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DAIRY PRODUCTS, e.g. MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE; MILK OR CHEESE SUBSTITUTES; MAKING THEREOF (obtaining protein compositions for foodstuffs, {e.g. from milk} , A23J 1/00 ; preparation of peptides, e.g. of proteins, in general C07K 1/00)
Concentration, evaporation or drying ( products obtained thereby A23C 9/00 ; making butter powder A23C 15/14 , cheese powder A23C 19/086 ; evaporating in general B01D 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Products obtained by concentration, evaporation or drying
Preparation of butter powder
Cheese powder
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaporation in general
Drying in thin layers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drying in thin layers.

on drums or rollers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drying in thin layers on drums or rollers.

by spraying into a gas stream
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying, by spraying into a gas stream (e.g. spray-drying).

{by simultaneously or separately spraying of two different liquid products other than water or steam; by separate addition of additives other than milk products or lactose in the spray-dryer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying, by spraying into a gas stream (e.g. spray-drying), wherein two different liquid products other than water or steam are sprayed simultaneously or separately, or wherein additives other than milk products or lactose are added separately in the spray-dried.

combined with agglomeration {granulation or coating}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying, by spraying into a gas stream (e.g. spray-drying), combined with agglomeration (granulation or coating).

Concentration by freezing out the water
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Concentration by freezing out (and separating) the water.

Freeze-drying
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Concentration by freeze-drying.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "freeze-drying" and "lyophilisation" are often used as synonyms.

Foam drying (A23C 1/04 , A23C 1/08 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Foam drying.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spray-drying
Freeze-drying
Concentration by evaporation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Concentration by evaporation.

combined with other treatment (A23C 3/00 , A23C 9/00 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying combined with other treatment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preservation of milk or milk preparations
Preparation of specific dairy products
using additives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying combined with other treatment, wherein additive are used.

Preservation of milk or milk preparations ( of cream A23C 13/08 ; of butter A23C 15/18 ; of cheese A23C 19/097)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preservation of cream
Preservation of butter
Preservation of cheese
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of foods in general
Preservation of non-alcoholic beverages
{Storing or packaging in a vacuum or in inert or sterile gaseous atmosphere ( impregnation with inert gases A23C 9/1524) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by storing in a vacuum (i.e. reduced pressure) or inert or sterile gaseous atmosphere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Impregnation with inert gases
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of foods in general using a controlled atmosphere
by heating (A23C 3/07 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preservation by irradiation or wave treatment
in packages
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating in packages or containers.

progressively transported through the apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating in packages or containers, which are progressively transported through the apparatus.

the materials being loose unpacked
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state.

{Apparatus through which the material is transported non progressively; Temperature-maintaining holding tanks or vats with discontinuous filling or discharge}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus adapted for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, through which the material is transported non-progressively. Temperature-maintaining holding tanks or vats with discontinuous filling or discharge.

and progressively transported through the apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, wherein said materials are progressively transported through the apparatus.

{in contact with multiple heating plates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, wherein said materials are progressively transported through the apparatus and maintained in contact with multiple heating plates (e.g. classical plate heat exchangers).

{the milk being heated by electrical or mechanical means, e.g. by friction}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, wherein said materials are progressively transported through the apparatus and heated by electrical and/or mechanical means, e.g. by friction.

{the milk flowing through with indirect heat exchange, containing rotating elements, e.g. for improving the heat exchange}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, wherein said materials progressively flow through an apparatus with indirect heat exchange, said apparatus containing rotating elements (e.g. for improving heat exchange).

in direct contact with the heating medium, e.g. steam
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, wherein said materials are progressively transported through the apparatus and brought in direct contact with the heating medium, heating medium being gaseous e.g. steam or liquid but not a part of the apparatus like plates, pipes, jackets, etc.

{by pulverisation of the milk, including free falling film}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by heating the materials in a loose unpacked state, wherein the milk or milk preparation is progressively transported through the apparatus and brought in direct contact with the heating medium, e.g. steam, and wherein the milk or milk preparation is pulverised or converted into a free falling film.

by freezing or cooling
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by freezing or cooling.

{Freezing in loose unpacked form}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by freezing in loose unpacked form.

in packages
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by freezing or cooling in packages.

{Freezing in packages}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by freezing in packages.

by irradiation, e.g. by microwaves; {by sonic or ultrasonic waves}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by irradiation (e.g. microwaves) or by sonic or ultrasonic waves.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Heating of milk by electromagnetic means should be classified in this group as well.

{by sonic or ultrasonic waves}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by sonic or ultrasonic waves.

{by ultraviolet or infrared radiation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) radiation.

by addition of preservatives ( addition of micro-organisms or enzymes A23C 9/12 , of other substances A23C 9/152)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by addition of preservatives.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Addition of antibiotics
Addition of micro-organisms or enzymes
Addition of other substances (additives)
{Inorganic compounds, e.g. lactoperoxidase - H2O2 systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preserving milk or milk preparations by addition of inorganic preservatives (e.g. lactoperoxidase - H2O2 systems).

Other dairy technology
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dairy technology not covered elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for homogenising milk
Chemical cleaning of dairy apparatus ( cleaning in general B08B , e.g. B08B 3/08) ; Use of sterilisation methods therefor ( sterilisation methods per se A61L)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus adapted for the chemical cleaning of dairy apparatus; use of sterilisation methods therefor.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning in general
Sterilisation methods in general
Removing unwanted substances {other than lactose or milk proteins} from milk ( by filtering A01J 9/02 , A01J 11/06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus adapted for removing unwanted substances other than lactose or milk proteins from milk by methods other than filtration.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Removing of unwanted substances from milk by filtration
Preservation of milk or milk preparations
{using chemicals in liquid or solid state, e.g. flocculating, adsorbing or extracting agents (A23C 9/146 and A23C 9/148 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus adapted for removing unwanted substances other than lactose or milk proteins from milk using chemicals in liquid or solid state, e.g. flocculating, adsorbing or extracting agents.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of ion-exchange in the production of milk preparations
Use of molecular sieve or gel filtration in the production of milk preparations
{by centrifugation without using chemicals, e.g. bactofugation; re-use of bactofugate}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus adapted for removing unwanted substances other than lactose or milk proteins from milk without using chemicals, e.g. bactofucation; re-use of bactofugate.

