F 2002/91533

Adjacent bands are arranged out of phase: A61F 2002/91541

Adjacent bands being connected to each other: A61F 2002/9155

Adjacent bands being connected peak to peak, i.e. bridge with each end connected to a convex side of an apex: A61F 2002/91558

Adjacent bands being connected trough to trough, i.e. bridge with each end connected to a concave side of an apex: A61F 2002/91566

Adjacent bands being connected peak to trough, i.e. bridge with one end connected to a convex side of an apex and with the other end connected to a concave side of an apex: A61F 2002/91575

Adjacent bands being connected by a bridge, whereby at least one of its ends is connected along the length of a strut between two consecutive apices within a band: A61F 2002/91583

Locking connectors, e.g. using male-female connections: A61F 2002/91591

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

An amplitude is:

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Frequency:

Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies; the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. The horizontal axis represents time.

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Stents in the form of a rolled-up sheet expanding after insertion into the vessel, { e.g. with a spiral shape in cross-section}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words “rolled-up” and “coiled” are often used as synonyms.

circumferentially expandable by using ratcheting locks
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/93

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Stents retaining their form, i.e. not being deformable, after placement in the predetermined place
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

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hardenable, e.g. stents formed in situ
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 2/945

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Instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Instruments for occluding devices

Handles for balloon inflation

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B17/03

Catheters; hollow probes

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

having retaining means other than an outer sleeve, e.g. male-female connector between stent and instrument

the retaining means being filaments or wires

Handle assemblies therefor

Means for mounting a stent onto the placement instrument, i.e. stent crimping devices

for retrieval of stents

for repositioning of stents

for placing stents or stent-grafts in a bifurcation
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subgroup does not cover:

Stents or stent-grafts having a Y-shape

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in A61F 2/954

and in particular to point out the differences between stents and their delivery devices having a secondary lumen or bifurcation:

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WO 02/056799

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EP1031325 A

A61F 2/856 only if stent is not described A61F 2/954 (class for delivery device for bifurcations)

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US2001/0003161

A61F 2/954 A61F 2/856 A61F 2250/006 modular if further stents are applied NEVER A61F 2002/065 These are not Y shaped

EP0904746

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A61F 2/954 A61F 2/856 eventually A61F 2250/0039 (differing in diameter)

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A61F 2/954 A61F 2/82/low or A61F 2/82 /lowspecific stent class or additional information A61F 2002/067 :This additional information can be given in exceptional cases like this one, where the vessel is Y shaped even though there are no 3 distinctive stents present.

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WO2006/036319

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FR2733689

A61F 2/82 /low (specific stent class) A61F 2002/065 A61F 2002/828 (means for connecting a plurality of stents)

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US5749825

A61F 2/82 /low (specific stent class) A61F 2002/067 A61F 2002/828 A61F 2/856 :If it is not clear if there is a portal or if there are 2 stents connected, classify both possibilities

Inflatable balloons for placing stents or stent-grafts
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Means for holding the stent on the balloon, e.g. using protrusions, adhesives or an outer sleeve

the means being inside the balloon

with relative longitudinal movement between outer sleeve and prosthesis, e.g. using a push rod
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Retractable outer sleeves

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

with additional retaining means

the outer sleeve being splittable
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

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Lengthening pieces for natural legs
Definition statement
This group covers:

devices which are applied to natural legs for lengthening said legs, e.g. to compensate for a difference in length between the two legs of a user.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Artificial legs or feet or parts thereof: A61F 2/60

Shoe-like orthopaedic devices for protecting the feet against injuries after operations: A61F 5/0195

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Internal fixation devices

Methods or devices enabling invalids to operate an apparatus or a device not forming part of the body (operating or control means for prostheses A61F 2/68; {serving devices for one-handed persons A47G 21/08})
Definition statement
This group covers:

methods or devices enabling invalids to operate a device which, otherwise, the person would not be able to, e.g. control of computers or ambulation devices like a wheel-chair.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Chairs or personal conveyances specially adapted for disabled persons, e.g. wheelchairs: A61G 5/00

Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer: G06F 3/01

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Operating or control means for prostheses

