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Outline
Indent Level
Color Curly Brackets (indicating CPC extensions to IPC)

CPC
COOPERATIVE PATENT CLASSIFICATION
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SINGLE-CRYSTAL-GROWTH (by using ultra-high pressure, e.g. for the formation of diamonds B01J 3/06); UNIDIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF EUTECTIC MATERIAL OR UNIDIRECTIONAL DEMIXING OF EUTECTOID MATERIAL; REFINING BY ZONE-MELTING OF MATERIAL (zone-refining of metals or alloys C22B); PRODUCTION OF A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE (casting of metals, casting of other substances by the same processes or devices B22D; working of plastics B29; modifying the physical structure of metals or alloys C21D, C22F); SINGLE CRYSTALS OR HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; AFTER-TREATMENT OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OR A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE (for producing semiconductor devices or parts thereof H01L); APPARATUS THEREFOR
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

- "single-crystal" includes also twin crystals and a
predominantly single crystal product;
- "homogeneous polycrystalline material" means a material
with crystal particles, all of which have the same
chemical composition;
- "defined structure" means the structure of a material with
grains which are oriented in a preferential way or have
larger dimensions than normally obtained.

In this subclass:

- the preparation of single crystals or a homogeneous
polycrystalline material with defined structure of
particular materials or shapes is classified in the group
for the process as well as in group C30B 29/00;
- an apparatus specially adapted for a specific process is
classified in the appropriate group for the process.
Apparatus to be used in more than one kind of process is
classified in group C30B 35/00.

After the notation of C30B and separated therefrom by a + sign, notations concerning the particular composition or shape of the material may be added. These notations are selected from C30B 29/00.

Example: A crystal-growth process by zone-melting directly
related to Al2O3 crystal material is classified in
C30B 13/00 + C30B 29/20

WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:


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Guide Heading:
Single-crystal growth from solids or gels
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Single-crystal growth directly from the solid state (unidirectional demixing of eutectoid materials C30B 3/00; under a protective fluid C30B 27/00)
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C30B 1/02
.
by thermal treatment, e.g. strain annealing (C30B 1/12 takes precedence)
C30B 1/023
. .
{
from solids with amorphous structure
}
. .
{
Solid phase epitaxial growth through a disordered intermediate layer
}
C30B 1/04
. .
Isothermal recrystallisation
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C30B 1/06
. .
Recrystallisation under a temperature gradient
C30B 1/08
. . .
Zone recrystallisation
C30B 1/10
.
by solid state reactions or multi-phase diffusion
C30B 1/12
.
by pressure treatment during the growth
Unidirectional demixing of eutectoid materials
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Single-crystal growth from gels (under a protective fluid C30B 27/00)
C30B 5/02
.
with addition of doping material
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Guide Heading:
Single-crystal growth from liquids; Unidirectional solidification of eutectic materials
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C30B 7/00
Single-crystal growth from solutions using solvents which are liquid at normal temperature, e.g. aqueous solutions (from molten solvents C30B 9/00; by normal or gradient freezing C30B 11/00; under a protective fluid C30B 27/00)
C30B 7/005
.
{
Epitaxial layer growth
}
WARNING
-
Group C30B 7/005 is not complete, see also C30B 7/00