Milk preparations; Milk powder or milk powder preparations (A23C 21/06 takes precedence; preservation A23C 3/00 ; chocolate milk A23G 1/00 ; ice-cream, mixtures for preparation of ice-cream A23G 9/00 ; puddings, dry powder puddings A23L 1/187)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations.

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations per se.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mixtures of whey with milk products or milk components
Preservation of milk and milk preparations
Chocolate milk
Ice-cream and mixtures for the preparation thereof
Puddings and dry powder puddings
Use of milk products or milk derivatives in the preparation of (salad) dressings
{Condensed milk; Sugared condensed milk (A23C 1/06 and A23C 1/12 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Condensed milk and sugared condensed milk as well as methods and apparatus adapted for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Concentration by freezing out water
Concentration by evaporation
Fermented milk preparations; Treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes ( whey preparations A23C 21/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cream preparations
Butter preparations
Buttermilk preparations
Cheese and cheese preparations
Whey preparations
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
{Addition of, or treatment with, enzymes or micro-organisms other than lactobacteriaceae}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein enzymes or micro-organisms other than lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) are added and/or used for the treatment.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Fermentation using lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria)
{Lactose hydrolysing enzymes, e.g. lactase, beta-galactosidase}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using enzymes, wherein a lactose hydrolysing enzyme (e.g. lactase, beta-galactosidase) is added and/or used for the treatment.

{Proteolytic or milk coagulating enzymes, e.g. trypsine}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using enzymes, wherein a proteolytic or milk coagulating enzyme (e.g. trypsine) is added and/or used for the treatment.

{Oxidation or reduction enzymes, e.g. peroxidase, catalase, dehydrogenase}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using enzymes, wherein an oxidation and/or reduction enzyme (oxidoreductase, e.g. peroxidase, catalase, dehydrogenase) is added and/or used for the treatment.

{Other enzymes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using enzymes, wherein other enzymes than oxidoreductases , e.g. lipid acyltransferase, mutarotase are added and/or used for the treatment.

{Apparatus for preparing or treating fermented milk products}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for preparing or treating fermented milk products.

{for making stirred yoghurt; Apparatus with agitating or stirring means; Continuous bulk fermentation, heating or cooling, i.e. continuous inlet and outlet flow of yoghurt}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for preparing stirred yoghurt and apparatus with agitating or stirring means.

Continuous bulk fermentation, heating or cooling, i.e. continuous inlet and outlet flow of yoghurt.

{for making set yoghurt in containers without stirring, agitation or transport of the yoghurt or the containers during incubation, heating or cooling; Domestic yoghurt apparatus without agitating means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for preparing set yoghurt in containers without stirring, agitation or transport of the yoghurt or the containers during incubation, heating or cooling.

Domestic yoghurt apparatus without agitating means.

using only micro-organisms of the genus lactobacteriaceae; Yoghurt (A23C 9/13 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations prepared using micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) only, for example yoghurt.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using additives for preparing fermented milk products
{in powdered, granulated or dried solid form}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Powdered, granulated or dried solid fermented milk preparations prepared using micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) only.

{characterised by using a Lactobacillus sp. other than Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, including Bificlobacterium sp.}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations prepared using micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) only, characterised by the use of Lactobacillus species other than bulgaricus, including Bifidobacterium species.

{using Leuconostoc, Pediococcus or Streptococcus sp. other than Streptococcus Thermophilus; Artificial sour buttermilk in general (A23C 9/1234 and A23C 17/02 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations prepared with micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) only, using Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, or a Streptococcus species other than thermophilus.

Artificial sour buttermilk in general.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Fermentation using Lactobacillus other than bulgaricus
Buttermilk treated with micro-organisms
{using specific L. bulgaricus or S. thermophilus micro-organisms; using entrapped or encapsulated yoghurt bacteria; Physical or chemical treatment of L. bulgaricus or S. thermophilus cultures; Fermentation only with L. bulgaricus or only with S. thermophilus}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations prepared with micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) only, using specific L. bulgaricus and/or S. thermophilus strains, or using entrapped or encapsulated yoghurt bacteria.

Physical and/or chemical treatment of L. bulgaricus and/or S. thermophilus cultures.

Fermentation only with L. bulgaricus or only with S. thermophilus.

using micro-organisms of the genus lactobacteriaceae and other micro-organisms or enzymes e.g. kefir, koumiss (A23C 9/13 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations prepared using micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) and other micro-organisms or enzymes. Examples of fermented milk preparations : kefir, koumiss.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using additives for preparing fermented milk products
{using only lactobacteriaceae for fermentation in combination with enzyme treatment of the milk product; using enzyme treated milk products for fermentation with lactobacteriaceae}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations prepared using only micro-organisms of the genus Lactobacteriaceae (i.e. lactic acid bacteria) for fermentation, combined with enzyme treatment of the milk product.

Using enzyme treated milk products (as starting materials) for fermentation with Lactobacteriaceae.

using additives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein additives, e.g. flavours, dyes, inorganic compounds, fruits are used.

