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DIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION ( analysing biological material G01N, e.g. G01N 33/48 ; obtaining records using waves other than optical waves, in general G03B 42/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of either living or dead human and animal bodies for medical purposes (i.e., diagnosis). Diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of bodies:

  • internal or external portions of the bodies (e.g., lungs),
  • abnormal bodily conditions (e.g., sickness, broken bones, detecting foreign bodies, pregnancy),
  • mental conditions (e.g., psychotechniques), and
  • bodily functions (e.g., heart beat, vision).

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for medical procedures employing physical actions (e.g., laser cutting, pressure of fluid) on portions of human or animal bodies to correct, enhance, or inspect (e.g., autopsies) them for medical purposes (i.e., surgery). Surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

  • repositioning (e.g. aligning broken bones, opening wounds) parts of bodies,
  • stabilizing (e.g., inserting bone pins) to prevent harmful movement of parts of bodies,
  • repairing (e.g., fastening skin together, removing cancerous tissue) bodies,
  • facilitating the occurrence of naturally occurring bodily functions (e.g., child birth, passing kidney stones) that are out of the ordinary,
  • introducing, collecting, or removing cells and organs (e.g., inseminations, tissue sampling, hair transplants, skin grafting, biopsies, organ harvesting) to or from bodies, and
  • introducing or taking out foreign objects (e.g., replacement heart valves, bullets) to or from bodies.

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized in procedures for identifying individual human beings (e.g., finger printing, by recognition of shape or dimension of body part) using unique characteristics of their bodies (i.e. identification).

Adjunct or supplementary means specially adapted for use in, or intended for exclusive use in, diagnosis, surgery, or identification. These adjunct or supplementary means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g., surgical drapes) or safety (e.g., operating gloves) of a medical procedure, but may or may not (e.g., protective covers for scalpels) themselves involve any direct contact with a body.

Components of diagnosis, surgery, or identification means with structural features limiting their usefulness to medical procedures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for 'diagnosis'. The relationship between these subclasses with regard to the type of 'diagnosis' covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61B provides for diagnosis in general. A61B also provides for any surgical or identification apparatus or methods when

  • the apparatus or methods are combined with diagnosis means or
  • the apparatus can be used for diagnosis and either surgery or identification.

A61B additionally provides for any diagnostic apparatus or methods combined with therapy apparatus or method normally covered by subclass A61H or A61N when

  • the same apparatus or methods are used for both purposes or
  • combined together but only useable separately.

Subclass A61H provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with massage and physical therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy; when the diagnostic means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

Subclass A61N provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with medical treatment therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability by utilization of forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy; when the means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tools or instruments for operating on the mouth portion of a human being (e.g., tooth saws)
Saliva removers combined with instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth (e.g., mouth props, tongue guards, tongue depressors, cheek spreaders)
A61C17/10
Medical instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their usefulness to only animals
Methods or devices for treatment of eyes, putting in contact lenses, or correcting squinting
Eye surgery
Ear surgery
Physical therapy apparatus that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing operation
Syringes and suction, pumping or atomizing devices for medical use (e.g. cups, breast relievers, irrigators, sprays, powder insufflators, atomizers, inhalers), apparatus for general or local anesthetics, devices or methods for causing a change in the state of consciousness, catheters, dilators, and apparatus for introducing medicines into the body other than orally
Non-surgical treatment of medical conditions or physical injuries by utilization of forms of energy not directly generated by mechanical apparatus, devices, or means that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing its operation
Clinical thermometers for measuring the temperature of body parts
Methods or arrangements for reading or recognizing patterns, e.g. fingerprints
Recognizing, identifying, or verifying the identity of human beings by analyzing their voice or speech
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Operating tables and auxiliary devices for these tables
Operating chairs
Apparatus for artificial respiration or heart stimulation
Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes
Devices for administering medicines orally
Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels
Surgical adhesives or cements and adhesives for colostomy devices
Materials for colostomy devices
Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro organisms
Analyzing samples of biological material
Special rules of classification within this subclass

The following IPC groups are not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following ECLA groups:

covered by A61B 5/026
covered by A61B5/00N4
covered by A61B5/00N4B
covered by A61B5/00N4F
covered by A61B5/00N2
covered by A61B5/00N2B
covered by A61B5/00N2D
covered by A61B5/00N2F
covered by A61B 5/1411
covered by A61B 5/1405
covered by A61B 5/1438
covered by A61B 5/00
A61B17/03
covered by A61B 17/00
A61B17/125
covered by A61B 17/122
A61B17/138
covered by A61B 17/12
A61B17/76
covered by A61B 17/74
A61B17/90
covered by A61B 17/88
A61B17/94
covered by A61B 17/29
Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes ( examination of body cavities or body tracts using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves A61B 8/12 ; instruments, e.g. endoscopes, for taking a cell sample A61B 10/00 ; endoscopic cutting instruments A61B 17/32 ; surgical instruments using a laser beam being directed along or through a flexible conduit A61B 18/22 ; technical endoscopes G02B 23/24) ; Illuminating arrangements therefor ( for the eyes A61B 3/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Illuminating arrangements for the eyes
Examination of body cavities or body tracts using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Instruments, e.g. endoscopes, for taking a cell sample
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical probes as there is no visual/image channel
Endoscopic cutting instruments
Surgical instruments using a laser beam being directed along or through a flexible conduit
Catheters, e.g. flexible tubes
Industrial endoscopes, e.g. borescopes; optical details thereof, e.g. particularly lens and optical fibre details
Special rules of classification within this group

A61B 1/00 to A61B 1/127 deal with technical features of endoscopes. From A61B 1/227 to A61B 1/32 endoscopes are classified according to the body cavity where they are intended to be used.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Rod-lens
A number of glass rods with specially shaped ends, that are used in rigid endoscopes instead of several thin glass lenses to improve image transmission properties and widen the field of view
{Operational features of endoscopes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operational signal transmission and data processing related with endoscopes if not provided in other, more specific technical fields.

{of image signals (G06T takes precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operational image processing for display during use of the endoscope, e.g. on-chip or by the camera control unit.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Processing or analysis of bit-mapped images
{using wireless means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wireless data transmission between probe within the body and external receiver.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wireless transmission of sensed physiological data other than images
K61B564/00
Endoradiosondes
{using electrical cables}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wire based data transmission by electrical signals.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical cables as such
{removable}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Exchangeable memory like memory cards, e.g. for image recording or changing endoscope function.

{internally powered}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power source integral with the endoscope, e.g. batteries.

{Means for power saving, e.g. sleeping mode}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Power saving features, e.g. in capsule endoscopes or displays
  • Sleep/stand-by modes or varying sampling/transmission rates.
{provided with data input arrangements for the user}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of user input/interface means, e.g. keyboards, touch screens, joysticks, remote controls, voice-activated.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Deflection control handles
{for user message recording}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recording user/operator message during operation of endoscope, e.g. record annotation with image.

{Constructional features of the display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display construction, e.g. portable, head mounted displays, supports for displays.

{for multiple images}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display of images obtained by endoscopes, combinations of images, e.g. side-by-side, superimposed, tiled etc., combination of images and other data, e.g. graphs, ECG curves, pulse waveforms, alphanumeric data.

{positioned at proximal end of the endoscope body}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Small display screen at the proximal end of the endoscope shaft, e.g. mounted on the handle.

{for alerting the user}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alerting/indicating to user of an operative condition/fault, e.g. by voice synthesiser, indicator lights. Includes physiological parameter of patient during endoscopic examination.

{provided with means for testing or calibration}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of endoscope testing, e.g. optical performance, leak detection. Testing operation of endoscope, fault detection.

{provided with identification means for the endoscope}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Endoscope provided with identification means, e.g. barcode, memory chip (ROM), coded resistor etc. May also include other data, e.g. operating data, manufacturer's serial number etc.

{provided with means for preventing overuse}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Limiting the number and/or duration of uses of an endoscope, e.g. by a counter/timer. Also limiting use to one patient by configuring endoscope to patient ID. Counting usage for payment.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Identification means
{Proximal part of endoscope body, e.g. handles (A61B 1/0052 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Structural or operational features of the handle, e.g. control elements.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control elements, e.g. on the handle for controlled bending of the shaft
{Valve switch arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Construction of valve switches for controlling suction/water/air supply.

{Insertion part of the endoscope body (A61B 1/0055 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of endoscope shaft/sheath construction, e.g. layers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional details of flexible insertion parts, e.g. vertebral elements
{with externally grooved shaft}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Groove(s) on external surface of endoscope to receive additional channel(s), e.g. for tools, suction, rinsing etc.

{with stiffening means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of endoscope shaft/sheath construction, including oversleeves, for stiffening.

{characterised by distal tip features}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal tip features not separately provided for below, e.g. distal tips with certain shapes, protective caps, strengthening means, vibrating elements, heating etc.

{Balloons}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal fluid inflatable balloons, e.g. for retaining endoscope in a fixed position within a body cavity or for enlarging visual field etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Balloon catheters
{Baskets}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal expandable basket/cage structure, e.g. for retaining endoscope at a fixed position within the body cavity or for spacing the imaging lens from the tissue surface.

{Tools (A61B 17/00234 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal tip tool as part of, mounted on or attached to the endoscope shaft or oversleeve, e.g. for displacing/cutting tissue.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tools for introduction through a working channel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Working channel for introduction of, e.g. surgical tools
{Hoods}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal hood, e.g. projecting beyond the lens/window plane, for restricting field of view.

{Nozzles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal nozzles/baffles/fluid deflectors, e.g. for directing rinsing fluid on to the distal lens/window.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tool deflectors
{Suction openings}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal suction openings for removing fluid/debris; openings may be in an endoscope oversleeve.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Suction openings for propulsion
{Optical elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal optical features, e.g. window shapes, lens arrangements, mirrors, prisms or filters arranged in the distal tip of an insertion section.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For variation of viewing angle
{Deflecting means for inserted tools}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Distal deflector for a tool/instrument/optical fibre introduced through an endoscope channel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tool/instrument channels
{designed for single use}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disposable endoscope or endoscope parts explicitly intended for single use only and usually not sterilizable.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Prevention of overuse
Modular construction
{characterised by modular construction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modular construction of endoscope allows parts to be exchanged/replaced, e.g. different shafts used with the same handle. Also for disassembly of parts for easier cleaning. Multiple endoscopes interchangeably connected to a monitor unit.

{characterised by self-sufficient functionality for stand-alone use}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Portable endoscopes not requiring a physical connection to further supply or monitor units, e.g. including integrated power supply, light source and video controller, suction and fluid supply, telemetry and/or display means.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wireless data transmission
Integrated data storages
Integrated power supply
Integral display units
{Manufacturing of endoscope parts}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of steps/processes in manufacturing / assembling endoscopes or parts thereof.

{Connection or coupling means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of couplings are included here, e.g. optical, mechanical, electrical.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Medical aspects of connections
Details of coupling devices
{Electrical cables for connection to external units}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of electrical cables. Includes cable construction and cable arrangements.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical conductors and cables in general
{Optical cables, e.g. for connection to an external light source}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of light supply cable connecting the endoscope to the light source, may also have, e.g. shutter or filters within cable. Cable may have one end permanently fixed to the endoscope or it may be completely separable from both endoscope and light source unit.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connectors as such
{Tubes or pipes, e.g. for fluid supply to the endoscope}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also universal cables for combined water/air/suction supply.

{electrical, e.g. electrical plug-and-socket connection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of any type of electrical connector used with endoscopes, includes connectors at the distal end of a cable projecting from the operation portion and connectors mounted on the operation portion.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical couplings in general
{mechanical, e.g. for tubes or pipes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of any type of mechanical connector used with endoscopes, includes connectors or adaptors at the proximal end of the working channel.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Forceps plugs for sealing or closing of working channels
Surgical tool connectors
{Drive units, e.g. for endoscopic tools}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drive unit for attachment to an endoscope for driving/introducing a tool/instrument. May be manual or motor driven.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holding or positioning of the endoscope
Guiding of flexible endoscopes as such
Introducing catheters
Introducing guidewires
Operating/actuating an endoscopic tool
{Oversleeves (A61B 1/00142 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separate oversleeve tube and optical assembly. The optical assembly is inserted into the oversleeve prior to use in a body cavity. The oversleeve may have features like additional working channels for instruments, rinsing or suction channels, illumination channels or further distal tools.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sanitary sheaths for hygiene mainly
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guide tubes to aid endoscope insertion
Guiding flexible endoscopes
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "sheath" is often used instead of "oversleeve" which is used in the classification scheme of this group.

{End pieces, e.g. caps, seals, forceps plugs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For closing or sealing openings at both ends of an endoscope, e.g. forceps plugs for the proximal end of a working channel.

{Fastening elements for attaching accessories to the outside of an endoscope shaft, e.g. clips, clamps or bands}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of fastening element to attach an accessory/tool/channel to the outside of the endoscope shaft, e.g. clip, clamp, loop, band.

{with means for preventing contamination, e.g. by using a sanitary sheath}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of contamination with bodily fluids of a patient, e.g. by a hygienic sheath covering the insertion tube of an endoscope.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Oversleeves or sheaths not mainly for hygiene, but comprising additional technical features like working channels
Drapes for protection of surgical instruments
{Hygienic packaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Packages for keeping endoscope sterile before use/in storage.

{Holding or positioning arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for holding and/or changing the position (advancing, rotating, pivoting etc.) of an endoscope with respect to the patient/cavity.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Locating endoscope position inside of the body
Tracking endoscopes with NMR
{using articulated arms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Articulated arms for holding and positioning an endoscope.

{using everted tubes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Propelling/advancing endoscope by everted tube means, e.g. by turning the tube inside out.

{using guide tubes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Guide tubes are positioned at the opening of a body cavity to aid insertion of the endoscope through the guide tube and into the cavity. The guide tubes are usually not fixed or attached to the endoscope shaft.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Oversleeve to cover an endoscope prior to insertion
Guiding arrangements for flexible endoscopes
Access ports for surgical instruments
{using self propulsion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Probe operating inside the body without physical contact with the external environment.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Capsule endoscopes
Self propelled catheters
A51M25/01C4
{using magnetic field}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The probe, e.g. a capsule endoscope, is guided by a magnetic field controlled by the operator. Also for controlled bending of endoscope insertion tube by magnetic forces.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Determining endoscope position using magnetic field
Manipulators for magnetic surgery
A61B19/00M5
{using motor drive units}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drive unit, e.g. proximal motor, for insertion of an endoscope into the body.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guiding arrangements for flexible endoscopes in general
Pumps for everted tubes
Drive unit for introduction of an endoscopic tool into the endoscope
Introducing catheters
Introducing guidewires
{Optical arrangements (A61B 1/002 , A61B 1/06 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of optical arrangements for transmitting image within the endoscope not covered by any lower ranking class. Includes jointed image paths using mirrors/prisms.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rod-lens arrangements
Illuminating arrangements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distal optical elements
{with light-conductive means, e.g. fibre optics (A61B 1/07 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Guiding light from distal to proximal end of the endoscope, not limited to imaging.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Guiding in particular illumination light from proximal to distal end of the endoscope
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Light guides per se
Light guides for industrial endoscopes
{Details of optical fibre bundles, e.g. shape or fibre distribution}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical fibre arrangements for illumination
{Details of single optical fibres, e.g. material or cladding}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical fibres for illumination
{with means for scanning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

2D/3D scanning of illumination and/or imaging light beams.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distal mechanical or optical elements
Optical coherence tomography
Confocal scanning
Optical scanning systems in general
{characterised by the viewing angles}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distal optical features in general
Detachable distal elements
{for 90 degrees side-viewing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical element at distal end of endoscope allows side-viewing.

{for off-axis viewing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical element at distal end of endoscope sets the field-of-view at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope i.e. between 0-90 degrees, in forward or rearward direction.

{for multiple fixed viewing angles (A61B 1/00193 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical elements allow multiple different fixed views, e.g. combining either alternative or simultaneous 0 degree frontal and 90 degrees side-viewing.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Stereoscopic viewing
{for variable viewing angles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical element at distal end of endoscope allows variable field of view, e.g. by rotation or deflection of a distal optical element.

{with imaging filters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filters in the optical imaging path of an endoscope.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filters in the optical illumination path of an endoscope
{with focusing or zooming features}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical and/or mechanical arrangements for adjusting the focal point or magnification of an endoscope, e.g. for auto-focus or endo-microscopy.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Confocal scanning
{characterised by variable lenses}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lens with variable refractive properties, e.g. fluid filled lens, Alvarez lens.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Variable lenses as such
{adapted for stereoscopic vision}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Stereoscopic or three dimensional imaging, e.g. by combining images from two laterally spaced cameras.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stereoscopic vision for industrial endoscopes
{with eyepieces}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Features of the eyepiece, e.g. lens arrangement, attachment to endoscope shaft/camera etc. Includes binocular eyepieces.

{characterised by multiple eyepieces}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multiple eyepieces allowing more than one observer to view the image.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Binocular eyepieces
having rod-lens arrangements (A61B 1/055 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rod-lens arrangements in combination with a camera
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "Rod lens" and "Hopkins optics" are often used as synonyms.

Flexible endoscopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Catheters without visualisation
{with controlled bending of insertion part [M1110}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tip steering of catheters
Articulated or flexible manipulators
Crawling robots for pipe lines
{Constructional details of control elements, e.g. handles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operating elements for active control of bending, e.g. mechanical levers, dials or pulleys, but also electrical switches usually mounted on the handle.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlled bending of the insertion part using shape memory elements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Endoscope handles in general
Force transmission elements, e.g. control wires
{Constructional details of insertion parts, e.g. vertebral elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Backbone elements repetitively aligned and movably connected to each other to provide stability and flexibility to the insertion tube.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Articulations
{Constructional details of force transmission elements, e.g. control wires}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operating elements for transmission of forces for the purpose of e.g. bending, flexing, twisting, pivoting or rotation of a flexible portion of the insertion tube.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control elements, e.g. on the handle
Articulations
Articulations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for interconnecting (rigid) backbone elements of the shaft to provide flexibility, e.g. hinges, joints or pivots.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional details of insertion parts as such
Guiding arrangements therefore
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Guiding means, which are independent from the flexible endoscope and its integrated tip steering mechanisms, e.g. guide wires or insertion aids.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guide tubes
Guiding arrangements for catheters
{Endoscope within endoscope}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combination of at least 2 endoscopes, where one endoscope is introduced into the body cavity, e.g. by passing it through a channel of another endoscope.