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C30B 7/02
.
by evaporation of the solvent
C30B 7/04
. .
using aqueous solvents
C30B 7/06
. .
using non-aqueous solvents
C30B 7/08
.
by cooling of the solution
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C30B 7/10
.
by application of pressure, e.g. hydrothermal processes
C30B 7/105
. .
{
using ammonia as solvent, i.e. ammonothermal processes
}
C30B 7/12
.
by electrolysis
C30B 7/14
.
the crystallising material being formed by chemical reactions in the solution
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Single-crystal growth from melt solutions using molten solvents (by normal or gradient freezing C30B 11/00; by zone-melting C30B 13/00; by crystal pulling C30B 15/00; on immersed seed crystal C30B 17/00; by liquid phase epitaxial growth C30B 19/00; under a protective fluid C30B 27/00)
C30B 9/02
.
by evaporation of the molten solvent
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C30B 9/04
.
by cooling of the solution
C30B 9/06
. .
using as solvent a component of the crystal composition
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C30B 9/08
. .
using other solvents
C30B 9/10
. . .
Metal solvents
C30B 9/12
. . .
Salt solvents, e.g. flux growth
C30B 9/14
.
by electrolysis
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C30B 11/00
Single-crystal growth by normal freezing or freezing under temperature gradient, e.g. Bridgman-Stockbarger method (C30B 13/00, C30B 15/00, C30B 17/00, C30B 19/00 take precedence; under a protective fluid C30B 27/00)
C30B 11/001
.
{
Continuous growth
}
C30B 11/002
.
{
Crucibles or containers for supporting the melt
}
C30B 11/003
.
{
Heating or cooling of the melt or the crystallised material
}
C30B 11/005
.
{
by irradiation or electric discharge
}
C30B 11/006
.
{
Controlling or regulating
}
C30B 11/007
.
{
Mechanisms for moving either the charge or the heater
}
C30B 11/008
.
{
using centrifugal force to the charge
}
C30B 11/02
.
without using solvents (C30B 11/06 takes precedence)
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C30B 11/04
.
adding crystallising material or reactants forming it in situ to the melt
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C30B 11/06
. .
at least one but not all components of the crystal composition being added
C30B 11/065
. . .
{
before crystallising, e.g. synthesis
}
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C30B 11/08
. .
every component of the crystal composition being added during the crystallisation
C30B 11/10
. . .
Solid or liquid components, e.g. Verneuil method
C30B 11/12
. . .
Vaporous components, e.g. vapour-liquid-solid-growth
C30B 11/14
.
characterised by the seed, e.g. its crystallographic orientation
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C30B 13/00
Single-crystal growth by zone-melting; Refining by zone-melting (C30B 17/00 takes precedence; by changing the cross-section of the treated solid C30B 15/00; under a protective fluid C30B 27/00; zone-refining of specific materials, see the relevant subclasses for the materials)
C30B 13/005
.
{
Continuous growth
}
C30B 13/02
.
Zone-melting with a solvent, e.g. travelling solvent process
C30B 13/04
.
Homogenisation by zone-levelling
C30B 13/06
.
the molten zone not extending over the whole cross-section
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C30B 13/08
.
adding crystallising material or reactants forming it in situ to the molten zone
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C30B 13/10
. .
with addition of doping material
C30B 13/12
. . .
in the gaseous or vapour state
C30B 13/14
.
Crucibles or vessels
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C30B 13/16
.
Heating of the molten zone
C30B 13/18
. .
the heating element being in contact with, or immersed in, the molten zone
C30B 13/20
. .
by induction, e.g. hot wire technique (C30B 13/18 takes precedence; induction coils H05B 6/36)
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C30B 13/22
. .
by irradiation or electric discharge
C30B 13/24
. . .
using electromagnetic waves
C30B 13/26
.
Stirring of the molten zone
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C30B 13/28
.
Controlling or regulating (controlling or regulating in general G05)
C30B 13/285
. .
{
Crystal holders, e.g. chucks
}
C30B 13/30
. .