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints (surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints, devices specially adapted therefor A61B 17/56); Nursing devices; {Anti-rape devices}(bandages, dressings or absorbent pads A61F 13/00)
Definition statement
This group covers:

orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints, e.g. long-term immobilising or pressure directing devices for treating broken or deformed bones such as splints, casts or braces. Furthermore, it covers devices worn by the patient for reception of urine, faeces, catamenial or other discharge, e.g. colostomy devices. Also, devices for preventing snoring as well as for correcting stammering or stuttering are covered.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Prostheses not implantable in the body: A61F 2/50

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Surgical measures for treatment of obesity

Bandages for support of breasts or abdomen

Plaster of Paris

Handcuffs

Insoles for arch support

Penile implants

Massage of genitals

Adhesive for colostomy devices

Diapers

Devices for taking faeces samples

Devices for taking urine samples

Devices for taking sperm samples

Pessaries

Mattress underlays

Devices for preventing snoring by gas treatment

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure means for urethra or rectum

Operating or control means for external prostheses

Special rules of classification within this group

Apparatus for the treatment of obesity; Anti-eating devices: A61F 5/0003

Rectal devices, e.g. for the treatment of haemorrhoids: A61F 5/0093

Anti-rape devices: A61F 5/0096

Orthopaedic devices, e.g. splints, casts or braces: A61F 5/0102

Restraining devices for the body or body parts, e.g. slings or restraining shirts: A61F 5/37

Devices for promoting penis erection or for penis enlargement: A61F 5/41

Devices worn by subjects for reception of urine, faeces, catamenial or other discharge; portable urination aids: A61F 5/44

Devices for preventing wetting or pollution of the bed: A61F 5/48

Devices for preventing finger sucking: A61F 5/50

Devices for preventing snoring: A61F 5/56

Apparatus for correcting stammering or stuttering: A61F 5/58

Note: Additional information is classified under A61F 5/00 - A61F 2005/563. Classification under A61F 2005/0132 relates to articulated knee orthoses.

Contraceptive devices; Pessaries; Applicators therefor (chemical aspects of contraception A61K)
Definition statement
This group covers:

contraceptive devices; pessaries and applicators therefore, which can be used by males or females, and which can be applied externally, e.g. condoms, sheaths or the like; internally, like devices worn in the vagina to support the uterus, remedy a malposition, or prevent conception; as well as implantable occluding device, e.g. for vas deferens or fallopian tubes.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Devices for promoting penis erection: A61F 5/41

Massage of genitals: A61H 19/00

Chemical aspects of contraception: A61K

Obstruction of tubular structures by internal devices: A61B 17/12

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Chemical aspects of contraception

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Obstruction of tubular structures by internal devices

Special rules of classification within this group

Packages or dispensers for contraceptive devices

Contraceptive devices for males, like condoms, sheaths or the like, e.g. combined with devices protecting against contagion

Contraceptive device for females, like intra-vaginal or intra-uterine devices

Occluders for vas deferens or fallopian tubes

Note: Additional information is classified under A61F 6/00 - A61F 6/24.

Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body (heating or cooling means in connection with bedsteads or mattresses A47C 21/00; {massage, therapeutic baths A61H}; hyperthermia using electric or magnetic fields or ultrasound A61N; electric heating elements H05B)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Heating and cooling of (parts of) a patient for therapeutic purposes not resulting in tissue destruction or intended tissue damage.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Heating or cooling for surgical purposes, such as tissue removal, ablation, coagulation etc.

Heating or cooling of tissue immediately around tissue treated by a surgical probe

Hyperthermia with electromagnetic fields

Magnetotherapy

Heating by radiation such as microwave, light or other electromagnetic waves

Temperature treatment of blood in bypass of the human or animal body

Heating or cooling media before injection into the body

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrical heating means

Massage and therapeutic baths

Therapeutic heating with ultrasound

Protective garmets

Gloves

Hats, caps, hoods

Attachments for beds

Bed covers, blankets, pillows

Heating for divers

Materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reaction

Refrigeration in general

Special rules of classification within this group

Documents describing treatment with a device for heating alone or a device described to be able to apply both heating and cooling (with the necessary adaptations to the heat source, e.g. a self-heating exothermic pad which is described or claimed as being equally configurable as self-cooling endothermic pad by using the appropriate chemicals) should be classified in A61F 7/00 - A61F 7/08 or A61F 7/12.