Control of fluid supply or evacuation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Controlling fluid supply or evacuation to or from cavities of the human body.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid supply or evacuation to distal balloons
Fluid supply or evacuation for cleaning purposes post-use
Fluid supply or evacuation for cleaning purposes in-use
for receiving instruments
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kind of working channels for insertion of medical instruments thought the endoscope shaft, e.g. for minimally invasive surgery.

combined with photographic or television appliances { ( camera adapters G03B 17/48) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Camera adapters
Television cameras
{Capsule endoscopes for imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Small mostly capsule type cameras, usually but not necessarily swallowed for minimally invasive visual documentation e.g. of the gastroenterologic tract or blood vessels. Often in combination with miniaturized on-board diagnostic or therapeutic tools.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Capsule type diagnostic sensors without visualization
Wireless transmission of control or image signals
Internal power supply, e.g. by batteries
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "Capsule endoscope" and "Pill camera" are often used as synonyms.

{characterised by a proximal camera, e.g. a CCD camera}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Endoscopic cameras integrated into or detachably fixed to the proximal end of an endoscope.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cameras in the distal end portion of an endoscope
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image processing e.g.
Details of the TV cameras
{for fluorescence imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Visual imaging of tissue fluorescence induced e.g. by exogenously administered fluorophores or endogenous autofluorescence.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detection of tissue fluorescence not resulting in an image
Filters in the imaging path
Filters in the illumination path
Monochromatic illumination
Polychromatic illumination
{Details of CCD assembly}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of mounting the CCD chip in the distal tip of the endoscope.

with illuminating arrangements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Illumination arrangements for industrial endoscopes
{for annular illumination}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illumination arrangements where light exits the endoscope forwardly in multiple points or circularly, including illumination sources for the oral cavity not incorporated in the endoscope shaft.

{for radial illumination}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illumination arrangements where light exits the endoscope radially (perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis). Single or multiple illumination ports.

{for off-axis illumination}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illumination of cavity at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the endoscope other than at 90 degrees.

{for monochromatic illumination}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Lasers or laser diodes
  • Quasi-monochromatic light sources like narrow-band filtered lamps.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Illumination filters
{providing two or more wavelengths}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illumination with multiple spectral bands, e.g. for fluorescence endoscopy.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluorescence spectroscopy without visual imaging
A61B5/00P4 or G01N 21/64
{with illumination filters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical filters provided in the illumination path of the endoscope, e.g. for fluorescence endoscopy.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filters in the optical imaging path of an endoscope
{with wavelength conversion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Endoscope comprising one or several light source(s), e.g. semiconductor light source or LEDs, that illuminate(s) a fluorescent material, e.g. phosphor, to emit light at a different wavelength than the exciting light.

{Endoscope light sources}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lightning devices in general
{at proximal end of an endoscope}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

External or internal light sources coupled to or positioned at the proximal end of an endoscope for illumination.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cables to couple a light source to an endoscope
Connectors to couple a light source to an endoscope
{head mounted}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Headlamps, e.g. used for dental or ENT applications.

using light-conductive means, e.g. optical fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Guiding illumination light from proximal to distal end of the endoscope.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guiding light from distal to proximal end of the endoscope, not limited to imaging
Details of optical fibre bundles
Details of single optical fibre structure
Light guides per se
Light guides for illumination in industrial endoscopes
with cooling or rinsing arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fluid supply or evacuation for functional purposes of the endoscope.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid supply or evacuation to or from cavities of the human body
{provided with means for cleaning post-use}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cleaning, e.g. physically, of endoscopes and/or parts thereof after use.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning of endoscopes in-use
Cleaning of surgical instruments
Cleaning of dental instruments
Cleaning of hollow articles in general
Disinfection or sterilisation
{using cleaning tools, e.g. brushes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tools for cleaning endoscopes after use, e.g. cleaning swabs or brushes inserted into endoscope channel.

{using washing machines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Washing machines specially adapted for cleaning endoscopes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Disinfection or sterilisation
{using fluid circuits}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fluid circulation in the endoscope during endoscope cleaning cycle.

{provided with means for cleaning in-use}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Active cleaning of endoscope parts during use, e.g. of distal windows to maintain vision.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distal nozzles
A61B1/00E5H5
Cleaning of endoscopes post-use
{with means for preventing fogging (A61B 1/253 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prevention of fogging, e.g. by dedicated covers or coatings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Active cleaning of endoscopes in-use
Means for preventing fogging of dentists mirrors
{provided with means for regulating temperature}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring/controlling/regulation of temperature in an endoscope (shaft or handle) and related units like proximal light sources.

for the mouth, i.e. stomatoscopes, e.g. with tongue depressors ( tongue depressors per se A61B 13/00) ; Instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth ( combined with saliva removers A61C 17/00 ; mouth openers for animals A61D 15/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Light based diagnosis of oral or dental tissue
A61B5/00P8
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tongue depressors per se
Combined with saliva removers
Mouth openers for animals
Devices for opening or enlarging the visual field, e.g. of a tube of the body ( dilators A61M 29/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for enlarging natural openings of the human body for visual inspection, e.g. specula or the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tractors for holding wounds open
Surgical trocars for introduction into natural body openings
Dilators
Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes ( eye inspection using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves A61B 8/10 ; devices for treatment of the eyes A61F 9/00 ; exercisers for the eyes A61H 5/00 ; optical systems in general G02B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Eye inspection using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Devices for treatment of the eyes
Exercisers for the eyes
Optical systems in general
Spectacles and contact lenses
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

A61B 3/02 - A61B 3/09 for subjective testing i.e. with patient feedback and A61B 3/10 - A61B 3/158 for objective testing i.e. without patient feedback

{provided with illuminating means (A61B 3/117 takes precedence; goniolenses used for laser treatment A61F 9/009 ; illuminating means for optical instruments G02B 27/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illuminating means for examining the eyes (not related to a specific measuring instrument)

media0.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Illumination for examining the anterior chamber or the anterior chamber angle
Illumination for objective testing apparatus
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Goniolenses used for laser treatment
Illuminating means for optical instruments
{characterised by electronic signal processing, e.g. eye models}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of any type of eye model, e.g. to aid in measurement of visual function or checking correct prescription of corrective lens.

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Determination of parameters of contact lenses or of intraocular lenses on the basis of ophthalmic measurements

Correlation of eye images taken at different times

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Medical models
Planning of eye laser surgery
A61F9/00878
Computer processing of eye images
{characterised by user input arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of user input/interface means, e.g. particular keyboard/switch layouts, control desks/panels, voice-controlled, light pen, touch screen, joysticks, cursors etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adjusting devices, e.g. operated by control lever
{Constructional features of the display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display construction, e.g. portable, supports for displays.

{for multiple images}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display of images obtained by all types of apparatus in A61B 3/00, combinations of images, e.g. side-by-side, superimposed, tiled etc., combination of images and/or other data, e.g. graphs, waveforms, alphanumeric data, questionnaires, patient reports etc.

{with identification means for the apparatus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Identification of apparatus or component parts of the apparatus by any means, e.g. RFID, bar code, coded resistors, EPROM etc.

{provided with adjusting devices, e.g. operated by control lever ( manipulators B25J) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control levers for ophthalmic apparatus

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manipulators as such
{provided with means for patient positioning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for positioning of a patient with respect to apparatus, e.g. head-rests, chin-rests, seats etc. Adjustable positioning, e.g. sliding elements or motor driven structures.

{Fixation targets for viewing direction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details or arrangements of fixation targets or lights.

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The fixation light 16 includes a plurality of LEDs arranged in a lattice shape. By lighting one LED, the fixation light 16 can guide a sight line of the subject's eye E to a direction of the LED lighting.

Also to relax the accommodation power

{for testing contrast sensitivity}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examination or measurement of the contrast sensitivity of the eye.

for determining the visual field, e.g. perimeter types
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining the field of vision

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Devices for presenting test symbols or characters, e.g. test chart projectors (A61B 3/036 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For testing astigmatism
Trial frames; Sets of lenses for use therewith ( lenses per se G02C 7/02)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ophthalmic lenses per se
Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients` perceptions or reactions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements on the eye without the patient's feedback.

Besides the below-listed fields, the following is included:

  • detect the features (e.g., position, fitting) of a contact lens or an intraocular lens
  • examining the eyelid
  • evaluate a contrast agent on the eye surface
  • fluorescence examination
  • scanning laser ophthalmoscope
  • examination of light scattering
{for measuring distances inside the eye, e.g. thickness of the cornea (A61B 3/11 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For measuring interpupillary distance or diameter of pupils
{for examining the tear film}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurement of any quantity related to tear secretion or tear film production, e.g. volume, flow, or film thickness.

{for wavefront analysis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring optical aberrations of the eye or corneal topography with wavefront sensor.

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Synonyms and Keywords

wavefront sensor, Hartmann sensor, shack sensor, lenslet array, microlens array

{for optical coherence tomography (OCT)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical coherence tomography, also in combination and sharing optical components with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

media6.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical coherence tomography of body tissue in general
Optical coherence tomography as such
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "optical coherence tomography", "OCT", "OCDR", "optical coherence domain relectometry", "optical coherence imaging", "low coherence interferometry" and "partial coherence tomography" are often used as synonyms.

{for confocal scanning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Scanning the eye wherein a detector receives only the reflected light focussed on a single point in the eye tissue, e.g. cornea or retina.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Confocal scanning of body tissue in general
for determining refraction, e.g. refractometers, skiascopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wavefront analyzer
Eye surgery
A61F9/01
Intraocular lenses
Lenses
Contact lenses
Spectacles
{for measuring astigmatism ( testing astigmatism A61B 3/036) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing astigmatism
Computation of astigmatism based on input values
Special rules of classification within this group

This field mostly relates to processing of ophthalmic data in order to estimate astigmatism.

for determining the shape or measuring the curvature of the cornea
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurement of corneal topography.

E.g. by projecting a light pattern (moiré, placido rings) on the cornea

Examination of limbus

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wavefront analyzer
Eye surgery
A61F9/01
Measuring curvature by projecting a pattern
Examination of anterior and posterior chambers
{for measuring interpupillary distance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurement of interpupillary distance in the context of diagnostic procedures.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring geometric parameters required to locate ophthalmic lenses in spectacles frames
for determining or recording eye movement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Eye tracking mainly for diagnostic purposes.

E.g. using image processing:

media7.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For measurement of nystagmus
A61B5/00L
Tracking eye movements during eye surgery
Man-machine interfaces
G06F3/00B8E
For photography
G03B213/02S
Means for monitoring data relating to the user, e.g. head-tracking, eye-tracking
for examining the anterior chamber or the anterior chamber angle, e.g. gonioscopes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examination of the anterior chamber: Space between the cornea and the iris

Examination of the posterior chamber: Iris, ciliary body, lens

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Examination of the cornea
{for determining lens opacity, e.g. cataract}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of apparatus for determining, measuring or examining the opacity of the lens, e.g. due to cataract.

for looking at the eye fundus, e.g. ophthalmoscopes (A61B 3/13 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ophthalmic microscopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Documentation by photo or video means
with contact lenses ( contact lenses per se G02C 7/04)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lens adapted to be placed on the cornea for direct observation of the retina

media8.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Contact lenses per se
Ophthalmic microscopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Operation microscopes
Surgical microscopes
Arrangements specially adapted for eye photography { (apparatus or arrangements for taking photographs per se G03B) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for focussing an eye image detector:

media9.png

Also:

  • Adaptive optics
  • Camera adapters
  • Focussing features
  • Eye spectrometry
  • Evaluation of eye-detector distance
{of corneal reflection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for stopping, e.g. polarised light reflected from the cornea to enhance detection of light reflected from the retina, e.g. in eye fundus examinations.

for measuring intraocular pressure, e.g. tonometers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detect intraocular pressure.

E.g., using a deformable element in contact with the cornea

media10.png

Also:

  • using deformable item on the eye surface
  • causing eye deformation using ultrasound waves
  • using implanted sensor
{Non-contacting tonometers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detect intraocular pressure by deforming the eye surface with a gas jet a measuring the deformation of the eye surface

media11.png

Arrangement of plural eye-testing or -examining apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combinations of eye-testing apparatus in a single workstation, e.g. at a test station.

{characterised by modular construction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus may be modified for different applications by exchanging component parts.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Attachment of cameras or photography equipment
Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes ( radiation diagnosis A61B 6/00 ; diagnosis by ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves A61B 8/00) ; Identification of persons { ( measuring or recording in general subclasses of G01; medical informatics G06F 19/30) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radiation diagnosis
Diagnosis by ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network (A61B 5/07 takes precedence; transmission systems for measured values G08C; transmission H04B; transmission of digital information H04L; wireless communication networks H04W) ]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Endoradiosondes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmitting measured data in general
Transmission
Transmission of digital information
Wireless communication networks
{transmitting optical signals ( transmission by light H04B 10/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission by light
{Detecting, measuring or recording by applying mechanical forces or stimuli (A61B 5/021 , A61B 5/4884 and A61B 9/00 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing or evaluating the body or part of the body by applying mechanical forces or stimuli and measuring the response of the body or tissue to the mechanical force or stimulus.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
Examination by percussion
Stress testing
{by applying vibrations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

1) Vibration stimulator, e.g. for detecting pain threshold

media12.png

2) Apply stimulation while carrying out measurements, e.g. oximetry:

media13.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Applying ultrasound vibrations
{by applying pressure, e.g. compression, indentation, palpation, grasping, gauging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Applying compression during a measurement:

media14.png

Holding skin for skin gauges, palpation, indentation

{by applying suction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Applying suction or vacuum at the measurement area during the measurement, e.g. to increase blood pressure:

media15.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apply suction to enhance body fluid extraction
Apply suction to attach sensor to the body surface
{by applying motion other than vibrations, e.g. rolling, rubbing, applying a torque, tribometry}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Applying torque, friction etc. to a body part during the measurement of an effect of this force

media16.png

{using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence (A61B 5/0093 , A61B 5/1455 , A61B 5/02416 and A61B 5/0261 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing or evaluating the body, parts of the body or body tissues by applying light and measuring the change in light characteristics caused by the interaction of the light with the body or tissue.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical probes for detecting blood characteristics
Optical probes for detecting heart rate
Optical probes for blood flow measurement
Optoacoustic or acoustooptic imaging
Medical imaging apparatus involving image processing or analysis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical measurment in general
Spectrometry
{Arrangements for scanning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diagnosis using scanned light, e.g.:

Laser speckle imaging

media17.png

{Body surface scanning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for optical scanning of the external body surface:

media18.png

{Optical coherence imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection using coherent light emission

media19.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
OCT for eye diagnosis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
OCT in general
{Confocal scanning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The use of confocal scanning techniques, e.g. confocal laser scanning microscopy in order to obtain images at selected depths of body tissue.

media20.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Confocal scanning surgical probes
{by measuring fluorescence emission}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting fluorescence emission as a result of irradiating excitation light

media21.png

{by tomography, i.e. reconstruction of 3D images from 2D projections (A61B 5/0066 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reconstructing volumes using light irradiated into the body and scattered outside the body

media22.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical coherence tomography
{by spectroscopy, i.e. measuring spectra, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy (A61B 5/0071 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating spectral properties of body parts

media23.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring fluorescence emission
{Devices for viewing the surface of the body, e.g. camera, magnifying lens}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for viewing and taking images of the surface of the body. Documents may include diagnostic evaluation of images, e.g. evaluation of images taken with a camera at different times

media24.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for image acquisition of a particular organ of body part
{adapted for particular medical purposes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices using light adapted for a particular medical procedure, e.g. dentistry, mammography, insertion into the body

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Particular medical applications
Relationship between the sensor and the patient
{for introduction into the body, e.g. by catheters (A61B 5/1459 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inspecting the composition of body tissues using light probes introduced into the body

media25.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Invasive probes for taking images (i.e. endoscopes)
Invasive optical sensors
A61B1/1459
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Probes mounted on invasive devices
{for oral or dental tissue}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting properties of all types of oral or dental tissue, e.g. teeth, gums, tongue

media26.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Imaging the oral region
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring instruments specially adapted for dentistry
{for mammography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of breast cancer or other properties using light

media27.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
X-ray mammography
A61B5/00D3
Ultrasound mammography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Breast evaluation in general
Biopsy instruments for the breast
{Detecting, measuring or recording by applying one single type of energy and measuring its conversion into another type of energy}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g., magnetoacoustic examination: apply magnetic energy, detect resulting acoustic radiation

media28.png

{by applying light and detecting acoustic waves, i.e. photoacoustic measurements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apply light, detect resulting acoustic emission

media29.png

{by applying acoustic waves and detecting light , i.e. acoustooptic measurements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apply acoustic (e.g. ultrasonic) energy, detect resulting light emission

media30.png

Measuring temperature of body parts; {Diagnostic temperature sensing, e.g. for malignant or inflammed tissue} ( clinical thermometers G01K 5/22 ; thermometers for special purposes G01K 13/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission of temperature signals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Clinical thermometers
Thermometers for special purposes
Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording physiological parameters related to diagnosis of the cardiovascular system. It includes apparatus where calculation of health indices, e.g. an arterial index, are made or apparatus for monitoring trends in the patient's condition by analysis of the physiological data, e.g. ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy using a measured physiological parameter
Electrotherapy combined with monitoring a physiological parameter
Measuring a physiological parameter of a patient undergoing therapy, e.g. for controlling the administration of therapy
K61M23/00
Measuring a physiological parameter of a user of sports apparatus
Special rules of classification within this group

Multiple subgroups may be allocated if the particular physiological parameter is essential for the determination of a diagnosis or calculation of a health index.

{Determining blood viscosity}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating flow properties of materials, e.g. viscosity
Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording multiple physiological parameters where at least one parameter is a cardiovascular parameter. Combinations with any other physiological parameters, not only a respiratory condition, are allowed, e.g. measurement of heart rate, movement activity and blood glucose concentration. Multiparameter vital signs monitoring.

Special rules of classification within this group

Indexing Codes added for specific parameters to show the combination of physiological parameters measured, e.g. A61B 5/024, A61B 5/0816 and A61B 5/14532.

{Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular condition and temperature}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular condition and body temperature. Multiple vital signs monitoring where at least one cardiovascular parameter is measured with body temperature, e.g. heart rate and temperature.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of apparatus calibration for compensation or correction of the measured physiological value using ambient temperature
Remote monitoring of patients by using telemetry of temperature signals
K61B564/02D
Clinical thermometers
Special purpose thermometers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy using body or blood temperature
Measuring temperature of a patient undergoing therapy, e.g. for controlling administration of therapy
Measuring temperature of a user of sports apparatus
Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels (A61B 5/0205 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording blood pressure, diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, arterial pressure, venous pressure. Includes measuring pressure in specific blood vessels, e.g. aortic pressure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure
Measuring fluid pressure by mechanical pressure-sensitive elements in general
Measuring fluid pressure by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements in general
Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for maintaining contact with the body by monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure
Details of pressure sensors specially adapted for sensing pressure in-vivo
Controlling electrotherapy by using blood pressure
Measuring blood pressure during the administration of therapy
Measuring blood pressure of a user of sports apparatus
Special rules of classification within this group

IPC precedence does not apply in the case where the blood pressure in combination with another physiological parameter is essential for the invention, e.g. in calculation of a particular arterial index.

by means inserted into the body ( catheters A61M 25/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording blood pressure invasively including catheters, needle probes, guidewires and implanted devices. Blood pressure may be measured in blood vessels or in the heart itself.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring pressure in other body cavities
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
Solid probes
A61M23/00
Catheters, e.g. for introducing media or drainage
{by optical transmission}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording blood pressure in a blood vessel or the heart comprising optical means for transmitting the pressure change, e.g. deflection of a pressure sensitive membrane is detected optically.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical transmission of a pressure signal from the patient to a remote site
A61B5/00B6K61B564/04
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmitting or indicating the displacement of pressure sensitive flexible diaphragms using photoelectric means
{Calibration means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods or apparatus for calibrating the pressure sensor repsonse. May include correction or compensation of the measured value, e.g. due to drift.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of apparatus for calibration, e.g. calibration protocols
Sensors provided with means for identification combined with means for recording calibration data, e.g. on memory chip
K61B560/08B
Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring fluid pressure
{provided with two or more sensor elements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus provided with two or more pressure sensors for measuring the blood pressure in the body, e.g. two pressure transducers mounted on a catheter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of pressure sensors, e.g. in a linear arrangement
by applying pressure to close blood vessels, e.g. against the skin; Ophthalmodynamometers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording blood pressure where the blood vessel is fully occluded during part of the measurement cycle and then released to allow blood flow.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Partial compression of blood vessel to allow blood pressure measurement
{Occluders specially adapted therefor ( tourniquets A61B 17/132) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of occluders, e.g. construction of inflatable cuffs, adjustable clamps.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tourniquets
the pressure transducers comprising a liquid column
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring pressure of a fluid using liquid as a pressure sensitive medium, e.g. liquid-column gauges
Valves specially adapted therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of valves specially adapted for use in blood pressure measuring apparatus, e.g. valves for releasing air from an inflatable cuff. Includes valves used in any part of the apparatus..

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Valves for medical use
Special rules of classification within this group

This subgroup is not restricted to apparatus where the blood vessel is occluded.

Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate (A61B 5/0205 , A61B 5/021 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate, e.g. given in beats per minute.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. pulse waveform shape analysis
Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions
Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
Ballistocardiography, detecting chest motion due to heart beat
Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring a physiological parameter to provide biofeedback to patient, e.g. measuring heart rate to allow patient to control the heart rate
A61B5/00J
Measuring heart rate of a patient during administration of therapy
Measuring heart rate of a user of sports apparatus
{using photoplethysmograph signals, e.g. generated by infra-red radiation (A61B 5/14552 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate using an optical sensor for detecting photoplethysmograph signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring blood flow using plethysmography
Using optical sensors for measuring blood gases, e.g. details of photometrical oximeters
{Details of sensor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of optical sensors for detecting photoplethysmograph signals. Includes constructional details of sensors, arrangements of sensors in housings or probes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of optical sensors specially adapted for measuring blood gases
Details of optical sensors specially adapted for in-vivo measurements
{with portable devices, e.g. worn by the patient}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of portable devices for detecting, measuring or recording pulse or heart rate. Heart rate devices may be worn on any part of the body or be incorporated in a portable device providing a non-medical function, e.g. a music player.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means where the sensors are mounted on worn items
Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means where the sensors are mounted on a non-medical device
Constructional details of apparatus, low-profile patch shaped housings
Apparatus with built-in sensors
{Details of sensor (A61B 5/02427 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of sensors for measuring heart or pulse rate not covered by A61B 5/02416 or A61B 5/0245. For example, pressure sensors, strain gauges or accelerometers for measuring the tissue deformation due to the pulse wave. Inlcudes sensor construction and arrangements of sensors in housings or probes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of optical sensors for measuring heart rate
Details of ECG sensors for measuring heart rate
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of sensors specially adapted for in-vivo measurements
by using sensing means generating electric signals, {i.e. ECG signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for measuring, detecting or recording the heart rate using the detection ECG signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting specific parameters of the ECG cycle for diagnostic purposes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrodes specially adapted for ECG
Apparatus with built-in electrodes
within occluders, e.g. responsive to Korotkoff sounds ( electric stethoscopes A61B 7/04)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric stethoscopes
Measuring blood flow { (A61B 3/1233 , A61B 3/1241 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for measuring, detecting or recording blood flow or perfusion of blood in tissue. The extent of blood flow detected is not always given as a flow rate, e.g. in ml/s.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring volume flow or mass flow in general
Apparatus, instrument for testing the eyes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling therapy by using blood flow rate
using electromagnetic means, e.g. electromagnetic flowmeter
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring volume flow or mass flow using electromagnetic flowmeters
using catheters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of catheters for measuring
Catheters, e.g. for introducing media or drainage
Measuring or recording blood output from the heart, e.g. minute volume { (A61B 8/065 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring blood output from the heart using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy by using blood flow rate, e.g. blood velocity or cardiac output
using plethysmography, i.e. measuring the variations in the volume of a body part as modified by the circulation of blood therethrough, e.g. impedance plethysmography
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs by impedance pneumography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Impedance plethysmography not specifically for determining blood flow or perfusion
Measuring volume of limbs, e.g. by plethysmography
A61B5/103F
Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure; {Measuring pressure in body tissues or organs (A61B 5/205 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within any part of the body other than blood pressure of the heart or blood vessels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining bladder or urethral pressure
Measuring fluid pressure by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of pressure sensors specially adapted for in-vivo measurements
{Intracranial pressure}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring blood pressure by means inserted into the body
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices, e.g. burr holes
Catheters, e.g. for introducing media or drainage
Devices for cerebrospinal drainage
{by means introduced into body tracts (A61B 5/032 and A61B 5/035 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording spinal fluid pressure
Detecting, measuring or recording uterine pressure using intra-uterine probes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring blood pressure by means inserted into the body
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
Catheters, e.g. for introducing media or drainage
Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body of parts thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for measuring, detecting or recording bioelectric or biomagnetic signals generated by the body or parts thereof. The measurement does not require application of an electric current or voltage nor application of an electromagnetic or magnetic field. Apparatus for ambulatory or long-term monitoring of bioelectric signals. Apparatus for measuring combined with analysis of bioelectric signals for diagnosis.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Indicating or recording in connection with measuring in general
Measuring or recording or electrical currents of voltages in general
Recording with possibility of play-back
Computer assisted diagnosis for data mining from previous cases or multiple patients
G06F19/00M3D
Emergency protective circuit arrangements
Amplifiers
Interference or noise suppression in transmissions systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy using a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential
Electrotherapy combined with monitoring a physiological parameter
Details of electodes specially adapted for in-vivo measurements, e.g. for impedance measurements
{adapted to neuroelectric signals, e.g. nerve impulses}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for measuring, detecting or recording neuroelectric signal generated by nerves or the brain. For monitoring the brain, intracranial or intracortical electrodes are required.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electroencephalographic signals detected on the surface of the scalp or head
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrodes for electrotherapy implanted or inserted into the body; for stimulating the brain; spinal or peripheral nerve electrodes; nerve electrodes not otherwise provided for
Special rules of classification within this group

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording neuroelectric signals combined with stimulation of neural tissue is classified in A61B 5/04001 and the respective A61N subgroup.

{Input circuits for EEG-, or EMG-signals}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Input circuits specially adapted for EEG or EMG signals, e.g. for filtering, amplification, switching.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Input circuits for ECG
{Detecting magnetic fields produced by bio-electric currents ( measuring magnetic variables in general G01R 33/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus and methods for detecting electromagnetic fields generated by the body or biomagnetic signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring magnetic variables in general
Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields
{Analysis of electro-cardiograms, electro-encephalograms, electro-myograms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Signal analysis of electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms and electromaygrams not covered in other subgroups usually to obtain diagnostically relevant information.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting specific parameters of the electrocardiograph cycle
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluating the central nervous system for particular diseases
Evaluating the musculoskeletal system
{by measuring frequency distribution using a set of filters ( arrangements for analysing frequency spectra in general G01R 23/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Frequency distribution of EEG
Arrangements for analysing frequency spectra in general
Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording ECG signals on the surface of the body. Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording electrograms from the heart surface or from within the heart. Apparatus for long-term or ambulatory monitoring of ECG. Apparatus for measuring ECG combined with analysis of the ECG to obtain a diagnosis

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Remote monitoring of patient with the measured ECG signals being transmitted from the patient to a remote monitor or site
K61B564/02B
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy using a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential
Hand-held devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand-held or portable apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording ECG.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus with built-in electrodes
Electrodes specially adapted therefor ( for foetal cardiography A61B 5/0448 ; for electroencephalograph signals A61B 5/0478 ; for electromyography A61B 5/0492)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional details of electrodes for detecting ECG.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrodes for detecting neural signals
Electrodes for bioimpedance measurements
A61B5/053A61B5 - /053J; A61B 2562/0209
Manufacturing methods specially adapated for producing electrodes
Probe or electrodes for electrosurgery
Electrodes for stimulation in electrotherapy
A61N1/04A61N1 - /05V
For foetal cardiography
For electroencephalograph signals
For electromyography
Special rules of classification within this group

Where the electrode(s) is(are) adapted for both measuring and applying therapy classification in A61B 5/0408-A61B 5/0416 and the corresponding therapy or electrosurgical group takes place.

{attached by means of suction}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for maintaining contact with the body by using a vacuum
{Multiple electrode holders (A61B 5/04286 , A61B 5/0422 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements of multiple ECG electrodes mounted on a single substrate, e.g. a flexible strap. Arrangements of multiple electrodes joined by a cable. Arrangements of multiple ECG electrodes mounted or fixed on an item of clothing, e.g. vest.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Patient cord assembly, e.g. cable harness
Multiple ECG electrode holders for introducing into the body
{using conductive adhesive means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Conductive adhesive or gels for improving the electrical contact between the electrode and the skin or body surface.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adhesives characterised by being electroconductive
for introducing into the body
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of ECG electrodes specially adapted to be introduced into the body. All types of apparatus, e.g. catheters, guidewires, probes or implanted devices for introducing ECG electrodes into the body. Electrodes for epicardial or endocardial measurements of ECG or electrograms.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
Electrodes for electrotherapy for implantation or insertion into the body, epicardial or endocardial electrodes
{Multiple electrode holders}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multiple electrodes on a single holder, e.g. multiple electrodes on a catheter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sensors mounted on catheters
Protection against electrode failure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting electrode failure or electrode disconnection from patient. Also called lead failure.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monitoring or maintaining sensor contact pressure
{using insulating or floating elements, e.g. transformers, opto-couplers ( transformers for specific applications H01F 38/00 ; amplifiers H03F; optocouplers H04B 10/80) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for the electrical isolation of the the patient side electrodes from the mains power supply, e.g. using an isolation transformer or optocoupler.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
Adaptations of transformers for specific applications of functions
Amplifiers using electroluminescent element or photocell
{Patient cord assembly, e.g. cable harness}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements of sensors with cables or leads, e.g. cable harnesses
{Switching circuits}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for switching the connection of ECG leads to the monitor or analysis unit, e.g. using a multiplexer.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Modular apparatus with a separable interface unit, e.g. for transmission or switching signals
Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recording apparatus specially adapted for long-term or ambulatory recording of ECG, e.g. 24 hour recording, Holter monitors.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recording measured values
{using integrated circuit memory devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Integrated circuit memory devices may be built into the device or may comprise removable memory chips, e.g. flash memory stick

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Solid state data loggers
Displays specially adapted therefor { ( arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms, e.g. cathode-ray oscilloscopes, G01R 13/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms, e.g. cathode-ray oscilloscopes
Output arrangements for digital computers, output to a display device
Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. scalp electrodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sensors for measuring characteristics of blood specially adapted for foetal tissue
Anchoring means for maintaining sensor contact with the body, e.g. barbs
{attached by means of suction}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for maintaining sensor contact with the body using a vacuum
Detecting specific parameters of the electrocardiograph cycle
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording ECG in combination with analysis of specific parameters of the electrocardiograph cycle in order to determine a diagnosis, e.g. analysis of ST segment elevation for determining ischaemia. Includes analysis of epicardial or endocardial electrograms for diagnosis.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or arrangements for recognising patterns in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy by using a physiological parameter, e.g. heart potential
{Detecting R peaks, e.g. for synchronising diagnostic apparatus} ( physiological signal analysis for synchronising or triggering a measurement or image acquisition A61B 5/7285)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating signals of physiological origin to be used to initiate radiation
A61B6/00F
Circuit arrangements for obtaining a series of X-ray photographs
Detecting tachycardy or brachycardy
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices provided with high/low alarm devices
Electroencephalography { ( devices for psychotechnics A61B 5/16) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording electroencephalographic signals (EEG) for diagnosis. Apparatus for measuring combined with analysis of signals for determining a diagnosis, e.g. for determining a seizure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for psychotechnics, e.g. for determining the psychological state
Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness
Input arrangements for computers based on nervous system activity, e.g. brain machine interfaces using EEG
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring a physiological parameter to provide biofeedback to a patient, e.g. to allow the patient to control brain waves
A61B5/00J
Evaluating the central nervous system
Measuring EEG of a patient during administration of therapy
Measuring EEG of a user of sports apparatus
Methods or arrangements for recognising patterns in general
Electrodes specially adapted therefor
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring neuroelectric signals, e.g. by using intracranial or intracortical electrodes
Detecting the frequency distribution of signals { ( analysing frequency spectra in general G01R 23/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Analysing frequency spectra in general
using biofeedback { ( biofeedback per se A61B 5/486) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Biofeedback per se
A61B5/00J
using evoked response
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording EEG that has been evoked in response to the application of a stimulus.

{acoustically or auditory}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using a sound, acoustic or audible stimulus to evoke an EEG response.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Audiometering with electric or electronic apparatus, e.g. using evoked EEG response
A61B5/12B
{Control of prosthetics}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting, measuring or recording EMG combined with analysis of the EMG signal in order to provide control of a prosthesis.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bioelectric control of prothesis
Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. needle electrodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring neuroelectric signals, e.g. using intracranial or intracortical electrodes
Electro-oculography, e.g. detecting nystagmus { ( measuring or inducing nystagmus A61B 5/4863) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording electro-oculographic signals or electroretinographic signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring or inducing nystagmus
A61B5/00L and A61B 5/4863
Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; {Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves} (A61B 5/02 , A61B 5/04 , A61B 5/11 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements carried out while applying a magnetic field, an electric field or an electromagnetic field, e.g.:

1) Magnetic induction tomography

media31.png

2) Measurements of microwaves modified by parts of the body

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dental radiography
Detecting heart rate, blood flow etc.
EEG, ECG, EOG
Detecting movement of the body
Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Determining position of an invasive probe using impedance measurements
Measuring impedance in general
{Measuring skin impedance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring skin impedance, conductance or resistance by applying a current or voltage to the skin.

media32.png

{specially adapted for acupuncture}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using skin conductance measurement to detect acupuncture points

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluating the autonomic nervous system
A61B5/42D4
{Measuring galvanic skin response, e.g. by lie detector}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements are carried out while presenting a stimulus (visual, auditory, auditive, etc.) to the subject of the examination

{Testing vitality of teeth}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Conductance / impedance measurement on teeth

media33.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dental radiography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring instruments specially adapted for dentistry
Evaluation of teeth in general
Sensors adapted for attachment to the mouth
{impedance plethysmography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of volume changes by impedance measurements

media34.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detection of electrical impedance of respiratory organs
{Impedance imaging, e.g. by tomography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reconstruction of images of parts of the body by means of impedance measurements:

media35.png

{Measuring body composition by impedance, e.g. tissue hydration or fat content}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fat content evaluation: measuring various parameters of body composition including body fat composition, lean body mass, body-fat ratio, tissue hydration, total body water, extracellular fluid volume etc..

media36.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Weighing apparatus for diet control
Computer programs for diet control
G06F19/00M3P
involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging ( arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, in general G01R 33/20)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A61B 5/055 mainly covers the relationship between magnetic resonance apparatus (NMR, MRS, MRI, fMRI etc) and other devices classified in A61B 5/00. Includes documents where the diagnostic application of MRI predominates rather than the system details.

media37.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Blood flow measurement using MRI
MRI image gating or triggering
MRI prescan
S01R330/506C
MRI artifact reduction
S01R330/650
Special rules of classification within this group

Specific MRI arrangements already covered in G01R 33/20 and S01R330/00 are not classified in A61B 5/055, e.g.:

{Means for positioning of patients ( for radiation diagnosis or therapy A61B 6/04) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Positioning of patients in NMR or MRI apparatus including patient support tables, chairs and body restraints.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Positioning of patients in x-ray apparatus
Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ( or removing same A61B 17/50) ; {determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Position sensors on a probe to detect relative positions of different components

media38.png

Sensor 50 is configured to provide position data for the emitter 56 and detector 57.