Stabilisation or shape controlling of the molten zone, e.g. by concentrators, by electromagnetic fields; Controlling the section of the crystal
C30B 13/32
.
Mechanisms for moving either the charge or the heater
C30B 13/34
.
characterised by the seed, e.g. by its crystallographic orientation
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C30B 15/00
Single-crystal growth by pulling from a melt, e.g. Czochralski method (under a protective fluid C30B 27/00)
C30B 15/002
.
{
Continuous growth
}
C30B 15/005
.
{
Simultaneous pulling of more than one crystal
}
C30B 15/007
.
{
Pulling on a substrate
}
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C30B 15/02
.
adding crystallising material or reactants forming it in situ to the melt
C30B 15/04
. .
adding doping material, e.g. for n-p-junction
C30B 15/06
.
Non-vertical pulling
C30B 15/08
.
Downward pulling
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C30B 15/10
.
Crucibles or containers for supporting the melt
C30B 15/12
. .
Double crucible methods
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C30B 15/14
.
Heating of the melt or the crystallised material
C30B 15/16
. .
by irradiation or electric discharge
C30B 15/18
. .
using direct resistance heating in addition to other methods of heating, e.g. using Peltier heat
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C30B 15/20
.
Controlling or regulating (controlling or regulating in general G05)
C30B 15/203
. .
{
the relationship of pull rate (v) to axial thermal gradient (G)
}
C30B 15/206
. .
{
the thermal history of growing the ingot
}
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C30B 15/22
. .
Stabilisation or shape controlling of the molten zone near the pulled crystal; Controlling the section of the crystal
C30B 15/24
. . .
using mechanical means, e.g. shaping guides (shaping dies for edge-defined film-fed crystal growth C30B 15/34)
C30B 15/26
. . .
using television detectors; using photo or X-ray detectors
C30B 15/28
. . .
using weight changes of the crystal or the melt, e.g. flotation methods
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C30B 15/30
.
Mechanisms for rotating or moving either the melt or the crystal (flotation methods C30B 15/28)
C30B 15/305
. .
{
Stirring of the melt
}
C30B 15/32
.
Seed holders, e.g. chucks
C30B 15/34
.
Edge-defined film-fed crystal-growth using dies or slits
C30B 15/36
.
characterised by the seed, e.g. its crystallographic orientation
C30B 17/00
Single-crystal growth onto a seed which remains in the melt during growth, e.g. Nacken-Kyropoulos method (C30B 15/00 takes precedence)
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C30B 19/00
Liquid-phase epitaxial-layer growth
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C30B 19/02
.
using molten solvents, e.g. flux
C30B 19/04
. .
the solvent being a component of the crystal composition
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C30B 19/06
.
Reaction chambers; Boats for supporting the melt; Substrate holders
C30B 19/061
. .
{
Tipping system, e.g. by rotation
}
C30B 19/062
. .
{
Vertical dipping system
}
C30B 19/063
. .
{
Sliding boat system
}
C30B 19/064
. .
{
Rotating sliding boat system
}
C30B 19/065
. .
{
Multiple stacked slider system
}
C30B 19/066
. .
{
Injection or centrifugal force system
}
C30B 19/067
. .
{
Boots or containers
}
C30B 19/068
. .
{
Substrate holders
}
C30B 19/08
.
Heating of the reaction chamber or the substrate
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C30B 19/10
.
Controlling or regulating (controlling or regulating in general G05)
C30B 19/103
. .
{
Current controlled or induced growth
}
C30B 19/106
. .
{
adding crystallising material or reactants forming it in situ to the liquid
}
C30B 19/12
.
characterised by the substrate
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C30B 21/00
Unidirectional solidification of eutectic materials
C30B 21/02
.
by normal casting or gradient freezing
C30B 21/04
.
by zone-melting
C30B 21/06
.
by pulling from a melt
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Guide Heading:
Single-crystal growth from vapours
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Single-crystal growth by condensing evaporated or sublimed material
NOTE
-
Groups C30B 23/002 to C30B23/00D take precence over groups C30B 23/007 to C30B 23/08