Documents related to bags, pads etc. exclusively using cooling should be classified in A61F 7/10 (e.g. chemically cooled endothermic pads only described for cooling in A61F 7/106).

As an exception in A61F 7/00, A61F 2007/0056 and A61F 2007/0063 also exclusively deal with cooling.

Further details of subgroups

A61F 2007/0001: locations on the human body for heating and cooling. Not for invention information. Headgroup A61F 2007/0001 not to be used for classification.

A61F 7/0053: Cabins, rooms chairs or other equipments for treatment with a hot or cold circulating fluid. Does not cover heating pads with a circulating fluid, those are to be classified in A61F 7/02.

A61F 2007/0054: "closed fluid circuit" refers to a device in which the circulating thermal medium, e.g. water, is not in direct contact with the treatment area;

A61F 2007/0059:"open fluid circuit" refers to a device in which the circulating thermal medium, e.g. water, is in direct contact with the treatment area;

A61F 7/007: Electrically heated or cooled devices.

A61F 7/0085: Devices for generating hot or cold treatment fluids, the devices not being in direct contact with the patient. Only the fluid is transported from the device to a separate patient heating or cooling device.

A61F 7/0097: Heating blankets. Only blankets with an active heating or cooling source, no ordinary blankets keeping warm by insulation only (to be classified in A47G 9/0207).

A61F 7/02: Compresses, poultices or other pads for heating or cooling.

A61F 7/03: Chemical heating devices. Not the chemicals as such (to be classified in C09K 5/00), only as part of a device to be used on the body for therapy.

A61F 7/08: hot water bottles for heating, refillable with a non-circulating hot or cold fluid.

A61F 7/10: Cooling bags, pads etc. exclusively used for cooling.

A61F 7/106: Chemical cooling devices. Not the chemicals as such (to be classified in C09K 5/00), only as part of a cooling device used on the body.

A61F 7/12: Cooling devices for internal body cavities.

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Hyperthermia

heating of tissue up to but not beyond the point of tissue damage

Hypothermia

cooling of tissue down to but not beyond the point of tissue damage

{with a closed fluid circuit, e.g. hot water}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

"closed fluid circuit" refers to a device in which the circulating thermal medium, e.g. water, is not in direct contact with the treatment area.

Thermophore, i.e. self-heating, { e.g. using a chemical reaction}
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Documents with self-cooling as well as self-heating devices are classified here, even though the title covers only self-heating devices

Method or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand (caps with means for protecting the eyes A42B 1/06; visors for helmets A42B 3/22; {retractors A61B 17/02; manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery A61B 19/22}; appliances to aid invalids to move about A61H 3/00; {exercisers for the eyes A61H 5/00}; eye baths A61H 35/02; sunglasses or goggles having the same features as spectacles G02C)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Caps with means for protecting the eyes

Visors for helmets

Retractors

Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery

Appliances to aid invalids to move about

Eye baths

Exercisers for the eyes

Sunglasses or goggles having the same features as spectacles

Special rules of classification within this group

The "subdivision" Indexing Code symbols (i.e. the non "parallel" Indexing Code symbols) are used for classifying as well the invention information as the additional information. They are stored only in the additional information field"

The "orthogonal" Indexing Code symbols are also used.

The symbols in A61B 17/00 and A61B 18/00 are to be used for classifying additional information in case there is no appropriate symbol in A61F 9/00736, A61F 9/0079 or A61F 9/008.

{Introducing ophthalmic products into the ocular cavity or retaining products therein (putting in contact lenses A61F 9/0061; introducing or retaining media in cavities of the body in general A61M 31/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Eye droppers

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Baths for the eyes : A61H 35/02

Containers with means for dispensing liquid medicaments : A61J 1/1443

Droppers : B65D 47/18

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Putting in contact lenses

Introducing or retaining media in cavities of the body in general

{implantable in, or in contact with, the eye, e.g. ocular inserts}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ocular inserts for drug delivery

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cornea implants for repair of corneal tissue

Corneal inlays or onlays for refractive correction

Stromal implants for refractive correction

Implantation instruments specially adapted therefor

Intraocular lenses

Implantation instruments for intraocular lenses

Pharmaceutical compositions of ocular inserts or implants

Contact lenses for reshaping the cornea

{Devices for putting-in contact lenses}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Contact lens cases

