2209 Ex Parte Reexamination [R-11.2013]
Procedures for reexamination of issued patents began on July 1, 1981, the date when the reexamination provisions of Public Law 96-517 came into effect.
The reexamination statute and rules permit any person to file a request for an ex parte reexamination containing certain elements and the fee required under 37 CFR 1.20(c)(1). The Office initially determines if “a substantial new question of patentability” (35 U.S.C. 303(a)) is presented. If such a new question has been presented, reexamination will be ordered. The reexamination proceedings which follow the order for reexamination are very similar to regular examination procedures in patent applications; however, there are notable differences. For example, there are certain limitations as to the kind of rejections which may be made, special reexamination forms to be used, and time periods set to provide “special dispatch.” When the prosecution of a reexamination proceeding is terminated, a reexamination certificate is issued which indicates the status of all claims following the reexamination. Unless prosecution is reopened by the Director, the reexamination proceeding is concluded by the issuance and publication of a reexamination certificate.
The following sections of this chapter explain the details of reexamination.
The intent of the reexamination procedures covered in this chapter include the following:
- (A) To provide procedures for reexamination of patents;
- (B) To implement reexamination in an essentially ex parte manner;
- (C) To minimize the processing costs and complexities of reexamination;
- (D) To maximize respect for the reexamined patent;
- (E) To provide procedures for prompt and timely determinations by the Office in accordance with the “special dispatch” requirements of 35 U.S.C. 305.
The basic characteristics of ex parte reexamination are as follows:
- (A) Anyone can request reexamination at any time during the period of enforceability of the patent;
- (B) Prior art considered during reexamination is limited to prior art patents or printed publications applied under the appropriate parts of 35 U.S.C. 102 and 103;
- (C) A substantial new question of patentability must be present for reexamination to be ordered;
- (D) If ordered, the actual reexamination proceeding is ex parte in nature;
- (E) Decision on the request must be made no later than 3 months from its filing, and the remainder of proceedings must proceed with “special dispatch” within the Office;
- (F) If ordered, a reexamination proceeding will normally be conducted to its conclusion and the issuance of a reexamination certificate;
- (G) The scope of a claim cannot be enlarged by amendment;
- (H) All reexamination and patent
files are open to the public, but see paragraph (I) below;
(I) The reexamination file is scanned into IFW to provide an electronic format copy of the file. All public access to and copying of the reexamination file may be made from the electronic format copy available through PAIR. Any remaining paper files are not available to the public.
Parties are cautioned that the reexamination statute, regulations, and published examining procedures do not countenance so-called “litigation tactics” in reexamination proceedings. The parties are expected to conduct themselves accordingly. For example, it is expected that submissions of papers that are not provided for in the reexamination regulations and/or appear to be excluded by the regulation will either be filed with an appropriate petition to accept the paper and/or waive the regulation(s), or not filed at all. Parties are advised that multiple submissions, such as a reply to a paper opposing a petition and a sur-reply directed to such a reply are not provided for in the reexamination regulations or examining procedures. It is expected that the parties will adhere to the provisions of 37 CFR 11.18(b) throughout the course of a reexamination proceeding.