{Milk products or derivatives; Fruit or vegetable juices; Sugars, sugar alcohols, sweeteners; Oligosaccharides; Organic acids or salts thereof or acidifying agents; Flavours, dyes or pigments; Inert or aerosol gases; Carbonation methods}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein

  • milk products or milk derivatives
  • fruit or vegetable juice
  • sugars, sugar alcohols or sweeteners
  • oligosaccharides
  • organic acids or salts thereof, or acidifying agents
  • flavours, dyes or pigments, and/or
  • inert or aerosol gases are used as additive.

Carbonation methods.

{Non-milk proteins or fats; Seeds, pulses, cereals or soja; Fatty acids, phospholipids, mono- or diglycerides or derivatives therefrom; Egg products}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein

  • non-milk proteins or fats
  • seeds, pulses, cereals or soja
  • fatty acids, phospholipids, mono- or diglycerides, or derivatives thereof and/or
  • egg products

are used as additive.

{Inorganic compounds; Minerals, including organic salts thereof, oligo-elements; Amino-acids, peptides, protein-hydrolysates or derivatives; Nucleic acids or derivatives; Yeast extract or autolysate; Vitamins; Antibiotics; Bacteriocins}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein

  • inorganic compounds
  • minerals, including organic salts thereof, or oligoelements
  • amino acids, peptides, protein hyrolysates, or derivatives thereof
  • nucleic acids or derivatives thereof
  • yeast extract or autolysate
  • vitamins or derivatives thereof
  • antibiotics or bacteriocins

are used as additive.

Fruit or vegetables
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein fruit or vegetables (including processed products thereof, such as pulp, juice etc) are used as additive.

Thickening substances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fermented milk preparations and treatment using micro-organisms or enzymes, wherein thickening substances are used as additive.

in which the chemical composition of the milk is modified by non-chemical treatment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using non-chemical treatment.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subject-matter of general interest relating to chromatography can be found and should be classified in B01D 15/08.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Appliances for aerating or de-aerating milk
Milk centrifuges
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chromatrography in general
by dialysis, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration (A23C 9/144 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using dialysis, reverse osmosis (RO), microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and/or similar techniques.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of electrical means, e.g. electrodialysis (ED)
{by ultrafiltration, microfiltration or diafiltration of milk, e.g. for separating protein and lactose; Treatment of the UF permeate}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of milk using microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and/or diafiltration, e.g. for separating protein and lactose.

Treatment of the MF/UF/NF permeate obtained thereby.

{by ultrafiltration, microfiltration or diafiltration of whey, e.g. treatment of the UF permeate}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of whey using microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and/or diafiltration, e.g. for separating protein and lactose.

Treatment of the MF/UF/NF permeate obtained thereby.

{by dialysis, reverse osmosis or hyperfiltration, e.g. for concentrating or desalting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using dialysis, reverse osmosis (RO) or hyperfiltration, e.g. for concentrating or desalting.

by electrical means, e.g. electrodialysis
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using electrical means, e.g. electrodialysis (ED).

by ion-exchange
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using ion-exchange.

{Chromatographic separation of protein or lactose fraction; Adsorption of protein or lactose fraction followed by elution}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using ion-exchange for the chromatographic separation of protein or lactose fractions, or for the adsorption of protein or lactose fractions followed by elution.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chromatrography in general
by molecular sieve or gel filtration {or chromatographic treatment (A23C 9/1465 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations by modifying the chemical composition of the milk (or milk derived material) using molecular sieve or gel filtration.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion exchange chromatographic treatment
Reconstituted or recombined milk products containing neither non-milk fat nor non-milk proteins ( containing thickening substances A23C 9/154 ; mixtures of whey, with milk products or milk components A23C 21/06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reconstituted or recombined milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing neither non-milk fat nor non-milk proteins, and corresponding methods.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using thickening agents as additive
Whey based products containing milk products or milk components
{Spreads, semi-solid products}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spreads and semi-solid milk products containing neither non-milk fat nor non-milk proteins, obtained by reconstitution or recombination, and corresponding methods.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cultured butter based spreads
{Dissolving or reconstituting milk powder; Reconstitution of milk concentrate with water; Standardisation of fat content of milk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reconstituted or recombined milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing neither non-milk fat nor non-milk proteins, prepared by

  • dissolving or reconstituting milk powder
  • reconstitution of milk concentrate with water, and/or
  • standardisation of the fat content of milk,

and methods therefor.

{containing isolated milk or whey proteins, caseinates or cheese; Enrichment of milk products with milk proteins in isolated or concentrated form, e.g. ultrafiltration retentate}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reconstituted or recombined milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing isolated milk or whey proteins, caseinates or cheese but no non-milk fat nor non-milk proteins.

Enrichment of milk products containing neither non-milk fat nor non-milk proteins with milk proteins in isolated or concentrated form (e.g. UF retentate).

{Enrichment or recombination of milk (excepted whey) with milk fat, cream of butter without using isolated or concentrated milk proteins}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Enrichment or recombination of milk (whey being excepted) with milk fat, cream or butter without using isolated or concentrated milk proteins.

containing additives ( fermented milk preparations containing additives A23C 9/13)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing additives, and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Fermented milk preparations containing additives
Milk preparations treated with enzymes and/or microorganisms containing additives
{Inorganic additives, e.g. minerals, trace elements; Chlorination or fluoridation of milk; Organic salts or complexes of metals other than natrium or kalium; Calcium enrichment of milk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing inorganic additives (e.g. minerals, trace elements), organic salts, or complexes of metals other than sodium and potassium, and methods for their preparation.

Chlorination, fluoridation, and calcium enrichment of milk.

{Inert gases, noble gases, oxygen, aerosol gases; Processes for foaming}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing inert gases, noble gases, oxygen or aerosol gases, and methods for their preparation.

Processes for foaming.