WARNING
-
Group C30B 23/002 to C30B23/00D are not complete, see also C30B 23/02

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C30B 23/002
.
{
Controlling or regulating
}
C30B 23/005
. .
{
Controlling or regulating flux or flow of depositing species or vapour
}
C30B 23/007
.
{
Growth of whiskers or needles
}
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.
Epitaxial-layer growth
C30B 23/025
. .
{
characterised by the substrate
}
C30B 23/04
. .
Pattern deposit, e.g. by using masks
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C30B 23/06
. .
Heating of the deposition chamber, the substrate or the material to be evaporated
C30B 23/063
. . .
{
Heating of the substrate
}
WARNING
-
Group C30B 23/063 is not complete, see also C30B 23/06

C30B 23/066
. . .
{
Heating of the material to be evaporated
}
WARNING
-
Group C30B 23/066 is not complete, see also C30B 23/06

C30B 23/08
. .
by condensing ionised vapours (by reactive sputtering C30B 25/06)
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Single-crystal growth by chemical reaction of reactive gases, e.g. chemical vapour-deposition growth
C30B 25/005
.
{
Growth of whiskers or needles
}
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.
Epitaxial-layer growth
C30B 25/025
. .
{
Continuous growth
}
C30B 25/04
. .
Pattern deposit, e.g. by using masks
C30B 25/06
. .
by reactive sputtering
C30B 25/08
. .
Reaction chambers; Selection of material therefor
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C30B 25/10
. .
Heating of the reaction chamber or the substrate
. . .
{
by irradiation or electric discharge
}
C30B 25/12
. .
Substrate holders or susceptors
C30B 25/14
. .
Feed and outlet means for the gases; Modifying the flow of the reactive gases
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C30B 25/16
. .
Controlling or regulating (controlling or regulating in general G05)
C30B 25/165
. . .
{
the flow of the reactive gases
}
WARNING
-
Not complete pending reclassification, see also group C30B 25/14

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C30B 25/18
. .
characterised by the substrate
C30B 25/183
. . .
{
being provided with a buffer layer, e.g. a lattice matching layer
}
WARNING
-
This group is not complete pending reclassification; see also C30B 25/18 and subgroups

C30B 25/186
. . .
{
being specially pre-treated by e.g. chemical or physical means
}
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C30B 25/20
. . .
the substrate being of the same material as the epitaxial layer
C30B 25/205
. . . .
{
the substrate being of insulating material
}
C30B 25/22
. .
Sandwich processes
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C30B 27/00
Single-crystal growth under a protective fluid
C30B 27/02
.
by pulling from a melt
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C30B 28/00
Production of homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure
C30B 28/02
.
directly from the solid state
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C30B 28/04
.
from liquids
C30B 28/06
. .
by normal freezing or freezing under temperature gradient
C30B 28/08
. .
by zone-melting
C30B 28/10
. .
by pulling from a melt
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C30B 28/12
.
directly from the gas state
C30B 28/14
. .
by chemical reaction of reactive gases
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Single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure characterised by the material or by their shape (alloys C22C)
NOTE
-
In groups C30B 29/02 to C30B 29/58, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a material is classified in the last appropriate place.

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.
Elements
C30B 29/04
. .
Diamond
C30B 29/06
. .
Silicon
C30B 29/08
. .
Germanium
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C30B 29/10
.
Inorganic compounds or compositions
C30B 29/12
. .
Halides
C30B 29/14
. .
Phosphates
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C30B 29/16
. .
Oxides
C30B 29/18
. . .
Quartz
C30B 29/20
. . .
Aluminium oxides
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C30B 29/22
. . .
Complex oxides
C30B 29/225
. . . .
{
based on rare earth copper oxides, e.g. high T-superconductors
}
C30B 29/24
. . . .
with formula AMeO3, wherein A is a rare earth metal and Me is Fe, Ga, Sc, Cr, Co or Al, e.g. ortho ferrites
C30B 29/26
. . . .
with formula BMe2O4, wherein B is Mg, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, or Cd and Me is Fe, Ga, Sc, Cr, Co, or Al
C30B 29/28
. . . .
with formula A3Me5O12 wherein A is a rare earth metal and Me is Fe, Ga, Sc, Cr, Co or Al, e.g. garnets
C30B 29/30
. . . .
Niobates; Vanadates; Tantalates
C30B 29/32
. . . .
Titanates; Germanates; Molybdates; Tungstates
C30B 29/34
. .
Silicates
C30B 29/36
. .
Carbides
. .
Nitrides
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C30B 29/40
. .
AIIIBV compounds
{
wherein A is B, Al, Ga, In or Tl and B is N, P, As, Sb or Bi
}
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C30B 29/403
. . .
AIII-nitrides
C30B 29/406
. . . .
Gallium nitride
C30B 29/42
. . .
Gallium arsenide
C30B 29/44
. . .
Gallium phosphide
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C30B 29/46
. .
Sulfur-, selenium- or tellurium-containing compounds
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C30B 29/48
. . .
AIIBVI compounds
{
wherein A is Zn, Cd or Hg, and B is S, Se or Te
}
C30B 29/50
. . . .
Cadmium sulfide
C30B 29/52
. .
Alloys
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C30B 29/54
.
Organic compounds
C30B 29/56
. .
Tartrates
. .
Macromolecular compounds
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.
characterised by shape
. .
{
Nanotubes
}
. .
{
Products containing multiple oriented crystallites, e.g. columnar crystallites
}
. .
{
Crystals of complex geometrical shape, e.g. tubes, cylinders
}
(nanotubes C30B 29/602)
WARNING
-
Group C30B 29/607 is not complete, see also C30B29/60B, C30B29/60D