Sensor 50 comprises a sensor body that includes the emitter 56, detector 57, and one or more position indicators 58 and 60

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tracking foreign bodies using x-ray
Tracking foreign bodies using ultrasound
Instruments for removing foreign bodies
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Foreign body
1) Sensing probe inserted in the human or animal body, e.g. catheter, endoscope, implant 2) External sensing probe
{Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body (A61B 1/00158 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

External tracking device detecting position of:

1) Invasive probes comprising position indicating element

2) Markers placed on the surface of the body

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Endoscope provided with position sensors, e.g. internally mounted
{using magnetic field}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Probes comprising magnet or electromagnetic coil

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
MRI tracking of surgical probes
S01R33/404M2
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electromagnetic tracking of surgical instruments
{using impedance measurements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Impedance measurement means for detecting the position of an invasive probe

media40.png

The coordinates of a catheter inside the body are determined by passing currents between catheter electrodes 60, 62 and body surface electrodes 30.

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{using markers (A61B 5/062 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

1) Detecting position of markers associated with a sensor, the markers being placed on the surface of the body of the patient.

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2) Tracking position of markers associated with an invasive probe

media43.png

The position and movement of the tracking members are tracked by the control unit 14.

The pressure sensors in rings 18a-18i serve as the tracking members.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using magnetic fields
{Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The probe is provided with means for detecting its own position within the body

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Position sensors detect positions relative to their own reference frame, e.g., gyroscopes, accelerometers

{Superposing sensor position on an image of the patient, e.g. obtained by ultrasound or x-ray imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Registration of pre-operative images with detected positions of a probe.

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
MRI tracking of interventional instruments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
X-ray detection of foreign bodies
Ultrasound detection of foreign bodies
Visualisation of surgical instruments using MRI
Endoradiosondes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wireless data transmission between probe within the body and external monitor

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transmission of endoscopic image data
Transmission of measured data from implanted circuitry
A61B5/00B8
{Intestinal transmitters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Swallowed capsules travelling through the GI system

media46.png

{Permanent implantations} ( telemetry using implanted circuitry A61B 5/0031 ; implanted stimulators for therapy A61N 1/362 , A61N 1/372)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Implanted devices that are attached or anchored to the internal body tissue so that movement of the device from the place of attachment does not occur.

media47.png

Using clips, sensor 10 may be held at a fixed position in the Gl tract.

Device 10 uses a wireless communication protocol to transmit data to monitor 14

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluation of respiratory rate in general
Implanted stimulators
Implants for transcutaneous transmission
A61B5/00B8
Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs (A61B 5/0205 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of the respiratory system.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Mechanical impedance of respiratory organs
Ratio of the measured air pressure and air flow at the mouth of the patient
Electrical impedance of respiratory organs
Ratio of voltage applied to respiratory organs and current flow
{Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for recording respiratory parameters, e.g. portable devices for ambulatory recording.

{by whole-body plethysmography ( measuring blood flow using plethysmography A61B 5/0295 ; impedance plethysmography A61B 5/053 ; measuring volume of the body or parts thereof A61B 5/1073) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating volume changes due to respiration

1) by measuring changes of spatial dimensions:

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2) by measuring pressure changes in a closed chamber

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluation of respiratory rate in general
Measuring movement due to respiration
{by impedance pneumography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of electrical impedance of respiratory organs

media50.png

IP (impedance pneumography) circuit 27 25 generates a current that is modulated at a high frequency (typically 50-100 kHz). The current passes through electrode LL 24. It then propagates through the patient's chest, as indicated by the arrow 29, where a respiration-induced capacitance change modulates it according to the RR.

Electrode UR 20 detects the resultant analog signal, which is then processed within the IP circuit to determine an analog IP waveform 30 featuring a low-frequency series of pulses corresponding to RR.

The analog filters in the IP circuit 27 are chosen to filter out high-frequency components that contribute to the ECG QRS complex.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Impedance plethysmography in general
Detecting respiration rate in general
{Measurement of pulmonary parameters by tracers, e.g. radioactive tracers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

1) Evaluation of tracer quantity absorbed by the lungs

media51.png
.

2) Inhalators for tracers to be detected by imaging devices, e.g. MRI, PET

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Breath analysis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Breath test in general
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Tracer
Composition, e.g. aerosol, which is mixed with inhaled air and detected after exhalation
{Measuring devices for examining respiratory frequency ( measuring frequency of electric signals G01R 23/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of respiratory signals, e.g.:

using photoplethysmography, i.e. a signal provided by a pulse oximeter on a body part, e.g. finger, ear

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detect changes of body volume due to respiration
Detect respiratory signals using electrical impedance measurements
Detect respiratory sounds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring frequency of electric signals
{Evaluation by breath analysis, e.g. determination of the chemical composition of exhaled breath (A61B 5/083 , A61B 5/091 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of chemical composition of exhaled breath.

Not relating to lung function.

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Detector 441 is optionally operable to detect bacteria, virus, fungus, antibody, protein, or chemical such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, alcohol and the like

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determination of instantaneous concentration of a component of inhaled/exhaled air in order to determine breath flow
Evaluation of lung function
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Breath analysis in general
Gas analysers
{Detecting or evaluating cough events}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detect cough events which may be spontaneous coughing events or where the patient is asked to voluntarily cough:

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Evaluate cough event:

media56.png

{Detecting or evaluating apnoea events (A61B 5/4818 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of all types of apnoea events, e.g. cessation of breathing (apnoea), shallow breathing (hypopnea), fast deep breathing (hypernoea), Cheynes-Stokes respiration etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detection of sleep apnoea
Measuring rate of metabolism by using breath test, e.g. measuring rate of oxygen consumption
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Breath test specially adapted to detect rate of metabolism. For example, properties of exhaled gas are compared to properties of inhaled air.

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detect a tracer mixed in inhaled gas
Determination of instantaneous concentration of a component of inhaled/exhaled air in order to determine breath flow
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detect chemical composition of exhaled gas by breath test in general
Breath analysis in general
Gas analysers
{Measuring rate of oxygen consumption}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of O2 uptake from breath analysis.

{ Measuring rate of C02 production }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of CO2 release.

Measuring impedance of respiratory organs or lung elasticity
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of mechanical impedance of respiratory organs.

media58.png

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Mechanical impedance of respiratory organs
Ratio of the measured air pressure and air flow at the mouth of the patient
Electrical impedance of respiratory organs
Ratio of voltage applied to respiratory organs and current flow
Measuring breath flow
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate breath flow

media59.png
Text1

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detect breath flow in order to evaluate lung impedance parameters
Ventilators provided with means for detecting breath flow
{Peak expiratory flowmeters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detectors of maximum air flow

I

media60.png

The pointer 4 is entrained along its slot 6 by the exhaled air flow. When the exhalation ends friction retains the pointer 4 in its displaced position to indicate a peak flow value against a scale 8 marked along the slot

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spirometers in general, wherein it is possible to calculate peak flow
{using optical means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detection of breath flow using optical sensors. The optical sensor is placed in or by the flow path.

media61.png

The detector 40 generates an electrical signal that is related to the radiant power falling on it. The detector senses the breath exhaled into the volume 16 close to the patient's mouth and nose.

The signal processing circuit 48 examines the electrical signal 44 to determine whether it varies in a manner that indicates the patient is breathing.

{using means carried by the fluid stream, e.g. free floating balls}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. for indicating flow level for breath training.

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Object 29 is raised in tube 26 according to exhalation effort of the patient.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flow meters adapted to indicate specifically the maximum value
{using means deflected by the fluid stream, e.g. flaps}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media63.png

Flaps 16, 18 are deflectable in response to breath flow 25.

{using temperature sensing means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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A filament 34 is secured to the ends of the four pins 32.

The filament 34 is used to measure the flow rate of the fluid 26 based on its power consumption.

using an element rotated by the flow { ( toys actuated by air current A63H 33/40) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media65.png

An optical detector detects rotor movement to evaluate air flow

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Toys actuated by air current
Devices for facilitating collection of breath or for directing breath into or through measuring devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media66.png

Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, {colour,} size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes (A61B 5/08 takes precedence; measuring aids for tailors A41H 1/00 ; measuring instruments specially adapted for dentistry A61C 19/04)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting spatial properties of the human or animal body, e.g. lengths, areas, volumes, angles, velocities, accelerations, weights

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring instruments specially adapted for dentistry
Measuring aids for tailors
Analysis of geometric features (lengths, area, volume) from images
Occupancy alarm
G08B21/0B3
{Determining colour for diagnostic purposes ( measuring colour in general G01J 3/46) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/1032

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring colour in general
{by means of colour cards}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Assessing body features by comparison with colour patterns or atlases

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Colour charts in general
{Measuring load distribution, e.g. podologic studies}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/1036

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gait analysis
Apparatus for weighing persons
Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring spatial dimensions: distances (e.g. length, depth, thickness), angles, areas, volumes etc.

By detecting marker positions:

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring distance in general
{measuring angles, e.g. using goniometers (A61B 5/1123 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurements of angles

media71.png

Angle measuring device 6 comprising light source 7 and light detector 8

Processing module is enabled to calculate, from the ratio between the power entered into the light source 7 and the power received by the light detector 8, an angle between the first and second member

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discriminating types of movement
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Goniometers in general
{measuring distances on the body, e.g. measuring length, height or thickness (A61B 5/1076 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rulers, tapes, height measuring device for direct measurement on the body

media72.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring dimensions inside body cavities
Measuring interpupillary distance
{Measuring volume, e.g. of limbs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media73.png

The arm has been segmented into discrete volumes C1-C10

Circumference measurement is taken at the intersection of each linear segment of centerline 10.

Evaluate changes in the arm volume over time.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plethysmography for blood flow assessment based on vessel volume changes
Impedance plethysmography
Whole-body plethysmography for respiration assessment based on chest volume changes
Impedance pneumography
Measuring bladder volume
{for measuring dimensions by non-invasive methods, e.g. for determining thickness of tissue layer (A61B 8/0858 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of apparatus for measuring dimensions non-invasively, e.g. calipers, gauges, templates for measuring on patient images. Also, includes imaging apparatus with measuring scales projected on the image or cursors allowing dimensions to be read from an image.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Endoradiosondes by impedance pneumography
A61B5/008J
{for measuring dimensions inside body cavities, e.g. using catheters (A61B 3/1005 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rulers, height measuring devices for direct measurement inside the body

media74.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring distances inside the eye, e.g. thickness of the cornea
Measuring interpupillary distance
Measuring dimensions on the body cavities
{Measuring of profiles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detect 2- or 3-dimensional contour or profile or shape of objects, e.g. using mechanical elements brought into contact with the body surface:

media75.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical shape detection:
Measuring volumes of body parts
A61B5/103F
{by moulding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting impressions of body parts

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Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof, e.g. head or hand tremor, mobility of a limb ( for measuring pulse A61B 5/02) { (A61B 5/1038 takes precedence; motion detection to correct for motion artifacts in physiological signals A61B 5/721) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurement of movement includes the determination of any change in position or orientation, it is not mandatory that a velocity or acceleration is measured.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
Electromyography
Plethysmography
Measuring movement of foreign bodies, e.g. tracking of catheters
Detecting, measuring or recording respiratory frequency
Testing reaction times
Ergometry or measuring muscular strength

The preceding exclusions apply only in so far as they are not used for measuring movement, such as, e.g. A61B 5/113, or based on measuring movement, e.g. measurement of movement of a finger for determining reaction times.

Measuring movement for compensation of motion artefacts
A61B5/00C2B2B
Measuring for testing the shape, pattern, size or movement of the body or parts thereof for podologic studies during locomotion
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring eye movement, e.g. using eye trackers
Measuring circulation of blood, e.g. blood flow
Electrooculography
Measuring or inducing nystagmus
Detecting organic movements or changes using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Pleximeters
Measuring movement in general
G01, e.g. G01P, G01C or G01B
{induced by stimuli or drugs; (A61B 5/1102 takes precedence; investigating medicinal preparations G01N 33/15) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ballistocardiography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating medicinal preparations
{Measuring contraction of parts of the body, e.g. organ, muscle ( apparatus for measuring work or force in general G01L) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for measuring work or force in general
{Global tracking of patients, e.g. by using GPS}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Patient monitors including means for global position determination, localizing a patient world-wide.

{Local tracking of patients, e.g. in a hospital or private home}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Patient monitors including means for local position determination, e.g. in hospitals, rooms, imaging apparatus.

{Determining posture transitions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes posture transitions from standing to sitting to lying down, etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrical heart stimulation by body motion
{Fall detection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Patient position sensing/monitoring with sensors, e.g. carried on the patient, e.g. 3D sensors, mercury switches, for indicating (change to) prone/lying position probably from a fall. May be combined with a timer/physiological sensors/alarm (to remote station). Includes devices for monitoring fall from bed.

{Determining activity level}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining a parameter indicative of the degree of overall activity of a subject, e.g. for use in determining caloric consumption.

Special rules of classification within this group

When metabolism is evaluated, e.g. caloric expenditure determined, A61B 5/4866 should additionally be given.

{Determining geometric values, e.g. centre of rotation or angular range of movement}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gait analysis
{Discriminating type of movement, e.g. walking or running (A61B 5/1116 , A61B 5/112 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining posture transition
Gait analysis
{Determining motor skills}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating the degree of mastering a particular task in the form of a specific movement or sequence of movements. In particular for rehabilitation or assessing development of infants.

{using a particular sensing technique}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of sensing techniques adapted for measuring movement other than those mentioned in A61B 5/1127 and A61B 5/1128.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
inertial sensors used for measuring movement
{using markers}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Markers for medical use
{using image analysis (A61B 5/1127 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using markers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Extraction of features from images
Analysis of motion in images
Identification of persons, e.g. finger-printing, foot-printing, impression techniques ( dental impression cups or articulators A61C 9/00 , A61C 11/00 ; recognition of data G06K ; recognising finger-prints G06K 9/00 ; identification tags G09F 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for distinguishing one person from another

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dental impression cups or articulators
Pattern recognition, e.g. for recognising finger prints
Identification tags
{Finger-printing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus and methods for taking fingerprints from a person. Includes developing latent fingerprints for forensic purposes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Acquiring fingerprints
Audiometering {Evaluation or the auditory system, not limited to hearing capacity (A61B 5/04845 , A61B 5/4023 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating the hearing system

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Otoscopes
Hearing aid devices
EEG detecting auditory evoked potentials
Evaluating sense of balance
Testing of hearing device using in-hear measurements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tinnitus treatment
A61F 11/00, H04R25/00G
{evaluating hearing capacity}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate hearing

{subjective methods}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of the hearing without technical means for detecting an auditory characteristics, e.g.:

Vibrating unit for stimulating the ear canal. No sensor is provided:

media77.png

Feedback is provided by the patient by, e.g., a response button:

media78.png

{objective methods}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting physiological response, e.g. EEG, to auditory stimuli:

media79.png

{measuring compliance or mechanical impedance of the tympanic membrane}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tympanometer (detects acoustic response to a sound generated into the ear canal)

media80.png

Measuring acoustic impedance (frequency response) of the outer ear in general:

media81.png

{evaluating tinnitus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Generating tinnitus masking sound based on detected tinnitus features

media82.png

Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; {Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue} ( measuring of blood pressure or blood flow A61B 5/02 ; non-radiation detecting or locating of foreign bodies in blood A61B 5/06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording characteristics of blood, body fluids or tissues in-vivo. Determining chemical characteristics, e.g. measuring the concentration of an analyte. Determining constituents of blood or body fluids, e.g. haematocrit. The measurement is performed on the body, i.e. in-vivo, or immediately after a sample of body fluid has been obtained, e.g. by lancet.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis using light, e.g. detecting cancer, fatty tissue
Measuring blood pressure or blood flow
Non-radiation detecting or locating of foreign bodies in blood
Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties in general
Investigating or analysing biological material in vitro, physical analysis
Chemical analysis of biological material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling electrotherapy using a parameter of a chemical substance in blood
A61N1/36B8
Measuring blood composition characteristics of a patient undergoing therapy, e.g. for controlling the administration of therapy
Measuring blood composition characteristics of a user of sports apparatus
Special rules of classification within this group

Combinations of several characteristics are common. Classification in more than one EC subgroup takes place if the apparatus is specially adapted for detecting, measuring or recording a particular characteristic. An indexing code is used where a characteristic is explicitly mentioned, but no details of specially adapted apparatus are given.

{invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter or needle or using implanted sensors (A61B 5/1459 , A61B 5/1464 , A61B 5/1473 , A61B 5/1482 , A61B 5/14865 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using invasive optical sensors
Optical sensors specially adapted for foetal tissue
Using invasive chemical or electrochemical sensors
Chemical or electrochemical sensors specially adapted for foetal tissue
Using invasive enzyme electrodes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
Catheters, e.g. for introducing media or for drainage
{for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording glucose. Apparatus for continual monitoring of glucose with analysis of glucose data to determine trends, e.g. to optimise insulin administration. Apparatus for measuring glucose in combination with an insulin pump. Apparatus for glucose measurement in-vivo or combination with fluid or blood sampling where the measurement is made immediately after sampling the fluid, e.g. by lancet.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A61B 5/14532 is given for glucose, and the corresponding subgroup for the measurement technique, e.g. A61B 5/14532 and A61B 5/1486. Classification of glucose measurement in combination with blood or fluid sampling is covered by A61B 5/15-A61B 5/157 (apparatus for blood sampling). Test strips with no further disclosure of interaction with the patient is covered by G01N.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intravascular or intramuscular way
Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, enzyme electrodes for glucose
Investigating or analysing biological material in vitro by physical analysis using electrical means for determining glucose content
G01N33/487B2
Details, e.g. test element handling, dispensing or storage not specific to a particular test method
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for taking samples of blood characterised by integrated means for measuring characteristics of blood
Other medical applications, combined with drug delivery
Measuring blood glucose of a patient undergoing therapy, e.g. for controlling the administration of therapy
Measuring blood glucose of a user of sports apparatus
{for measuring blood gases (A61B 5/14551 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring blood gases using optical sensors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring blood gases of a patient undergoing therapy, e.g. for controlling the administration of therapy
A61M 2230/202; K61B230/20D
Measuring blood gases of a user of sports apparatus
K61B230/20C; A63B 2230/207
using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording chemical characteristics of blood, body fluids or tissue using optical sensors, where the measurement is made in-vivo or on a blood of fluid sample immediately after sampling, e.g. measurement is made immediately after sampling by lancet.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting, measuring or recording heart rate using photoplethysmograph signals
Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes using light, e.g. for detection of tumour
{Details of sensors specially adapted therefor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of optical sensor construction for pulse oximetry. Sensors particularly adapted for attachment to parts of the body, e.g. earlobe clips, finger clips, adhesive patches etc.. Arrangements of optical sensors in housing or probes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting, measuring or recording heart rate using photoplethysmograph signals, details of sensor
Details of optical sensors
{specially adapted for cerebral tissue}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluating the central nervous system
Sensors mounted on head worn items, e.g. helmet or cap
{specially adapted for the eye fundus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for making pulse oximetry measurements at the eye fundus, comprising optical sensors for detecting changes in light characteristics reflected from the eye fundus.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for looking at the eye fundus
{by fluorescence (A61B 5/14555 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulse oximetry using measured change in the fluoresence of light. Includes the use of fluorescent agents.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring blood gases specially adapted for the eye fundus
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of light, optically excited fluorescence
{specially adapted to extracorporeal circuits}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording chemical characteristics of blood, body fluids or tissue where the measurement is made in an extracorporeal circuit attached to the patient, e.g. a blood dialysis machine attached to a patient by a catheter. Apparatus for measuring in an external fluid line, e.g. measurement cassette connected to the patient's blood circulation by a catheter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, flow through cuvettes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Other treatment of blood in extracorporeal circuits
Measuring blood gas characteristics of a patient undergoing therapy
K61M230/00C
{by polarisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pulse oximetry using the measured change in the polarisation characteristic of light.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Investigation or analysing materials by the use of optical means, using polarisation-affecting properties
invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter { (A61B 5/1464 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using optical sensors specially adapted for foetal tissue
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
specially adapted for foetal tissue
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording of characteristics of blood, body fluid or tissue using optical sensors specially adapted for foetal or neonatal monitoring.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Using chemical or electrochemical methods specially adapted for foetal tissue
using chemical or electrochemical methods, e.g. by polarographic means { (A61B 5/1486 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording chemical characteristics of blood, body fluids or tissue using chemical or electrochemical sensors, where the measurement is made in-vivo or on a blood or fluid sample immediately after sampling, e.g. sampling by lancet. Includes apparatus for measuring in an external fluid line, e.g. measurement cassette connected to the patient's blood circulation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using enzyme electrodes
Investigating or analysing biological material in vitro by using electrochemistry
invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter { (A61B 5/1482 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using chemical or electrochemical methods specially adapted for foetal tissue
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
specially adapted for foetal tissue
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using optical methods specially adapted for foetal tissue
using enzyme electrodes, e.g. with immobilised oxidase
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring or testing processing involving enzymes, enzyme electrodes
Investigating or analysing biological material in vitro by using electrochemistry
G01N33/387B
{invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter or needle or using implanted sensors}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional details of invasive sensing devices
Calibrating or testing of in-vivo probes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, detection standards or calibrating
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of apparatus for calibration, e.g. calibration protocols
Sensors provided with means for identification combined with means for recording calibration data, e.g. on memory chip
Devices for taking samples of blood ( hypodermic syringes A61M 5/178)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hypodermic syringes
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Piercing element
skin penetrating component, e.g. blade, needle, lancet, laser beam
piercing or lancing device
device ready to be used for lancing
driving device
device for driving a piercing element, e.g. spring
Devices for psychotechnics ( testing capability G09B 1/00 to G09B 5/00) ; Testing reaction times; [Devices for evaluating the psychological state]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording the psychological state of a subject from physiological measurements. Any type of measurement may be applied, e.g. skin resistance, motion activity.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Testing capability using educational aids or toys
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring movement of the body or parts thereof for determining motor skills
Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification is made in A61B 5/16 in combination with a physiological measurement, e.g. A61B 5/16 and A61B 5/0531, when appropriate.

{Flicker fusion testing ( eye testing A61B 3/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Eye testing
{Testing reaction times ( reaction-time training with a substantial physical effort A63B 69/0053 ; reaction-time games A63F 9/0096) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reaction-time training with a substantial physical effort
Reaction-time games
for vehicle drivers {or machine operators}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for detecting, measuring or recording the state of alertness or consciousness of drivers or machine operators from physiological measurements. Any type of measurement may be applied, e.g. tracking eye motion, measuring heart rate.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Testing capability using educational aids or toys
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Safety devices for propulsion-unit control responsive to incapacity of driver
Alarms responsive to an undesired or abnormal condition indicating sleep
for measuring urological functions {restricted to the evaluation of the urinary system} (A61B 5/4375 takes precedence ) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of the urinary system.

Urine collection bags comprising urine sensors

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Evaluating the male reproductive system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring contraction of body parts
Devices for taking urine samples
Measuring constituents of body fluids other than blood
{Assessing renal or kidney functions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate renal function, e.g. detect renal failure

1) By urine analysis:

media83.png

detecting a change in a urinary parameter indicative of a kidney malfunction, e.g. pH, a sodium level, an oxygen level, a potassium level.

2) By blood analysis:

media84.png

Fluorescent molecules are introduced into the blood stream.

Over a period of time, a measurement of the intensities of the reporter and marker fluorescent molecules is taken.

A ratio is calculated to determine a glomerular filtration rate and therefore the health of the subject's kidney.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dialysis systems
{Assessing bladder functions, e.g. incontinence assessment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media85.png

Detection of urine flow:

media86.png

Flow detector 30 is configured to detect the onset of urination. For example, flow detector 30 generates a flow signal 32 upon detecting a flow of urine.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Assessing bladder internal pressure
A61B5/03H4
Electromyography of urinary organs
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical stimulation of urinary organs to alleviate incontinence
{Determining bladder volume}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media87.png

System 10 determines the filling status of a urinary bladder 12 of a patient 14 based on electrical impedance of the bladder

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring bladder volume using ultrasound imaging
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring contraction of body parts
{Determining bladder or urethral pressure}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media88.png

{adapted to determine urine quantity, e.g. flow, volume}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring quantity of urine

media89.png

Ergometry; Measuring muscular strength or the force of a muscular blow ( {exercising apparatus A63B 21/00} ; measuring of work or force in general G01L)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring contraction of parts of the body, e.g. organ, muscle
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Exercising apparatus
Measuring of work or force in general
{of masticatory organs, e.g. detecting dental force ( measuring instruments for dentigraphy A61C 19/04) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring instruments for dentigraphy
{Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the nervous system (A61B 5/4806 , A61B 5/4821 , A61B 5/4824 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Evaluation of sleep, anaesthesia, pain
{for evaluating the sensory system (A61B 5/12 , A61B 5/4058 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate sensations, e.g.:

Temperature sensitivity:

media90.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Diagnostic temperature sensing
Audiometry
Evaluating the central nervous system
{Evaluating olfaction, i.e. sense of smell}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

1) Manual odour test using odour samples

media91.png

2) Automatic test device

media92.png

  • Dispensing a controlled amount of volatile fluid
  • Determining if the patient has sensed the volatile fluid
  • Dispensing an increased quantity of volatile fluid if the patient has not sensed the volatile fluid or a reduced quantity of volatile fluid if the patient has sensed the volatile fluid.
{Evaluating sense of taste}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

1) Manual test using taste samples;

media93.png

Each strip 22, 32 is comprised of a thin layer 23, 33 of material with a specific taste.

2) Automatic taste sensor

media94.png

{Evaluating sense of balance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate forces applied by the patient to maintain balance, possibly while perturbing her balance

media95.png

{for evaluating the peripheral nervous systems (A61B 5/04001 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For evaluating the sensory system
{Evaluating the autonomic nervous system}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate sympathetic/parasympathetic activity

media96.png

{for evaluating the central nervous system (A61B 5/4806 , A61B 5/4821 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using MRI
G01R 33/4806, S01N224/382D
Sleep evaluation
Pain perception evaluation
EEG
{Evaluating the brain (A61B 5/031 , A61B 5/0476 , A51B5/1455N4 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Various regions of the brain 108 may be colour coded according to a scale 112 to represent the cortical thickness, or deviation from normal thickness

media97.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
EEG
Intracranial pressure measurements
Devices for psychotechnics
{Evaluating the spinal cord (A61B 5/4896 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media98.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Epidural space location
{Diagnosing or monitoring particular conditions of the nervous system (A61B 5/4821 , A61B 5/4824 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining level of anaesthesia
Determining pain perception
{Diagnosing or monitoring movement diseases, e.g. Parkinson, Huntington or Tourette}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media99.png

{Diagnosing of monitoring cognitive diseases, e.g. Alzheimer, prion diseases or dementia}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of diagnostic apparatus and methods for diagnosing or monitoring cognitive diseases. Includes objective type measurement apparatus, e.g. measuring a physical characteristic of the brain tissue and subjective type apparatus, e.g. for applying cognitive tests to the patient.

media100.png

{Diagnosing or monitoring seizure diseases, e.g. epilepsy}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Assess seizures based on detected movement patterns, heart rate variability, EEG etc.

media101.png

{Detecting or monitoring allergy or intolerance reactions to an allergenic agent or substance}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of allergies or intolerances, with or without sensors of physiological quantities:

media102.png

{Detecting or monitoring sepsis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/412

media103.png

{Monitoring transplanted tissue or organ, e.g. for possible rejection reactions after a transplant}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/413

media104.png
.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring explanted organs (i.e., between explantation and implantation)
{Evaluating particular organs or parts of the immune or lymphatic systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/414

.

media105.png

{Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the gastrointestinal, the endocrine or the exocrine systems (A61B 1/00 , A61B 5/4857 , A61B 5/486 , A61B 5/4866 , A61B 5/4869 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gastrointestinal endoscopy
Catheters for measuring non-vascular pressure
EMG in gastro-intestinal tract
Biorhythm
Measuring sweat production
Evaluating metabolism
Determining consituents of the body
{Evaluating swallowing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating swallow actions

media106.png

{Diagnosing or evaluating reflux}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Backflow detection from stomach to oesophagus, e.g. by impedance measurement with a balloon catheter:

media107.png

{Diagnosing or evaluating gastrointestinal ulcers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4216:

by pH measurement in the gastrointestinal system

media108.png

{Evaluating particular parts, e.g. particular organs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, intestines, endocrine glands

media109.png

{endocrine glands, i.e. thyroid, adrenals, hypothalamic, pituitary}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining the activity of endocrine glands, e.g. determining the response of the hypothalamus to stimulation.

media110.png

{oesophagus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4233

media111.png

{stomach}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating the function or state of the stomach, e.g. determining the amount of food or drink ingested.

media112.png

{liver}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4244

media113.png

{pancreas}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/425

For example, electropancreatography:

media114.png

{Intestines, colon or appendix}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluating the function or state of the intestines, colon or appendix, for example, identification of intestinal ischemia

media115.png

{Evaluating exocrine secretion production (A61B 3/101 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sweat, sebum, saliva, gastrointestinal secretions, mammary secretions, vaginal secretions

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tear secretion
{sweat secretion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detect, e.g., alcohol content in perspiration fluid

media116.png

{sebum secretion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reagent changing colour according to sebum concentration

media117.png

{saliva secretion}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluation of saliva flow rate

media118.png

{vaginal secretions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of evaluations of vaginal secretion including rate of production, viscosity etc.

For example, evaluating pH of vaginal secretions

media119.png

{Breast evaluation or disorder diagnosis (A61B 5/0091 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of apparatus and methods for evaluating the breasts, including measurement of breast size and diagnosis of breast disorders, e.g. by detecting properties of the breasts

media120.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
X-ray mammography
Ultrasound mammography
A61B8/08F2
Optical mammography
{Evaluation of the lower reproductive system (A61B 5/4343 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluations of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, vagina

media121.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pregnancy and labour monitoring
{of the cervix (A61B 5/435 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Assessing cervix alteration
{Pregnancy and labour monitoring, e.g. for labour onset detection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring pregnancy and labour

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting uterine fluid pressure
{Assessing cervix alteration or dilation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/435

media122.png

{Assessing uterine contractions (A61B 5/033 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4356

media123.png

media124.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring pressure of intrauterine fluid
{Assessing foetal parameters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4362

media125.png

{Sexual arousal evaluation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4368

media126.png

{Prostate evaluation or disorder diagnosis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of a device for examining the prostate

media127.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Colonoscopes
{Testicles, seminal vesicles or sperm ducts evaluation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4387

E.g. estimate drug dosage as a function of testicle size

media128.png

{Sexual arousal or erectile dysfunction evaluation, e.g. tumescence evaluation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/4393

media129.png
.

{Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the integumentary system, e.g. skin, hair or nails (A61B 5/117 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Identification of persons
{Skin evaluation, e.g. for skin disorder diagnosis}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Evaluation of skin sensitivity
A61B5/40B6
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Determining colour for diagnostic purposes
Colour measurement in general
{Evaluating skin mechanical properties, e.g. elasticity, hardness, texture, wrinkle assessment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining skin hardness, elasticity, tenderness, stiffness, pliability, laxity, mobility

media130.png
.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring roughness of surfaces in general
{Evaluating skin constituents, e.g. elastin, melanin, water}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/443

media131.png

{Evaluating skin marks, e.g. mole, nevi, tumour, scar}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/444

media132.png

{Evaluating skin irritation or skin trauma, e.g. rash, eczema, wound, bed sore}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/445

media133.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring contraction of wounds
{Scalp evaluation or scalp disorder diagnosis, e.g. dandruff}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Evaluate scalp conditions:

media134.png

{Hair evaluation, e.g. for hair disorder diagnosis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of apparatus or methods for evaluating the hair and disorders of the hair or hair growth in-vivo.

For example, evaluating hair density:

media135.png

Illustrative example, evaluating hair colour:

media136.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording using colour cards
A61B5/44A
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Colour evaluation in general
{Nail evaluation, e.g. for nail disorder diagnosis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in A61B 5/449

media137.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting, measuring or recording using colour cards
A61B5/44A
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Colour evaluation in general
{For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth (A61B 5/1036 , A61B 5/1074 , A61B 7/006 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring for testing the shape, pattern, size or movement of the body or parts thereof for podologic studies
Foot measuring devices
Detecting skeletal, cartilage or muscle noise
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Positioning the sensor in relation to a particular body part of the musculoskeletal system
Particular body parts of the musculoskeletal system
K61B501/45
{Bones (A61B 5/4547 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Evaluating teeth
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Examining bone tissue using radiation diagnosis
A61B6/00D9
Examination of bone material using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
{Muscles (A61B 5/0488 , A61B 5/224 take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electromyography
Measuring muscular strength
{Joints (A61B 5/4533 , A61B 5/4538 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing joints for stability or strength, e.g. knee laxity.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Evaluating or diagnosing ligaments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Goniometers
A61B5/103B
{Evaluating teeth}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring using light, adapted to oral or dental tissue
A61B5/00P8
Testing vitality of teeth by means of electric currents or magnetic fields
Detecting tooth mobility
{Evaluating static posture, e.g. undesirable back curvature (A61B 5/1116 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining a static posture of the body,e.g. whether a person is standing, sitting or lying. Includes also determination of spinal posture due to curvature or inclination

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof for determining posture transitions
{Other medical applications}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus and methods for measuring, detecting, recording or evaluating medical applications condtions not otherwise provided for.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This group is the residual group of A61B 5/00.

{Speech analysis specially adapted for diagnostic purposes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Speech analysis for diagnostic purposes, e.g. evaluating speech disorders, evaluating speech for determining a subject's psychological state.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Speech analysis for identification of individuals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Speech analysis per se
{Sleep evaluation (A61B 5/4821 takes precedence; devices for inducing sleep A61M 21/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or methods for monitoring or analysis of sleep.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining level or depth of anaesthesia
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for inducing sleep
{Sleep quality}
Special rules of classification within this group

Determining sleep quality may comprise sleep detection as in A61B 5/4809 or detecting sleep stages as in A61B 5/4812. In this case also A61B 5/4809 and/or A61B 5/4812 should be given.

{Sleep apnoea}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring or investigating sleep apnoe, e.g. multiparameter monitoring or polysomnography. Also for SIDS.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
SIDS
sudden infant death syndrome.
{Determining level or depth of anaesthesia (A61B 5/1106 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining/detecting/monitoring the level of anaesthesia by measuring a physiological parameter, e.g. EEG, EMG, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof to asses neuromuscular blockade
Electric apparatus for detecting reflex action
Introducing anaesthetics
{Touch or pain perception evaluation (A61B 5/4821 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing/indicating/recording/assessing level of pain for all parts of the body. Includes all types of apparatus, e.g. charts, expert systems, questionnaires etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining level or depth of anaesthesia
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing skin sensitivity
A61B5/103N10
Evaluating the nervous system
{Assessment of subject’s compliance to treatment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measurement of any physiological parameter indicating subject's compliance with drug therapy or treatment regime. Includes detection of drug or marker in breath, blood, urine etc. by non-invasive measurements and fluid samples, but not for laboratory analysis.

{Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Closed-loop control of therapeutic treatment based on measuring a physiological parameter. Includes imaging for targeted therapeutic treatment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sensing and controlling the application of energy in surgical instruments.
Heart stimulators controlled by a physiological signal
{combined with drug delivery}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring a physiological parameter combined with therapeutic drug/medication delivery. Imaging of drug/medication for targeted delivery. Not for delivery of contrast agents/dyes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Delivery of contrast agents or dyes
A61B 5/0275, A61B 5/0813, A61B 6/504, A61B6/00D6, A61B8/00D.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of apparatus for drug delivery/infusion
{Monitoring progression or stage of a disease}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring a physiological parameter to evaluate the progression or development of a disease over time.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring the effects of medication
{Monitoring or testing the effects of treatment, e.g. of medication}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Testing the efficacy or side effects of therapeutic medication.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring or testing the effects of anaesthetics
{Prosthesis assessment or monitoring (A61B 5/04888 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prosthesis assessment or monitoring based on physiological signals. Includes control of prostheses based on physiological signals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control of prosthetics using electromyography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Prostheses as such
{Diagnosis based on concepts of traditional oriental medicine}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes, e.g. measurement/analysis of physiological parameter, e.g. pulse, according to oriental or other non-orthodox theories of medicine, e.g. Ayurvedic or Chinese

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring skin impedance specially adapted for acupuncture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Acupuncture needles
A61H39/008N
{Indicating the phase of biorhythm ( clocks or watches with indicators for biological cycles G04B 19/264) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Clocks or watches with indicators for biological cycles
{Bio-feedback (A61B 5/0482 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Providing a feedback signal to the subject of a physiological parameter measured from the subject for the purpose of informing the subject to maintain or modify his/her behaviour such that the measured parameter stays within a certain range, e.g. the subject maintains a certain breathing rate.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electroencephalography using biofeedback
{Evaluating metabolism (A61B 5/083 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus and methods for evaluating the metabolism of the body not involving breath test. Includes measuring basal metabolic rate, determining calorific or energy expenditure from physiological parameters, e.g. heart rate or activity, determining level of radioisotope excretion. Also includes evaluating metabolic syndrome.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring rate of metabolism by using breath test
Special rules of classification within this group

When evaluation is based on measuring movement, A61B 5/1118 should additionally be given.