{Amino acids; Peptides; Protein hydrolysates; Nucleic acids; Derivatives thereof}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing amino acids, peptides, protein hydrolysates, nucleic acids, or derivatives thereof, and methods for their preparation.

{Fatty acids; Mono- or diglycerides; Petroleum jelly; Paraffine; Phospholipids; Derivatives thereof}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing fatty acids, mono- or diglycerides, vaseline, paraffine, phospholipids, or derivatives thereof, and methods for their preparation.

Special rules of classification within this group

Only emulsifiers containing fatty acid residues, mono- or diglycerides, phospholipids, and compounds derived from these compounds are classified in this group.

containing thickening substances, eggs or cereal preparations; Milk gels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing thickening substances, eggs or cereal preparations as well as milk gels, and methods for their preparation.

{Acidified milk products containing thickening agents or acidified milk gels, e.g. acidified by fruit juices ( fermentation A23C 9/12) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acidified milk preparations containing thickening substances as well as acidified milk gels (e.g. acidified by fruit juices), and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Acidification by lactic acid fermentation
{Non-acidified gels, e.g. custards, creams, desserts, puddings, shakes or foams, containing eggs or thickening or gelling agents other than sugar; Milk products containing natural or microbial polysaccharides, e.g. cellulose or cellulose derivatives; Milk products containing nutrient fibres}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-acidified gels, e.g. custards, creams, desserts, dairy puddings, shakes or foams, containing eggs or thickening or gelling agents other than sugar, and methods for their preparation.

Milk products containing natural or microbial polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose or cellulose derivatives, and methods for their preparation.

Milk products containing nutrient fibres, and methods for their preparation.

{in powdered, granulated or dried solid form}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Powdered, granulated or dried solid

  • non-acidified gels, e.g. custards, creams, desserts, dairy puddings, shakes or foams, containing eggs or thickening or gelling agents other than sugar
  • milk products containing natural or microbial polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose or cellulose derivatives
  • milk products containing nutrient fibres,

and methods for their preparation.

{Non-dried milk gels, creams or semi-solid products obtained by heating milk with a sugar without using gums, e.g. milk jam}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-dried milk gels, creams or semi-solid products obtained by heating milk with a sigar without using gums, e.g. milk jam, and methods for their preparation.

Flavoured milk preparations; {Addition of fruits, vegetables, sugars, sugar alcohols, sweeteners} (A23C 9/154 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Flavoured milk preparations and methods for their preparation, in particular addition of fruits, vegetables, sugars, sugar alcohols and/or sweeteners.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Milk preparations containing thickeners and milk gels
{Acidified milk products, e.g. milk flavoured with fruit juices (A23C 9/1542 takes precedence; fermentation A23C 9/12) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Acidified flavoured milk preparations (e.g. milk flavoured with fruit juice) and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Acidified milk preparations containing thickeners and acidified milk gels
Acidification by lactic acid fermentation
containing vitamins or antibiotics
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing vitamins, antibiotics or bacteriocins, and methods for their preparation.

{Antibiotics; Bacteriocins; Fungicides from micro-organisms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk preparations, milk powder and milk powder preparations containing antibiotics, bacteriocins or micro-organism derived fungicides, and methods for their preparation.

Agglomerating or granulating milk powder; Making instant milk powder; Products obtained thereby (A23C 1/05 , A23C 9/18 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatus for agglomerating or granulating milk powder and for making instant milk powder, as well as the respective products.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spray-drying combined with agglomeration, granulation or coating
Milk in dried and compressed or semi-solid form
Milk in dried and compressed or semi-solid form
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk in dried and compressed or semi-solid form, and methods for its preparation.

Dietetic milk products not covered by groups A23C 9/12 to A23C 9/18
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dietetic milk products not covered by groups A23C 9/12 to A23C 9/18.

{containing bifidus-active substances, e.g. lactulose; containing oligosaccharides}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dietetic milk products containing bifidus-active substances (e.g. lactulose) or oligosaccharides (e.g. inulin).

{Colostrum; Human milk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk products based on colostrum or human milk.

Milk substitutes, e.g. coffee whitener compositions ( cheese substitutes A23C 20/00 ; butter substitutes A23D ; cream substitutes A23L 1/19)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products, e.g. coffee whiteners, and method for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cheese substitutes
Butter substitutes
Cream substitutes
containing at least one non-milk component as source of fats or proteins (A23C 19/055 , A23C 21/04 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products, e.g. coffee whiteners, containing at least one non-milk component as source of fats or proteins, and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of non-milk fats or proteins for making cheese curd
Use of non-milk fats or proteins as ingredients in whey preparations
containing non-milk fats but no non-milk proteins (A23C 11/08 , A23C 11/10 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products, e.g. coffee whiteners, containing non-milk fats but no non-milk proteins, and method for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Milk substitutes containing caseinates but no other milk proteins nor milk fats
Milk substitutes containing or not lactose, but no milk components as sources of fats, carbohydrates or proteins
{obtained by mixing the non-fat components in powdered form with the fats or by dry mixing of the components}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products containing non-milk fats but no non-milk proteins, obtained by mixing the non-fat components in powdered form with the fats, or by dry mixing of the components, and methods for their preparation.

containing non-milk proteins (A23C 11/08 , A23C 11/10 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products containing non-milk proteins, and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Milk substitutes containing caseinates but no other milk proteins nor milk fats
Milk substitutes containing or not lactose, but no milk components as sources of fats, carbohydrates or proteins
{Microbial proteins, inactivated yeast or animal proteins}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products containing microbial proteins, inactivated yeast or animal proteins as non-milk proteins, and methods for their preparation.

containing caseinates but no other milk proteins nor milk fats
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitute products containing caseinates but no other milk proteins nor milk fats, and methods for their preparation.

containing or not lactose but no other milk components as source of fats, carbohydrates or proteins, e.g. soy milk
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitutes containing lactose or not and no other milk components as sources of fats, carbohydrates or proteins, and methods for their preparation.