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 9/0061

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Methods or devices for eye surgery
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Devices particular for surgical interventions on the eye

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Devices for general mechanical surgery

Devices for general non-mechanical surgery

Devices for therapy with ultrasound

{Instruments for removing foreign bodies (for removal of intra-ocular material A61F 9/00736)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Instruments for removal of intra-ocular material

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments other than toothpicks and pincettes for removing foreign bodies form the human body

{Restoration of lid function}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Instruments to help restore the lid function

{Instruments for removal of intra-ocular material or intra-ocular injection, e.g. cataract instruments (A61F 9/008 takes precedence)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Devices using ultrasonic vibrations therefore: A61F 9/00745

Capsulotomes: A61F 9/00754

Instruments with rotating or reciprocating (other than ultrasonically) elements: A61F 9/00763

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Ultrasonic cutters for general surgery

Invasive laser devices to remove intra-ocular material

Lasers to remove corneal material

A61F9/01

Devices using focused ultrasound for general tissue removal

{Apparatus for restoration of tear ducts}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plugs implanted in body vessels

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 9/00772

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Example for correcting occluded lacrimal pathways (Jones tube):

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Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Punctum plug

Plug, implant or instrument for the lacrimal duct

{Apparatus for modifying intraocular pressure, e.g. for glaucoma treatment (drainage implants in general A61M 27/002)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Drainage implants in general

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 9/00781

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Treatment of outflow of aqueous humor.

The most practiced surgery intended to reduce aqueous humor production is the cyclodestruction technique. When cyclodestruction is performed with a laser, it is called cyclophotocoagulation. High Intensity focused Ultrasound can be used to obtain a cyclodestruction.

{using non-laser electromagnetic radiation, e.g. non-coherent light or microwaves}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods or devices for eye surgery (i.e. destruction, modification or removal of tissue) using electromagnetic radiation other than laser, e.g. non-coherent light or microwaves.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Mechanical eye surgery

Radiation therapy

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for examination of the eyes

Accessories for surgery or diagnosis

Lasers in general

Surgery with non mechanical forms of energy in general

Laser surgery in general

Implants of eye parts in general

Optical components

Contact lenses

Photodynamic therapy

Special rules of classification within this group

The application of non-laser electromagnetic radiation for surgical purposes covers, inter alia, applications whereby infrared or microwave radiation is applied to heat the cornea in order facilitate its shaping by a mold. The relevant information here is the application of the electromagnetic radiation, not the mold. Contact lenses in general, including orthokeratology lenses, are covered by G02C 7/04.

using laser
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods or devices for eye surgery (i.e. destruction, modification or removal of tissue) using laser.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Mechanical eye surgery

Radiation therapy

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for examination of the eyes

Accessories for surgery or diagnosis

Lasers in general

Surgery with non mechanical forms of energy in general

Laser surgery in general

Implants of eye parts in general

Optical components

Contact lenses

Photodynamic therapy

Special rules of classification within this group

The IPC groups A61F9/01 and A61F9/011 are not used.

The scheme in A61F 9/008 contains several independent classification trees covering different aspects of a laser system for eye surgery.

The effect produced by the laser beam in the tissue should be classified in A61F 9/00802, A61F 9/00821, A61F 9/00825, or A61F 2009/00842 and lower hierarchical groups thereof

Auxiliary devices contacting the eyeball like for coupling in the surgical laser light are classified in A61F 9/009

Further aspects are then classified in codes according to:

The control or steering of the laser beam during the treatment (subgroups of A61F 2009/00844)

The calibration of any component in the laser system (A61F 2009/00855 and subgroups thereof)

The part of the eye to be treated (subgroups of A61F 2009/00861),

The planning of the irradiation before the treatment, like based on particular information or measurements (A61F 2009/00878 and subgroups thereof)

The disease to be treated (subgroups of A61F 2009/00885),

Particular algorithms or mechanisms for scanning the beam (A61F 2009/00897)

This groups cover inlays, onlays and intraocular lenses for implantation but specially adapted to be molded by a photoablative or photodisruptive beam. Implantable corneal inlays and onlays and for direct refractive correction and intraocular lenses in general are covered by A61F 2/145 and A61F 2/16.