{Determining body composition}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determination of tissue type or evaluating tissue characteristics not covered by other subgroups.

Evaluating a particular tissue type, e.g. for detection of cancer, is dealt with in the subgroups A61B 5/0088, A61B 5/0091, A61B 5/02007, A61B 5/40 - A61B 5/45.

Determination of blood, body fluid or tissue analytes, or blood constituents, e.g. red blood cells, is dealt with in A61B 5/145 and subgroups.

For example, evaluating bone is classified in A61B 5/4504; evaluating skin cells is found in A61B 5/441 and subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using light to evaluate oral or dental tissue
Using light for mammography, e.g. for tumour detection
Evaluating blood vessel condition, e.g. elasticity, compliance
Measuring body composition by impedance
Measuring characteristics of blood, body fluids or tissues
Evaluating the nervous system
Evaluating the immune or lymphatic system
Evaluating the gastrointestinal, the endocrine or the exocrine system
Evaluating the reproductive system
A16B5/43
Evaluating the integumentary system
Evaluating the musculoskeletal system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, clinical applications
Detecting organ movements or changes, e.g. tumours, cysts, swellings
Other methods or instruments for diagnosis, e.g. instruments for taking a cell sample
{Body fat}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Appartus and methods for determining the proportion of fat in the body. Includes determining the ratio of fat to fat free mass, e.g. using ultrasound, optical measurements, calipers, flotation tanks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Skin gauging
A61B5/107F
{Hydration status, fluid retention of the body}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus and methods for determining the proportion of fluid in the body or hydration status, Includes water compartments, extracellular water, intercellular water.

{inducing physiological or psychological stress, e.g. applications for stress testing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Patient is subjected to stress situation, e.g. exercise, change of posture, drugs or valsalva manoeuvre during measurement of physiological parameters. e.g. to determine rate of recovery/investigate regulatory mechanism (homeostasis).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring heart rate variability
{Blood vessels}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Locating blood vessels, e.g. for blood sampling. Applies also to ultrasound location.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Blood vessel location for injecting media
{Nerves}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Examining nerves
{Epidural space}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detect epidural space, e.g. by means of a pressure drop that occurs while introducing the needle of a syringe into the patient's body. When the needle reaches the epidural space the lower pressure in the space causes the pressure in the needle to drop, which is indicated by movement of the syringe plunger.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Puncturing needles for the peridural or subarachnoid space or the plexus, e.g. for anaesthesia
Measuring spinal fluid pressure
{Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements for ensuring the correct position for a sensor to detect a physiological quantity on a patient.

It relates to the position of the sensor, independently of the part of the body which is object of the diagnosis. For example, if impedance electrodes are placed on hands and feet to detect an impedance value of the whole body, the corresponding document must be classified in this group even if no diagnosis of hands and feet is carried out.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sensors provided on surgical tools for measuring tool-related quantities, e.g., contact between tool and tissue, tool penetration length
Measuring instruments for implanting a prosthesis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Foot-measuring devices
Attachments on the body, e.g. for measuring
Car sensors for detecting driver's condition
Computers with physiological sensor to allow interaction with the user
{specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for attaching a sensor to a patient's body or for positioning a sensor in contact with a patient's body

{Sensor mounted on worn items}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any kind of clothing which is specially adapted to position a sensor in contact with the body

{Head-worn items, e.g. helmets, masks, headphones or goggles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors for measurement on the head. Includes headbands, head straps, masks, spectacles, helmets and caps.

media138.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measurement on the eye
Sensors to be placed on foetus's head
K61B501/43F10B
{Garments; Clothes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted in a garment i.e. resembles clothing, not just straps.

Also for sensors in textiles and fabrics.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Garments adapted to accommodate electronic equipment
Patients' vests with incorporated sensors
Wearable computers, e.g. on a belt
{Vests}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted in a garment resembling a vest

media139.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Garments; Clothes
{Gloves}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors mounted in a glove/mitten (not all fingers have to be covered)

  • for measurement on the hand itself wearing the glove;

media140.png

  • for measurement on the other hand, another body part or another person or animal:

media141.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hand-worn input devices
{Footwear}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor mounted in footwear, e.g. shoes, socks.

media142.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Footwear provided with electronic systems
Detecting podologic data, e.g. load distribution on feet
Gait analysis
Pedometers
{Diapers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors mounted on or in diapers

media143.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Absorbent pads, e.g. diapers, with wetness indicators
Dressings provided with sensor
{Wristwatch-type devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted in wristwatch type housing.

May not have time keeping function.

Also includes portable devices for receiving data from a sensor separated from the wristwatch housing, e.g. on finger, for data storage/display/further transmission.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Portable devices for measuring heart rate
{External prosthesis}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control means for non-implantable prostheses
Measuring parameters relating to control or test of non-implantable prostheses
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
EMG for control of prostheses
Input arrangements based on EEG, EMG, ECG, GSR
{Orthopaedic devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on external orthopaedic device

media144.png

{Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part (A61B 5/6802 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The sensor is suitable for contact with a specific body part, but no particular arrangement is foreseen to provide contact. For example, electrodes to be attached to hands and feet in order to measure whole-body impedance, but no specific attaching means are provided.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements to provide contact with a specific body part
{Head}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Headbands, head straps, masks, spectacles, helmets and caps.
Sensor attached to the head of a foetus
K61B501/43F10
{Ear}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor attached to ear, e.g. as ear clip hooked over the pinna, attached to part of the pinna, not the ear lobe

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sensor attached to ear canal or ear lobe
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
{Ear lobe}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor attached to ear lobe.

{Ear canal}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is used for measurement in or close to the ear canal. Shape is adapted to fit in the ear canal. Includes measurement on the ear drum. Includes construction of ear canal probes for audiometry.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Instruments for viewing inside the ear canal
{Nose}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is attached to the nose.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Instruments for viewing inside the nose
{Mouth, e.g., oral cavity; tongue; Lips; Teeth}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is held/mounted/fixed for measurement on and in the mouth, e.g. on the lips, tongue, gums and teeth, including snorkel-like mouthpieces.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Instruments for viewing inside the mouth
Devices using light, specially adapted to mouth and teeth
A61B5/00P8
Impedance measurements for testing vitality of teeth
Devices for collecting breath
Identification by dental data
Measuring strength of masticatory organs
X-ray for dentistry
Depth control for dentistry instruments
Mouthpieces in ventilators
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring instruments adapted for dentistry
{Eye}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is attached to or in the vicinity of the eye.

media145.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for testing the sight
{Neck}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes necklaces for holding sensors

{Trunk, e.g., chest, back, abdomen, hip}
Special rules of classification within this group

media146.png

{Arm or wrist}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Blood pressure cuffs
Wristwatch-type devices with sensors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Portable devices for measuring heart rate
{Hand}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is attached/positioned for measurement on the hand. Includes resting hand on shaped surface.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hand-held ECG devices
Detecting hand motion
Detecting hand force
Gloves with sensors
{Finger}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is used for measurement on the fingers. Includes clamps, wraps, finger receiving cavities, rings. Also for sensors worn by the physician on the fingertips.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Blood pressure cuffs adapted for fingers
Identification by finger prints
Measuring finger strength
Gloves with sensors
{Leg}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is attached to the leg.

{Foot or ankle}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is used for measurement on the foot.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring load distribution on feet
A61B5/103D
Measuring dimensions of foot
Identification by foot-printing
Footwear with sensors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Foot-measuring devices
{Means for maintaining contact with the body (A61B 5/6802 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means specially adapted for maintaining contact between different surfaces, specially adapted to maintain contact between a sensor and the human or animal body.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sensors mounted on worn items
{Straps, bands or harnesses}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is attached to the body, e.g. chest, shoulders, by straps, bands, harnesses

media147.png

{using adhesives (A61B 5/04087 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors provided with an adhesive layer for attachment to the skin or body surface that is not a separable or detachable element from the sensor. Includes adhesive applied directly to the skin surface.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using conductive adhesive means
{Adhesive patches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separate adhesive patch or wrap for attaching the sensor to the patient's skin.

{using vacuum}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Attaching sensor/probe to the skin surface by vacuum.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measurement carried out while applying suction
ECG electrodes attached by suction
Foetal ECG electrodes attached by suction
{Supports or holders, e.g., articulated arms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Positioning or holding sensor relative to the body by mechanical arms, e.g. articulated, sliding, swivelling.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holding arrangements for endoscopes
Holding arrangements for ultrasound probes
{Sutures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors attached to the surface of the body by means of sutures

{Clamps or clips}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors affixed to the body by means of clamp, e.g. by elastic force

{Anchoring means, e.g. barbs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for anchoring the sensor to the body, i.e..with tissue penetration/piercing. Includes prongs, coils, barbs.

media148.png

{Indicating the position of the sensor on the body}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for indicating the correct position of a sensor on the body surface

media149.png

{by using templates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Template/gauge to assist positioning of sensor on the measurement site.

media150.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sensors mounted on harnesses
A61B1/68B3B
{by marking the skin}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Site of sensor attachment is marked/referenced (e.g., by marker) so that the sensor may repositioned on the same site. Includes taking an anatomical reference, e.g. palm-print, photograph.

{Monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining degree of contact between sensor and body surface by any means, e.g. spring bias, inflatable ballons, measuring impedance, measuring applied pressure etc.

{Monitoring or controlling distance between sensor and tissue}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determining, monitoring or controlling the distance between sensor and body surface in order to ensure consistency of measurements taken by the sensor.

{specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for attaching or positioning a sensor in contact with an internal part of the patient's body

{mounted on an invasive device}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is part of an implant (including short-term implants such as needles).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Endoscopes
{Needles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The sensor is part of a piercing element introduced into the body, e.g. needle, cannula. The sensor is within the body or in the immediate vicinity of its surface.

media151.png

{in combination with a needle set}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The needle/canula is attached to the skin surface by a base plate.

media152.png

{Microneedles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of microneedle sensor construction. Includes multiple microneedles, e.g. arrays as electrodes/analyte sensors.

media153.png

{Guide wires}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor mounted directly in a guidewire. Guidewire is usually introduced with a catheter.

media154.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Catheters with pressure sensors
{Catheters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on a catheter

media155.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Invasive optical probe
A61B5/00P4
Measuring blood pressure by means inserted into the body
Catheters with pressure sensors
{with a balloon}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The sensor is mounted on a balloon catheter

{with a distal curved tip}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor mounted on a catheter with a curved tip

{with a distal loop}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on a catheter with a looped tip

{with a distal pigtail shape}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on a catheter tip with one or more loops, the plane of the loop being perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the catheter

{with a distal basket, e.g. expandable basket}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on a catheter with an expandable basket or cage

{with multiple distal splines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on a catheter with multiple splines/prongs/tines/spines/arms not joined at their distal tips. Splines are usually expandable from a retracted position.

{Permanently implanted devices, e.g. pacemakers, other stimulators, biochips (A61B 5/6861 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specific details of sensors mounted on pacemakers...

media156.png

... or on implanted devices comprising a housing like that of a pacemaker

media157.png
.

{Capsules, e.g. for swallowing or implanting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on ingestible or implantable capsule, excluding pacemakers.

media158.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ingestible capsules with imaging means
{Stents}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on a device contacting internal blood vessel walls, e.g. stent.

media159.png

{Burr holes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted in a burr hole, e.g. by cranial bolt.

media160.png

{Access ports}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Implants for measuring a physiological parameter with an access port for any application. Includes ports for signal transmission, refilling/replenishing measuring fluid (e.g. enzyme), refilling medication

media161.png

{Extracorporeal blood circuits, e.g. dialysis circuits}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is mounted on body fluid circuit external to the body. Measurement is carried out during fluid exchange with the body

media162.png

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for controlling media flow into the body
{specially adapted to be attached or implanted in a specific body part (A61B 5/6847 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors suitable for contact with a specific internal body part, but no particular attachment means is foreseen.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mounted on an invasive device
{Bladder}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media163.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring pressure within urogenital tract
A61B5/03H4
Assessing bladder function
{Uterus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media164.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Intra-uterine pressure sensors
Pregnancy and labour monitoring
A61B5/43F4, A61B 5/4343
{Means for maintaining contact with the body (A61B 5/6847 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means specially adapted for maintaining contact between different surfaces, specially adapted to maintain contact between a sensor and internal parts of human or animal body.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mounted on an invasive device
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sensors mounted on worn items
{Anchoring means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for anchoring the sensor to body tissue i.e. with tissue penetration/piercing. Includes prongs, coils, barbs

media165.png

{Sutures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors attached to internal body tissue by sutures

media166.png

{Clamps or clips}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor is used for measurement on the blood vessel. Adapted to be clamped/fitted to the blood vessel.

media167.png
.

{Monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring contact between sensor and internal tissue by any means, e.g. spring bias, inflatable balloons, expanding baskets/arms, measuring impedance, measuring applied pressure etc. For all body cavities.

media168.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apply compression while taking measurements
Detect tissue strain, i.e., tissue deformation under compression
{Monitoring or controlling distance between sensor and tissue}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring the spacing between a sensor/probe and internal tissue by any means, e.g. spacer, inflatable balloons.

media169.png
here.

{mounted on external non-worn devices, e.g. non-medical devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors which are mounted in or on external devices or apparatus. The sensor is not held continuously in contact with the body, e.g. the body or body part is applied to the sensor for taking a measurement, the sensor is adapted to make a non-contact measurement.

{Cabins}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensor mounted in a cabin or booth to provide isolated measurement environment or privacy

media170.png

{Rooms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged in a room

media171.png

{Furniture}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged on furniture, e.g. includes domestic and hospital furniture.

media172.png

{Mats}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mat/pad/mattress/cushion with built in sensor for measuring pressure applied by a body part, e.g. used in bed/chair/prosthesis.

media173.png

{Cars}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged in car to monitor the driver

media174.png

{Wheel chairs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged on a wheel chair

media175.png

{Sport equipment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged in sports equipment

media176.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Determining movement (e.g. motion capture)
Sensors arranged on footwear, garments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluation of athletes
Exercising apparatus sensing physical parameters related to user's performance
Exercising apparatus sensing physiological parameters of the user
Exercising apparatus with means for tracking a movement path
{Toys}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged in a toy

media177.png

{Computer input devices, e.g. mice or keyboards}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged on computer input devices

media178.png

{Portable consumer electronic devices, e.g. music players, telephones, tablet computers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sensors arranged on a portable electronic device, e.g. a telephone adapted to sense a physiological parameter.

media179.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring a patient using a global network for transmitting the physiological signals, e.g. telephone network
{Means for positioning the patient in relation to the detecting, measuring or recording means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for ensuring that the patient, or of a part of her body, assumes the correct position during the measurement

media180.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tables for x-ray examinations
{Posture restraints}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means to restrain movement of the patient during the measurement, e.g. platforms, chairs, supports for limbs.

media181.png

{Tables}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring device comprising tables to aid patient positioning during examination. Special adaptations including windows, cut-outs, connections

media182.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for positioning patients (MRI, CT)
{Indicia not located on the patient, e.g. floor marking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Indicia/markings to aid positioning of patient during examination. It may be on apparatus, support, floor.

media183.png

{Breast positioning means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media184.png

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Breast positioning means for x-ray or ultrasound examination
Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment ( analysis of materials using radiation G01N 23/00 , detecting hidden objects by radiation G01V 5/0008 , radiodiagnostic or X-ray contrast preparations A61K 49/00 ; radiation therapy per se A61N 5/00 ; instruments measuring radiation intensity for application in the field of nuclear medicine, e.g. in vivo counting G01T 1/161 ; apparatus for taking X-ray photographs G03B 42/02 ; X-ray photographic processes G03C 5/16 ; irradiation devices G21K; X-ray apparatus or circuits therefor H05G 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diagnostic equipments and / or methods involving the use of ionising radiation, e.g. X-ray or gamma ray. Other devices for radiation diagnosis can be found in:

Electric currents or magnetic fields
Magnetic resonance
Optical imaging
Opto-acoustic imaging

Devices for radiation diagnosis generally consist of complex electro-mechanical arrangements of radiation source and detection units, controlled following a particular acquisition technique to obtain medical diagnostic data relating to a patient's body part. A complete characterization of these devices therefore requires the identification of both constructional and operational aspects according to the following rules.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

media185.png

Several subclasses, groups and subgroups provide for the different components or functional aspects constituting the devices for radiation diagnosis. It should be emphasized that documents describing these components should be classified in A61B 6/00 only if they disclose a radiation diagnostic device and the link between said components or functional aspects and the radiation diagnostic device is not trivial.

As an example, a document describing constructional details of a PET scanner should have the class A61B 6/037 and the corresponding class for said constructional details (a subclass of A61B 6/44). A document describing particular details of a radiation detector should be classified in the corresponding subclass of G01T 1/00, even if a clinical application of said detector is mentioned. However, if, e.g. details of the arrangement of said detector in a scanner for said particular clinical application are disclosed, then it should also be classified in A61B 6/037 and in the corresponding subclass of A61B 6/50.

The same principle applies to other neighbouring fields such as, e.g. image processing (G06T). A document disclosing an algorithm for image enhancement should be classified under the corresponding subclass of G06T, even if the document mentions that the images are x-ray images. However, if the algorithm requires particular constructional or functional details of the radiation diagnostic device, then the document should also be classified in the corresponding subclass of A61B 6/00. On the other hand, if is only mentioned that an algorithm for image enhancement is used but the disclosure deals mainly with details of the radiation diagnostic device, then it should only be classified in A61B 6/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging
Diagnosis using light
Diagnosis using opto-acoustic effect
Navigation during surgery
Investigation of materials using radiation
Detecting hidden objects using radiation
Radiation therapy
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
X-ray contrast preparations
Preparations containing radioactive substances
Radiation therapy per se
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging systems
Apparatus for taking X-ray photographs
X-ray photographic processes
Collimators
X-ray apparatus or circuits therefor
Diagnosis using sonic, infrasonic or ultrasonic waves
Detectors for X-ray, gamma, etc radiation
X-ray tubes
Radio-opaque markers
Image data processing
Medical informatics
Special rules of classification within this group

Some of the sub-groups are related to more constructional aspects and some to more functional aspects. This classification is however not strict, its purpose is only indicative, to simplify the overview of the scheme.