{containing only proteins from pulses, oilseeds or nuts, e.g. soy or nut milk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitutes containing lactose or not, but no other milk components as sources of fats, carbohydrates or proteins, which contain proteins only from pulses, oilseeds or nuts, e.g. soy milk or almond milk, and methods for their preparation.

{Addition of, or treatment with, micro-organisms (A23C 20/025 and A23L 1/2118 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Milk substitutes containing lactose or not, but no other milk components as sources of fats, carbohydrates or proteins, which contain proteins only from pulses, oilseeds or nuts, which are treated with micro-organisms or to which micro-organisms are added, and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Whey or whey preparation obtained by treatment with lactase
Foods obtained by removing butter or other undesirable substances from pulses, legumes or oilseeds using micro-organisms
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
Cream; Cream preparations; Making thereof ( coffee whitener compositions A23C 11/00 ; cream substitutes A23L 1/19)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cream, cream preparations and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dessert type creams obtained by adding thickening agents, eggs or cereal preparations to milk
Coffee whiteners
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cream substitutes
Tanks for treating cream
Preservation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cream and cream preparations.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of milk and milk preparations
{Freezing; Subsequent melting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cream and cream preparations by freezing, and melting subsequent to freezing.

by addition of preservatives (A23C 13/14 , A23C 13/16 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cream and cream preparations by addition of preservatives.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cream preparations containing milk products or non-fat milk components
Cream preparations containing, or treated with, micro-organisms, enzymes or antibiotics, and sour cream
Cream preparations ( ice-cream A23G 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cream preparations (other than ice cream) and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ice cream
{in powdered, granulated or solid form}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cream preparations (other than ice cream) in powdered, granulated or solid form, and methods for their preparation.

containing milk products or {non-fat} milk components
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cream preparations (other than ice cream) containing milk products or non-fat milk components, and methods for their preparation.

containing, or treated with, micro-organisms, enzymes, or antibiotics; Sour cream
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cream preparations (other than ice cream) containing, or treated with, micro-organisms, enzymes or antibiotics. Sour cream and methods for the preparation thereof.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
{Making sour cream by chemical or physical means only}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preparation of sour cream by chemical or physical means only.

Butter; Butter preparations; Making thereof ( butter substitutes A23D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Butter, methods for preparing butter, butter preparations (comprising butter as main component) and methods for preparing butter preparations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for manufacturing butter
Butter substitutes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for manufacturing butter
Kneading machines for butter, or the like
Hand devices for forming slabs of butter, or the like
Machines for forming slabs of butter, or the like
Devices for dividing bulk butter, or the like
Making thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for making butter and butter preparations.

from butter oil or anhydrous butter
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for making butter and butter preparations from butter oil or anhydrous butter.

Treating cream {or milk} prior to phase inversion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing butter and butter preparations, wherein cream (or milk) is treated prior to phase inversion.

{Addition of a treatment with micro-organisms or enzymes; Addition of cultured milk products}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing butter and butter preparations, wherein, prior to phase inversion, cream (or milk) is treated with micro-organisms or enzymes, or wherein, prior to phase inversion, micro-organisms, enzymes or cultured milk products are added thereto.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
Butter preparations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Butter preparations, i.e. dairy type food products based on butter comprising butter as main ingredient, and method for their manufacture.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of milk products or milk derivatives in the preparation of (salad) dressings
Sauces
{Addition of micro-organisms or cultured milk products; Addition of enzymes; Addition of starter cultures other than destillates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for making butter preparations (i.e. dairy type food products based on butter comprising butter as main ingredient) wherein micro-organisms, cultured milk products, enzymes or starter cultures other than distillates are added, and butter preparations obtained thereby.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
{Butter containing a minority of vegetable oils; Enrichment of butter with fatty acids}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for making butter preparations (i.e. dairy type food products based on butter comprising butter as main ingredient) containing a minority of vegetable oils, and enrichment of butter with fatty acids, as well as butter preparations obtained thereby.

Butter powder; Butter oil, i.e. melted butter, e.g. ghee; {Anhydrous butter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Butter powder, butter oil (i.e. melted butter, e.g. ghee), anhydrous butter, and methods for the preparation thereof.

{Removal of steroids, e.g. cholesterol or free acids; Fractionation of anhydrous milkfat by extraction with solvents other than solvent crystallisation or with supercritical gases or by distillation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing butter powder, butter oil (i.e. melted butter, e.g. ghee) and anhydrous butter, wherein steroids (e.g. cholesterol) or free fatty acids are removed, or wherein anhydrous milkfat is fractionated by extraction with solvents other than solvent crystallisation, with supercritical gases, or by distillation, and butter powder, butter oil (i.e. melted butter, e.g. ghee) and anhydrous butter thus prepared.

Butter having reduced fat content
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing butter having a reduced fat content and butter thus prepared.

{prepared by addition of microorganisms; Cultured spreads}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Butter having a reduced fat content obtained by addition of microorganisms, including cultured spreads.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dairy spreads not based on butter
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Cultured spread
This group only relates to butter based cultured spreads.
Preservation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of butter and butter preparations.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of milk and milk preparations
Preservation of foods in general
by addition of preservatives {or antioxidants}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of butter and butter preparations using preserving agents or antioxidants.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preservation of foods in general with preserving chemicals
Buttermilk; Buttermilk preparations (A23C 9/14 takes precedence; preservation A23C 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Buttermilk and buttermilk preparations and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods wherein the chemical composition of the milk is modified by non-chemical treatment (e.g. ultrafiltration)
Preservations
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of butter
containing, or treated with, micro-organisms or enzymes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Buttermilk and buttermilk preparations containing, or treated with, micro-organisms or enzymes, and methods for their preparation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
Cheese; Cheese preparations; Making thereof ( cheese substitutes A23C 20/00 ; casein A23J 1/20)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese and cheese substitutes and methods for their manufacture.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for use in cheese-making
Cheese substitutes
Milk derived casein per se and methods for obtaining milk derived casein
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
Making cheese curd
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd (i.e. coagulated / clotted milk).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for making cheese curd
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of milk derived casein
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Curd formation
Curdling, clotting, coagulation of milkCasein precipitation
using continuous procedure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd using a continuous procedure.