{Instruments} for compensation of ocular refraction (A61F 9/008 takes precedence); {Instruments for use in cornea removal, for reshaping or performing incisions in the cornea}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Laser eye surgery

Instruments for use in cornea removal, for reshaping or performing incisions in the cornea

A61F9/01

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 9/013

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{Knives or scalpels specially adapted therefor}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Surgical scalpels and knives

Goggles {(breathing masks A62B 18/00; swimming goggles A63B 33/002; diving masks B63C 11/12)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Breathing masks

Swimming goggles

Diving masks

{Use of special optical filters, e.g. multiple layers, filters for protection against laser light or light from nuclear explosions, screens with different filter properties on different parts of the screen; Rotating slit-discs (optical filters per se G02B 5/20)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Optical filters per se

{with variable transmission, e.g. photochromic (for welding A61F 9/067)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Welding masks with variable transmission

Eye-masks; {Devices to be worn on the face, not intended for looking through; Eye-pads for sunbathing(eye-bandages A61F 13/12; protective face-masks A41D 13/11; protectors for shampooing A45D)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Sleep masks

Masks for protecting the eye after ophtalmic surgery

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protective face-masks

Protectors for shampooing

Eye-bandages

{Eye-shades or visors; Shields beside, between or below the eyes (caps with means for protecting the eyes A42B 1/06)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Caps with means for protecting the eyes

Glasses combined with shades or shields

Masks, shields or hoods for welders (safety devices for welding in general F16P 1/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Safety devices for welding in general

{use of particular optical filters (A61F 9/022, A61F 9/062 take precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Goggles comprising special optical filters

Masks with movable polarising filter discs

Devices or methods enabling eye-patients to replace direct visual perception by another kind of perception{(walking or guiding aids for blinds A61H 3/06; teaching or communicating with blinds G09B 21/00 promoting of eye function by stimulation with electric currents using contact electrodes A61N 1/36046)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Walking or guiding aids for the blind

Replacing visual perception by electrode stimulation

Teaching or communicating with the blind

Methods or devices for treatment of the ears, e.g. surgical; Protective devices for the ears, carried on the body or in the hand; {Non-electric hearing aids}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Tinnitus treatment

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Tinnitus treatment by psychotherapy and hypnosis based methods, i.e. changing the state of mind

Wearable tinnitus maskers

{Surgical middle ear ventilation or drainage, e.g. permanent; Implants therefor (drainage implants in general A61M 27/002)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Drainage implants in general

{Ear surgery (A61F 11/002 takes precedence)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Surgical middle ear ventilation or drainage

{Ear cleaners, e.g. curettes (cotton tips A61F 13/38; cleaning by suction A61M 1/0023, by irrigation A61M 3/02)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cotton tips

Cleaning by suction

Cleaning by irrigation

{Non-electric hearing aids, e.g. ear trumpets, sound amplifiers, ear-shells (non-electric sound-amplifying devices in general G10K 11/08; sound-focusing or directing using reflection in general G10K 11/28)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Non-electric sound-amplifying devices in general

Sound-focusing or directing using reflection in general

Devices or methods enabling ear patients to replace direct auditory perception by another kind of perception {(electronic stimulation of auditory nerves A61N 1/36032)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Cochlear implants, i.e. electronic stimulation of auditory nerves

{using mechanical stimulation of nerves (acting directly on the ear H04R 25/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Any kind of stimulation of the auditory system (outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and auditory nerve) causes "auditory perception". Usually, application of vibration on the skull (like as in so called bone anchored hearing aids) causes vibrations in the cochlea that lead to auditory perception. Therefore, vibro-stimulation does not replace the auditory perception with another kind of reception (e.g., visual or tactile perception).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Mechanical stimulation of nerves acting directly on the ear

Vibratory stimulation of the jaw and teeth intended to cause vibrations in the cochlea

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61F 11/045

Example DE29814386U (The hearing aid is provided by a hearing capsule (10) inserted in the outer ear passage, in the shape of a tapered hollow body (12) with an elastically flexible mantle, provided with a membrane at either end (14,18).)

