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EDIBLE OILS OF FATS, e.g. MARGARINES, SHORTENINGS, COOKING OILS (animal feeding-stuffs A23K 1/00; foods or foodstuffs containing edible oils or fats A21D, A23C, A23G, A23L; obtaining, refining, preserving C11B, C11C; hydrogenation C11C 3/12)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Edible oil or fat compositions containing an aqueous phase, e.g. margarines, and their working-up and the preservation of finished products
  • Other edible oils or fats, e.g. shortenings, cooking oils, microbial oils and their working-up and the preservation of finished products
  • The A23D subclass covers water and oil compositions, generally emulsions, which are suitable for use in foods. Additionally covered are methods for manufacturing and preserving same. Distinction is made between the use of the emulsion, a large part of the class being taken up by spread compositions (generally water in oil emulsions). Other non-spread compositions include mayonnaises (generally water in oil emulsions), dressings, etc. No classification distinction is made between emulsion types.
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • Foods or foodstuffs containing edible oils or fats are classified in the relevant parts A21D, A23G, A23L. Fats derived from milk are classified in A23C (e.g. A23C 13/00 and A23C 15/00).
  • C07C covers acyclic and carbocyclic compounds, e.g. esters of carboxylic acids (C07C 69/00), but not their use in food stuff which is covered by A23D.
  • C11B covers the production and purification/refining of oils and fats as well as their recovery from waste material, but not limited to those oils and fats which are suitable for use in foodstuffs. C11B does not cover mixtures of fats or oils with water or other edible oils or fats, which are covered by A23D.
  • C11C covers fatty acids that are not or no longer esterified with glycerol (although the process or esterification of said fatty acids with glycerol is covered) and their modifications, as well as candles.
  • A23L 1/29 covers food with modified nutritive qualities, e. g. dietetic food, functional food.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Animal-feeding stuff
Use of substance as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam producing agents
Mineral oil (kerosene, paraffin waxes, petroleum, gasoline, diesel. etc.), biodiesel
Preparation of fats or fatty oils by using microorganism or enzymes
Investigating or analyzing edible oils or fats by specific methods
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Oil
An oil is a substance that is in a viscous liquid state ("oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated chemical structures, properties, and uses, including vegetable oils, petrochemical oils, and volatile essential oils. Oil is a nonpolar substance.The word "oil" is used for any substance that does not mix with water and has a greasy feel, such as petroleum (or crude oil) and heating oil, regardless of its chemical structure.
Edible oil
Edible or cooking oil is fat of plant, animal or microbial origin, which is liquid at room temperature and is suitable for food use. Some of the many different kinds of edible vegetable oils include: olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oil. Many other kinds of vegetable oils are also used for cooking. The generic term "vegetable oil" when used to label a cooking oil product refers to a blend of a variety of oils often based on palm, corn, soybean or sunflower oils.Edible oil of animal origin is e.g. fish oil. Microbial oil are also encompassed.
Fats
Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words "oils", "fats", and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to lipids which are solids at normal room temperature. "Lipids" is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats, along with other related substances. Fats form a category of lipid, distinguished from other lipids by their chemical structure and physical properties. This category of molecules is important for many forms of life, serving both structural and metabolic functions. They are an important part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Fats or lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas.
Shortening
Shortening is a fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it promotes a "short" or crumbly texture (as in shortbread). The term "shortening" can be used more broadly to apply to any fat that is used for baking and which is solid at room temperature, such as lard, but as used in recipes it refers to a hydrogenated vegetable oil that is solid at room temperature. Shortening generally has a higher smoke point than butter and margarine, and it may have 100% fat content, compared to about 80% for butter and margarine.

Edible emulsions.

Non-specified use of composition characterized by triglycerides.

{Spread compositions (characterised by ingredients other than fatty acid triglycerides A23D 7/0056) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spreads characterised by their triglycerides

{Compositions other than spreads (characterised by ingredients other than fatty acid triglycerides A23D 7/0053) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-Spreads characterised by their Triglycerides

characterised by ingredients other than fatty acid triglycerides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-specified use characterized by non-trigyceride non-ester ingredients

{Compositions other than spreads}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-spreads characterised by other components (e.g. proteins, starches, etc.)

{Spread compositions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spreads characterised by other components (e.g. proteins, starches, etc.)

Other fatty acid esters, e.g. phosphatides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-specified use characterized by non-trigyleride ester ingredients including mono- and diglycerides (e.g. lecithins, glycerides but not triglycerides.)

{Compositions other than spreads}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-spreads characterised by fatty acid esters (e.g. lecithins, glycerides but not triglycerides.)

{Spread compositions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spreads characterised by fatty acid esters (e.g. lecithins, glycerides but not triglycerides.)

Reducing calorie content; Reducing fat content, {e.g. "halvarines"}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions characterized by lowering fat etc. such as halvarines

characterised by the production or working-up { (kneading, forming A01J 21/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions characterised by general production methods imparting properties to final product

Working-up
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Working up procedures specified

characterised by essential cooling
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions charaterised by use of cooling procedures (e.g. votators, crystallisers)

Preservation of finished products { (by using antioxidants or biocides C11B 5/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions characterised by preservation methods/ingredients (e.g. salting, water activity control, etc.)

Other edible oils or fats, e.g. shortenings, cooking oils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

OIls or fats suitable for food use (incl. genetically modified) characterized by their trigylceride composition

characterised by ingredients other than fatty acid triglycerides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

OIls or fats suitable for food use (incl. genetically modified) characterized by non-ester, non-triglyceride ingredients

Other fatty acid esters, e.g. phosphatides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

OIls or fats suitable for food use (incl. genetically modified) characterized by the non-triglyceride ester ingredients

characterised by the production or working-up
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions characterised by general production methodswhich lead to an oil/fat with a particular composition/form , e.g. olive oils with high antioxidants levels obtained from a second pressing or cold pressing of oils in general.

Working-up
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compositions characterised by specific production methods which lead to an oil/fat with a particular composition/form, e.g. olive oily with high antioxidant level obtained from a second pressing using extrusion or cold pressing in an extruder.

Forming free-flowing pieces
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

characterized by process which forms free flowing pieces including by coating, chilling etc.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013