{with immobilized enzymes or micro-organisms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd using a continuous procedure combined with immobilised enzymes or micro-organisms.

without substantial whey separation from coagulated milk
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein whey separation is completely avoided; processes wherein whey separation is avoided to a significant extent or where at least less whey is separated than in standard processes

{by dialysis or ultrafiltration}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd without separation of substantial amounts of whey from the coagulated milk, wherein dialysis or ultrafiltration is applied.

characterised by the use of specific micro-organisms, or enzymes of microbial origin
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein specific micro-organisms, or enzymes of microbial origin are used.

{Propionic acid bacteria}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein propionic acid bacteria / Propionibacteria are used.

{using only lactic acid bacteria, e.g. Pediococcus and Leuconostoc species; Bifidobacteria; Microbial starters in general ( using moulds A23C 19/0682) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein only lactic acid bacterial (including Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Bifidobacteria) are used.

Use of microbial starters in general for making cheese curd.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of moulds for cheesemaking
{using yeasts, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria or with fungi, without using other bacteria}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein yeasts are used, either alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria or with fungi, without using other (i.e. non-lactic acid) bacteria.

{Rennet produced by fermentation e.g. microbial rennet; Rennet produced by genetic engineering}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein rennet produced by fermentation (e.g. microbial rennet) or by genetic engineering is used.

{Enzymes other than milk clotting enzymes, e.g. lipase, beta-galactosidase}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein enzymes other than milk-clotting enzymes are used (e.g. lipase and beta-galactosidase).

characterised by the use of specific enzymes of vegetable or animal origin (A23C 19/032 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein enzymes of plant, vegetable or animal origin are used.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preparation of cheese curd using microbial enzymes
{Proteolytic or milk clotting enzymes from plants or vegetables, e.g. papain, ficin, bromelain}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein proteolytic or milk clotting enzymes from plants or vegetables are used (e.g. papaion, ficin, bromelain).

{Enzymes other than proteolytic enzymes or milk clotting enzymes, e.g. lipase, lysosyme}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd wherein enzymes of plant/vegetable/animal origin other than proteolytic or milk clotting are used (e.g. lipase, lysozyme).

Coagulation of milk without rennet or rennet substitutes {followed by whey separation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd by coagulation of milk without rennet or rennet substitutes, which is followed by whey separation.

{Coagulation by direct acidification without fermentation of the milk, e.g. by chemical or physical means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd by coagulation of milk without rennet or rennet substitutes, which is followed by whey separation, characterised in that the milk is directly acidified without fermentation (e.g. by chemical or physical means).

Treating milk before coagulation; Separating whey from curd (A23C 19/097, {A23C 19/045} take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd, wherein milk is treated before coagulation. Separation of whey from curd.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coagulation of milk without rennet or rennet substitutes
Treatment of milk by ultrafiltration, microfiltration or diafiltration
Preservation of cheese and cheese preparations (e.g. pasteurisation)
{Acidifying by combination of acid fermentation and of chemical or physical means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd, wherein before coagulation the milk is acidified by acid fermentation combined with chemical or physical means, e.g. the acidification of the milk before the coagulation of the casein and the formation of the curd is performed by combining lactic acid fermentation and chemical or physical means like hydrochloric acid or electrolysis

{Acidifying only by chemical or physical means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd, wherein before coagulation the milk is acidified only by chemical or physical means.

{Enrichment of milk with whey, whey components, substances recovered from separated whey, isolated or concentrated proteins from milk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd, wherein before coagulation of the milk, whey, whey components, substances recovered from separated whey, or isolated or concetrated milk proteins (e.g. WPC, WPI) are added to the milk (thereby "enriching" the milk).

{using additives other than acidifying agents, NaCl, CaCl2, dairy products, proteins, fats, enzymes or micro-organisms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd, wherein before coagulation, the milk is treated with additives other than the following: acidifying agents, NaCl, CaCl2, dairy product, proteins, fats, enzymes or micro-organisms.

Addition of non-milk fats or non-milk proteins, {polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing cheese curd, wherein non-milk fats or proteins are added (including polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils).

Treating cheese curd after whey separation; Products obtained thereby (A23C 19/097 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese curd after whey separation (including treatment of cheese curd prepared without whey separation) and products obtained thereby.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preservation of cheese and cheese preparations
{Addition of, or treatment with, micro-organisms (A23C 19/0682 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese curd after whey separation (including treatment of cheese curd prepared without whey separation) wherein micro-organisms are added to the curd, or used for the treatment thereof, respectively, and products obtained thereby.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mould-ripened or bacterial surface ripened cheese
{using only lactic acid bacteria, e.g. pediococcus, leconostoc or bifidus sp., or propionic acid bacteria; Treatment with non-specified acidifying bacterial cultures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese curd after whey separation (including treatment of cheese curd prepared without whey separation) wherein only lactic or propionic acid bacteria (including Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacteria) or non-specified acidifying bacterial cultures are added to the curd, or used for the treatment thereof, respectively, and products obtained thereby.