C30B 29/62
. .
Whiskers or needles
C30B 29/64
. .
Flat crystals, e.g. plates, strips, disks
WARNING
-
This group is not complete pending reclassification; see also C30B 29/60 and subgroups

C30B 29/66
. .
Crystals of complex geometrical shape, e.g. tubes, cylinders
WARNING
-
This group is not complete pending reclassification; see also C30B 29/60 and subgroups

C30B 29/68
. .
Crystals with laminate structure, e.g. "superlattices"
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C30B 30/00
Production of single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure characterised by the action of electric or magnetic fields, wave energy or other specific physical conditions
NOTE
-
When classifying in this group, classification is also made in groups C30B 1/00 to C30B 27/00 according to the process of crystal growth.

C30B 30/02
.
using electric fields, e.g. electrolysis
C30B 30/04
.
using magnetic fields
C30B 30/06
.
using mechanical vibrations
C30B 30/08
.
in conditions of zero-gravity or low gravity
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Guide Heading:
After-treatment of single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure
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Diffusion or doping processes for single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure; Apparatus therefor
C30B 31/02
.
by contacting with diffusion material in the solid state
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C30B 31/04
.
by contacting with diffusion material in the liquid state
C30B 31/045
. .
{
by electrolysis
}
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C30B 31/06
.
by contacting with diffusion material in the gaseous state (C30B 31/18 takes precedence)
C30B 31/08
. .
the diffusion material being a compound of the elements to be diffused
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C30B 31/10
. .
Reaction chambers; Selection of material therefor
C30B 31/103
. . .
{
Mechanisms for moving either the charge or heater
}
C30B 31/106
. . .
{
Continuous processes
}
C30B 31/12
. .
Heating of the reaction chamber
C30B 31/14
. .
Substrate holders or susceptors
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C30B 31/16
. .
Feed and outlet means for the gases; Modifying the flow of the gases
C30B 31/165
. . .
{
Diffusion sources
}
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C30B 31/18
. .
Controlling or regulating (controlling or regulating in general G05)
C30B 31/185
. . .
{
Pattern diffusion, e.g. by using masks
}
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C30B 31/20
.
Doping by irradiation with electromagnetic waves or by particle radiation
C30B 31/22
. .
by ion-implantation
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C30B 33/00
After-treatment of single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure (C30B 31/00 takes precedence; grinding, polishing B24; mechanical fine working of gems, jewels, crystals B28D 5/00)
C30B 33/005
.
{
Oxydation
}
C30B 33/02
.
Heat treatment (C30B 33/04, C30B 33/06 take precedence)
C30B 33/04
.
using electric or magnetic fields or particle radiation
C30B 33/06
.
Joining of crystals
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C30B 33/08
.
Etching
C30B 33/10
. .
in solutions or melts
C30B 33/12
. .
in gas atmosphere or plasma
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C30B 35/00
Apparatus in general, specially adapted for the growth, production or after-treatment of single crystals or a homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure
C30B 35/002
.
{
Crucibles or containers
}
C30B 35/005
.
{
Transport systems
}
.
{
Apparatus for preparing, pre-treating the source material tio be used for crystal growth
}
WARNING
-
This group is not complete pending reclassification; see also groups pertaining to the different crystal growth methods, particularly the main groups of subclass C30B

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Last Modified: 10/10/2013