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internal, e.g. earplugs
Special rules of classification within this group

Earplugs including an inner channel: A61F 2011/085

external, e.g. earcaps or earmuffs (headwear, e.g. caps or helmets, with means for protecting the ears A42B 1/06, A42B 3/16, {for hairdresser`s rooms A45D 44/12; for sports A63B 71/10; headphones H04R 1/10})
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

only acoustic protection.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Headwear, e.g. caps or helmets, with means for protecting the ears

Earcaps or earmuffs for hairdresser’s rooms

Earcaps or earmuffs for sports

Headphones

Other external protector

{electric, e.g. for active noise reduction}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Earmuff with active noise reduction.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Active noise reduction in general

Hearing protectors with an electronic communication function

Headphone with active noise reduction

Reduction of ambient noise in earphones for communication

Hearing devices using active noise cancellation

Bandages or dressings (suspensory bandages A61F 5/40; { contact-avoiding wound protectors A61F 15/008; bandages or dressings with incorporated medicaments A61L 15/44, A61M 35/006; radioactive dressings A61N 5/1029}); Absorbent pads (chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads A61L 15/00; { absorbent pads for tracheostomy A61M 16/047})
Definition statement
This group covers:

Articles intended to be in contact with the human skin and absorb fluids excreted by the human body, i.e. wound dressings and bandages adapted to be attached to the injured skin or to be held against the injured place. In addition to the wound dressings, this group covers also articles which are indented to be used for injured parts of the body, e.g. plaster of Paris and any kind of stiffening bandage.

Articles intended to be attached to the body or worn in conjunction with another garment or being held in place by their shape and intended to absorb excretions from any natural opening (genital, anal, nose, mouth, ear) and during surgery.

Method and apparatuses of manufacturing these articles.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A61F 5/01 - A61F 5/40 cover stiffening bandages for immobilizing extremities. The difference with A61F 13/04-A61F 13/14 is that (with the exception of A61F 13/04) in A61F 13/06-A61F 13/14 no rigid parts are used. If rigid parts are used, then A61F15/01 should be taken into consideration. A61F 5/44 covers devices worn by the patient for reception of urine, faeces, catamenial or other discharge which are rather receptacles or bags other than diapers or absorbent pads.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Any type of undergarment without any specific means intended to absorb excretions per see

Articles intended to absorb sweat

Clean the skin (e.g. wet wipes)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Suspensory bandages

Bandages or dressings with incorporated medicaments

Radioactive dressings

Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

Absorbent pads for tracheostomy

For veterinary purposes

{having a fluid handling member}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transdermal patches having a drug layer or reservoir

Seal, e.g. to apply around a wound, for isolating the treatment area in combination with an absorbent pad for irrigating or draining the wound

{Tapes for dressing attachment (for stoma bags A61F 5/443; for nappies or sanitary towels A61F 13/58; wound closure tapes A61B 17/085; for surgical drapes A61B 19/08; attaching catheters A61M 25/02)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wound closure tapes

Surgical drapes

Tapes for stoma bags

Attaching catheters

Plaster of Paris bandages; Other stiffening bandages (A61F 13/06 to A61F 13/15 take precedence)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Orthopaedic devices, e.g. splints, casts or braces

Ortheses

Shoe-like orthopaedic devices for protecting the feet against injuries after operations

Chemical aspect of orthopaedic devices

Elastic stockings; for contracting aneurisms
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for domestic use for assisting in putting-on or pulling-off clothing, e.g. stockings or socks

For ligaturing or otherwise compressing tubular parts of the body, e.g. blood vessels, umbilical cord

Active massage of limbs

Weft knitting processes for the production of stockings

specially adapted for fingers, hands, or arms; Finger-stalls; Nail-protectors {(restraining devices for arms A61F 5/37; shoulder bandages A61F 13/14)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints

Slings

specially adapted for the head or neck
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ear, face, or lip protectors

Preparations for care of the skin

specially adapted for the breast or abdomen (corsets or bandages for support of breast or abdomen A61F 5/03)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Brassieres for medical use or surgery

Braces for providing support to the lower back, e.g. lumbo- sacral supports

Corsets or bandages for abdomen, teat or breast support

Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body (non-absorbent catamenial receptacles A61F); Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles intended to be worn or held against the human body for absorbing excretions from natural openings except from wounds or breasts which are covered by A61F 13/00, A61F 13/02 or A61F 13/14.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

articles for absorbing wound excretions

articles intended for cleaning the human body or skin, e.g. wet-tissues wet-wipes

any article intended to be used as underwear without having any specific feature for absorbing excretions

any article intended to be inserted into the human body for other purpose than for absorbing, e.g. pessaries

any article for absorbing sweat.