Construction-oriented aspects:

related to the generation of radiation
related to the detection of radiation
related to the device in general
related to the patient support

Operation-oriented aspects:

related to the imaging technique
related to the clinical application
related to the device control / setup

Groups A61B 6/40 to A61B 6/58 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.

Concordance ECLA - IPC for these groups is as follows:

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
(radiation) source
artificial or natural ionizing radiation emitting element per se, e.g. X-ray tube anode, tracer
(radiation) source unit
constructional arrangement comprising a radiation source and housing, capable of emitting an oriented radiation beam, e.g. X-ray tube
Raw data
data output from the sensor/detector requiring pre-processing to be used for diagnostic purposes
Medical diagnostic data
data readable or interpretable by medical personnel, obtained after pre-processing of raw data
Image data
medical diagnostic data in the form of two- or three-dimensional data sets
Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and imaging techniques for obtaining images of different planes, i.e. slices of the patient's body, in a sequential way.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring radiation per se
Stereoscopic photography
Special rules of classification within this group

The term "sequential" is used here for historical reasons, meaning that the device can be configured to obtain an image of a plane and subsequently, only by changing the device configuration and without moving the patient, to obtain a different plane. This aspect is not relevant anymore in the current definition, since a cone-beam CT would obtain images of different planes simultaneously but would still be classified under A61B 6/032.

{Stereoscopic imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acquisition and/or display of two offset images. Both functional (e.g. stereoscopic imaging technique) and constructional aspects (stereoscopic imaging scanners) of radiation-based stereoscopic imaging.

media186.png

[US2007003007]

{Tomosynthesis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Classical geometric tomography where opposing motion of the x-ray tube and film housing generate a focal plane. The tube emitted radiation continuously, and consequently the single film integrated x-ray exposure throughout the path of motion. Due to parallax, objects in planes above and below the fulcrum were blurred proportional to their distance from the plane of focus.

media187.png

Modern tomosynthesis where a finite number of projection images are acquired at varying orientations of x-ray tube, patient and detector to reconstruct these arbitrary planes.

media188.png

[Definitions and images from Dobbins and Godfrey, "Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current stateof the art and clinical potential", Phys. Med. Biol. 48 (2003) R65–R106]

The class covers both functional (e.g. tomosynthesis imaging technique) and constructional aspects (tomosynthesis scanners) of radiation-based tomosynthesis imaging.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Computed tomography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Application mammography
Special rules of classification within this group

In modern tomosynthesis the sequence of orientations defines an acquisition trajectory which, if relevant should be classified under A61B 6/027. In case of a circular trajectory of the source and the detector, said rotation is shorter than 180° + fan angle of the beam (acquisition of an incomplete dataset). Of longer then a complete dataset is acquired and the technique is a computerised tomography (A61B 6/032).

This technique is often used for breast imaging; in such a case it should be classified also in A61B 6/502.

{characterised by the use of a particular data acquisition trajectory, e.g. helical or spiral}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Relevant details concerning the sequence of positions of source and detector defining a trajectory along which X-ray images (projections of views) for a subsequent reconstruction are acquired. Diagnostic techniques requiring data acquisition along a particular trajectory are typically:

Computed tomography A61B 6/032

Tomosynthesis A61B 6/025

Helical acquisition trajectory for computed tomography (A61B 6/032):

media189.png

media190.png

[US2003031290]

Partial isocentric motion with stationary detector in tomosynthesis (A61B 6/025):

media191.png

[Dobbins and Godfrey, "Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential", Phys. Med. Biol. 48 (2003) R65–R106]B

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tomosynthesis
Computed Tomography
Special rules of classification within this group

This class also covers devices where a movement of the source unit is superimposed to e.g. a circular trajectory.

media192.png

[WO2009128063]

Computerised tomographs ( { diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging A61B 5/055 ; echo-tomography A61B 8/14 ; { medical informatics G06F 19/30} } )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring from different angles and reconstructing (computing) a 2D image (slice) or a 3D image (set of slices).

This class includes tomography (system or function) which does not fall into the subgroups of transmission tomography (A61B 6/032) or emission tomography (A61B 6/037), or wherein the kind of tomography is not specified.

The class covers both functional (e.g. tomography) and constructional aspects (tomographs) of both transmission and emission tomography imaging.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reconstruction from projections
Diagnosis using magnetic resonance tomography
Echo-tomography
Optical tomography
Medical informatics
{Transmission computed tomography (CT)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source emits a radiation beam from outside the body and the attenuation of the beam is measured by a detector after the beam has traversed the patient's body. This measurement is carried out from different angles and an image (representing the values of the attenuation coefficient of the radiation at every position in space) is reconstructed (computed) from the measurements. A typical configuration consists of an X-ray source unit emitting a 2D dimensional beam in form of a fan (fan-beam) and a curved detector (1 line) which rotate around the patient along a circular trajectory to reconstruct (compute) a 2D image (slice) of the patient on the plane of said circular trajectory.

media193.png

[US2005254621]

To obtain a 3D image (set of slices) the patient table can be moved steadily during acquisition so that the acquisition trajectory of source and detector with respect to the patient becomes a spiral or helix (see A61B 6/027)

The class covers both functional (e.g. computerized tomography) and constructional aspects (computerized tomographs) of transmission tomography imaging.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tomosynthesis
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Transmission tomography as a technique that can be carried out with any device capable of acquiring views (projections) from different angles and can rotate at least 180° + fan angle around the patient. Devices with a more constrained rotational trajectory are not capable of performing tomographic imaging and are restricted to perform tomosynthesis (A61B 6/025). If the device is a CT scanner, it should be classified here (A61B 6/032), otherwise said devices are classified according to their constructional features A61B 6/44, e.g. C-arm (A61B 6/4441), robotic arms (A61B 6/4458).

To obtain a 3D image (set of slices) the patient table is moved during acquisition so that the acquisition trajectory of source and detector with respect to the patient becomes a spiral or helix (see A61B 6/027).

Alternatively, a device with a source emitting a cone-beam (A61B 6/4085) combined with a two-dimensional detector (A61B 6/4233) is used. Or both, a particular acquisition trajectory (A61B 6/027) and a cone-beam with a 2D detector (A61B 6/4085 and A61B 6/4233, respectively) are combined.

{Emission tomography ( detector details for PET G01T 1/2985 , detector details for SPECT G01T 1/1644) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The source (typically a radioactive tracer) emits radiation from inside the body which is measured outside the body with one or more detectors from different orientations and an image (representing the distribution of the tracer insider the body) is reconstructed (computed) from the measurements.

PET or SPECT scanners are classifed under A61B 6/037

media194.png

[US2011309252]

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Measuring radiation
Radiation detection aspects of PET imaging
Radiation detection aspects of SPECT imaging
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Echo-tomography
diagnosis using magnetic resonance tomography
Optical tomography
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class covers devices for emission tomography, reconstruction of 2D images (slices) or 3D images (sets of slices). Other devices such as intra-operative gamma cameras should be classified under A61B 6/4258.

Documents concerning details of the detector should be classified under G01T 1/00, and only be classified under A61B 6/037 in the case where relevant details of the emission tomography scanner or the clinical application are disclosed.

Positioning of patients; Tiltable beds or the like ( operating tables A61G 13/00 ; operating chairs A61G 15/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any means, e.g. tables, beds, chairs, suitable for positioning the patient in the diagnostic device.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Positioning of patients in ultrasound diagnostic devices
Means for positioning patients in magnetic resonance tomography
Chairs, beds, mattresses
Operating tables or chairs
{Tables or beds}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media195.png

[US2012023671]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Positioning of patients in ultrasound diagnostic devices
Means for positioning patients in magnetic resonance tomography
Hospital beds
Operating tables
{Tables or beds with compression means}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Application mammography
Hospital beds
Means for positioning patients in magnetic resonance tomography
{Tables or beds with means for imaging suspended breasts}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Application mammography
{Tables or beds with heating or cooling means}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for cooling other parts of the device for radiation diagnosis
{Servo-controlled positioning}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Positioning of patients controlled by a motor.

media196.png

[US2010020939]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tracking apparatus position
{Supports mounted to ceiling}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media197.png

[EP0490107]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Source unit or detector unit mounted to ceiling
{Endless-band supports}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Conveyor bands or belts for transporting the patient.

media198.png

[US2002112288]

media199.png

[US20110092792]

{Patient positioning chairs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Patient positioning chairs

media200.png

[EP2289370]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Operating chairs
Diaphragms {for particular diagnostic applications, e.g. tomography, i.e. not of general applicability ( diaphragms, e.g. variable, or collimators in general G21K 1/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices adapted to modify the confinement of the cross-section of the radiation beam, e.g. collimators. Situated between the source unit and the patient.

media201.png

[US2011206185]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Source combined with filter or grating
Detector combined with grid or grating
Multi-leaf collimators for intensity modulated radiation therapy
Diaphragms/collimators per se
Special rules of classification within this group

Rules for classifying other devices situated on the beam path, used to modify properties of the beam:

Filters (A61B 6/4035): modify a property of the beam but not its spatial confinement, e.g. the spectrum, or the intensity distribution.

Gratings: cause diffraction and are used mainly for phase measurements.

Grids: arrangements of blades situated along the detector pixels and used to

block scattered radiation.

Grids and gratings are classified depending on their position:

Auxiliary means for directing the radiation beam to a particular spot, e.g. using light beams
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices comprising means for assessing direction and / or extent of the radiation beam before acquisition. The auxiliary means typically consist in a light source (e.g. laser) projecting light from a point near the radiation source towards an imaging region. The projected beam can be point-like or reflect the spatial extent of the radiation beam and is typically used for monitoring / setting the alignment of the source unit with the detector unit (A61B 6/587) and/or the distance between the source unit and the patient (A61B 6/589) and / or detector unit (A61B 6/588).

media202.png

[WO2011141763]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Alignment of source unit to detector unit
Setting distance between source unit and detector unit
Setting distance between source unit and patient
Radiation diagnosis devices with source and detector units movable relative to each other
Application or adaptation of safety means ( protection against dangerous radiation in general G21F)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protection against dangerous radiation
{Protection against mechanical damage, e.g. anti-collision devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any means for preventing collision between component parts of the device, or between the device and external objects, e.g. patient, other room equipments.

media203.png

[WO2012050148]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tracking apparatus position
Mobile apparatus
{Protection against radiation, e.g. shielding ( techniques for handling radiation not otherwise provided for G21K) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media204.png

[US2012132217]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protection against effects of non-mechanical surgery
Techniques for handling radiation
Radiation shielding per se
Devices for detecting or locating foreign bodies (A61B 6/02 takes precedence; { radio-opaque markers A61B 19/54} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices adapted for localisation or tracking of foreign bodies, i.e. any kind of instrument or tissue which does not belong to the patient body by nature, e.g. tumour, implant, surgical instrument.

media205.png

[answers.com]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radio-opaque markers
Surgical navigation systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating a temporal series of data
Extracting a diagnostic parameter from medical diagnostic data
Locating foreign bodies using ultrasound
Other imaging methods for locating foreign bodies
Special rules of classification within this group

This class covers the use of radiation diagnostic devices to determine the position of a surgical instrument during an operation, e.g. using a C-arm (A61B 6/4441) for performing fluoroscopy (A61B 6/487). However, it does not cover path calculations and guiding of said instruments (A61B 19/5244).

Applications or adaptations for dentistry
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices specially adapted for dental examination, e.g. devices for panoramic imaging of the teeth.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radiation diagnosis of bone
Dentistry per se

media206.png

[sirona.com]

media207.png

[fortmyerssmiles.com]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tomosynthesis
Computed tomography
Multiple detectors
Analysis of teeth using light
Special rules of classification within this group

Due to their rotation capabalities needed to acquire panoramic images of the teeth, devices for panoramic radiography are often adapted to acquire projection data and generate computed tomographic images or tomosynthesis. In that case, they should be also classified under A61B 6/032 or A61B 6/025, respectively. If the device combines panoramic radiography and other imaging techniques, it might have different detectors for each imaging technique and it should be classified under A61B 6/42.

{by intraoral means ( X-ray tubes having a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into small cavities H01J 35/32) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
X-ray tubes having a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into small cavities
{with arrangements for generating radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis ( X-ray tubes or details thereof H01J 35/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostic devices comprising a radiation source for generating radiation and arrangements for manipulating said radiation by shaping the radiation beam, displacing it or modifying its characteristics.

Radiation sources cover both radiation source units to generate a radiation beam outside the patient oriented towards the patient (e.g. X-ray tubes) and radioactive tracers emitting radiation from inside the body due to radioactive decay (A61B 6/4057).

media208.png

[http://www.impactscan.org/images/straton.jpg]

media209.png

[biodex.com]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of X-ray tubes
Circuits for X-ray tubes
Arrangements for focusing or moderating radiation
Irradiation devices
Special rules of classification within this group

Typically involves the generation of a radiation beam having a particular spatial configuration (A61B 6/4007, A61B 6/4035, A61B 6/4064), movement (A61B 6/4021, A61B 6/4057), intensity (A61B 6/405) or spectrum (A61B 6/4035).

Documents should be classified in these subgroups only if:

  • they explicitly relate to radiation diagnosis devices AND
  • they comprise constructional details of the source unit(s).

Devices for modifying the spatial confinement of the beam (collimators) should be classified under A61B 6/06.

{characterised by using a plurality of source units ( circuit arrangements driving apparatuses comprising more than one X ray tube H05G 1/70) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuit arrangements driving apparatuses comprising more than one X-ray tube
{arranged in multiple source-detector units}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices comprising a plurality of source unit and a plurality of detector units, each source unit being functionally associated with a detector unit.

media210.png

[DE102008049049]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for radiation diagnosis using a plurality of detector units
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple energy imaging
Circuit arrangements driving apparatuses comprising more than one X-ray tube
Special rules of classification within this group

Devices where each source unit emits a ray with a different energy should be also classified under A61B 6/482.

Although these devices also have a plurality of DETECTORS THEY SHOULD NOT BE CLASSIFIED UNDER A61B 6/4266 since it is implicit that if the sources are arranged in source-detector units, the devices also have a plurality of detectors (i.e. A61B 6/4014 takes precedence).

{involving movement of the focal spot}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modification of focal spot position on the anode or between multiple anodes both in static imaging or in imaging modalities where source unit and detector unit perform data acquisition while following a certain trajectory (swing focus, spring focus, alternating focus, flying focus).

media211.png

media212.png

[Kachelriess et al., "Flying Focal Spot (FFS) in Cone-Beam CT", IEEE Transactions onNuclear Science, VOL. 53, NO. 3, JUNE 2006]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radiation diagnosis devices characterised by the use of a certain trajectory
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple energy imaging
Tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray on the anode or anti-cathode is movable relative to the surface thereof
{resulting in acquisition of views from substantially different positions, e.g. EBCT}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices where the displacement of the radiation beam during the data acquisition process (scan) to obtain images or projection data from different angles is carried out by translation of the focal spot, as is typically done in electron beam computed tomography (EBCT).

media213.png

[DE102007036038]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray on the anode or anti-cathode is movable relative to the surface thereof
{the source being combined with a filter or grating ( filters for radiation per se G21K 1/10) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices wherein the source unit is combined with a filtering means adapted to modify the spatial distribution of the intensity or the spectral characteristics of the radiation beam, e.g. bowtie filters.

Filters to modify a property of the beam but not its spatial confinement, e.g. the spectrum, or the intensity distribution, e.g. bowtie filters.

media214.png

[WO2007120744]

This class also includes gratings to cause diffraction and are used mainly for phase measurements, and grids, i.e. arrangements of blades situated along the detector pixels and used to block scattered radiation, when they are situated between source unit and patient.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Diaphragms/collimators for radiation diagnosis devices
X-ray filters per se
Detector combined with grid or grating
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple energy imaging
X-ray phase contrast imaging
Special rules of classification within this group

Rules for classifying other devices situated on the beam path, used to modify properties of the beam:

  • collimators to modify the spatial confinement of the radiation beam should be classified under A61B 6/06,
  • gratings or grids situated between the patient and the detector should be classified under A61B 6/4291.

Radiation devices using filters to modify the spectral characteristics of the beam (i.e. modify the energy of the radiation beam) should be also classified under A61B 6/482.

Grids for X-ray phase contrast imaging (A61B 6/484) should also be classified here, if they are positioned between the source and the patient.

{Source units adapted to modify characteristics of the beam during the data acquisition process (A61B 6/4021 , A61B 6/4035 take precedence; arrangements changing the time structure of an already generated radiation beam G21K 1/043) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices involving arrangements to modify characteristics such as voltage or tube current during the data acquisition process.

media215.png

[US2012230466]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Movement of the focal spot
Source unit combined with a filter
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements changing the time structure of an already generated radiation beam
Multiple energy imaging
Control of exposure
Controlling X-ray tubes
Special rules of classification within this group

Modifying the characteristics of the beam by moving the focal spot or using filter should be classified under A61B 6/4021 and A61B 6/4035, respectively.

Typically changing the voltage during image acquisition is used to modify the energy spectrum of the beam, which is related to multiple energy imaging (A61B 6/4021).

Modifying the tube current during data acquisition is typically used to control exposure to radiation (dose), hence A61B 6/542 might be relevant too.

{by using a source unit in the interior of the body (A61B 6/037 takes precedence; X-ray tubes with small cross-section H01J 35/32) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostic devices where the radiation source is introduced into the body, as part of a probe or capsule, or as a radioactive tracer.

media216.png

[WO 2005/058129]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Capsule endoscopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Emission tomography (PET/SPECT)
Radiation diagnosis with detectors for detecting non X-ray radiation
Diagnosis using light using a probe introduced into the body
Ultrasound diagnosis in body cavities
X-ray tubes with small cross-section
Detection of radiation
Special rules of classification within this group

A document disclosing an diagnostic application of PET or SPECT scanner (A61B 6/037) does not need to be classified also under A61B 6/4057 to cover the radioactive tracer aspect since this is implicit in the A61B 6/037 code. Only in the case that the document discloses particular technical properties of said tracer that solve a technical problem (e.g. specific tracer injection protocol, combination of tracers, tracer carried to a specific organ by a capsule before release) should the document be classified here.