{Addition of, or treatment with, enzymes or cell-free extracts of micro-organisms}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese curd after whey separation (including treatment of cheese curd prepared without whey separation) wherein enzymes or cell-free extracts of micro-organisms are added to the curd, or used for the treatment thereof, respectively, and products obtained thereby.

Salting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for salting cheese curd after whey separation (including treatment of cheese curd prepared without whey separation) and products obtained thereby.

Particular types of cheese
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular types of cheese, such as Cheddar, Mozzarella, cottage cheese and process cheese, as well as aspects of the methods for preparing said particular types of cheese which are associated specifically with the particularity thereof, and not covered elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Making cheese curd in general
{Mould-ripened or bacterial surface ripened cheeses}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mould-ripened or bacterial surface ripened cheese, as well as aspects of the methods for their preparation associated specifically with mould or bacterial surface ripening, and not covered elsewhere.

{Soft uncured Italian cheeses, e.g. Mozarella, Ricotta, Pasta filata cheese; Other similar stretched cheeses}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Soft uncured Italian type cheeses, pasta filata cheese (e.g. Mozzarella) and other similar stretched cheeses, as well as aspects of the methods for the preparation thereof associated specifically with the characteristic properties of said cheeses, and not covered elsewhere.

{Cheese from whey, e.g. mysost}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese from whey (e.g. Ricotta, Mysost) as well as aspects of the methods for the preparation thereof associated specifically with the characteristic properties of said cheeses, and not covered elsewhere.

{Hard cheese or semi-hard cheese with or without eyes (A23C 19/072 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hard or semi-hard cheese other than cheddar, as well as aspects of the methods for the preparation thereof associated specifically with the characteristic properties of said cheeses, and not covered elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cheddar type and similar hard cheese without eyes
Cheddar type {or similar hard cheeses without eyes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheddar type cheese and similar hard cheeses without eyes, as well as aspects of the methods for the preparation thereof associated specifically with the characteristic properties of said cheeses, and not covered elsewhere.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hard and semi-hard cheese other than cheddar type or similar hard cheeses without eyes
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

The wording "similar hard cheeses" in the title is somewhat vague. It is prefer to classify only cheddar cheese and cheeses explicitly designated as being similar to cheddar in this group.

Soft unripened cheese, e.g. cottage or cream cheese
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Soft unripened cheese (e.g. cottage cheese, cream cheese, fresh cheese), as well as aspects of the methods for the preparation thereof associated specifically with the characteristic properties of said cheeses, and not covered elsewhere.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please note that process cheese is often incorrectly designated as cream cheese. Process cheese preparation usually involves melting of cheese curd (usually at about 60-65 °C or more) and emulsification. If both steps are not mentioned, the maximum temperature at which the curd is treated and the duration of the heat treatment should be considered for delimiting process cheese from cream cheese.

{Addition to the curd of additives other than acidifying agents, dairy products, proteins except gelatine, fats, enzymes, micro-organisms, NaCl, CaCl2 or KCl; Foamed fresh cheese products}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing soft unripened cheese (e.g. cottage cheese, cream cheese) wherein an additive other than acidifying agents, dairy products, proteins - except gelatine -, fats, enzymes, micro-organisms, NaCl, CaCl2 or KCl is used, as well as aspects of the methods for the preparation thereof associated specifically with the characteristic properties of said cheese, and not covered elsewhere. Foamed fresh cheese products (i.e. fresh cheese products containing gas as additive).

Process cheese preparations; Making thereof, e.g. melting, emulsifying, sterilizing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Process cheese preparations and methods for their preparation (e.g. melting, emulsifying, sterilising).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cream cheese
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please note that process cheese is often incorrectly designated as cream cheese. Process cheese preparation usually involves melting of cheese curd (usually at about 60-65 °C or more) and emulsification. If both steps are not mentioned, the maximum temperature at which the curd is treated and the duration of the heat treatment should be considered for delimiting process cheese from cream cheese.

{Surface melting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Surface melting used in the preparation of process cheese preparations.

Adding substances to the curd before or during melting; Melting salts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing process cheese preparations, wherein substances are added to the curd or cheese before or during melting, as well as melting salts.

Treating the curd, or adding substances thereto, after melting ( adding non-milk components A23C 19/093)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for preparing process cheese preparations, wherein after melting the curd is treated, or substances are added thereto.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Addition of non-milk components to process cheese preparations after melting
Cheese powder; Dried cheese preparations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese powder and dried cheese preparations.

Other cheese preparations; Mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs ( preservation A23C 19/097)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other cheese preparations and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs, as well as methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preservation of cheese and cheese preparations
{Liquid cheese products, e.g. beverages, sauces}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquid cheese products, e.g. cheese sauces and cheese beverages, as well as methods for their preparation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sauces in general
Dressings containing milk products or milk derivatives
{Sliced cheese; Multilayered or stuffed cheese; Cheese loaves}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sliced, multilayered or stuffed cheese, and cheese loaves, as well as methods for their preparation.

{Fried, baked or roasted cheese products, e.g. cheese cakes; Foamed cheese products, e.g. soufflès; Expanded cheese in solid form}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fried, baked or roasted cheese products (e.g. cheese cakes), foamed cheese products (e.g. soufflés), and expanded cheese in solid form.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Foamed fresh cheese products
{Addition, to cheese or curd, of whey, whey components, substances recovered from separated whey, isolated or concentrated proteins from milk}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other cheese preparations and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs obtained by addition, to cheese or curd, of whey, whey components, substances recovered from separated whey, or isolated or concentrated proteins from milk.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Addition to milk of whey, whey components, substances recovered from separated whey, or isolated or concentrated proteins from milk before coagulation
{Addition, to cheese or curd, of minerals, including organic salts thereof, trace elements, amino acids, peptides, protein hydrolysates, nucleic acids, yeast extracts or autolysate, vitamins or derivatives of these compounds}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other cheese preparations and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs obtained by addition, to cheese or curd, of minerals (including organic salts thereof), trace elements, amino acids, peptides, protein hydrolysates, nucleic acids, yeast extracts or yeast autolysate, vitmains, or derivatives of these compounds.