{Properties of the article, e.g. stiffness or absorbency (chemical aspects A61L 15/00)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties G01N.

{Forming continuous, e.g. composite, fibrous webs, e.g. involving the application of pulverulent material on parts thereof}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
{Mechanical treatment, e.g. notching, twisting, compressing, shaping}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Joining or sealing of preformed parts, welding of plastics materials and apparatus therefore: B29C 65/00

Corrugating in general: B31F 1/20

{Treating webs, e.g. for giving them a fibrelike appearance, e.g. by embossing}
Relationship between large subject matter areas
{Sealing, e.g. involving cutting}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Bonding B29C 45/00.

Tampons, e.g. catamenial tampons; Accessories therefor
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All articles intended to be inserted within a natural opening e.g. nose plugs, dental absorbent tampons, catamenial tampons, anal plugs, era plugs.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

A wound opening is not considered as a natural opening and articles related to wound healing

The swabs for cleaning wounds or absorbing wound liquids during surgery

with wetness indicator or alarm
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All articles having means for indicating the article is wet, independently of the kind of absorbent article (napkins, diapers, tampons, wound dressings) or indicator (chemical, electrical, tactile etc.).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For determining moisture content, e.g. humidity, of the fluid by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means G01N 27/00.

characterised by the shape (cup-shaped type tampons A61F13/24)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The two- or three- dimensional shape of articles or the shape of details thereof, and is intended as a head group to branch down to either articles needing another article or adhesive to be held against the body (A61F 13/47) or articles that are self-supporting e.g. diapers (A61F 13/49).

Sanitary towels, incontinence pads or napkins (A61F 13/49 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Absorbent articles that need another article or adhesive to be held against the body or articles which are held in place by the specific female or male anatomy.

{having a reinforcing member}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type having a reinforcing member to keep the shape in a desired form.

{having preferential bending zones, e.g. fold lines or grooves}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type where the fold lines or grooves are intended for allowing the article to fold or bent around them rather than being a barrier.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Foldable male incontinence devices

Foldable interlabial articles

{having only interlabial part, i.e. with no extralabial parts}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles which are intended to be placed against and to be hold by the labiae of the female anatomy.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Articles intended to be worn inside the vagina e.g. tampons

{with a raised crotch region, e.g. hump}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type having a portion which is elevated in relation to the rest of the article with the intention to be in close contact with the source of excretions for acquiring easily the fluids.

{for interlabial use}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of which the dimension of the elevated portion permits the elevated portion to be inserted between the labia majora or deeper in the vagina.

{with activating means, e.g. elastic, heat or chemical activatable means}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type which have means that are in a latent state. During use or just before the use of the article the means are activated to perform a function so that the shape of the article is altered, e.g. elastics that stay inactive until they become wet in order to have a flat article before use and once wet their elastic properties become active and the shape of the article changes to a curved form.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Means which upon activation perform another function than changing the shape

Skin enhancers

adjustable
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type which are manually or elastically adjustable to fit the body shape or to increase or decrease their absorbency

characterised by edge leakage prevention means
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type having a kind of barrier to prevent the liquid from leaking out of the article and soil the underwear.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

The liquid impermeable backsheet per see

characterised by encircling the crotch region of the undergarment
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles of the feminine hygiene napkin type having wings or flaps for being wrapped over the edge of the underwear. However the primary function of the flaps should be the prevention of leakage or soiling the undergarment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Flaps intended for fastening the article on the underwear the groups

Absorbent articles specially adapted to be worn around the waist, e.g. diapers
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles which due to their form are self sustained around the waist, e.g. diapers, or pant form diapers.