Applications of intra-operative gamma cameras to detect rests of tumours labelled with a radioactive tracer should get the codes A61B 6/4057 and A61B 6/4258.

{adapted for producing a particular type of beam}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular technical features of the radiation beam, e.g. geometrical properties or type of radiation.

media217.png

media218.png

[EP2036498]

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class also covers the use for radiation diagnosis of a source generating any radiation which is not X-ray or synchrotron (A61B 6/4092) radiation, e.g. a radioisotope source.

{with arrangements for detecting radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis ( details of radiation detection G01T 1/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices comprising a detection unit arrangement specially adapted for a particular acquisition technique or diagnostic application, and arrangements for modifying the beam prior to detection, e.g. anti-scatter grids.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring radiation per se
X-ray films
Packages for X-ray films
Image intensifiers
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should be classified in these subgroups only if:

  • they explicitly relate to radiation diagnosis devices AND
  • they comprise constructional details of the detector unit(s).

A document describing particular details of a radiation detector should be classified in the corresponding subclass of G01T 1/00, even if a clinical application of said detector is mentioned. However, if e.g. details of the arrangement of said detector in a PET scanner for said particular clinical application are disclosed, then it should also be classified in A61B 6/037 and in the corresponding subclass of A61B 6/50.

{characterised by using a particular type of detector}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation devices comprising a detector with special features not covered by any of the subgroups below.

{using storage phosphor screens ( details of stimulable phosphor sheets G01T 1/2012) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of stimulable phosphor sheets
{using image intensifiers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation devices using an image intensifier for radiation detection.

media219.png

[WO2005006257]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Image intensifiers per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluoroscopy
Matrix detectors
Special rules of classification within this group

Image intensifiers in radiation diagnostics are typically used for real-time intra-operative imaging using fluoroscopy (A61B 6/487). Currently (2012) they have been substituted by flat panel detectors which should be classified under A61B 6/4233.

{using matrix detectors ( for semiconductor radiation detectors G01T 1/24 , G01T 1/2928) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation devices using an array of pixel detectors which generates an output in digital format. The array might have different geometries, 1 dimensional like in a CT scanner with a line detector, 2 dimensional and flat like a flat panel detector for radiography, 2 dimensional and cylindrical like in some multi-slice CT scanners, etc.

media220.png

[WO2005037075]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Semiconductor radiation detectors
{using energy resolving detectors, e.g. photon counting ( detectors for nuclear medicine G01T 1/16 , G01T 1/29) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation devices using detectors capable of discerning several levels of energy of the detected beam.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detectors for nuclear medicine
Multiple energy imaging as an imaging technique
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Contrast agents in radiation diagnosis
Radiation angiography
Radiation diagnosis of bone
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Typically combined with the combination of radiation data acquired at different energies to extract a particular diagnostic information (A61B 6/482).

Multiple energy in radiation diagnostics is typically used to produce enhanced angiographic images (A61B 6/504) combined with a contrast agent (A61B 6/481) or for the diagnosis of bone (A61B 6/505).

{using detectors specifically adapted to be used in the interior of the body ( detector details for in vivo counting G01T 1/161) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostic devices where the radiation detector is introduced into the body, as part of a probe or capsule.

media221.png

[WO2005058129]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Diagnosis using light using a probe introduced into the body
Capsule endoscopes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detector details for in vivo counting
Radiation diagnosis with detectors for detecting non X-ray radiation
Ultrasound diagnosis in body cavities
{for detecting non x-ray radiation, e.g. gamma radiation (A61B 6/037 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostic devices comprising a detector to detect radiation other than X-ray radiation, e.g. gamma or beta radiation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detecting radiation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radiation source for the interior of the body
Emission tomography
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Applications of PET or SPECT (A61B 6/037) do not require this class, since these techniques already imply the detection of non X-ray radiation. If the radiation is emitted by a radioactive tracer or in general a source inside the body (e.g. in a capsule) the class A61B 6/4057 should be given.

{characterised by using a plurality of detector units (A61B 6/4014 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media222.png

[US2011064193]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for radiation diagnosis using a plurality of source - detector units
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

An array of pixels is considered to be a single detector unit. If the device has more than one array, they are considered to be a single detector unit if there is no independent control of each of the arrays. Otherwise, if each array is controlled independently, each array is considered to be a single detector unit. Devices with multiple source-detector units should only be classified under A61B 6/4007.

{using a detector unit almost surrounding the patient , e.g. more than 180°}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices comprising a detector unit forming a closed or almost closed structure around the patient, e.g. 4th generation CT scanners.

media223.png

[US2004081277]

{characterised by a detector unit being housed in a cassette}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both matrix and film detectors.

media224.png

[US2012097860]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Film cassette holder construction
{the detector being combined with a grid or grating}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices comprising a detector unit combined with a grid, such as an anti-scatter grid or with a grating, as used in X-ray phase contrast imaging (A61B 6/484).

media225.png

[US2011274252]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Collimators for radiation diagnosis devices
Source combined with a filter or grating
Reduction of scatter by image processing in devices for radiation diagnosis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
X-ray phase contrast imaging
X-ray filters per se
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Rules for classifying other devices situated on the beam path, used to modify properties of the beam:

  • collimators to modify the spatial confinement of the radiation beam should be classified under A61B 6/06,
  • filters or gratings situated between the source and the patient should be classified under A61B 6/4035.
{Constructional features of the device for radiation diagnosis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diagnostic devices comprising structural or mechanical arrangements allowing a specific usage or property, e.g. movement, modularity.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class covers all details concerning constructional aspects not covered by any of the subgroups below.

{the device being mobile or portable, e.g. mounted on a trolley or handheld}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mobile radiation diagnosis device, e.g. mounted on casters or rollers or small handheld devices, e.g. handheld intra-operative gamma cameras.

media226.png

[US20100296632]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
With anti-collision devices or braking systems
Ultrasound diagnostic devices mounted on a trolley
{the device being modular}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Modular construction of radiation diagnosis device allowing part to be exchanged or replaced either for mounting different types of components or for simpler disassembling and reassembling.

media227.png

[EP2382922]

{related to combined acquisition of different diagnostic modalities}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional arrangements for facilitating the combined use of different imaging modalities including translation from one device to the other or integration of different modalities in one device. At least one modality relates to X-ray imaging.

media228.png

[US2011297834]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Post-acquisition processing for combination of images from different modalities
A61B 6/5229 and lower
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
C-arms
Emission tomography
Transmission tomography
Diagnosis with ultrasound
Optical diagnosis
Magnetic resonance imaging
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class covers all details concerning constructional aspects to combine different diagnostic modalities in one device.

(Ionising) radiation - (ionising) radiation: e.g. PET/CT

(Ionising) radiation - other type of diagnostics: e.g. CT/ultrasound (A61B 8/00), X-ray/optical (A61B 5/0059), CT/MRI (A61B 5/055, G01R 33/48), etc.

This class does not cover the combination of images coming from the different modalities per se, said combination should be classified under A61B 6/5229 and its subclasses.

{related to hygiene or sterilisation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media229.png

[WO2004081867]

{related to the mounting of source units and detector units (A61B 6/02 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the mounting arrangement of the source units and/or detector units.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis
Special rules of classification within this group

Imaging devices under A61B 6/02 should only be classified here if the document describes particular details of the arrangement. E.g. a computed tomography scanner should be classified under A61B 6/032 but not under A61B 6/4435, since it is implicit in such a device that source and detector unit are coupled by a rigid structure. However, a radiation device where source and detector unit are coupled by a rigid structure and which is capable of performing tomographic imaging should be classified both under A61B 6/4435 and A61B 6/032 (in such a case A61B 6/032 code the functional aspect "computerised tomography" and not the constructional aspect "computerised tomograph").

{the source unit and the detector unit being coupled by a rigid structure}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices wherein the relative position and orientation of the source and detector units is fixed. Open structures such as C-frames and closed structures such as gantries.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Devices where the distance between source and detector or the orientation can be modified should be classified under A61B 6/4452.

{the rigid structure being a C-arm or U-arm}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices wherein the source and the detector are fixed on a c or u-shaped frame.

media230.png

[WO2010128417]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluoroscopy
Data acquisition trajectories in radiation diagnosis devices
Transmission tomography
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

C-arms are usually used for fluoroscopy (A61B 6/487) or for computerised tomography (A61B 6/032). Due to their flexibility they can acquire projection data (views) along different trajectories for tomographic reconstruction (A61B 6/027).

{Tiltable gantries}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices wherein the source and the detector are fixed to a rigid frame forming a closed loop which can be tilted to image planes tilted with respect to the axial direction of the patient.

media231.png

[US2003235266]

{the source unit and the detector unit being able to move relative to each other}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices wherein the relative position and orientation of the source and detector units can be changed, e.g. device for performing tomosynthesis (A61B 6/025) of the breast where source and detector units are shifted along a linear trajectory but the source always points to the detector unit.

media232.png

[Dobbins and Godfrey, "Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinicalpotential", Phys. Med. Biol. 48 (2003) R65–R106]

{the source unit or the detector unit being attached to robotic arms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media233.png

[US 2005/0234327]

{the source unit or the detector unit being mounted to ceiling}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media234.png

[US 2011/0182408]

{the source unit or the detector unit being mounted to counterpoise or springs}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical arrangements of the source and detector where their displacement is controlled by a counter balance or a spring.

media235.png

[US20090040333]

{related to servo controlled movement of the source unit}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation devices where the movement of the source unit is controlled via a servomechanism, i.e. a feedback control to correct deviations in position (usually an electric or electronic motor).

{Means for cooling (A61B 6/045 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for cooling in general, e.g. cooling of anode in the radiation source, cooling of the detector, etc.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tables or beds provide with heating or cooling means
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class covers all aspects related to cooling in a radiation diagnostic device except for tables or beds with heating or cooling means (A61B 6/045).

{Means for identifying the diagnostic device}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any means for identifying X-ray apparatus or component parts thereof, e.g. removable filters, detectors. Includes bar codes, memory chips or RFIDs.

{with special arrangements for interfacing with the operator or the patient}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices comprising input and/or output means structurally or functionally designed for allowing a specific interaction with the device user or the patient.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Graphical user interfaces for medical devices
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should be classified in these subgroups only if:

  • they explicitly relate to radiation diagnosis devices AND
  • they comprise details of the user interface.
{Displaying means of special interest}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Displays with special properties not covered by any of the subclasses.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Displays for ultrasound diagnosis
Displays for electrocardiography
Displays in magnetic or electric diagnosis
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Touch screens should be classified here and as special input means (A61B 6/467).

{characterised by constructional features of the display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Portable displays, supports for displays.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Viewing apparatus for X-ray images
{characterised by displaying multiple images or images and diagnostic data on one display}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Display of images obtained by all types of X-ray imaging apparatus, combinations of images, e.g. side-by-side, superimposed, tiled. Also for combination of images and other data, e.g. graphs, ECG curves, pulse waveforms, alphanumeric data.

media236.png

[EP1421913]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radiation diagnosis devices comprising processing means for combining image data of a patient
{involving a plurality of displays}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media237.png

[EP2391292]

{adapted to display user selection data, e.g. icons or menus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media238.png

[US2007064864]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Graphical user interfaces for medical devices
{adapted to display 3D data ( 3D image rendering G06T 15/00 ; manipulating 3D models for computer graphics G06T19 ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
3D image rendering per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
manipulating 3D models for computer graphics
{characterised by special input means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both constructional (e.g. touch-screen, trackball) and functional aspects (e.g. specific purpose) of input means.

media239.png

[WO2011066486]

media240.png

[US2012093298]

{allowing annotation or message recording}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of message recording associated with radiation diagnosis imaging, e.g. annotation on image, sound recording.

{for selecting a region of interest (ROI)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Operator selection of region of interest or specific organs to be imaged, e.g. by touch screen, keyboard or switch. Also for definition of ROI after image analysis.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class does not cover automatic selection of a region of interest using image processing which should be classified under A61B 6/5211.

{Diagnostic techniques (A61B 6/022 , A61B 6/032 , A61B 6/037 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diagnostic devices involving a specific use of ionising radiation to perform a particular type of diagnosis. Imaging techniques are independent of the device used for implementing them.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Stereoscopic imaging
Tomosynthesis
Transmission computed tomography
Emission tomography
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Imaging techniques not found under A61B 6/02 and not covered by any of the subclasses should be classified as A61B 6/48.

{involving the use of contrast agents}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis imaging based on or improved using an agent with particular properties for the absorption of radiation..

media241.png

[wikipedia]

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radiation diagnosis with radioactive tracer
Diagnosis of blood vessels
Diagnosis of haemodynamic parameter
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Acquisition of a temporal series of data
Contrast agents in ultrasound diagnosis
Contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Mainly related to angiography (see also diagnosis of blood vessels A61B 6/504), but not exclusively.

The diagnostic of hemodynamic parameters (e.g. perfusion) by acquiring a temporal series of images should be classified under A61B 6/507 and A61B 6/486.

Radioactive tracers are not considered to be a contrast agent but a source to be introduced into the body (A61B 6/4057).

{involving multiple energy imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostics using different radiation energy levels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Source unit with multiple anodes
Source unit combined with a filter
Energy resolving detectors for radiation diagnosis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diagnosis or bone
Angiography
Filters for multiple energy imaging
Measuring spectral distribution of X-rays
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Radiation diagnostic devices based on multiple energy imaging should be classified under A61B 6/482 and additionally according to the technique used to acquire the data at different energy levels, for example:

  • A source with several anodes for producing beams with different energy (A61B 6/4021).
  • One beam with a certain energy spectrum which is filtered after leaving the source unit (A61B 6/4035).
  • One beam with a certain energy spectrum which is separated into several energy bands at the detector (A61B 6/4241).
  • A dual source-detector scanner with source units emitting radiation beams of different energies (A61B 6/4014 and A61B 6/4266).

Multiple energy imaging is typically used for examining bone (A61B 6/505) or with contrast agents (A61B 6/481), where two energy bands, one above and one under the K-edge of the contrast material are used to enhance the effect of the contrast agent in angiography (A61B 6/504).

media242.png

[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2008.09.004]

{involving scattered radiation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostics using information from scattered radiation (non-ballistic photons).

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class does not cover reduction of artefacts caused by scatter from images (A61B 6/5282) or scatter correction performed in projection data before image reconstruction (A61B 6/5205).

media243.png

[US2012157829]

media244.png

[http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.012960]

{involving phase contrast X-ray imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media245.png

[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphys265]

{involving fluorescence X-ray imaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnostics using characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from an object that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating material by X-ray fluorescence
{involving generating temporal series of image data}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dynamic imaging techniques, e.g. wherein a plurality of images of the same region are acquired during a predetermined amount of time.

media246.png

[DE102010041443]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission tomography
Contrast agents in radiation diagnosis
Haemodynamic parameters
Diagnosis of heart
Extracting a diagnostic parameter from image data
Retrospective matching to a physiological signal
ECG
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Typically used for

{involving fluoroscopy}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Real-time X-ray imaging during an intervention.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Image intensifiers in radiation diagnosis
Flat panel detectors in radiation diagnosis
C-arms
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Initially fluoroscopy was carried out using a fluoroscope, i.e. using a fluorescent screen as a detector. Later image intensifiers (A61B 6/4225) were used, and nowadays (2012) typically flat panel detectors are used (A61B 6/4233).

Very often fluoroscopy is carried out using a C-arm (A61B 6/4441).

{involving pre-scan acquisition}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diagnostic techniques in which a first acquisition is performed prior to the actual examination.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Exposure control based on patient thickness
Automatic setup of acquisition parameters
Calibration
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Typically used to identify the boundaries of the zone to be scanned and automatically adjust acquisition parameters (A61B 6/545) or to adjust the X-ray dose according to the size of the patient (A61B 6/544). The pre-scan acquisition might be carried out using a different device than the radiation diagnostic device, e.g. an optical camera.

{Clinical applications ( dentistry A61B 6/14 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Classification in this group depends on the body part or organ which is to be diagnosed. This class covers clinical applications not provided for in the subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Applications or adaptations for dentistry
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diagnosis by electrical, magnetic, pressure, sensing means, of particular parts of the body
{involving diagnosis of head, e.g. neuroimaging, craniography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media247.png

[radiologyinfo.org]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electroencephalography
Ultrasonic brain imaging
{involving diagnosis of breast, i.e. mammography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media248.png

[wikipedia.org]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mammography by transillumination
Patient immobilizing means for mammography
Ultrasonic mammography
{involving diagnosis of heart}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media249.png

[medical.siemens.com]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ultrasonic heart imaging
Electrocardiography
{involving diagnosis of blood vessels, e.g. by angiography}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media250.png

[wikipedia]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ultrasonic blood vessels imaging
Locating blood vessels
Radiation imaging using contrast agents
Radiation diagnosis using multiple energy
{involving diagnosis of bone}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

media251.png

[radiologyinfo.org]

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bone monitoring in general
A61B5/103R, A61B 5/4504
Bone diagnosis using ultrasound
Radiation diagnosis using multiple energy
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This class covers bone analysis such as quantitative analysis of bone structure or imaging of bone, e.g. for the diagnostic of fractures.

{involving diagnosis of nerves}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nerves diagnosis
Locating nerves
{involving determination of haemodynamic parameters, e.g. perfusion CT}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Extracting physiological parameters from image data
Detecting heart rate, blood pressure or blood blow
Radiation diagnosis imaging techniques involving the generation of a temporal sequence of image data
{for non-human patients}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Animal imaging and pre-clinical research. Also for veterinary imaging.

{Devices using data or image processing specially adapted for radiation diagnosis (image processing per se G06T) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Radiation diagnosis devices involving any kind of processing of data (raw data or diagnostic data) or image processing for enhancement purposes, e.g. artefacts reduction or resolution improvement.

This class covers data or image processing in radiation diagnostics not provided for in the subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Signal processing of physiological signals
Data/image processing in ultrasound diagnosis
Image processing per se
Image analysis per se