{Addition, to cheese or curd, of colours, synthetic flavours or artificial sweeteners, including sugar alcohols}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other cheese preparations and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs obtained by addition, to cheese or curd, of colorants, synthetic flavours, or artificial sweeteners, including sugar alcohols.

Addition of non-milk fats or non-milk proteins, {polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other cheese preparations and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs obtained by addition of non-milk proteins or non-milk fats, including polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Addition to milk of non-milk proteins or non-milk fats, including polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils, before coagulation
Preservation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cheese curd, cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs.

{Pasteurisation; Sterilisation; Hot packaging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs by pasteurisation or sterilisation, as well as hot packaging methods.

{Freezing; Treating cheese in frozen state; Thawing of frozen cheese}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs by freezing. Treatment of cheese in the frozen state and thawing of frozen cheese.

Addition of preservatives { ( enzymes or micro-organisms, see A23C 19/032 , A23C 19/04 , A23C 19/061 and A23C 19/063) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs using preserving agents.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of enzymes or micro-organisms in cheese making
{Inorganic compounds; Inert or noble gases; Carbon dioxide}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs using inorganic compounds, inert or noble gases, or carbon dioxide as preserving agents.

of antibiotics {or bacteriocins}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preservation of cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs using antibiotics or bacteriocins (e.g. nisin) as preserving agents.

Treating cheese after having reached its definite form, e.g. ripening, smoking ( preservation A23C 19/097)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese wherein the cheese is treated after reaching its definite form, e.g. ripening or smoking.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
After-treatment of cheese; Marking, coating, milling or recasting the cheese.
Preservation of cheese, cheese preparations, and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs.
Smoking of meat, sausages, fish
Covering the cheese surface, e.g. with paraffin wax
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese after reaching its definite form by covering the cheese surface (e.g. with paraffin wax).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
After-treatment of cheese; Marking, coating, milling or recasting the cheese.
{with a non-edible liquid or semi-liquid coating, e.g. wax, polymer dispersions ( in combination with an edible coating A23C 19/16) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese after reaching its definite form by covering the cheese surface with a non-edible (semi-) liquid coating, e.g. wax or polymer dispersions.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for treating cheese after reaching its definite form by covering the cheese surface with a non-edible (semi-) liquid coating in combination with an edible coating
{with non-edible preformed foils, films or bandages}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for treating cheese after reaching its definite form by covering the cheese surface with non-edible preformed foils, films or bandages.

Cheese substitutes (A23C 19/055 , A23C 19/093 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese substitutes and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Addition of non-milk proteins or non-milk fats (including polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils) to cheese milk
Other cheese preparations and mixtures of cheese with other foodstuffs obtained by addition of non-milk proteins or non-milk fats, including polyol fatty acid polyesters or mineral oils.
{mainly containing proteins from pulses or oilseeds, e.g. soy curd, tofu}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese substitutes containing proteins mainly from pulses or oilseeds, e.g. tofu, soy curd, and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cheese substitutes containing neither milk components, nor caseinate, nor lactose, as protein, fat or carbohydrate source
containing neither milk components, nor caseinate, nor lactose, as sources of fats, proteins or carbohydrates
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese substitutes containing neither milk components, nor caseinate, nor lactose, as protein, fat or carbohydrate source, and methods for their preparation.

{mainly containing proteins from pulses or oilseeds, e.g. soy curd, tofu}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cheese substitutes containing neither milk components, nor caseinate, nor lactose, as protein, fat or carbohydrate source, and containing proteins mainly from pulses or oilseeds (e.g. tofu, soy curd), as well as methods for their preparation.

Whey; Whey preparations (A23C 1/00 , A23C 3/00 , A23C 9/14 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations, and methods for their preparation.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for concentration, evaporation or drying
Preservation of milk and milk preparations
Methods for preparing milk (powder) preparations wherein the chemical composition of the milk [or whey] is modified by non-chemical treatment (e.g. ultrafiltration, microfiltration)
Obtaining dairy proteins from foodstuffs from milk or whey (e.g. casein or caseinates)
containing, or treated with, micro-organisms or enzymes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations containing or treated with, respectively, micro-organisms or enzymes, as well as methods for their preparation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fermented milk preparations and/or treatment of milk using micro-organisms or enzymes
Processes using micro-organisms in general
Mutation or genetic engineering of micro-organisms in general
Enzymes in general
Propagation of micro-organisms in general
{Lactose hydrolysing enzymes, e.g. lactase, B-galactosidase}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations containing or treated with, respectively, lactose hydrolysing enzymes (e.g. lactase, beta-glucosidase), as well as methods for their preparation.

{containing, or treated only with, lactic acid producing bacteria, bifidobacteria or propionic acid bacteria}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations containing or treated only with, respectively, lactic acid producing bacteria, bifidobacteria or propionic acid bacteria, as well as methods for their preparation.

containing non-milk components as source of fats or proteins
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations containing non-milk components as source of fats or proteins, as well as methods for their preparation.

Mixtures of whey with milk products or milk components
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mixtures of whey with milk products or milk components, as well as methods for their preparation.

containing other organic additives, e.g. vegetable or animal products
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations containing other organic additives, e.g. vegetable or animal products, as well as methods for their preparation.

containing inorganic additives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Whey and whey preparations containing inorganic additives, as well as methods for their preparation.

Other dairy products
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other dairy products (i.e. dairy products not covered by the preceding classes).

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013