{Reusable, washable fabric diapers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Absorbent articles that are washable and as such reusable. If a part mostly the outer cover/chassis is washable and has an exchangeable insert but the invention relies in the washable part then this document is to be classified in this subgroup and get an Indexing Code in A61F 13/505. If however only the exchangeability of parts is disclosed so that they are to be reused several times without being of a special fabric having the possibility to be washed then this document is classified in A61F 13/505.

{with fastening means}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Fastening means per se

{Form-fitting, self-adjusting disposable diapers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Diapers or pants type diapers where the invention relies in the elastic or stretchable features intended to aid the article to conform to the body of the wearer.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Elastic barriers which are covered by the edge leaking prevention

{characterised by the elastic material}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Extensible layered products B32B 5/04, B32B 5/26, B32B 27/12, B32B 37/144

adjustable { by adding or removing material e.g. umbilical cord arrangements(adjustable by the fastening A61F 13/5638, A61F 13/5655)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles that are manually adjustable to conform the body shape or size.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

The fastening means or the adjustability of the article through the fastening means

{the edge leakage prevention means being an absorbent medium (A61F 13/49426 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles that have secondary absorbent material located at the side edges of the article, mostly next to the main absorbent core. If the secondary absorbent material is located at the end edges then this is covered by A61F 13/49466.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

The difference of absorbency of the absorbent core in the X-Y direction per se

A61F 13/532, A61F131/535

characterised by the outer layers {(wicking or transfer layers A61F 13/537)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The outer layers of the absorbent articles whether feminine napkin tape or diapers. A backsheet is understood as the layer or composite layer that is intended to inhibit the liquid from flowing down of the article. A topsheet is understood as the layer which is in close contact with the skin for receiving the liquid.

Topsheet, i.e. the permeable cover or layer facing the skin
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

If the layer immediately under the topsheet is a separate layer, i.e. not laminated to the topsheet and has the function of spreading the liquid in the X-Y direction

backsheet, i.e. the impermeable cover or layer furthest from the skin {(A61F 13/15211, A61F 13/15252 take precedence)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

If the inner layer immediately adjacent but not laminated to the backsheet is intended to distribute the liquid in the X-Y direction

{providing stretchability without the use of elastic material}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The material is. e.g. corrugated SELF or ring rolled so as to impart to the backsheet stretchability without being elastic.

{being a laminate, e.g. multi-layered or with several layers}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

If the inner layer immediately adjacent but not laminated to the backsheet is intended to distribute the liquid in the X-Y direction

characterised by the absorbing medium (A61F 13/20 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The absorbent core of the absorbent articles. If the structure of the core is intended for conforming the body fit or the leakage prevention then this is covered by the corresponding subgroups A61F 13/47, A61F 13/475 or A61F 13/49, A61F 13/494.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Chemical composition: A61L 15/16

having discontinuous areas of compression
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Grooves which are intended for leakage prevention per see or for folding

Packaging before or after use {(general packaging of absorbent pads B65D 85/00)}
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Foldable baby changing mats/supports: A47D 15/00, A47D 5/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

If the package or packaging is not directly related to the absorbent article

Supporting or fastening means
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All means for holding in their position the absorbent articles covered by the subgroups A61F 13/45-A61F 13/51.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Fastening means for wound appliances

{using flaps, e.g. adhesive, for attachment to the undergarment (leakage prevention means encirculing the crotch portion A61F 13/476)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

If the flaps are indented to prevent leakage soiling of the undergarment

{Mechanical fastening means, (A61F 13/5611, A61F 13/5616, A61F 13/581, A61F 13/66 take precedence);} Fabric strip fastener elements, e.g. hook and loop
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Hook and loop in general and the manufacturing thereof: A44B 18/00

with means for attaching to the body
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Articles that have means (mostly adhesive) to attached the article to the skin of the user in order to keep it in place.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Adhesive attachment of wound dressings

Auxiliary appliances for wound dressings; Dispensing containers for dressings or bandages {(packaging of absorbent articles such as diapers, feminine hygiene absorbing pads or tampons A61F 13/551; packaging of wound dressings A61F 13/00072)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Individual wrapped articles before or after use

First-aid kits
Definition statement
This group covers:

Packs, bags, packages, cases to be carried by a person and having items to be used under first aid circumstances. The items as such are not of importance.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carrying bags, cases, trusses e.g. doctor bags

Bags for midwives

Bags in general

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013